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Sir Torrent of Portingale: Bibliography

Manuscript and Early Printed Editions

Manchester, Chetham’s Library, MS 8009 [Mun.A.6.31].

Richard Pynson, c. 1505?. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Douce Fragment e.20 (1). [STC 24133].

Wynkyn de Worde, c. 1510?. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Douce Fragment e.20 (2). [STC 24133.5].


Ackerman, Robert. “The Knighting Ceremonies in the Middle English Romances.” Speculum 19.3 (1944), 285–313.

Adam, E[rich], ed. Torrent of Portyngale. EETS e.s. 51. London: N. Trübner & Co., 1887.

“Adrian.” In Legends of the Saints in the Scottish Dialect of the Fourteenth Century. Ed. W. M. Metcalfe. Vol. 2. Edinburgh: W. Blackwood and Sons, 1896. Pp. 272–91.

Allen, Cynthia L. Genitives in Early English: Typology and Evidence. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Alliterative Morte Arthure. In King Arthur’s Death: The Middle English Stanzaic Morte Arthur and Alliterative Morte Arthure. Ed. Larry D. Benson. Rev. Edward E. Foster. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1994. Pp. 129–284.

Amis and Amiloun. In Foster. Pp. 1–74.

Barber, Richard. The Knight and Chivalry. Revised edition. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1995.

Barratt, Alexandra, ed. The Knowing of Woman’s Kind in Childing: A Middle English Version of Material Derived from the Trotula and Other Sources. Turnhout: Brepols, 2001.

Bellamy, J. G. The Law of Treason in England in the Later Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Bevis of Hampton. In Herzman, Drake, and Salisbury. Pp. 187–340.

Boffey, Julia. “Bodleian Library, MS Arch. Selden. B. 24 and Definitions of the ‘Household Book.’” In The English Medieval Book: Studies in Memory of Jeremy Griffiths. Ed. A. S. G. Edwards, Vincent Gillespie, and Ralph Hanna. London: British Library, 2000. Pp. 125–34.

Boffey, Julia and John J. Thompson. “Anthologies and Miscellanies: Production and Choice of Texts.” In Book Production and Publishing in Britain, 1375–1475. Ed. Jeremy Griffiths and Derek Pearsall. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. Pp. 279–315.

Le Bone Florence of Rome. Ed. C. F. Heffernan. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 1976.

The Brut or the Chronicles of England. Ed. Friedrich W. D. Brie. 2 vols. EETS o.s. 131, 136. London: Oxford University Press, 1906, 1908. Rpt. 1987.

Bullón-Fernández, María, ed. England and Iberia in the Middle Ages, 12th–15th Century: Cultural, Literary, and Political Exchanges. New York: Palgrave, 2007.

Cardim, Luiz. “Torrent of Portyngale.” Revista da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto I Série 1.6 (1920), 116–36.

Carlson, David R. “The English Literature of Nájera (1367) from Battlefield Dispatch to the Poets.” In Sáez-Hidalgo and Yeager. Pp. 89–101.

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales. In The Riverside Chaucer. Third edition. Ed. Larry Benson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1987. Pp. 3–328.

Charbonneau, Joanne. “Transgressive Fathers in Sir Eglamour of Artois and Torrent of Portyngale.” In Discourses on Love, Marriage, and Transgression in Medieval and Early Modern Literature. Ed. Albrecht Classen. Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2004. Pp. 243–65.

Clariodus; A Metrical Romance: Printed from a Manuscript of the Sixteenth Century. Ed. David Irving. Edinburgh: Maitland Club, 1830; Rpt. New York: AMS Press, 1973.

Collins, Arthur H. Symbolism of Animals and Birds Represented in English Church Architecture. New York: McBride, Nast & Co., 1913.

Cooper, Helen. The English Romance in Time: Transforming Motifs from Geoffrey of Monmouth to the Death of Shakespeare. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Crane, Susan. Insular Romance: Politics, Faith, and Culture in Anglo-Norman and Middle English Literature. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1986.

Crosby, Ruth. “Oral Delivery in the Middle Ages.” Speculum 11.1 (1936), 88–110.

Dalrymple, Roger. Language and Piety in Middle English Romance. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2000.

———. “Torrent of Portyngale and the Literary Giants.” In Cultural Encounters in the Romance of Medieval England. Ed. Corinne Saunders. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2005. Pp. 159–70.

Day, Mildred Leake, ed. and trans. Narratio de Arthuro rege Britanniae et rege Gorlagon lycanthropo. In Latin Arthurian Literature. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2005. Pp. 208–35.

Duke Rowland and Sir Otuell of Spain. In The English Charlemagne Romances, Part II: “The Sege of Melayne,” “The Romance of Duke Rowland and Sir Otuell of Spain,” and a Fragment of “The Song of Roland.” Ed. Sidney J. Herrtage. EETS e.s. 35. London: N. Trübner & Co., 1880. Rpt. Millwood, NY: Kraus Reprint Co., 1973.

Eger and Grime. Ed. James Ralston Caldwell. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1933.

Emaré. In Laskaya and Salisbury. Pp. 145–99.

Farmer, David Hugh. The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. Fourth edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Farmer, Sharon. “Persuasive Voices: Clerical Images of Medieval Wives.” Speculum 61.3 (July 1986), 517–43.

Field, Rosalind. “Romance in England 1066–1400.” In The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature. Ed. David Wallace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Pp. 152–76.

Foster, Edward E., ed. Amis and Amiloun, Robert of Cisyle, and Sir Amadace. Second edition. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2007.

Friel, Ian. The Good Ship: Ships, Shipbuilding and Technology in England, 1200–1520. London: British Museum Press, 1995.

Galván, Fernando. “At the Nájera Crossroads (1367): Anglo-Iberian Encounters in the Late Fourteenth Century.” In Sáez-Hidalgo and Yeager. Pp. 103–17.

Geoffrey of Monmouth. History of the Kings of Britain. Trans. Lewis Thorpe. London: Penguin, 1966.

Gilte Legende. Ed. Richard Hamer. EETS o.s. 327, 328, and 339. 3 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006–12.

Gray, Douglas. Simple Forms: Essays on Medieval English Popular Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Hahn, Thomas, ed. Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995.

Halliwell, James Orchard, ed. Torrent of Portugal: An English Metrical Romance. London: John Russell Smith, 1842.

Hardyng, John. The Chronicle of Iohn Hardyng. Ed. Henry Ellis. London: F. C. and J. Rivington, 1812.

———. Hardyng’s Chronicle: Edited from British Library MS Lansdowne 204. Ed. James Simpson and Sarah Peverley. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2015.

Haskins, Susan. Mary Magdalen: Myth and Metaphor. New York: Harcourt, Bruce, and Co., 1993.

Herzman, Ronald B., Graham Drake, and Eve Salisbury, eds. Four Romances of England: King Horn, Havelok the Dane, Bevis of Hampton, Athelston. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1999.

Hibbard, Laura A. “Torrent of Portyngale.” In Mediæval Romance in England: A Study of the Sources and Analogues of the Non-Cyclic Metrical Romances. New York: Burt Franklin, 1960. Pp. 279–82. First published in Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1924.

The Holy Bible Containing the Old and New Testaments, with the Apocryphal Books, in the Earliest English Versions Made from the Latin Vulgate by John Wycliffe and His Followers. Ed. Rev. Josiah Forshall and Sir Frederic Madden. Vol. 4. New York: AMS Press, 1982.

Homer. The Odyssey. Trans. Barry B. Powell. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Hornstein, Lillian Herlands. “Eustace–Constance–Florence–Griselda Legends.” In A Manual of the Writings in Middle English 1050–1500 I: Romances. New Haven: Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1967. Pp. 120–72.

Hudson, Harriet, ed. Four Middle English Romances: Sir Isumbras, Octavian, Sir Eglamour of Artois, Sir Tyramour. Second edition. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2006.

Ipomadon. Ed. Rhiannon Purdie. EETS o.s. 316. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Isidore of Seville. The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville. Trans. Stephen A. Barney, W. J. Lewis, J. A. Beach, and Oliver Berghof, with collaboration of Muriel Hall. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Jacobus de Voragine. The Golden Legend: Readings on the Saints. Trans. William Granger Ryan. 2 vols. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Kennedy, Edward D. “Malory and His English Sources.” In Aspects of Malory. Ed. Toshiyuki Takamiya and Derek Brewer. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 1981. Pp. 27–55.

Ker, N. R. Medieval Manuscripts in British Libraries. Vol. 3. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.

King Horn. In Herzman, Drake, and Salisbury. Pp. 11–70.

The King of Tars. Ed. John H. Chandler. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2015.

Klaeber’s Beowulf. Ed. R. D. Fulk, Robert E. Bjork, and John D. Niles. Fourth edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008.

The Knightly Tale of Gologras and Gawain. In Hahn. Pp. 227–308.

Langland, William. Piers Plowman: A Parallel-Text Edition of the A, B, C, and Z Versions. Ed. A. V. C. Schmidt. Vol. 1. Second edition. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2011.

Laskaya, Anne, and Eve Salisbury, eds. The Middle English Breton Lays. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Press, 1995. Rpt. 2001.

The Life of Antony. In Athanasius: The Life of Antony and The Letter to Marcellinus. Trans. Robert C. Gregg. New York: Paulist Press, 1980. Pp. 29–99.

The Life of St. Anthony of Padua. Ed. Ubaldus da Rieti. Boston: Angel Guardian Press, 1895.

Loomis, Laura Hibbard. See Hibbard, Laura A.

Lydgate, John. Lydgate’s Fall of Princes. Ed. Henry Bergen. EETS e.s. 121–24. 4 vols. London: Oxford University Press, 1924–1927. Rpt. 1967.

Maddox, Donald. Fictions of Identity in Medieval France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Malory, Sir Thomas. Le Morte Darthur. Ed. P. J. C. Field. Vols. 1–2. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2013.

McCarthy, Conor. Marriage in Medieval England: Law, Literature and Practice. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2004.

McDonald, Nicola, ed. Pulp Fictions of Medieval England: Essays in Popular Romance. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004.

Mehl, Dieter. “Torrent of Portyngale.” In The Middle English Romances of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1968. Pp. 83–85.

Middle English Dictionary. University of Michigan, 2001. Online at

The Middle English Versions of Partonope of Blois. Ed. A. Trampe Bödtker. EETS e.s. 109. London: Oxford University Press, 1912. Rpt. Millwood, NY: Kraus, 1975.

Montgomery, Keith David, ed. “Torrent of Portyngale: A Critical Edition.” Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Auckland, 2008.

Norris, Ralph. Malory’s Library: The Sources of the Morte Darthur. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2008.

The N-Town Plays. Ed. Douglas Sugano. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Press, 2007.

Octavian. In Hudson. Pp. 39–96.

Oldham, James C. “On Pleading the Belly: A History of The Jury of Matrons.” Criminal Justice History 6 (1985), 1–64.

Original Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline and History of the Catholic Church. Ed. Charles G. Herbermann, et al. New York: The Encyclopedia Press, 1907–1913.

Pearsall, Derek. “The Whole Book: Late Medieval English Manuscript Miscellanies and their Modern Interpreters.” In Imagining the Book. Ed. Stephen Kelly and John J. Thompson. Turnhout: Brepols, 2005. Pp. 17–29.

Purdie, Rhiannon. Anglicising Romance: Tail-Rhyme and Genre in Medieval English Literature. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2008.

———. ed. King Orphius. In Shorter Scottish Medieval Romances: Florimond of Albany, Sir Colling the Knycht, King Orphius, Roswall and Lillian. Edinburgh: Scottish Text Society, 2013. Pp. 113–23.

Putter, Ad, and Jane Gilbert, eds. The Spirit of Medieval English Popular Romance. Harlow: Longman, 2000.

Radulescu, Raluca L. Romance and its Contexts in Fifteenth-Century England: Politics, Piety and Penitence. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2013.

———. “Reading King Robert of Sicily’s Text(s) and Manuscript Context(s).” In Medieval Romance and Material Culture. Ed. Nicholas Perkins. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2015. Pp. 165–82.

Ramsey, Lee C. Chivalric Romances: Popular Literature in Medieval England. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1983.

Reames, Sherry L., ed. Middle English Legends of Women Saints.. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2003.

Richardson, Frances E., ed. Sir Eglamour of Artois. EETS o.s. 256. London: Oxford University Press, 1965.

Robert of Cisyle. In Foster. Pp. 75–93.

Le Roman de Thèbes. Ed. Guy Raynaud de Lage. Vols. 1–2. Paris: Librairie Honoré Champion, 1968.

The Romance of Guy of Warwick. Ed. Julius Zupitza. EETS e.s. 42, 49, and 59. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966. Originally printed in 1883, 1887, and 1891 by R. Clay and Sons, Ltd., Bungay, Suffolk.

Sáez-Hidalgo, Ana and R. F. Yeager, eds. John Gower in England and Iberia: Manuscripts, Influences, Reception. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2014.

Sánchez-Martí, Jordi. “Manchester, Chetham’s Library MS 8009 (Mun.A.6.31): A Codicological Description.” Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 47 (2003), 129–54.

———. “The Middle English Versions of Ipomedon in their Manuscript Context.” Manuscripta 49.1 (2005), 69–93.

———. “The Printed History of the Middle English Verse Romances.” Modern Philology 107.1 (2009), 1–31.

Saunders, Corinne J. The Forest of Medieval Romance. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 1993.

Scammell, G. V. and H. L. Rogers. “An Elegy on Henry VII.” Review of English Studies 8.30 (1957), 167–70.

Shuffelton, George. “Is There a Minstrel in the House?: Domestic Entertainment in Late Medieval England.” Philological Quarterly 87.1–2 (Winter-Spring 2008), 51–76.

Sir Amadace. In Foster. Pp. 95–123.

Sir Degaré. In Laskaya and Salisbury. Pp. 89–144.

Sir Eglamour of Artois. In Hudson. Pp. 97–144.

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Ed. Israel Gollancz. EETS o.s. 210. London: Oxford University Press, 1940. Rpt. 1957.

Sir Gowther. In Laskaya and Salisbury. Pp. 263–308.

Sir Isumbras. In Hudson. Pp. 7–44.

Sir Perceval of Galles. In Sir Perceval of Galles and Ywain and Gawain. Ed. Mary Flowers Braswell. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995. Pp. 1–76.

The Story of Merlin. Trans. Rupert T. Pickens. In The Lancelot-Grail Reader: Selections from the Medieval French Arthurian Cycle. Ed. Norris J. Lacy. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 2000. Pp. 49–92.

Tamburr, Karl. The Harrowing of Hell in Medieval England. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2007.

Thomas of Chobham. Summa Confessorum. Ed. F. Broomfield. Louvain: Éditions Nauwelaerts, 1968.

Trevisa, John. On the Properties of Things: John Trevisa’s Translation of Bartholomaeus Anglicus ‘De Proprietatibus Rerum.’ Gen. Ed. M. C. Seymour. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.

The Trotula: A medieval compendium of women’s medicine. Ed. and trans. Monica H. Green. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.

The Turke and Sir Gawain. In Hahn. Pp. 337–58.

Virgil. The Aeneid. Trans. David West. New York: Penguin, 2003.

Wade, James. “Confession, Inquisition and Exemplarity in The Erle of Tolous and Other Middle English Romances.” In The Culture of Inquisition in Medieval England. Ed. Mary C. Flannery and Katie L. Walter. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2013. Pp. 112–29.

———. “Romance, Affect, and Ethical Thinking in a Fifteenth-Century Household Book: Chetham’s Library, MS 8009.” New Medieval Literatures 15 (2013), 255–83.

Warnicke, Retha M. The Marrying of Anne of Cleves: Royal Protocol in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

The Wars of Alexander, An Alliterative Romance Translated Chiefly from the Historia Alexandri Magni de Preliis. Ed. Walter W. Skeat. EETS e.s. 47. London: N. Trübner & Co., 1886.

Webb, Diana. Pilgrimage in Medieval England. London: Hambledon and London, 2000.

Weiss, Judith. “Modern and Medieval Views on Swooning: The Literary and Medical Contexts of Fainting in Romance.” In Medieval Romance, Medieval Contexts. Ed. Rhiannon Purdie and Michael Chichon. Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer, 2011. Pp. 121–34.

Whiting, Bartlett Jere, and Helen Wescott Whiting. Proverbs, Sentences, and Proverbial Phrases from English Writings Mainly before 1500. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1968.

William of Palerne: An alliterative romance. Ed. G. H. V. Bunt. Groningen: Bouma’s Boekhuis, 1985.

Wogan-Browne, Jocelyn. Saints’ Lives and Women’s Literary Culture, c. 1150–1300: Virginity and its Authorizations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.