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The Shewings of Julian of Norwich, Part 2


2 Off, Of.

3 pretious . . . thornys, precious crowning with thorns.

5 sheweings, revelations.

6 onyd, joined, made one; discolloureing, discoloring.

7 deareworthy, precious, excellent.

11 fend, fiend.

12 worshippfull, honorable; blissed, blessed.

13 wele, well-being, joy; wo, woe.

14 sekirness, sureness, certainty.

15 be, by; irkehede, irritation.

16 ghostly, spiritual; arn, are; also sekirly, as securely.

17 cruelle, cruel.

18 likeing, pleasure, gratification; of the herde, because of the hard.

19 rewfull, rueful; will, desires.

20 solacid and myrthid, comforted and made happy; whan, when; fullhede, fulfillment, fullness.

21-22 His blissefull . . . enjoyand, His blessed heart, joyful even as it is cloven in two.

22-23 hey . . . moder, high spiritual vision of His precious mother.

25 gret nobleth of all things makyng, great nobility of all things in their creation; man makeyng, man's making, i.e., the human constitution.

26 pretious asseth, precious satisfaction (see note); man, man's.

28 be, by.

30 feith and trowthe, faith and truth; wete His privityes, know His secrets.

31 longyth, belongs, is appropriate for.

32 ground, foundation; beseekeing, beseeching.

33 sekir, sure; large, generous.

34 likyth Him, are pleasing to Him.

37 mede, mead, reward.

38 wonyth, dwells.

39 reuland and geveand, ruling and giving.

40 saveand and keepeand, saving and keeping.

41 cowde no letter, knew no letters, could not read; or, possibly, did not know Latin.

43 mende of, attention to, understanding, realization.

43-44 sekenesse, sickness.

45 methought, it seemed to me; sume feleing in, some feeling of.

46 be, by.

50 seene, saw; peynes, pains.

51 ner, nor.

52 fro, from.

53 trew minde in, true understanding of.

54-55 sekenesse so herde as to deth, a deathly sickness.

55 underfongyn, receive.

56 weneing, supposing.

57 seyen, saw; eardtly, earthly.

58 ghostly, spiritual.

59 fends, fiends.

61 lyven, live; worshippe, honor.

64 wotith, know.

68 very, true, genuine.

70 fro, from.

72 yers, years.

74 wened not a levyd, believed I would not live; langorid, languished.

75 wened, thought, supposed.

76 youngith, youth.

77 sweeme, a pity, regret.

77-78 me lekid to levin for, it gave me pleasure to live for.

78 ne, nor; aferd, afraid.

81 methought, it seemed to me; in reward of, in comparison with.

84 feleing, feeling.

85 God will, God's will, i.e., at God's disposal; durid, endured.

86 dede fro, dead from; middis, middle; stered, prompted, took a notion.

87 underlenand, leaning with support from beneath.

89 by than, by the time that.

89-90 I had sett my eyen, my eyes were fixed in the death stare.

90 sett, placed.

91 browte, brought; Louke, look

92 Methought, It seemed to me; eyen, eyes; sett, fixed.

93 Hevyn, Heaven.

94 dede, did.

95 duren to loke, be able to look; forth than, straight ahead rather than.

96 derke, dark.

97 wiste, knew.

98 mekil, much.

99 fends, fiends; party, part.

100 onethys, scarcely; ony feleing, any feeling; onde, breath.

100-01 went sothly, truly thought.

101 passid, died.

102 hele, well.

103 party, part; aforn, before.

104 privy, mysterious; kinde, nature.

105 levyn, live.

106 lever a be, rather have been.

109 minde, understanding, realization.

110 longeing, longing (possibly belonging).

111 kinde, natural, kindly.

112 would beene a dedely man, was willing to be a mortal person

114 rede blode trekelyn, red blood trickling.

115 freisly, afresh; ryth, right; that, when.

116 thornys, thorns.

118 ony mene, any intermediary.

119 herte, heart.

124 appereith, appears.

124-25 Benedicite, Domine, Blessed be Thou, Lord.

125 meneing, intention.

126 astonyed, astonished.

127 reverend and dredfull, revered and awe inspiring; homley, intimate, familiar (see note); synfull creture liveing, sinful creature living.

129 of fends or I dyed, by fiends before I died.

131 enow, enough; ya, yeah, indeed; leving, living; ageyn, against.

133 understondyng, mind.

134 waxen, grown.

135 wan, when.

136 party, part.

141 sothly, truly; mare, more.

144 homely, intimate.

146 wrappeth . . . becloseth us, winds about us, embraces us, and entirely encloses us.

149 hesil nutt, hazel nut.

151 lesten, last.

154 the being, existence.

157-58 substantially onyd, integrally joined.

158 ne very, nor true.

160 littlehede, smallness.

160-61 to nowtyn . . . made, value as nothing everything created.

161 howe, have (see note); unmade, without creator.

162 herete, heart; sekyn, seek.

164-65 Him liketh, it pleases Him.

166 nowted, stripped.

167 Whan, When.

169 sily, innocent, simple.

170 kinde yernings, natural yearning.

172 enow, enough.

175 arn, are.

180 lerne, teach; clevyn, cleave.

181 mende, mind.

182 menys, means, intermediaries.

183 sothly, truly.

184 clevyn, cleave.

185 menys, means, intermediaries.

187 hole, whole.

187-88 failith right nowte, nothing at all fails.

190 deareworthy, precious, excellent.

192 moder love, mother's love.

193 bare, bore.

198 wole, well (intensive); fele, many.

199 mene, means; kinde, nature; toke, took.

200 menys, means, helps; aforn, before; cum, come.

204-05 quickyth, gives life to.

206 nerest . . . grace, nearest in nature and most ready in grace.

208 beclosyd, enclosed; dispite of, contempt for.

209 longyth in kinde, belongs in nature.

211 bonys, bones.

212 herte, heart; bouke, trunk; arn, are.

213 ya, indeed; wasten and weren, waste and wear.

214 hole, whole.

216 herete, heart.

217 spedyth, prospers.

219 wetyn, know; mekyl, greatly

222 onenestimable, inestimable.

226 blyn, cease.

231 lest, least; his, its (the soul's).

233 his even Cristen, the soul's fellow Christians.

234 to lerne us, to teach us.

236 hey, high.

239 in reward of, in comparison with.

242 lesting, lasting.

242-43 bledeing of the hede, bleeding of the head.

243 blode, blood.

244 semand . . . veynis, seeming as if it had come out of the veins.

245 browne rede, deep (shining) red

248 plenteoushede, plenitude.

249 dropys, drops; evys, eaves; showre of reyne, shower of rain.

250 bodily witte, natural intelligence.

250-51 roundhede, roundness;

251 heryng, herring.

254 dropys of evese, drops from eaves.

255 hidouse, hideous.

257 curtes, courteous.

258 likeing, happiness, pleasure.

259 opyn, open.

261 glad cheere, both prive and partie, cheerful expression, both in private and in public.

266 manys, man's.

270-72 And . . . may, And our Lord wills this, that we desire and have faith, rejoice and take pleasure, comfort and console ourselves as we may.

276 weten, know.

277 govyn, given.

277-78 govyn of, given by.

278 mede, mead, reward.

282 goven, given.

285 be than, until.

287 Benedicite, Domine, Blessed be Thou, Lord.

288 toknys, tokens, signs.

290 bene, be.

292 wete, know.

294 seith, sees.

295 semith, seems.

300 stinted, stopped.

302 ell, else.

303 mekil sterid, much stirred; even Cristen, fellow Christians.

304 they, them.

306 domys day, judgment day; went a deid, expected to have died.

307 deith, dies; demyd, judged.

308 thei lovid, they loved.

308-09 make hem to have mende, make them realize.

310 went have, thought to have; mervil, strange.

310-11 sweeme . . . should leven, partly a pity, for I thought this vision was shown in order to benefit the living.

312 even Cristen, fellow Christians; lernyd, taught, instructed.

314 levyn, believe (see note).

315 curtes, courteous.

316 wolde shewyn, would show.

317-18 on to you all, to you, one and all.

320 hem, those.

321 wote, know.

323 sekir, sure.

326 onehede, unity

328 on . . . sight, one (whole) in my sight; hat, has.

334 hem, those; save, saved, i.e., achieve salvation.

335 leve, believe; levith, believes.

339 diligens, diligence.

342 hopinly, openly.

343 wolde, wish to.

346 henge, hung.

348 sollowing, soiling (see note); langoryng, languishing, lingering; mo, more.

350 ere, ear; overrede, overun.

351 tuther, other; therewhiles, meanwhile.

352 swemely, sorrowfully, fearfully.

355 sowte, sought.

356 sekyn, seek.

356-57 And . . . Him, If we see anything of Him.

357 sterid, stirred, prompted; sekyn, seek.

358 sowte, sought.

361 see ground, bottom of the sea.

362 dalis . . . wrekke, green dales, seeming as if it were grown over with moss, with wrak.

367 levyn, believe; thowe that us thinkeith, although we think.

369 abedyn, abided, waited for; trosted, trusted.

370 low, humble; sprets, spirits.

371 travel, travail; mornand, dredfull, mourning, fearful.

374 dede hame, skin, slough; mortal covering (fig., flesh).

378 reulihede and lenehede, piteousness and thinness.

379 stondyng, understanding that.

385 be synne, through sin.

386 And that made, And He who made.

388 overpassing, transcendence.

390 geynmakyng, remaking.

391 dedely, mortal.

393-94 dede hame, skin, slough, mortal covering (fig., flesh).

395 owen to trowen, ought to believe.

396 travel, travail.

399 chere, expression.

400 rewfull and dedely, rueful and like death.

401 lernyng, teaching.

402 ful mekyl, very much; sekyn, seek.

404 sekyng, seeking.

407 travel, travail.

408 God wille, God's will.

409-10 have him, conduct itself.

415 mown, may; on, one.

416-17 The sekyng . . . Church, The seeking is common; that is available in the discretion and teaching of Holy Church which every soul may have, and ought to have, by God's grace.

419 slauth, sloth; throw, through.

420 onskilful, senseless, unreasonable; veyne, vain.

421 gruching, grudging; ageyns, against.

422 thred, third.

425 swith sodeyn, very sudden; trowid, believed; hend, courteous.

426 mot, may.

427 poynte, point.

428 with avisement, thoughtfully, with full clarity.

431 be happe, ne be aventure, by chance nor by accident.

435 unwetyng, unknowing.

436 ben happis and aventures, are chances and accidents.

438 me behovith nedes to grant, I must concede.

441 sekir, certain.

442 dede, deed.

443 wold, would; wold shewen, would show.

448 ben al, is all; feilith nougte, nothing fails.

454 demyng, judgment.

459 heiest, highest.

463 or, before.

472 me behovyd nedis to assenten, I must necessarily assent.

473-74 seming of the scorgyng, seaming, furrowing, of the scourging (see note).

477 should a, should have.

478 migt, might; avisement, clarity.

479 sigt, sight.

480 al on blode and a passid over aboute, bloody all over and have passed entirely over it.

484 licur, liquor.

486 it is our kinde, it is of the same nature as our own.

489 braste her bands, burst their bonds.

490 longyd, belonged; curte, courte.

495 it nedith, it is needed.

498 er, before.

499 conable, suitable.

500 migte, might.

501 formys, forms.

502 menening, referring to.

506 ascappyn, escape; worshipply be, honorably by.

507 attemyd, esteemed.

508 mech, much.

510 migte, might; tokyn, taken.

511 wreth, wrath.

515 onmigte, powerlessness.

516 sigte, sight; I lauhyd migtily, I laughed mightily; lauhyn, laugh.

517 likeing, pleasure.

518-19 lauhyn, lawhyn, laugh.

522 sothfastnes, truth.

524 sadhede, sober mood; game, joy.

525 arneste, earnest, seriousness.

526 arneste, earnestly.

529 done, do.

530 dampnid, damned.

531 hose, whose.

532 invye, envy.

537 clepid, called.

540 to solacyn, to make comfortable.

544 thanke, thanks.

553 reme, realm.

554 leking, pleasing; underfongyn, received; rigte, right.

557 hem, those; her yongith, their youth.

559 on day, one day's.

561 lever, readier, more inclined.

562 soveren gostly lekyng, sovereign spiritual delight.

565 lestenid, lasted.

566 irkenes of, irriation with.

567 onethis, scarcely; leve, live.

570 mycti, mighty.

571 desesid me, made me uneasy.

573 dyvers, different.

577 spedeful, efficacious.

580 manys, man's.

582 soden, sudden.

585 passand, passing.

590 sithen, after.

591 langoring, languishing.

591-92 dede . . . browne blew, deathly to blue, and after a duller blue.

594-95 tho . . . clange, those that before were fresh, red, and pleasant in my eyes. This was a grievous change to see, this deep dying, and also the nose shriveled.

596 lifely, life-like.

598 Rode, Cross; harre, keen, fierce.

600 migte, might.

602 Blodeleshede, Bloodlessness.

607 party after party, step by step; dryande, drying.

609 pynyng, torture, suffering.

610 than I seid, when I said.

612 clongen, withered; peteuous, pitiable.

613 deyand, dying.

616 threst, thirst.

619 bonys, bones.

620 wryngyng of the naylys, twisting, drilling in, of the nails; weyte, weight.

623 wrangyng, twisting.

624 bakyn, baked.

625 clyngand, clinging; deyand, dying.

626-31 And . . . moysture, And in the beginning, while the flesh was still fresh and bleeding, the constant piercing of the thorns made the wounds wide. And furthermore, I saw that the sweet skin and the tender flesh, with the hair and the blood, were raised and loosened out from the bone with the thorns, where it [the skin] was pierced through in many pieces; [it was] like a cloth that is sagging, as if it would very soon have fallen off because of its heaviness and looseness, while it had natural moisture.
634 pety, pity.

635 ben, be.

636 dreyen, dry; stynte, diminish, stop; weyte, weight.

637 abute, about.

638 tother, other.

639 cloderyd, clotted.

640 smal, thin; ronkyllid, wrinkled.

641 a tannyd . . . akynned, a tanned color like a dry board when it is scorched

643 dryengs, dryings.

644 eyr, air.

645 askyd licour, needed moisture.

646 mynystid, ministered.

648 clyngand, withering up.

650 clyngyng dryand, withering drying.

651 peynd, made to suffer, tortured; thingke, think.

653 wiste, knew.

654 onys, once; mynde, realization

657-59 Than . . . praydd it, Then I thought, I knew very little what payne it was that I was asking for, and like a wretch I repented, thinking if I had known what it would be, I would have been loath to have prayed for it.

661 despeyr, despair.

667 onyd, joined.

667-68 mekylhede, greatness.

668 continyyd, continued.

669 fulsomely, abundantly; fully.

671 panys, pains.

676 onyng, empathy, union.

679 faledyn, failed; hyr, their.

680 thir, their; ther, their

681-82 than . . . faylon with Hym, then because of their nature they necessarily failed with Him; penys, pains.

684 feyling, failing.

685 privy kepyng, mysterious care.

686 on, one.

687 paynym, pagan.

689 ell, else.

690 auter, altar.

694 nawted, made nothing, a cipher.

696 wold a lokyd, would have looked; weste, knew.

698 uggyng, horror.

699 profir, proposition.

700 feyth, faith.

701 desesyd me, made me uneasy.

704 lever a ben, rather have been; domys day, judgment day

707 lerid, taught.

709 chase, chose.

710 hat be, has been.

711 done so, do so; chesyn, choose.

712 repentid me, repentid, changed my mind; wiste, known.

713 me had be loth, I should have been loath.

714 grutching and daming, grudging and curse.

715 wilful choys, deliberate choice.

716 tho be, those are.

721 chase, chose.

722 soverayn, sovereign; hede, heed.

723 onyd into, made one with.

727 langring, languishing.

729 allonly, only.

732 shamly, dispitous, shameful, pitiless.

734 sean, seen.

736 heyte and noblyth, height and nobility.

738 lothhede, loathing.

740 mannys, man's.

741 manys, man's.

747 ches, chose; desyr, desire.

748 wel payeyng, much satisfaction.

750 passyng, transcendent.

756 wet, expected to; ryth, right.

757 be semyng, by appearances.

759 chere, countenance, expression.

761 agreefe, sorrow.

762 menyng, intention, disposition, understanding.

769-70 should us agrevyn, would make us sad.

771-72 desese and travel, distress and labor.

772 frelete askyth, frailty requires.

777 payd, pleased, satisfied.

778 gramercy, thank you.

779 payde, pleased.

780-81 I myht suffre, I might suffer.

781 lifte, lifted.

782 gretly mervelyd, made to marvel greatly.

788 mede, reward.

788-89 Fader . . . mede, Father might have given Him no reward.

792 beyeng, buying (fig., redemption).

793 corone, crown.

799 diligens, diligence.

800 sotly, truly.

801 coude, could.

803 al thynkyth Him, He considers all; in reward of, considering.

804 sesin, cease.

808 creature, human.

823 plesance, pleasure.

824 lykyng, enjoyment.

826 thred, third.

827 curtes, courteous.

830 semys of the scorgyng, weals from the scourging (see note 473-74).

831 that, that which.

833 Goddys, God's.

839 upriste on Esterne morow, resurrection on Easter morning.

841 wil, desires.

845 wroute, wrought.

849 enow, enough.

850 ell, else.

851 mend, mind; gevere, giver.

853 solacyn, give solace to, please.

856 solacid, satisfied.

861 bawte, bought (fig., redeemed).

886 ryte, right.

888 wold se, would wish to see.

899 lerid . . . hirr, taught to long to see her.

903 gramercy, thank you.

904 wend a seen hir, expected to have seen her.

912 gove, given.

914 tymys, times.

931 letted, hindered.

934 forseyng, foreseeing; lettid, prevented.

935 a be, have been; steryng, agitation.

938 behovabil, necessary; fits in (see note 936).

942 in party nowtid, partly despised.

946 wern, were.

949 afferd, afraid.

960 sythen, since.

972 reuth, ruth, pity; ech, each.

974 lakid, blamed; rapyd, abused.

975 lettyn, prevent, lessen.

976 heynen, raise.

977 tobreke, utterly shatter.

982 nowting, humiliation.

989-90 gruching and dispeir, grudging and despair.

992 childer, children.

993 swemly, sadly.

996 esyd, eased.

1000 asyeth, reparation.

1001 manys, man's.

1003 sythe, since.

1007 hopyn, open; lite, luminous, without burden.

1009 councellid, counseled.

1011 onjoyeth, takes pleasure.

1014 sperid, barred, closed.

1022 owen, ought.

1035 threst, thirst.

1040 hole, whole.

1042 amenst, as concerns (see note).

1044 heyned ne lownyd, raised nor lowered.

1047 anemst, concerning.

1055 onpassible, impassible.

1056 threst, thirst.

1058 cum, come.

1064-65 thow . . . properties, And [this is true] even though longing and pity are two separate qualities.

1068 secyn, cease.

1071 On, one.

1073 On, one; wetyn, understand.

1079 loke, look; morning, mourning.

1085 trostily, trustfully.

1092 pesid, made peaceful.

1100 peynt, point.

1102 herth, earth.

1103 ethen, heathen.

1106 And stondyng, And this being so.

1108 That, What.

1110 stedfasty, steadfastly.

1111 sadly levyn, firmly believe.

1118 to maken prefe, to try to prove out, to test; longyth, belongs.

1122 coude, knew, could learn.

1134 deden Hym to ded, put Him to death.

1136 lered, taught.

1137 hopyng, hoping.

1144 besyn us, busy ourselves.

1146 to, two; privityes, secrets, mysteries.

1153-55 For al . . . Holy Church, For all that is helpful to us to know and understand, our Lord will [make it His] will most courteously to show us what it is [what these things are] by and through all the preaching and teaching of Holy Church.

1163 ageyn, against; thred, third.

1170 freindful mene, friendly intermediary.

1180 peynte, point.

1181 rythful, righteous.

1192 seith, sees; sowlys, souls.

1197 secyn, cease.

1206 dredful, reverent.

1211 His holy, His saints.

1217 trostily, with trust, confidence.

1221 hat to, has for.

1224 leven, believe.

1225 owe we, we ought.

1234 her, here.

1238 clepyth us, calls out to us; Entend, Attend, Listen.

1249 fele, many, several.

1250 heygh, high.

1253 myschevis, troubles, evils; to meken us, to make us meek.

1263 entendyn, attend, pay attention.

1267 concyvid a softe drede, conceived a quiet fear.

1274 Ryth, Just; bestly, bestial.

1276 yll, evil.

1277 that that Hym lykyt, that which pleases Him.

1283 goven, given.

1290 lift, lifted.

1299 hende neybor, courteous, affable neighbor.

1310 chousyn, chosen.

1311-13 al forbetyth . . . Helle, beats down man and woman and makes them irritated with themselves, so much that sometimes, in their own view, they think themselves worthy of nothing but to sink into Hell.

1317 ymage, image.

1318 domysman, judge.

1330 menys, means, ways.

1332 helyd, healed.

1338 mede, reward; underfongyn, receive.

1340 dispeir, despair.

1342 beand and werkand, existing and working.

1345 fel and fers, evil and fierce; and so mech . . . the more, and in as much as our need is [great] the more [He defends us].

1347 severayn, sovereign.

1348 privily, inwardly.

1353 consciens, conscience.

1355 frendful, friendly.

1365 leven, live.

1370 chargyn, charge, set down.

1374 the lother . . . synne, the more loath he is to sin.

1378 to haten, to be hated.

1380 And we gevyn, If we give.

1383 lawis, laws; tawth, taught.

1384 ageyn, in opposition to.

1392 Lordis, Lord's.

1398 besekyng, prayer, beseeching; sythen, after.

1405 for an impossible, as an impossibility, a logical absurdity.

1417 tresour, treasury; His holy, His saints.

1422 inderly, earnestly.

1439 felyth, feels.

1440 grece, grace.

1457 taryen and peyn, delay and trouble.

1458 leve, believe.

1460 trosten, trust.

1467 mytys, powers.

1468 will, desires.

1468-69 our stede . . . wonynge, our standing place and our dwelling.

1472 agen byeing, redemption.

1476 deds, deeds.

1477 dede, deed.

1482 dette, debt.

1486 other, either.

1494 diligens, diligence.

1499 onyth, binds, unites; thow, though.

1501 will, desires.

1502 ablith, makes able, fits the individual for.

1504 steryth, prompts, stirs.

1507 And thou besekyst, And you beseech.

1513 eur, your (see note).

1519 steryth, inspires.

1522 ablyng, fitting.

1524 buxum, obedient.

1526 nedys wherfore we prayen, that we need to pray.

1527 seying, seeing.

1529 fulsome, abundant; mytys, powers.

1530 continuate, continual.

1533 hey, high, great; wonyng, dwelling place.

1535 continuat, continual.

1540 fulsomely, completely, to the full; seand, seeing.

1541 feland, feeling; heryng, hearing.

1542 swelowyng, swallowing.

1544 leven, live; dedly, mortal.

1555 commend, coming.

1556-57 soverain, severeyn, sovereyn, sovereign.

1558 made, created, i.e., not self-generated.

1561 in reward of, in comparison with.

1562 onethys, scarcely; owte, anything; clertye, clarity.

1565-66 hoole and save, whole and safe.

1568 medyllid, mixed.

1578 cowd nowte, could not; dome, judgment.

1582 cowth, could.

1585 levyn, leave (see note).

1587 longyth . . . knoyn it, pertains to me to know it truly.

1604 encrecin and wexen be forthing, increase and grow with the helping.

1613-14 And . . . me, And this way of looking at things stayed with me.

1616 encrese and resyn, increase and rise.

1637 yeele me, yield myself.

1638 owyth, ought to do.

1639 longen, pertain; On, One.

1648 no, not.

1649 sumdel, something.

1651-52 frelte and overcummyng, frailty and defeats.

1652 onmyte and onwise, powerless and foolish.

1654 sey, saw.

1655 mischevous, ill.

1660 morning, mourning.

1673 contrarioust, contrariness, perversity.

1674 rote, root.

1675 traveylid, belabored.

1677 wonnyng, dwelling.

1679 buxum, obedient.

1681 sow, saw.

1682 all, else; frowardness and a contrarioste, perversity and an opposition.

1685 contrariuste, contrariness.

1688 cowth, could.

1691 turnyng . . . good, turning everything to good for us.

1696 of us, away from us.

1697 cessyth, ceases.

1699 propirte, quality.

1720 seyth, sees.

1728 a touch, a bit; stede, standing place.

1732 wretches, times of wretchedness.

1733-34 buxumhede, obedience.

1734 stede, place.

1745 domys, judgments; pessible, at peace.

1779 awer, trouble (see note).

1781 eryn, err.

1785 makyn . . . it, make me courageous enough to ask this.

1792 Ho, Who.

1793 sen, see.

1794 mystily, obscurely, as if through a mist; symbolically (see note).

1795 botryn, both.

1804 rynnith, runs.

1805 slade, valley.

1813 brosyng, bruising.

1816 stonyed, stunned, astonished; mend, mind; luf, love.

1820 lang, long.

1830 nobleth, nobility, honor.

1834 skyl, reasonable.

1835 reward . . . drede, compensate him for this attack and for his fear.

1837 hole, wholeness, health; And ell, Or else.

1850 aret, attributed.

1852 mystye, symbolic, obscure (see note to line 1794).

1855 sumdele, somewhat.

1860 depart, separate.

1861 owe, ought.

1862 trostyn, trust.

1865 monethis, months.

1866 hede, heed.

1868 mysty and indifferent, unclear and irrelevant; assend, assented.

1872 sate, sat; tho, the.

1875 havyng, behavior.

1876 onlothfulhede, alacrity, good will.

1882 stonyed, stunned, stricken.

1884 lettid, hindered.

1895 syde, long, ample.

1896 sad, dignified.

1897 fulsomely featours, full, regular features.

1899 hey ward, high refuge.

1901 on to, in two.

1902 medlur, mixture.

1907 lofly, lovely.

1915 is this to menyn, means this; cyte, city, site.

1918 adyten him, prepare for him, assign to him.

1919 abeydand, waiting for; medlid, mingled.

1922 eyen, eyes.

1932 fornempts, right before; asyd, aside; lift, left.

1933 kirtle, coat, tunic; sengil, single; died with swete, stained with sweat.

1934 streyte fittyng, skimpy, close.

1935 weryd up, worn out.

1949 mete, food.

1953 myte . . . don, might be that the servant should do.

1955 delvyn and dykyn, digging and ditching; swinkin, working; swetyn, sweating.

1959-60 dygte this mete, prepared this food.

1967 dygte, prepared.

1973 rythful, fittingly; nerehede, closeness.

1980 slade, valley.

1994 anempts, pertains to.

1996 Hym, Himself.

2000 steytehede, skimpiness.

2001 waring, wearing; defaceing of swete, disfigurement of the sweat; travel, labor.

2022 privities, secrets.

2030 sore, physical pain.

2030-31 also swithe, at once.

2031 stod dredfully, stood in awe.

2032 even ryth, on the righthand of God.

2035 woon, achieved, won.

2039 sweppys, blows; scorgis, whippings.

2041 hedepanne, skull.

2048 rote, rout, i.e., throng, company of souls.

2052 streyte, scanty.

2054 wyde and syde, ample and long; than was than, than was then.

2056 medlur, mixture.

2059 sete, seat, site.

2060 unornely, without ornament, plainly.

2063 tho, the.

2071 cety, city.

2072 adyte, assigned.

2079-80 medlur bothen, mixture both.

2081 mischefe, harm, damage; deyand, dying.

2085 onethys, scarcely.

2090 medle, mixture.

2092 ilke, same.

2096 falyn, fall.

2099 grutchin ther agen, complain against it.

2100 duryin, endure.

2101 medlur, mixed state.

2103 us updrawand, drawing us up.

2106 wonand, dwelling; yemand, guiding, caring for.

2121 in our Lord menyng, in our Lord's view.

2124 be, by.

2127 gon, go.

2128-29 on syd . . . feblehede, one side falling too low, inclining to despair, nor on the other hand being too reckless, as if we did not care at all, but nakedly knowing our fragility.

2132 For otherwise . . . man, For the vision of God differs from the vision of man, and the vision of man, from the vision of God.

2146 asseth, atonement.

2163 awer, concern (see note 1779).

2174 ageyn byeng, redemption.

2191 slyppe, slime; medlid and gaderid, mingled and gathered.

2205 sotil, subtle.

2210 departing, division, separation.

2211 hesy, easy; trowen, believe.

2214 owe, ought.

2234 command, coming.

2239 berith, carries.

2248 feithyn, believe.

2251 we . . . sensual, we are made a physical, living being; as swithe, just as quickly.

2252 cure, care.

2256 abylith, enables.

2258 sensualite, concrete and bodily existence (see note 2250-51).

2259 cite, city.

2260 se, see, official domain.

2282 sotil, subtle.

2284 for the mene profir, on the basis of the intermediary's suggestion.

2287 ridier to us, more easy for us.

2291 of fulhede, for complete [understanding].

2293-94 Whither and, Whether if.

2296 mene, the medium.

2299 rotid, rooted.

2300 comenyng and daliance, mutuality and communion, i.e., familiar conversation.

2303 clepid, called, designated.

2304 cyte, city.

2313-15 For . . . substance, For until our soul has its full power, we cannot be entirely holy, and that is [can happen then] because our psycho-physical being by the power of Christ's passion is [then] brought up to the substance.

2318 heyhede, elevation; kindhede, natural placement. See note 2318.

2320 incres, increase.

2329 connyng of, knowledge of.

2331-33 For. . . spirite, For in our first creation, God gave us fully all we need [in this life], and also greater goods such as we may receive only in our spirit.

2335 There, Where.

2344 diverssetis, diversity.

2351 adyte, assigned.

2366 renued, renewed.

2380 lerand His loris, learning His lore.

2386 at onys, at once.

2404 yeldyng, repayment, harvest.

2419 kepid ondepartid, kept together.

2424 thred, third.

2429 perfitt, perfect.

2472 impropried to, embodied in.

2477 forthspreadyng, amplification.

2488 rayhid Him and dyte Him, arrayed and prepared Himself.

2495 throwes, times, torments.

2497 makyn aseth to, fully satisfy.

2522 bristinid, broken, beaten severely.

2538 bend payd, be satisfied (or, yield, pleased).

2539 And, If.

2551 assay, trial.

2572 al swithe, at once.

2578-79 blissid comon, blessed community.

2587 not . . . Child, nothing to do at all but see about the salvation of her child. .

2592 dispits, humiliations.

2606 rialtie, royalty.

2628 sothly, truly.

2630 shynand, shining.

2632 mone, lament.

2643 fordreth, fosters, helps.

2663 beyng, being, existence.

2678 semyt, seems.

2682 oggley, ugly; bolned quave of styngand myre, swollen heaving of stinking mire.

2685 bolnehede, swelling.

2687 belevith, stays, is left.

2690 severen, sovereign, the greatest possible.

2691 behest, promise.

2692 behoting, promise.

2705 behests, promises.

2712 trosty, in trust, without doubt.

2718 had . . . lovid of God, possessed infinitely by those whom God loves.

2719 mon, may.

2742 ich, each.

2748 lestid folowand, were going on consecutively; or, were perpetually in my mind.

2749 langiren, languish.

2752 hevyed, heaved, tossed.

2754 ferid, fared.

2755 leuhe . . . inderly, laughed loud and heartily.

2756 blode fast, bled profusely.

2758 recleshede, recklessness.

2760 shrevyn, absolved, shriven.

2761 levyn, believe.

2763 fole, fool.

2768 gan to slepyn, went to sleep.

2772 steknes, speckles, stitches (see note).

2773 rode, red; evisid, clipped.

2774 thounys, temples;shrewd, wicked.

2797 gemeth, guides.

2814 makar, maker.

2815 cite, city.

2831 leve, believe.

2845-46 And . . . more, And soon after all was closed, and I saw no more.

2850 parlement, debate.

2853 bidding of beds, praying of beads, i.e., saying the rosary.

2863 soverain, sovereign, the best possible.

2874 byddand, commanding.

2889-90 festyn it feyfully, fasten it faithfully.

2896 persivyn, understand.

2906 utter, outer.

2908 cheres, countenances.

2915 beer, endure.

2919 medlarid the thord, mingles the third.

2928 cleerty, clarity; feland, feeling.

2931 medled with ony, mixed with any.

2944 al He halsith us, He embraces us entirely.

2954 myrkehede, darkness.

2977 rith, exactly.

2978 sumdele, something.

2980-81 on . . . hevily, one is impatience or sloth, for we endure our trouble and pains heavily.

2999 astynten, stop.

3015 afray, sudden attack.

3031 thei arn rotid, they are rooted.

3045 moder barme, mother's bosom.

3050 medlid, mixed.

3059 us feile, we fail in.

3065 neden, are needed.

3066 threist, thirst.

3067 His holy, His saints.

3068 lively, living.

3087 tremelyn and quakyn, tremble and quake.

3089 tremeland and quakand, trembling and quaking.

3107 travellyn, work.

3128 behotist, promised.

3130 slauth, sloth; lesyng, losing.

3143 brynnyt, burns.

3146 flen, flee.

3148 neyghen, draw near to.

3148-49 shrewid peyne, wicked, i.e., severe pain.

3162-63 Accuse . . . demandand that, Do not accuse yourself too much, deciding that.

3171 gaf, gave.

3232 alsa, also.

3241 recles, careless.

3247 beseyn us, busy ourselves.

3249 swemefully, piteously.

3250 hath hast, has haste (i.e., is eager to).

3274 swemefully, sorrowfully.

3280 leve . . . Him, fail to keep Him in mind.

3282 swemely and monyng, sorrowful and lamenting.

3296 reynand, reigning.

3299 wonnyth, dwells.

3310 mede, reward.

3318 the agens, you against.

3321 customably, customarily, habitually.

3323 clevand, cleaving; seand, seeing.

3324 wittand, knowing.

3332 lyt, light.

3361 clerte, clarity.

3367 sperid, closed off; suich, such.

3389 beforn that, before.

3399-3400 merkness, darkness.

3424 heretique, heretic.



C&W        A Book of Showings to the Anchoress Julian of Norwich, ed. Edmund Colledge and James Walsh. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1978. [Includes both short and long versions.]

S1        London. British Library MS Sloane 2499. [Base text for this edition of the longer version.]

S2        London. British Library MS Sloane 3705.

P        Paris. Bibliothèque Nationale MS Fonds anglais 40. [Base text for the longer version in C&W.]

A        London. British Library MS Additional 37790. [Base text for the short version in C&W.]

Chapter I

The shorter version gives no preliminary summary. If not editorial, this outline supports other evidence that Julian not only added to her book but also reconsidered it as a whole. Internal references directing readers to past or future passages (e.g., in chapters 17 and 56) also indicate that she reviewed the whole work as a whole. The shorter version lacks such referrals.

4 the Trinite. S1 thee.

11 pretious. S1 barely legible. P precious.

16 also. S1 aso. P also.

26-27 and of the pretious asseth that He hath made for man synne. Asseth, "satisfaction," "compensation," or "amends," is both a legal and an ecclesiastical term. John A. Alford includes it in his Piers Plowman: A Glossary of Legal Diction (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer/Boydell & Brewer, 1988), pp. 10-11, directing readers to English Wycliffite Sermons, ed. Anne Hudson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983), 1, 497-99, for an entire sermon on the place of asseth in the economy of salvation. Mona Logarbo in "Salvation Theology in Julian of Norwich: Sin, Forgiveness, and Redemption in the Revelations," Thought 61 (1986), 374, points to derivation from OF assez which had its roots in Latin ad satis; she defines asseth in Julian as "that which makes sufficient"; what is sufficient for Julian, Logarbo indicates, is Christ's achieved filling in of the breach between God and humanity caused by the "great harm" of Adam's sin.

29 make wele. S1 make wle.

38 wonyth. S1 marginal gloss: dwelleth.

Chapter II

Eight chapter headings refer to Julian in the third person, those for chapters 2, 8, 9, 50, 51, 66, 69, and 81. All headings may be editorial, and those for chapters 9 and 81 almost certainly are, referring, as they do, to "the mekenes of this woman" and "this blissid woman."

42 the eighth day of May. P gives May 13 as the date.

44-45 three wounds. The shorter text adds a reference to Saint Cecelia: "For the thirde, I harde a man telle of halye kyrke of the storye of Saynte Cecylle. In the whilke schewynge I undyrstode that sche hadde thre woundys with a swerde in the nekke, with the whilke sche pynede to the dede. By the styrrynge of this I conseyvede a myghty desyre, prayande oure lorde god that he wolde grawnte me thre woundys . . ." [For the third, I heard a man tell of holy church's story of Saint Cecelia, from which account I understood that she had three wounds with a sword in her neck, with which she suffered till death. By this inspiration I conceived a mighty desire, praying our Lord God that He would grant me three wounds] (fol. 97v). This single mention of a normal and specific mode of receiving information is of hearing, not reading. Riehle believes that the request for three wounds and for physical illness owes something to women mystics on the continent whose writings may have reached England; the parallels he gives are approximate (pp. 28-30).

50 and suffer with Him. The shorter version adds, "not withstandynge that I leevyd sadlye alle the peynes of cryste as halye kyrke schewys & techys, & also the payntyngys of crucyfexes that er made be the grace of god aftere the techynge of haly kyrke to the lyknes of crystes passyoun, als farfurthe as manys witte maye reche" [notwithstanding that I firmly believed all the pains of Christ just as holy church shows and teaches, and also the paintings of crucifixes that are made to the likeness of Christ's passion, as far as man's intelligence may reach, by the grace of God, and after the teaching of holy church] (fol. 97r). Commentators cite this passage as evidence that religious art affects the images of the showings. For the possibility that "payntyngys" may be a neo-Platonic term, see C&W, I, 202, and the article cited there by G. V. Smithers, "Two Typological Terms in the Ancrene Riwle," Medium Aevum 34 (1965), 126-28.
   Julian's desire to be in effect a fellow witness of the Crucifixion would not be unusual in the affective piety of the fourteenth century. Richard Rolle, the earlier fourteenth-century mystic, wrote a "Meditations on the Passion" in which the speaker attempts to view the events of Christ's last hours from arrest to entombment as if they were unfolding before his eyes in sequence (English Writings of Richard Rolle, ed. Hope Emily Allen [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931], pp. 17-36). The popular pseudo-Bonaventuran Meditationes vitae Christi (13th century) initiated and sustained many similar devotions. See Jantzen for a sketch of precedents and the role of monastic reading technique as an influence upon the development of such devotion (pp. 56-58). What is unusual about Julian's petition is the form its granting took. For the theme of Christ's suffering as it figures in the writings of female mystics in particular, see Petroff, pp. 9-16. For the distinctive caste of Julian's treatment of this theme, see Bhattacharji, pp. 85-88.

64 seying. S2; S1 sey. P's syntax is too different to furnish the word.

69 willfull longing to God. In medieval psychology the will was the faculty which could choose and love. Will and willful are specific, weighted words in Julian, usually carrying the sense of a sustained intentionality, a fully conscious choosing. See lines 85, 167-68, 225-28, and 2710-12 as typical examples. Though the request for a critical illness to death is the one that startles, to a great extent this third part of her third request, the desired willful longing to God, constitutes the core subject of the Shewings which also illustrates it. Longing may mean either yearning or belonging, and Julian's use frequently captures both definitions.

Chapter III

77 sweeme. S1 marginal gloss: regret.

89 My curate was sent for. A is more circumstantial: "thay that were with me sente for the persoun, my curette, to be atte myne endynge [the parson, my curate, to be at my end]. He come, and a childe with hym, and brought a crosse & be thanne I hadde sette myne eyenn [eyes], and myght nought speke. The persone sette the crosse before my face, and sayde: 'Dowghtter, I have brought the [thee] the ymage of thy sauioure"' (fol. 98r).

99 After this the other party of my body began to dyen. A reports, "Myne handdys felle downe on aythere syde, and also for vnpowere my heede satylde downe" [went limp] (fol. 98r).

100 onethys. S1 marginal gloss: scarcely.

onde. S1 marginal gloss: winde.

106 lever. S1 marginal gloss: rather.

Chapter IV

126-27 that He that is so reverend and dredfull will be so homley. Homeliness is a favorite item in Julian's vocabulary. Along with courteous, it describes God's personal, loving attitude toward the individual soul. English mystics may also use homely in passages on intimate communion of the soul with the divine. The author of The Cloud of Unknowing writes that some aspirants do not reach "ravisching" - mystic union - "with-outyn moche & longe goostly excersise," but that others "ben so sotyl [subtle] in grace & in spirit, & so homely with God in this grace of contemplacion, that thei mowe [may] have it [i.e., God's presence] when thei wolen [wish to]" (ed. Phyllis Hodgson, EETS o.s. 218, 1944; rev. 1973 [London: Oxford University Press, 1981], p. 126). Compare The Book of Margery Kempe, ed. Meech and Allen, p. 90. According to Riehle, homeliness translates familiaritas, which Gregory the Great (c. 540-604) introduced into theological language to describe the mystical union of the soul and God (pp. 97-99). S1 here glosses homely in the margin as familiar. Julian sometimes uses the word in its specialized sense, sometimes colloquially.

129 or. S1 marginal gloss: before.

139 hir maker. S1 his. S2 agrees with P's her.

143 manhood. P; S1 omits.

Chapter V

145 for us. P to our helpe.

146-47 wrappeth us . . . tender love. S1 is intermittently blotched by ink that has soaked through from the other side of the page. P expands the clause: wrappeth us and wyndeth us, halseth us and all becloseth us, hangeth about us for tender love.

151 lesten. S1 marginal gloss: last.

152 it might suddenly have fallen to nowte for littil. The short text continues, "In this blyssede revelacion god schewyd me thre noughtes of whilke noughttes [showed me three naughts, of which naughts] this is the fyrste that was schewyd me. Of this nedes ilke [each] man and woman to hafe knawynge that desyres to lyeve contemplatyfelye [live as a contemplative], that hym lyke to nought alle thynge that es made for to hafe the love of god that es unmade" (fol. 99v). This passage implies that Julian may have written the short text with contemplatives in mind as her primary audience. The other "naughts" are probably sin and the devil (C&W, I, 215).

161 howe. P have. S1 marginal gloss: know. It is tempting to follow the marginal gloss and to emend howe to knowe, so that the sense would be more parallel with the have knoweing in line 160. As is, for to love and howe God that is unmade seems to mean "in order to love and have (possess, obtain) God who is without creator."

175-76 touchen the will. S1 marginal gloss: agreeing to his will.

Chapter VI

207 oure God. P; S1 omits.

207-08 that hath us all in Himselfe beclosyd. P adds: "A man goyth vppe ryght and the soule of his body is sparyde [closed], as a purse fulle feyer. And whan it is tyme of his nescessery, it is openyde and sparyde ayen [again] fulle honestly. And that it is he that doyth this it is schewed ther wher he seyth, he comyth downe to vs to the lowest parte of oure nede" (fol. 12r). C&W offers the translation "cooked, digested food" for soule from OE sufol (II, 306). A. M. Allchin comments, "Julian is so integrated in herself, so penetrated throughout her being by this conviction of the all-encompassing goodness of God, that she can speak quite simply of the processes of the digestion and evacuation of food as ways in which God serves us. There are few spiritual writers who have spoken so directly and so naturally on this subject" (pp. 37-38).

209 simplest office that to. to P; S1 do.

212 bouke. S1 marginal gloss: Bulke.

216 herete. S1 marginal gloss: heart.

226 blyn. S1 marginal gloss: cease, leave fr.

233 even Cristen. S1 marginal gloss: Xstian neighbour.

Chapter VII

235 the hey. S1 they hey.

241-51 In all the tyme . . . spreadeing on the forehead. In the course of an argument that cultural representations may be constitutive of the mystic's experience, Laurie A. Finke writes that this passage hints of an intense meditation upon a visual image (for instance, in a book of hours) in which particular details "lose their relationship to the whole composition and begin to remind her of other inanimate objects. As she traces the brushstrokes, following the change in color from brownish red to bright red, finally vanishing from the canvas, other images - pellets, raindrops, herring's scales - suggest themselves to her, transforming the suffering into an artistic vision, a representation that seems self-conscious in its artifice" (Feminist Theory, Women's Writing [Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992], p. 97). Without taking anything from the absorbed intensity that Finke observes, the possibility also exists that this is simply another example of Julian's free use of everyday surroundings. Campbell has noted that fish, especially herring, may have formed a major source of wealth for Norwich as early as the eleventh century. A charter of between 1114 and 1160 records a render of at least 2,000 herring owed by a house in the city, and herring pies were among the renders which Norwich owed to the Crown in the thirteenth century (p. 7). My own sense of the passage is that this is an effort to communicate, to get the vision down exactly as remembered.

244 semand. S1 marginal gloss: seeming.

252 mynde. P; S1 omits.

258-59 He shewid this opyn example. Nuth regards this as an intimation of the lord and servant parable of chapter 51, pointing out that, like that parable, this and other passages that feature a lord or king in relation to a servant or subject appear only in the long text (p. 31).

266 hart. P; S1 partially illegible.

Chapter VIII

290 that ever was, is, and ever shal bene. This is the first of Julian's several echoes of the doxology: "Glory be to the Father, to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit who was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end." Among many instances, see lines 815-16 and 836-37. This is the only familiar liturgical formula that Julian resorts to continually. She would have heard it at mass. J. P. H. Clark notes Julian's attribution of might, wisdom, and love to the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit respectively as the common appropriation based on Augustine and developed by the scholastics ("Fiducia," p. 225).

303 sterid. S1 marginal gloss: stirr'd.

306 domys day. Two doomsdays await the soul; Julian refers to the individual judgment of the soul at the individual's moment of dying; at the apocalyptic doomsday at the end of time, souls and bodies will be reunited for a final, confirming, general judgment.

310 mervil. S1 marginal gloss: strange.

314 levyn. S1 marginal gloss: leave of. The word may be glossed either believe or leave. In the first case, Julian says that since God intends the revelation not for herself alone but also for all her even Christians, they should believe it. In the second case, she urges that Christians use her report of her beholding merely as a crutch, discarding it for beholding God Himself. See also notes to lines 1585 and 2876.

Chapter IX

328-32 And God hat made al . . . and God is in al. In A this passages continues into Julian's apology (or apologia) for addressing fellow Christians as a teacher even though she is a woman (fols. 100v-101r), given below, Appendix A.

330-32 For in mankynd . . . and God is in al. This is Julian's first statement of an inclusiveness that binds God and human souls, creator, creatures, and creation, in an interpenetrating reality.

335 But in al thing I leve as Holy Church levith, preachith, and teachith. This is the first of Julian's affirmations of accordance with the Church's teaching.

leve. S1 gloss: beleeve.

Chapter X

348 sollowing. A reads sowlynge (fol. 101v), which C&W gives as "to soil," derived from OF suill(i)er, soill(i)er. For Biblical background, see C&W II, 324.

351 it vanyssched. P; S1 omits.

355 For I saw Him and sowte Hym. S1: For I saw him sowte; marginal gloss: sowght. P: And thus I saw him and sought him.

363-65 Than I understode . . . harme. S1 marginal gloss: NB. This nota bene annotation is comparable to marginal hands in earlier medieval manuscripts, which call the user's attention to passages some reader favored.

364 is with. P; S1 illegible.

366-67 will that. P; S1 illegible.

370 sprets. S1 marginal gloss: spirits.

375 the holy vernacle of Rome. According to the legend of the vernicle, St. Veronica's kerchief became impressed with an exact image of the face of the suffering Christ when she compassionately wiped His face as He carried the cross to Calvary. Preserved at St. Peter's in Rome, the cloth became an object of pilgrimage. C&W discusses Julian's use of the vernicle, gives an account the devotion's currency in fourteenth-century England, and provides a bibliography (I, 53-55).

395 owen to trowen. S1 marginal gloss: We ought to believe.

400 rewfull. P; S1 reuly.

403 this wrought. P: this is wrought.

404 fyndyng is. S1 reads fyndyng is is.

425 full. S1 marginal gloss: very.

Chapter XI

440-41 For He is . . . no synne. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

467 meneing. S1 marginal gloss: speaking.

Chapter XII

With dazzling rapidity, Julian moves in this chapter from the specific showing of the scourging to the cosmic theaters of God's redemptive blood, earth, heaven, and hell. The shift is also one from literal to typological to anagogical levels of allegory, as the transitions from blood to water, to generic liquid, and back to blood whip to a rhetorical peroration. But all this is guided by a specific, self-reflexive note on her associative process, "And than cam to my minde" (481).

473-74 seming of the scorgyng. The seming or furrowing is from gashes; Glasscoe's glossary gives weals. "Appearance" is surely one translation of seming, but derivation from seam, a furrow, groove, or gash from a long, incised wound is equally a possibility. Either makes sense. The MED cites Julian in giving "gash" for seam.

479 if it had be so in kind and in substance. Elizabeth N. Evasdaughter calls attention to the hypothetical phrasing; Julian noticed an "edge" between her visions and the ordinary perceived world and did not require that what was seen in them correspond to what would have been seen in non-visionary circumstances (p. 204).

480 it should have made the bed al on blode and a passid over aboute. Maria R. Lichtmann points to the "charged," "taboo" aspect of this profuse bleeding, an outpouring made even more taboo, she observes, when comparing its overflowing of boundaries to the necessity for containment of fluidity stressed in Talmudic texts (pp. 15, 18, note 11). Lichtmann's basic argument is that unlike those spiritual writers who wish to escape the prison of body, Julian regards the body as the locus of spiritual enlightenment, developing both an epistemology, the body as a vehicle for knowing God, and a theology of the body (p. 17). Elizabeth Robertson comments on this passage and compares Julian's "extraordinary and idiosyncratically female uses of blood imagery" with Richard Rolle's meditation upon Christ's blood (pp. 154-56).

483 hys. P; S1 is. to wassch us. P; S1 illegible.

Chapter XIII encres. S1 marginal gloss: encrease.

505-06 all sent of salvation. Marion Glasscoe comments that sent is used in a "common medieval context of divine dispensation and refers to those ordained by God to salvation" ("Visions and Revisions," 112).

510-11 But in God may be no wreth, as to my syte. Perhaps an implied contrast to the devil's malicious attitude, this comment can only be inferentially linked with what goes before; the theme will be taken up more fully in chapter 48.

518 seen. P; S1 ben.

522 sothfastnes. S1 marginal gloss: veracity, constancy.

524 game. P; S1 same.

Chapter XIV servants. S2; S1 servats.

546 that him. S1 that him hym.

554 underfongyn. S1 marginal gloss: received.

561 the lever he is to serve Him . . . his life. Here and in similar passages, the Paris manuscript gives she as the pronoun for the soul to S1's he or it. Perhaps because of Latin anima, the medieval pronoun for the soul is frequently feminine. The phrase the dayes of his is lightly crossed through in S1.

Chapter XV

564 was in al peace. S1 reads was was.

567 onethis. S1 marginal gloss: scarcely.

574-76 I migte have seid with Seynt Paul . . . I perish. See Romans 8:35: "Who then shall separate us from the love of Christ?"; Matt. 8:25: "And they came to him and awakened him, saying: Lord, save us, we perish"; and Matt. 14:30: "he was afraid: and when he began to sink, he cried out, saying: Lord, save me." The passages from Matthew are conflated. Julian's references to the Bible are not so direct or so pervasive as those of most Middle English mystics; one gets the impression that Hilton would have no text without the Bible. Colledge and Walsh, whose appendices include a thorough one on Julian's Biblical allusions, regard her independence as a clue that she made her own translations from the Vulgate. Though she might have used a Wycliffite translation, her wording is not close to the only ones known to have been in circulation in her time. Other possibilities are a Wycliffite Bible unknown to us or an Anglo-French translation. They conclude that her own translating is most probable. ("Editing Julian of Norwich's Revelations," pp. 408-11). See also Pelphrey's appendix in Love Was His Meaning on the influence of Scripture, pp. 331-49. The evidence is also consistent with Biblical familiarity through hearing and quotation from memory.

587 folow. P; S1 illegible.

Chapter XVI

594-95 swemful. S1 marginal gloss: strange gastly.

597 same. P; S1 eche. Eche makes sense, but Julian elsewhere indicates that she is aware that Christ, in fact, died but once. See A, fol. 103v.

597-99 For that same tyme . . . sigte. S1 marginal gloss: NB. This is the only physical manifestion of the showings given a nota bene. Although cold is frequently a feature of representations of the Crucifixion in the thirteenth through the fifteenth centuries, the notice of a harsh wind is rare, if not unique, among them.

598 wonder. P; S1 wond.

606 and peynfully dreyden up all the lively spirits of Crists fleshe. Vincent J. DiMarco's note to Chaucer's Knight's Tale A.2743-56 is helpful: "According to the physiology developed from Galen, there were three kinds of virtues (otherwise called spirits) that operate most of the body's vital processes: the natural, situated in the liver; the vital, localized chiefly in the heart; and the animal, operating through the brain" (The Riverside Chaucer, ed. Larry D. Benson [Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1987], p. 839.) For passages where Chaucer chooses spirit rather than virtue, see The Knight's Tale A.1369 and The Book of the Duchess 489. Among Chaucerian cases, these are the most obviously physiological, Julian's context here. DiMarco notes Bartholomaeus Anglicus as a contemporary source. See On the Properties of Things: John Trevisa's Translation of Bartholomaeus Anglicus De Proprietatibus Rerum, ed. M. C. Seymour and others, 3 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975), 1, 103-08 (Book 3, chapters 14-16). Bartholomaeus credits Constantinus Africanus (d. 1097) as his authority; Chaucer readers will recall that as well as Galen, the second century Greek ("Galyen" A.431), "Constantyn" is among the numerous authorities known to the doctour of physik (A.433). Though her lively spirits seems to translate the vertues vitales standing in the Trevisa Bartholomaeus, it is doubtful if the work could have been known to Julian. Trevisa was a contemporary of Julian's, finishing his translation in 1398-99. But though there were numerous Latin manuscripts of Bartholomaeus available in the fourteenth century, the new English remained scarce, apparently until a printing in 1495 by Wynkyn De Worde. On the whole matter of physiological spirits, see also Walter Clyde Curry, Chaucer and the Mediaeval Sciences, 2nd rev. ed (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1960), pp. 140-45 and 203-06.

Chapter XVII S1 misnumbers as 18.

624 heire. S1 marginal gloss: haire.

629 thorow. P; S1 thowe.

645 askyd. P; S1 asky.

651 thingke P; S1 thynyn.

652 for it may not be told. The short text is more expansive here, including that Julian's mother and others were at her bedside: "Swilke paynes I sawe that alle es to litelle that y can telle or saye, for itt maye nought be tolde, botte ylke saule aftere the sayinge of saynte Pawle schulde feele in hym that in criste Jhesu. This schewynge of criste paynes fillyd me fulle of paynes, For I wate weele he suffrede nought botte anes botte as he walde schewe yt me and fylle me with mynde as I hadde desyrede before. My modere that stode emangys othere and behelde me lyftyd uppe hir hande before me face to lokke mynn eyenn for sche wenyd I had bene dede or els I hadde dyede and this encrysyd mekille my sorowe, for nought withstandynge alle my paynes, I wolde nought hafe beenn lettyd for loove that I hadde in hym" [I saw such pains that all I can tell or say is too little, for they may not be told; but each soul, after the saying of Saint Paul, should feel in him what Jesus Christ felt. This showing of the pains of Christ filled me full of pain, for I know well He suffered but once; but He wished to show this to me and fill me with full knowledge, as I had desired before. My mother, who stood among others and beheld me, lifted up her hand before my face to close my eyes, for she thought I was dead, or else had just died. And this increased my sorrow much, for notwithstanding all my pains, I did not want to be stopped (from seeing the showing) because of the love I had in Him.] (fol. 103v).

661 is. P; S1 omits.

663 sothfastly. S1 marginal gloss: assuredly.

664 so. P; S1 illegible.

Chapter XVIII with. S2; S1 omits.

687 Sain Dionyse of France. Tradition had gathered about the mid-third century career of Saint Dionysius or Denis of France, apostle and martyr in Gaul, the lives of two other figures, the Dionysius of Acts 17 converted by St. Paul (Dionysius the Areopagite) and the late fifth- or early sixth- century author of mystical tracts, pseudo-Dionysius, who assigned his work to the apostolic contemporary. Julian gives to her figure the inscription "To the unknown God" which Paul finds at Athens and claims as a reference to Christ. The Cloud of Unknowing author translated writings of pseudo-Dionysius. Although not all are persuaded, it has been suggested that familiarity with pseudo-Dionysius marks Julian's thought (Reynolds, "Some Literary," pp. 23-24). Classified as possibly pseudo-Dionysian are the seeing of God in a point (427-28); the statement that all kinds flow out of God (2600-04); and the special use of touch (e.g., 1237, 2317, and 3346).

689-90 kynde. auter. S1 marginal glosses: nature. Alter.

Chapter XX

727-33 And thus saw I . . . dethe. A usual reading of this passage would regard it as a trope. Denise Levertov's "On a Theme from Julian's Chapter XX" enforces the difficult, literal reading. See Breathing the Water (New York: New Directions, 1984), pp. 68-69.

740 mannys. P; S1 manny.

Chapter XXI Crosse. S1 capitalizes Cross throughout this chapter.

756 wet. Perhaps P's wende is preferable.

Chapter XXII The ninth Revelation is of the. The, of S2; S1 he, o.

785 bodyly. S1 dodyly. P bodely.

787 mede. S1 marginal gloss: reward.

792 beyeng. S1 marginal gloss: buying.

798 never. S1 neve. P nevyr.

Chapter XXIII

843 lykyng. S1 marginal gloss: liking.

847 And. P; S1 Ad.

Chapter XXIV two. S2; S1 tw.

871 that is to mene. S1 marginal gloss: conceive.

878 have. P; S1 hay.

Chapter XXV

915 conceyvyd. P; S1 grevid.

Chapter XXVI

917 Lorde. P; S1 Lodd. And after this. The short version reads: "And eftyr this oure lorde schewyd hym to me mare gloryfyed as to my syght than I sawe hym before, and in this was I lerede that ilke saule contemplatyfe to whilke es gyffenn to luke and seke god schalle se hire and passe vnto god by contemplacioun" [And after this our Lord showed Himself to me more glorified in my sight than I had seen Him before, and in this I was taught that to each contemplative soul to whom it is given to look and seek God shall see her and pass to God by contemplation] (fol. 106r). In the short text there is no chapter division at this point; C&W refers hire to Mary above, citing a belief that one's last days may be graced by a vision of Mary occurring in a prayer frequently inscribed in French books of hours (I, 243). Though the pronoun in this passage is probably not evidence of the fact, elsewhere Julian clearly advances feminine aspects of divinity.

918-19 I was lernyd that our soule shal never have rest til it comith to Hym. As a number of commentators have observed, the language recalls St. Augustine's fecisti nos ad te et inquietum est cor nostrum, donec requiescat in te [you have made us for yourself, and our hearts are restless until they rest in you (Confessions, 1.1)]. Reynolds places Augustine as second only to the Vulgate Bible as an influence upon Julian ("Some Literary," p. 22).

Chapter XXVII

Chapter 27 is headed as 28 in S1. This chapter begins the discussion of sin that is quoted in T. S. Eliot's "Little Gidding." According to Loretta Lucido Johnson's work in progress, Eliot became acquainted with Julian when as an undergraduate he read W. R. Inge's Studies of English Mystics (1906). At that time he also read Evelyn Underhill's Mysticism (1911) and took notes upon it (Helen Gardner, The Composition of Four Quartets [New York: Oxford University Press, 1978], p. 69, note 82). Eliot later met Underhill and also May Sinclair, whose Defence of Idealism: Some Questions and Conclusions (New York: Macmillan, 1917) refers to Julian several times. (See esp. pp. 240-89.) Eliot reviewed some of Sinclair's work, and they met socially, according to Johnson's dissertation, T. S. Eliot's "Criterion," 1922-1939, Columbia University, 1980, pp. 13-15. Underhill was also a contributor to Criterion. Julian's writing therefore reached deeply into Eliot's past when he retrieved it in the early forties for three passages in "Little Gidding" (lines 166-68, 196-99, and 255-56). The quotations from Julian are a revision; early drafts show in their place a readaptation of the familiar Eucharistic prayer "Anima Christi." When he substituted Julian's "Sin is behovely" he needed to identify the lines (and also one from The Cloud of Unknowing) for his correspondent, friend, and consultant, John Hayward. Gardner's book includes an excerpt from the Hayward correspondence in which Eliot says that he read "Juliana" in the Cressy edition in a reprint published "where, do you think? Why, in St. Louis, Mo." (p. 7l). For details on the revision see Gardner, pp. 69-71 and pp. 201-24. Susan McCaslin reviews Eliot's choice of Julian with the further suggestion that in selecting Julian for a representation of the English mystical life, he has retrieved a writer whose experience and movements of thought between concrete and abstract parallel his own imaginative movements in their dealings with time's relation to eternity ("Vision and Revision in Four Quartets: T. S. Eliot and Julian of Norwich," Mystics Quarterly 12 [1986], 172).

936 without reason and discretion. A adds, ". . . of fulle grete pryde. & neverthelesse Jhesu in this visioun enfourmede me of alle that me neded. I saye nought that me nedes na mare techynge, for oure lorde with the schewynge of this hase lefte me to haly kyrke [holy church], and I am hungery and thyrstye and nedy and synfulle and freele, & wilfully submyttes me to the techynge of haly kyrke with alle myne even crystenn in to the ende of my lyfe. He aunswerde be this worde, and sayde: "Synne is behovelye . . ." (fol. 106r). Watkin glosses behovely, usually translated necessary, "has its part in the Divine economy of good" (p. 22). Sheila Upjohn translates, "Sin is behovely - it had to be -" in In Love Enclosed: More Daily Readings with Julian of Norwich, ed. Robert Llewelyn (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1985), p. 29. I owe my acquaintance with Upjohn's clear translations from Julian to Rose Ronan Halpern and Mary Daley Ronan.

950-51 But I saw not synne, for I beleve it hath no manner of substance ne no party of being. That evil is a privation of good, a nothingness, rather than a part of creation was a common philosophical proposition which could have come to Julian from several sources, among them St. Augustine (see Confessions 3.7 and 7.12-16) or Boethius (Consolation 4.2); Colledge and Walsh have proposed that Julian just may have read Chaucer's translation of Boethius ("Editing Julian of Norwich's Revelations," p. 422).

Substance is technical and philosophical here, referring to the core reality of any manifestation, material or spiritual. Substance is the inner actuality independent of external changes. Later, Julian will assert that our natural substance is always kept safe in God (1565-66 and 1597-98), and even that there is no difference between God and our substance (2221), quickly re-stating: "God is God, and our substance is a creture in God" (2222-23). The "fullest substance" is the "blissid soule of Criste" (2203). Earlier uses of the word informed by this meaning occur at lines 157-58, "substantially onyd," and line 668, "a substance of kynd love."

960 sythen. P; S1 seith.

Chapter XXVIII

974 lakid. S1 marginal gloss: not liked of, from the dutch word lackon, to dispraise, to blame, being the opposit to the D. word prijsen, to praise.

Chapter XXIX

994 menyng. S1 marginal gloss: thought.

1000 asyeth. S1 marginal gloss: satisfaction.

Chapter XXX

1008 mankynde. P; S1 mankyd.

1009 councellid. S1 counellid. P counceylyd.

1015 privy councell. The OED gives Barbour's Bruce, 1375, as its first instance of privy council to designate a group of private counsellors to the sovereign. Julian's quick troping of a political term new in the vernacular indicates an absorbing mind, or it may merely signal that she knew Latin. James F. Baldwin's The King's Council in England during the Middle Ages (1913; rpt. Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1965) notes that the terms secretum consilium and privatum consilium appear in official records from the first quarter of the century; French equivalents such as le privé counseil also became current at this time. The term did not refer to the more powerful ancestor of the present British institution, but simply to a royal council secretly summoned (p. 105). Julian's diction is politically allusive. In this passage, it is an added force that "ryal lordship" referred to real and great, not titular, power in the daily world. The positioning of lord and servant in chapter 51 speaks to daily power relations with which Julian would expect any conceivable audience to identify. Even a term like courtesy, so frequent in her Shewings, was tinged by the existence of courts which functioned as real centers of power, sources of support, and cultural models.

Chapter XXXI

1033 shalle. P; S1 sha.

1040 fully. P; S1 filly.

1042 amenst. Probably for anemst, "concerning," as in line 1047 and after. S1 reads amenst the God the godhede. S1 marginal gloss: as concerning, or w[i]th respect unto.

Chapter XXXII

1077 dedes. S1 dedse. P dedys.

1078 harmes. P; S1 harmy.

1094-96 This is the grete dede . . . wele. S1 marginal gloss: NB. Several commentators have speculated that the great deed planned from time's beginning to be known only at time's end is universal salvation. Although she concludes that "Julian does not, strictly speaking, teach a doctrine of universal salvation," Joan Nuth assembles anew the evidence for such a possibility (pp. 162-69).

1099 growndid. S1 gowndid. P groundyd.

Chapter XXXIII

1118 prefe. P; S1 privy.

that. S1 reads that that, reiterating the word at the end of the MS line with an abbreviation at the head of the next line. The scribe does the same thing with the that in line 1123.

1123 that. S1 reads that that.

1133 But I saw not so propirly specyfyed the Jewes. Julian discriminates between what her visions tell her and what she understands to be the church's teaching. She does not contradict the second, but her showings simply do not include cursed Jews; and she says they do not. The devil is within her imaging of the spiritual world, but damned souls are not. She gives no evidence that she participated in the anti-Semitism of her time and place. The first legend of Jewish ritual child murder comes from Norwich, that of St. William, d. 1144. "The mutiliated body of this twelve-year-old boy was found in a wood outside Norwich; five years later it was alleged that he was a victim of ritual murder by Jews. The authorities seem not to have credited the story; but the common people did, and William was venerated locally as a martyr" (Donald Attwater, The Penguin Dictionary of Saints [Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Books, 1965], p. 342). Chaucer readers will recall "yonge Hugh of Lyncoln" (d. 1255) "slayn also / With cursed Jewes," whom the Prioress apostrophizes as she closes a similar, later story (VII.684-85). England had expelled its Jews in 1290. There had been a Jewish community in Norwich from about 1144; Jews gave the city its "only early physicians" (Walter Rye, Some Historical Essays Chiefly Relating to Norfolk, Part II [Norwich: H.W. Hunt, 1926], p. 136). They did not have an easy time there. See V.D. Lipman, The Jews of Medieval Norwich (London: Jewish Historical Society, 1967) for an account of the community. The story of William and accounts of other episodes of Christian conflicts with the Jewish community during the some hundred and fifty years of its existence are given on pp. 49-64.

1135 dampnyd. P; S1 dampny.

Chapter XLV

Chapter XXXIV

1153 we may. P; S1 me way.

1158-59 He is the techyng, He is the techer, He is the leryd. For a survey of Christ as teacher in Julian and a compressed account of the background tradition see Sister Ritamary Bradley, "Christ, the Teacher."

1161 seke. P; S1 seky.

Chapter XXXV

1166 Hys. P; S1 hss.

1167 a certeyn creature that I lovid. The short text does not give the information that the person in whom Julian takes an interest had begun in "good lyvyng," but does indicate that this beloved soul was a woman: "And when God alle myghttye hadde schewed me plentyuouslye and fully of his goodnesse, I desyred of a certayne persoun that I lovyd howe it schulde be with hire. And in this desyre I lettyd [hampered] myselfe, for I was noght taught in this tyme" (fol. 108r). It has been proposed that the person may have been a child, Emma, the daughter of Sir Miles Stapleton, whose house was visible from the cell window of Saint Julian's church, according to Robert Flood. Lady Emma Stapleton later was a recluse at White Friars Priory (1421-42). Flood imagines the circumstances of Julian's concern for this neighbor child, who would have traveled the road past the cell on her way to another of the Stapleton residences: "Doubtless she had many conversations with the lady through her window . . ." (p. 39). Of course any such identification is speculative. Flood's small book (see Introduction, p. 9, note 12), is an attractive, affectionate effort to propose for Julian's words literal details of the precise local world of their utterance as well as a report of the church structure, which Flood studied before the bombing of 1942.

1178 Hymselfe. S1 hymsef.

1188 by. P; S1 omits.

1189 onto. S1 reads onto to.

1191 Hymselfe. S1 hymsef.

werks. S1 weks. P workes.

1192 soule that seith. that. P; S1 the.

1198-1200 And by His sufferaunce we fallyn. . . . And be mercy and grace we arn reysid. Pelphrey writes that Julian uses neither of the chief versions of progress in spiritual life offered in medieval mystical theology, ascent (as in the image of Hilton's scale) or the triadic stages of purgation, illumination, and union with God. She does not speak about ascent or about distinctions in spirituality, but offers the image of falling and rising with the falls also benefitting the soul. A theology of falling and rising is developed through chapters 47-49 and 61-85 (Love Was His Meaning, pp. 199-204). For summing statements, see lines 2080-81, 3138-42, and 3333-35.

1199 sufferaunce. P; S1 suffranc.

Chapter XXXVI known. S2. S1 kowen.

1204 Hymselfe. S1 hymsef.

1209 shalle. P; S1 sha.

1216 He. P; S1 omits.

1229 shalle. P; S1 sha.

1233-34 matter of mekenes . . . matter to enjoyen in me. In their translation of the long text, Colledge and Walsh indicate that Julian uses matter in its philosophical sense as the primary stuff of creation "to which form is to be given" (Julian of Norwich: Showings, p. 239, note 163). Panichelli refers matter in this passage to the antecedent sin, and sets this dialectically against the view that sin has no "manner substance ne no party of being" which Julian has advanced in chapter 27 (pp. 304-05; p. 310).

1238-39 Lete be al thi love . . . thi salvation. Margaret Gascoigne, member of the seventeenth-century Benedictine community which almost certainly is responsible for the writing of S1 and P, quotes these lines and identifies them as being by "a deere childe of thine . . . Julian the Ankress" (see Introduction above, pp. 15-16). She follows the P reading, "Lett me aloone, my derwurdy chylde" (fol. 65v). C&W suggest that the P reading can be understood as "Do not seek to hinder me," with precedent for the phrase in Exodus 32:9-10 (II, 439). The S1 reading may be understood as "Allow all your love to come into its full existence," or as "Let alone - have done with - lesser attachments and loves." The second possibility would reinforce the folly of "beholdying of the reprovyd," which is the immediate context of this divine locution.

1240 Lordys. P; S1 Lods.

1245 we. P; S1 omits.

1259 for sorrow. for. P; S1 omits.

Chapter XXXVII

1264 that. S1 tha.

1273-74 For in every soule that shal be savid is a godly wil that never assentid to synne ne never shal. The statement has been called heretical (e.g., Hudleston, pp. xxiii-iv, and Wolters, pp. 37-38). See Hanshell's essay for a review of the question, and Clark, "Fiducia," for precedents in Cassian and William of St. Thierry (p. 218). See also Judith Lang, "'The Godly Wylle' in Julian of Norwich," The Downside Review, 102 (1984), 163-74; del Mastro (1988), pp. 84-93; Gilchrist, pp. 77-88; and C&W I, 254, note 9, and II, 443, note 15.

1278-79 as wele. as. P; S1 a.


1287-88 the goodnes of God suffrith never that soul to synne that shal come there. P reads: that soule to synne fynally that shalle come ther. Without fynally, Julian appears to be stating that God does not permit a Christian to sin at all. Pelphrey, opposing a suggestion that fynally may have been a scribal insertion, observes that without this, the sentence contradicts what Julian says elsewhere, that she has been given to understand that she and her even-Christians will sin (Love Was His Meaning, pp. 275-76).

1288 but which synne shal be rewardid . . . made knowen. Charles Cummings comments upon Julian's insights as analogous to Christ's appearance to Thomas, with wounds in hands and side, the risen Christ standing in continuity with the historical Jesus. Julian's insight amounts to a "safeguard of individual identity. The continuity of the individual person is preserved, with his or her unique identity shaped through life by failures as well as triumphs. . . . The total reality of sinful as well as virtuous deeds remains a fact of personal history and world history. It is the same, historical, sinful, forgiven person who is predestined, called, justified and glorified" ("Wounded in Glory," Mystics Quarterly 10 [1984], 74-75).

1293 Thomas of Inde. S2. A agrees. Variations in S1 and in P offer different examples of how manuscript variations may occur. S1 reads those of Inde, a contraction of Thomas in the copy text evidently responsible for this Mandevillian aura. The Paris manuscript gives Thomas and Jude. Here the scribe evidently transcribes the i/j and the minims of u/n from copy, perhaps accurately, but less probably, as j and n. So far as we know, Jude's life was blameless; the doubter's journey to India long formed a part of his tradition. Saint John of Beverley's story is told in Bede. Julian clearly relishes the heavenly fame of her neighbor and the immortal survival of his local identity. There are fewer local persons in the longer text - her mother and the child accompanying her curate disappear. The designation of the beloved of chapter 35 has been changed from "person" to "creature." But although Saint Cecilia is excised, the long text includes more anecdotal material drawn from church or Biblical legend, the stories of "Sain Dionyse of France," Pilate, the vernicle, and this neighboring saint.

1296 party. P; S1 illegible.

Chapter XXXIX

1311 and noyith him in his owne syte. The temperate noyith may indicate, as suggested in C&W, that the S1 scribe mistook a noght in the exemplar; the A reading in the corresponding passage is noghtes (I, 256 and II, 449). The P reading is purgyth. There is, however, something psychologically appropriate about noyith. Further, the Middle English shades into stronger meanings than does our annoy, including impair, damage, and distress.

1315 tunyd. P has a more probable turned, but a musical metaphor is not impossible.

1318 undertakyth. P; S1 underforgyth. S1 marginal gloss: undergoeth.

1322 wil be cast in. P reads we be cast in, which may be preferable. The wil of S1, however, is a more powerful corrective to the popular impression that Julian is unrealistically optimistic.

Chapter XL we. S2; S1 omits.

1355 He. P offers it, making the soul the one who has been in pain and prison.

1358 onyd. P; S1 onye.

1379-80 For a kynde soule hath non helle but synne. P adds, "For alle is good but syn and nought is yvell but synne." The short text includes this statement and continues, "Synne es nowthere deed no lykynge, botte when a saule cheses wilfully synne, that is payne, as fore his god, atte the ende he hase ryght nought" [Sin is neither deed nor inclination, but when a soul chooses sin wilfully, that is payne, and as to his good (or, before his God), at the end he has absolutely nothing] (fol. 109r).

1382 wyllyng. P; S1 willy.

1387 evyn. P; S1 evn.

1388 hate. P; S1 hatenly.

1390 God. P; S1 omits.

Chapter XLI

1391 After this, our Lord shewid for prayers. The short text differs in many details in the discussion of prayer, including reference to the common daily prayers said by lay people: "and in this we say Pater noster, Ave, and Crede with devocioun as god wille gyffe it" (fol. 109v). With the bidding of beads mentioned in the long text's account of the apparition of the fiend (chapter 69) and a reserved attitude toward "menes" (chapter 6), these constitute Julian's reflections on ordinary prayer. Molinari discusses Julian's teachings on contemplative prayer (Love Was His Meaning, pp. 73-139). Pelphrey's dis- cussion of Julian's theology of prayer (pp. 214-54) supplements Molinari.

1397 shewed. P; S1 swewid.

1404 And in the sixth reason. The seeming skip from one to six may be partly explained as follows: The first reason, stated comprehensively, is that the Lord is "ground of thi besekyng," which also serves as a heading for a subset, the four clauses that follow, which are reasons 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The interrogative, "How shuld it than be?" with its implied answer, is the sixth reason and the conclusion of the reasoning process. Julian's designation of the first reason as "And thou besekyst it" remains a problem.

1413 onyd. P; S1 ony.

1425 febelnes. P; S1 febihede. Perhaps febilhede would be preferable.

1431 discrecion. P; S1 illegible.

1432 fifteenth Revelation. P; S1 fifth.

1433 aforn. S1 for aforn.

1434 Thankyng is a new, inward knowing. Thankyng. P; S1 thakyng. See Father John-Julian, OJN, "Thankyng in Julian," Mystics Quarterly, 15 (1989), 70-74, for the view that the etymological link that thank shares with think (OE thencan) informs this passage and others (e.g., line 1012) where Julian speaks of thanking. Using P's true for new, and amending lovely to lowley, he translates thankyng in this passage as "a steadfast, inner awareness with great veneration and humble awe, which turns us with all our strength towards the deeds to which our good Lord guides us" (72). The link with think seems especially valuable as an example of Julian's way with words, although the P reading and the emendation conventionalize the more spiky, difficult, and rewarding, S1 reading thakyng (throbbing, beating).

Chapter XLII

1475 to. P; S1 omits.

1477 the dede that is now in doyng. This on-going deed is not the eschatological deed that is to make all things well ultimately (chapter 30). See Hanshell, pp. 80-81, and Pelphrey, Love Was His Meaning, pp. 295-305.

1486 other. S1 has a squiggle over the o which might suggest owther or nother. S2 reads either.

Chapter XLIII

1513 Hymselfe. P; S1 hymsefe. eur. P gives oure, S2 our. The scribe of S has written eur above a canceled but still legible the. Eur, an infrequent form of eower, is the indefinite your, equivalent to one's. Pronoun shifts are common in Middle English. Compare the movement from first to third to a second person thyselfe in lines 408-11 above, and, more jarringly, the my of line 3110 below.

1513-16 But whan . . .syte. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

1516 unperceyvable. P; S1 onperciable.

1541 fulsomly. P; S1 fusumly.

1545 strengthyth. P; S1 stengtneth.

1565 kynde substance. See note 950-51.

1569 is herd. is. P; S1 omits.

1583 Hymselfe. S1 hymseff.

1585 I myte in no way levyn the lower dome. Levyn could mean either "believe" or "leave" and make satisfactory sense, but to translate "leave" sharpens Julian's sense of dilemma, evident also in her acceptance of damnation as a doctrine and her vision's resistance to offering "sight" of this idea. "Believe" is attractive in that it would confirm Julian's loyalty, after a single backsliding (see chapter 66) to her vision's authority, but such a translation would tendentiously contradict other affirmations, such as those in lines 334-38 and 1611-17, of adherence to church teaching. On the two "domes" of God and of the church, see Pelphrey, Love Was His Meaning, pp. 295-99. For a succinct outline of Julian's apparent divergences from "popular under-standing" of the Church's teaching, see M. L. del Mastro (1988).

1596 kyndly. P; S1 kyndy.

1597 kindly substance. See note 950-51.

Chapter XLVI

1599-1600 But our passand life . . . what ourself is. The place of the concept of self in the Shewings is discussed by Ritamary Bradley, "Perception of Self in Julian of Norwich's Showings," The Downside Review 104 (1986), 227-39.

1604 forthing. S1 foething. P fortheryng.

1615 liken. S1 marginal gloss: loven.

1616 encrese. P; S1 encrecy.

1621 I saw sothfastly that our Lord was never wroth. Robert Llewelyn discusses as basic to Julian's theology the passages in which she says she sees no wrath in God ("Woman of Consolation and Strength," Julian: Woman of Our Day, ed. Llewelyn, pp. 121-39).

1625-26 God is the goodnes . . . goodnes. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

Chapter XLVII

1649-50 But how I understode . . . grace. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

1676 is. P; S1 omits.

Chapter XLVIII

1681 wrath. P; S1 illegible.

1681-82 For I sow no wrath . . . love. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

1692-94 Mercy . . . lif. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

1699 moderhode. P; S1 moderid.

1714-15 And whan I saw all this . . . wasten our wreth. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

Chapter XLIX

1734-35 For I saw . . . God. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

1737 agaynst. P; S1 ageys.

1749 oureselfe. P; S1 ourseffe.

1757 cum. S1 cun; P come.

Chapter L

1767 knowyng. P; S1 kowyng.

1779 awer. The definitions given here, trouble, and at 2163, concern, are contextual. Awer may come from awerden (OE) which means to harm or destroy. The MED yields awer-mod, "a disposition to do harm, ill-will," citing Ormulum, line 4720 (c. 1200). Perhaps in the late fourteenth century, a local variant meant being troubled oneself rather than troubling others. S2, which modernizes words from S1 a number of times, lets awer stand in both passages. P gives feer.

Chapter LI

This chapter is the longest and most significant addition to the long text, its parable of the lord and the servant Julian's most searching consideration of sin and evil. With its explication, the parable adds one-seventh to the length of the text. Most writers on Julian conclude that the reason for its omission from the shorter text resides in her need to ponder the "mysty" example. The unfolding of the vision in her understanding took "nere twenty yeres." Readers may see in the "example" and in Julian's analysis a compact, striking fable of theodicy, but Julian refers it only to sin. Julian gives her own vision a full four-level allegoresis with typological, tropological, and anagogical levels as well as the literal one. See Patricia Mary Vinje on Julian as an allegorical writer. For a discussion of the status of the parable as a showing and its links to Julian's themes, see Glasscoe, "Means of Showing," pp. 167-75. Sister Anna Maria Reynolds (1984), pp. 118-25, discusses the chapter as a "concise and accurate" summary of salvation history.

1794 full mystily. Late Middle English blends OE mist and ME mystike to give mystily, "conveyed darkly and symbolically, after the manner of Scriptural parables" (C&W II, 513).

1796 syght. P; S1 sgte.

1810 that. P; S1 the.

1829-30 a ledying . . . enjoyen. P's reading is easier to follow: "a ledyng of my understandyng in to the lorde, in restoryng whych I saw hym hyely enjoy. . . ."

1835 reward. P; S1 illegible.

mayme. P; S1 maine.

1866ff. It longyth to the. . . . Julian outlines a method and proceeds to analyze the showing in accordance with it, much as a Jungian-trained psychologist would lead a client to "work" a dream. R. H. Thouless in The Lady Julian: A Psychological Study (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and New York: Macmillan, 1924), pp. 81-84, was, so far as I know, the first to notice the resemblance to clinical dream analysis. Nuth finds a basis for Julian's method in the monastic practice of lectio divina, meditating upon details of a reading (p. 36).

1868-69 seeing. P; S1 omits.

1884 blyndyd. P; S1 blindhed.

1890 knowyng. P; S1 kowyng.

1893 bryngen. S1 brynen. P bryng.

1896 The color of his cloth was blew as asure. In the ante-reliquary chapel of Norwich Cathedral, the vaulting has at its crown a small medallion with a figure of Christ in a blue mantle. The painting scheme is put at 1325 by E. W. Tristram in English Wall Painting of the Fourteenth Century (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1955), p. 230. Blues were, of course, particularly clear and brilliant in the illuminated manuscripts of the period. Later, Julian sees Christ himself in a medley of colors, and notes that they are more glorious than the robe of the lord as God the Father (2054-57). Pelphrey finds the image of Christ's new, multi-colored garment reminiscent of the emerald rainbow surrounding the throne of Christ in Revelations 4:3 and the garment of the Son of Man in Revelations 1:13 (p. 197).

1905 the Fadir. the P; S1 omits.

1913 Notwithstonding I saw. S1 here has ne saw. P, more comprehensibly, omits ne.

1925 al. S1 a; P all.

1937 lord. P; S1 Lodd.

1938-39 And inward . . . to hym. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

1946 that is to sey. that. P; S1 tha.

1950 a man. S1 reads a a man.

1965 groundyd. P; S1 grounld.

1984 understode. S1 undestode; P understonde.

1985 that. P; S1 tha.

1986 Lord. S1 Lod. P Lorde.

1999 The which kirtle. P reads wyth, white. now. P reads noght, possibly correct. However, the now compresses the human and divine identities of God's Son, looking forward to His ascension, and anticipating the nows of lines 2058-59.

2003 I stond before The in Adams kirtle. For background on this figure, see Grayson.

2012 shall. P; S1 sha.

2021 Lordis. S1 Lodis. P Lordys.

2029 wombe. P; S1 wonbe.

2032 even. S1 eve. P evyn.

2041 pecys. P; S1 pets.

2045 mankynd. S1 mankyd. P mankynde.

2052 streyte. P; S1 steyte.

Chapter LII mother. S2; S1 bother. perfectly as in heaven. S2; S1 omits.

2074-75 God enjoyeth that He is our moder. This theme, anticipated in line 1699, is here introduced almost casually, embedded in other relationships of the soul to God which are traditional analogies of varying currency which in Julian seem to stand half-way between figurative and literal. The theme will close in chapter 83 when in a Trinitarian sentence Julian refers to the light, "our Moder, Criste" (3355-56). Intensive treatment of the motherhood of Christ comes in chapters 57-63. For discussion of doctrinal, devotional, and rhetorical aspects of the motherhood of Christ in the tradition that preceded her and in The Shewings, see Heimmel, Brrresen, Bynum, Cabassut, McLaughlin, McNamer, Molinari (esp. pp. 169-86), Pelphrey (esp. pp. 84-89), and Bradley, "The Motherhood Theme."

2080-81 We have in us . . . deyand. See note 1198-1200.

2122-24 But we may wele be grace kepe us from the synnes which will ledyn us to endles paynes . . . and eschewen venial. The distinction is between mortal and venial sin, mortal sins being so grave in nature and undertaken so deliberately and whole-heartedly, that one suffices to damn an uncontrite soul. Venial sins are less critical deviations, almost inescapable ones, from love of God and neighbor.

2123 paynes. S1 payes. P payne.

2139 never. S1 neve.

2145 two. P; S1 tw.

2146 asseth. S1 marginal gloss: propitiation.

Chapter LIII ruthfulhede. In view of lines 2170 and 2173 the word should perhaps be rythfulhede. S2 reads ruthfulnes, however.

2162-67 And in this that I have now seyd . . . in the syte of God. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2163 grete. P; S1 gre.

2166 evermore. S1 evemore. P evyr more.

2169 Lord. S1 Lod. P Lorde.

2177-88 For I saw . . . knitt to God. For the biblical basis, see especially Eph. 1:3-10 and Col. 1:12-20.

2181-84 The Mid-Person . . . without begynnyng. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2187 the myte of. Repeated in S1.

2202 ever. S1 eve; P evyr. mankynd. S1 makynd. P mankynde.

2205 which knott is sotil. It is possible, if no more than that, that Julian contributed to Donne's "the subtle knot which makes us man" ("The Ecstasy"). Julian's work was saved and copied in circles which would have been congenial to his recusant ancestors.

that it is onyd. P; S1 that is onyd.

2207-08 that al the soules . . . in this holyhede. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

Chapter LIV For the use of substance in this chapter, see note 950-51.

2210 departing. S1 marginal gloss: difference.

2211-14 For it is full hesy. . . savid be Crist. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2217-18 And hey understonding . . . our soule. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2221-23 And I saw no difference . . . creture in God. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2225-26 The hey goodnes. . . and He in us. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2230-31 our sensual soule. See note 2250-51.

2232-34 For it is not ell . . . which we se not. S1 marginal gloss: NB Fides quid.

Chapter LV

2241 His Fader. his. P; S1 ha.

2247-48 And notwithstanding . . . than in erth. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2250-51 And what tyme that our soule is inspirid into our body. "Julian distinguishes between 'the substance' of the soul grounded and dwelling in God and 'the sensuality' of the soul in which God dwells. The sensuality is the soul as informing the body, its life principle and the subject of our psycho-physical experience. It begins to exist 'what time our soul is inspired in our body"' (Watkin, p. 17). For a recent comment on "sensualyte" in Julian, see Lichtmann. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2251 as. P; S1 aso.

2260 in which se. Julian is referring to the center of authority in a bishop's jurisdiction. She uses various figures of location - home, city, seat, see - to denote God's abiding presence in the human soul.

2276 never. S1 neve. P nevyr.

2284 I myte not, for the mene profir. A friendly voice had proposed to Julian who is gazing upon the image of Christ crucified that she look up to "His Fader," a suggestion which she declines (lines 696-706).

Chapter LVI

2287-90 And thuss I saw . . . to whom it is onyd. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2294-97 God is nerer . . . shall never departyn. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2298-99 For our soule sittith in God in very rest . . . endles love. S1 marginal gloss: NB. The seated soul is at rest, as Julian says not only of the human soul seated in Christ but also of the soul of Christ reciprocally seated in the human soul (lines 2298-2306). The theme of the soul as Christ's seat reappears: "And this was a singlar joy and bliss to me, that I saw Him sitten" (lines 2825-26). See also lines 2375-77 and 2791-97. Riehle discusses the popularity of the image of God sitting in the soul in medieval mysticism and most particularly among English writers, where allegorical interpretations of the Song of Songs 2:3 informed the theme as did emphasis on the help a seated position gives for full meditative concentration (pp. 132-36). James Walsh in "God's Homely Loving: St. John and Julian of Norwich on the Divine Indwelling," The Month, n.s. 19 (1958), 164-72, discusses the Johannine basis of Julian's passage. See also J. P. H. Clark, "Nature, Grace and the Trinity in Julian of Norwich," The Downside Review, 100 (1982), 203-20. The key Biblical passage is John 15:4. Julian, of course, is aware that souls are not literally seated, and takes care to make that unmistakable when she says of the Father as lord and the Son as servant, "But it is not ment that the Son syttith on the ryte hond, syde be syde, as on man sittith be another in this lif, for ther is no such syttyng, as to my syte, in the Trinite" (lines 2066-68).

2302-04 And anempts our substaunce and sensualite . . . God. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2303 substaunce. P; S1 substane.

2307-09 And I saw . . . our own soule. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2315 substance. P; S1 substane.

2316-17 I had in partie touching. C&W: "The word is technical, belonging to the vocabulary of the spiritual senses, and frequently employed by Julian to convey that she is being directly affected and moved by the Holy Spirit to experience the reality of God, in a way which is above intellectual comprehension, but which accompanies and supports some form of inner seeing" (II, 573-74, note to 38). For other examples see lines 1237 and, especially, 3346. See note 687 above for the possible influence of pseudo-Dionysius.

2318 heyhede. Thus S1, with the marginal gloss: kindhede. P reads kyndnesse which seems more likely in view of the reliance upon the idea of "kindhede" in this passage. S2 confirms S1's heyhede, and the gloss kindhede. "Substantial heyhede" and "substantial kindhede" are informed here by the philosophical sense of substance. See note 950-51.

2320-22 For in kind . . . fulfilling. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2330 werkynges. P; S1 wekyng.

Chapter LVII substance. S2; S1 subsance. In chapters LVII-LXIII the scribe of S1 fre-quently (but not always) capitalizes the words Moder and Moderhede. The visual effect in reading the manuscript is quite striking in that the masculine pronouns for God are not capitalized. Some of the effect is muted in the present edition in that I have followed the policy of the Middle English Texts Series and thus capitalized personal pronouns and titles for God. But I have followed the manuscript's capitalization of Moder and Moderhede in these chapters, given the possibility that the practice might reflect scribal intention or, perhaps, even Julian's authority.

2334-35 And anempts our substance . . . worship. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2335 I. P; S1 omits.

2341 godhede. S1 marginal gloss: goodnes.

2347 in. P; S1 is.

2374 never. S1 neve. P nevyr.

2380 kepyng. P; S1 kepid.

2381 substance. S1 substane. P substaunce.

Chapter LVIII

2387 Hymself. S1 hymseffe.

2400 kyndly. S1 kindy. P kyndely.

2404 yeldyng. P; S1 reldyng.

2424 thred. S1 tred. P thurde.

2430 gevyng. P; S1 vefyng.

2430-32 And our substance . . . al goodnes. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2433 is hole. S reads is is hole.

2436 wretchidnes. S1 wretchidns. P wrechydnesse.

Chapter LIX

2439-41 which manner of bliss we myte never had ne known . . . wherby we have this bliss. This is Julian's version of the fortunate fall.

2462 wyllyth. P; S1 omits.

2475 taken. P takyng. The reference is to the Incarnation. See lines 2470-71.

Chapter LX

2488 rayhid. For arrayed, the S2 reading; P has arayed.

2491 but. P; S1 omits.

2497 aseth. S1 marginal gloss: satisfaction.

2511 tenth. S1, S2, and P read ninth. However, the quotation following is from the tenth showing. See chapter 24.

2522-23 she suffrid that it be bristinid in brekyng downe of vices. This is as close as Julian comes to using motherhood to figure a God who judges and disciplines as well as creates and loves. Others had occasionally developed the image severely. The thirteenth-century mystic Gertrude of Helfta sees God as a mother who loves but also tests, to the point of frightening the strayed child back into her arms by wearing terrifying masks (Bynum, pp. 189-90). In fact the word bristinid is very strong, appearing chiefly in violent contexts. See MED s.v.

2527-28 our dett that we owen, be Gods biddyng. The transfer of the fourth commandment's obligation from human to divine parent accords with the longer version's deletion of reference to Julian's own mother.

Chapter LXI

2533 kyndelyth. P; S1 kydelyth.

2538 to bend payd with Him. Thus S1; P has a less resonant be for bend.

2539 And we fallen, hastily He reysith us. See note 1198-1200.

2540 strenthyd. P; S1 stengtid.

2544-47 And than wene we . . . ourselfe. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2555-57 For therby . . . not profitt us. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2558 syth. S1 marginal gloss: afterwards.

2560 never. S1 neve. P nevyr.

2570 myselfe. S1 reads myselfe my.

2572 al swithe. S1 marginal gloss: immediately or all on a sudden.

2573-74 For if He sen . . . for love. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2583 foode of mercy. P offers flode for foode.

2588 to don it. it. P; S1 us.

Chapter LXII

2593 myght. P; S1 my.

2600 that is to sey. S1 that it is to sey.

2605-07 For of all kyndes . . . worshipp. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2616 begynnyng. S1 begynnig; P begynyng.

Chapter LXIII

2619 bryngen. S1 byngen. P bryng.

2629 sothly. S1 sothy; P trewly.

2631 techyth. P; S1 tehith.

2635 never. S1 neve. P nevyr.

2643 fordreth. P; S1 foethes.

2649 other. P; S1 othe.

2658-60 Thus I understode . . . be grace. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

Chapter LXIV God wil we take. we take S2; S1 omits we.

2682 a bolned quave of styngand myre. The S1 marginal gloss gives "puffed up" for bolned and "a quaggmire," for quave. P's "a swylge stynkyng myrre" helps with "styngand."

2684 swyft. P; S1 swifie.

2687 I. P; S1 omits.

2691 yf. S1's reading. S2 joins P in reading that. That does accord with a security which Julian seems to feel throughout.

2703 over. P reads evyr.

Chapter LXV

2710-12 And thus I understode . . . that grace. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2716-17 This reverens . . . is knitt. S1 marginal gloss: Timor domini quid.

2725 himselfe. S1 himseffe. P them selfe.

2728-30 For it is His will . . . lovith. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2729-30 he shall not dredyn but Him that he lovith. P gives the reading she here. See note 561 above.

2734 if we knowen. S1 omits we; P includes it.

2735 great. P; S1 gre.

2740 the morne. S1 reads the the morne.

2742 none of the day overpassid. Since none could here mean noon or nones, the hour of the office nones (from L nona, nine, the ninth hour of the day reckoned from sunrise), that is, about 3 p.m., it is difficult to fix the time exactly. P reads or paste for overpassid. Julian uses both clock time and canonical hours in fixing times. (See lines 2865-66.) The hour of mid-day appears as an ordinary sense of the word by the fourteenth century. Marion Glasscoe in "Time of Passion: Latent Relationships between Liturgy and Meditation in Two Middle English Mystics" (Langland, the Mystics and the Medieval English Religious Tradition: Essays in Honour of S. S. Hussey, ed. Helen Phillips [Cambridge: D. S. Brewer/Boydell & Brewer, 1990]), pp. 154-58, argues that the showings assume sharper definition when related to the liturgy of the hours. The showings began, as Julian writes at the close of chapter 65, at about 4 a.m., the hour of Lauds.

Chapter LXVI

2750 fulfillid. S1 fufillid. P fulfyllyd.

2753 peynes. S1 peyes. P paynes.

2759 that sawe. P; S1 than saw I.

2767 I lay still. I P; S1 omits.

2772 blak spots therin like blak steknes. P: blacke spottes . . . lyke frakylles. S 2: frecknes. Steknes is difficult; Glasscoe's glossary gives "speckles." The word may be from sticchen, "to stitch," or "to stick" (i.e., to fasten). ME stiche "stitch" is from OE stice, equivalent to Old Frisian steke. The OED gives steke as a Scottish or Northern form for stitch, but with examples from 1520. Contemporary personifications of pestilence sometimes were pictured with spots like small, vertical stitches or gashes; more rarely a fiend would be thus dappled, or even a suffering Christ. Judging from accounts of symptoms, the plague itself could be the source of the detail in this, Julian's only non-waking vision. For bubonic plague, the initial symptom was a blackish postule, followed by a subcutaneous hemorrhaging making the blotches purple. With fatal septiacaemic plague, a rash came within hours, and the larger "buboes" that Boccaccio describes in The Decameron, perhaps the best-known of medieval descriptions of plague symptoms, did not have time to form. Julian would have been six or seven when the Plague arrived in Norwich in January of 1349. It lasted till spring of 1350. Morbidity was extraordinary. Half of the beneficed clergy and variously one-third to fifty per cent of the secular population are estimated to have perished. See Robert S. Gottfried, The Black Death: Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe (New York: Free Press/Macmillan, 1983) p. 8, pp. 65-66.

2784 I askid hem that wer with me if thei felt ony stynke. James T. McIlwain conjectures that the foul smell, not perceptible to others, may have come from infected mucus membranes. He discusses the physical symptoms that Julian reports and offers possible diagnoses. For the period, Julian's account of symptoms is unusally rich, he says ("The 'Bodelye syeknes' of Julian of Norwich," Journal of Medieval History 10 [1984], 171).

Chapter LXVII

2791-92 And than our Lord . . . herte. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2816 than. P; S1 that.

2819 than. P; S1 that.

Chapter LXIX S1 omits numbering this chapter. S2 gives the number.

2851 soft. S1 foft. P is onomatopoeic: "softe whystryn."

2856 that had. S1 reads that had that had.

2866 prime day. Soon after sunrise, indicated by the liturgical hour. Matins and lauds, prime, tierce, sext, nones, vespers, and compline were scheduled times for common daily prayer in monastic houses. Most religious and, in the fourteenth century and usually in abbreviated forms, some devout lay people, said the hours.

2869 For therwith is the fend overcome, as our Lord Jesus Criste seid aforn. In the short version an apostrophe to sin follows, "A, wriched synne, whate ert thou?" (fol. 113r). See Appendix A. For a cogent explanation of why Julian would omit this passage, stylistically a tour de force, see C&W, I, 271.

Chapter LXX

2876 and therefore I leve it. Leve is neatly ambiguous, both "believe" and "leave" making sense. Piquantly ambiguous leaves occur also at lines 314 and 1585.

2878-80 Thus I am bounden . . . I had ravid. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2886 thereupon. P; S1 therupo.

2893 blindhede. S1 blinhede. P blyndnesse.

Chapter LXXI glad. S2; S1 gad.

2904-05 For He havith us . . . His mede. S1 marginal gloss: NB. He P; S1 be.

2912 nede. P; S1 omits.

2915 beer. P; S1 barer.

2917 agaynst. P; S1 ageys.

2922 alle manner. P; S1 alivaner.

Chapter LXXII

2925 withouten end. S1 withoutend end.

2926 never. S1 neve.

2931 medled. S1 blotched, perhaps medlid. P meddlyd.

2936-38 And thus we arn ded . . . never fro us. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2949 And in this I saw matter of myrth . . . monyng. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2950 sekirness. S1 sekirne. P feythfulnes.

2957-58 This weping meneth not al . . . understondyng. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2961 stynten of. S1 stynt n of. Perhaps the reading should be stynt ne of, thus creating a neither-nor syntax.

2963 thynke. S1 thyke. P thyngk.

2964 in. S1 in in.

2967-68 I it am . . . that is all. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

Chapter LXXIII sekenes. S2; S1 sekernes.

2976-78 For the bodily sygte, I have seid . . . sumdele. Of the nearly identical passage in the short text, Lynn Staley Johnson argues that Julian here conjures up a scribe whose activity verifies Julian's account of her visions (p. 830). Johnson believes, however, that the force of the scribal scene is mitigated in the long text because Julian has assumed a more authoritative persona in no need of an exterior scribal validation and because in the long text the position of the passage is further from the conclusion.

2978 never. S1 neve. P nevyr.

2980-87 That on is onpatience or slaith . . . most enclinand to these. As Julian will state again (lines 3127-32), she regards sloth as a particular obstacle in a religious vocation. By Julian's time, analysis of this capital sin had a long history. What she calls "onpatience," a restlessness exacerbated by enclosure, as much as laziness or bearing "trevell . . . hevily," remained in the continuum commentators discuss. Sloth (acedia) as a deterrent in the life of anchoritic withdrawal is discussed in the milieu of the Lower Egyptian hermits of the fourth century. On the somnolence side, Clay (Hermits and Anchorites, p. 101) calls attention to the Hortus Deliciarum of Herrad, twelfth-century abbess of Landsberg, where in one illumination various climbers lose their footing from a ladder of virtues, beguiled by characteristic distractions, the knight by a horse, the anchorite ("inclusus") by a bed. The illumination is reproduced in the edition of Aristide D. Caratzas with notes and commentary by A. Straub and G. Keller (New York: Caratzas Bros., 1977), Plate LVI, p. 197. For other references in Julian see lines 418-20 and the self-criticism of lines 2665-67. The early appearance of the sin in hermitic texts is set forth by Siegfried Wenzel, The Sin of Sloth: Acedia in Medieval Thought and Literature (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1960), pp. 2-18; see also p. 211, note 87.

S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2981 peynes. S1 peyes; P payne.

2989 Lord. S1 Lod. P Lorde.

2992 peynes. S1 peyes; P paynes.

2992-93 And the cause . . . onknoweing of love. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

2997-99 For som of us leven . . . we astynten. S1 marginal gloss: NB. S1 reads we s astynten.

3006-07 And this drede . . . waykenes. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3008 another. P; S1 anothe.

Chapter LXXIV

3027-28 For it may never . . . goodnes. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3043 asunder. S1 asuder. P onsonder. The discussion of dread closes the short text: "Therefore it is goddes wille and oure spede that we knawe thamm thus ysundure; for god wille ever that we be sekere in luffe, & peessabille & ristefulle as he is to us, and ryght so of the same condicioun as he is to us, so wille he that we be to oure selfe and to oure even christenn. Amen. Explicit Juliane de Norwych" (fol. 115r).

3044-49 That drede . . . good, and true. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3055-56 Desir we . . mytyly. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

Chapter LXXV and littlenes. S2; S1 lulshed; and omitted.

3064-65 I shall seyen, neden. P I shall say nede. C&W emend to I shall say (vs) nede, noting that the opening sentences of this chapter are much corrupted (p. 678).

3066-69 For the threist of God . . . longith. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3067 drawyn. P; S1 anwin.

3083-84 And evermore . . . suffrid. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3096 in. P; S1 omits.

Chapter LXXVI S1 gives only the number, not its customary abbreviation for chapter.

3106-08 And therefore it is Goddis will . . . risen redily. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3110-11 to my mynde. P reads to mynde.

3110-12 The soule . . . agayne it. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3112 agayne. P; S1 ageys.

3116 I. P; S1 omits.

3121 This blissid freind is Jhesus. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3130-32 namely in slauth . . . goodness. See note 2980-87. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

Chapter LXXVII specially. S2; S1 speially.

3137-38 Our good Lord shewid the enmite . . . of his parte. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3143 he hath. P; S1 omits he.

3148-50 I know wele . . . tendirly. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3159-61 For whan we have mend . . . that seen it. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3161 this. P; S1 omits.

3164-65 tho thou do. thou P; S1 omits thou.

3170-72 Our wey and our Hevyn . . . Hevyn. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3171 He gaf understonding. S1 reads he he.

3175-76 For our curtes Lord . . . desiren. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3180-81 And to be like our Lord . . . bliss. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3182 is. P; S1 omits.


3184 of His. P; S1 is of His.

3190 hem. S1 him; P them.

3200-03 And be this meke knowing . . . one us to Him. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

Chapter LXXIX

3245 kepith. S1 repith (?), though, if so, the e is oddly formed.

P kepyth. S2 has clepyth, which could be the preferred reading.

3247 not that we beseyn. S1 is partially illegible. P reads nott that we besy, which makes better sense.

3249 alufe. P reads aloone.

3253 shewyng. P; S1 sweing.

Chapter LXXX

3266 in the last end. This, the only apocalyptic touch in The Shewings, may indicate that Julian considers her own time the final stage of secular history before the general judgment. Belief that the last end was imminent was common in the fourteenth century.

in. P; S1 omits.

3267 wonnyth. S1 wonnyh; P dwellyth.

3270 it. P; S1 omits.

3271-72 I leve and understonde . . . not shewid me. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3276-77 And all swich . . . it is Christ in us. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3286-89 But thow . . . in His syte. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

Chapter LXXXI

3298-3301 Mervelous and solemne . . . fallings. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3302 is. P; S1 omits.

3302-03 For it is the most . . . penance. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

3306-09 For His love . . . as to my syte. S1 marginal gloss: NB.

Chapter LXXXII blame. S2; S1 blom. And so we. S1 reads we we.

3324 the. S1 reads the the.

3334 in falling and in ryseing. See note to lines 1198-1200.

3335 ever. S1 eve. P evyr.

3344 be. P; S1 omits.

3345 ende. P; S1 illegible.

Chapter LXXXIII clarity. S2; S1 illegible.

3348 I it am. P; S1 omits.

3349 propertees. P; S1 illegible.

Chapter LXXXIV nedefull. S2 gives medefull, an attractive reading.

3368 with. P; S1 wth.

3369 the of. of P; S1 soft.

Chapter LXXXV He never. S2; S1 he neve.

3388 P's reading also has appeal: with one voyce.

3402-03 And fifteen yer after and more I was answerid in gostly understonding. Colledge and Walsh believe this indicates that Julian began working on the long account about 1388. They further posit two editions by Julian of the long text because Chapter l's summary of the fourteenth showing does not mention the lord and servant allegory of chapter 51, and this is the only summary without reference to the revelation's visions or locutions (I, 25). Full understanding of the lord and servant showing comes in the five years between the fifteen years mentioned here and the twenty years, short of three months, mentioned in chapter 51. Perhaps discovery of another manuscript of Julian will confirm this, as the appearance of the short version corroborated Blomefield.

Chapter LXXXVI This heading has been taken as evidence that the short text is the earlier version of the Shewings. It is possible that the statement is an editor's summary of the chapter's first sentence, which could point to the future rather than to the work itself in any form.

3413 The Paris manuscript closes here with the rubric: Deo gracias. Explicit liber revelacionum Julyane anatorite Norwyche cuius anime propicietur deus. [Thanks be to God. This ends the book of revelations to Julian, anchorite of Norwich, for whose soul God be prayed.]

3417 S2 inserts: "Here end the sublime and wonderful revelations of the unutterable love of God in Jesus Christ, vouchsafed to a dear lover of his and in her to all his dear friends and lovers, whose hearts, like hers, do flame in the love of our dearest Jesu." P and the short version lack the warning following, one that is probably not authorial. Although in part conventional, such caveats can be intimidating and sometimes were meant to be. The Cloud of Unknowing opens with a very strong prohibition: "I charge thee & I beseche thee, with as moche power & vertewe as the bonde of charite is sufficient to suffre, what-so-ever thou be that this book schalt have in possession, outher [either] bi propirte outher by keping, by bering as messenger or elles bi borowing, that in as moche as in thee is by wille & avisement, neither thou rede it, ne write it, ne speke it, ne yit suffre it be red, wretyn, or spokyn, of any or to any, bot yif it be of soche one or to soche one that hath (bi thi supposing) in a trewe wille & by an hole entent, purposed him to be a parfite folower of Criste, not only in actyve levyng, bot in the sovereinnest pointe of contemplatife leving . . ." The author goes on to insist that the book must be read "al over." As for "Fleschely janglers, opyn preisers & blamers of hem-self or of any other, tithing tellers, rouners & tutilers of tales, & alle maner of pinchers" (tellers of tidings, whisperers and tale bearers, and all kinds of fault finders), he does not care if they never see the book. "For myn entent was never to write soche thing unto hem [them]. & therfore I wolde that thei medel not ther-with, neither thei ne any of thees corious lettred or lewed [learned or unlearned] men. Ye, though al that thei be ful good men of active levyng yit this mater acordeth nothing to hem" (ed. Hodgson, pp. 1-3).

3418 them. S2; S1 then.
      God shewyth the privityes necessarye to His lovers; and how they plese God
      mekyl that receive diligently the prechyng of Holy Church. Thirty-fourth chapter.

   Our Lord God shewid to manner of privityes. On is this gret privyte with al the
prive peynts that longen therto, and these privites He wil we knowen hid
into the tyme that He wil clerly shewen hem to us. That other arn the privytes
that He wil maken opyn and knowen to us; for He wil we wetyn that it is His
wil we knowen hem. It arn privytes to us, not only that He wil it ben privytes to
us, but it arn privytes to us for our blyndnes and our onknowyng. And therof
hath He gret ruthe; and therfore He wil Hymself maken hem more opyn to us
wherby we may knowen Hym, and loven Hym, and clevyn to Him. For al that is
spedeful to us to wetyn and to knowen, ful curtesly wil our Lord will shewen us,
and that is this, with al the prechyng and techyng of Holy Church.
   God shewid ful gret plesance that He hath in al men and women that mytyly and
mekely and wilfully taken the prechyng and techyng of Holy Church, for it is
His Holy Church. He is the ground, He is the substance, He is the techyng, He is
the techer, He is the leryd, He is the mede wherfor every kynd soule travellith.
And this is knowen and shall be knowen to every soule to which the Holy Gost
declarith it. And hope sothly that al those that seke this, He shal spedyn; for
they seke God. Al this that I have now seid, and more that I shal sey after, is
comfortyng ageyn synne. For in the thred shewyng when I saw that God doith
al that is don, I saw no synne, and than saw I that al is wele. But whan God
shewid me for synne, than seid he, Al shal be wele.
      How God doith al that is good and suffrith worshipfully al by His mercy, the
      which shal secyn whan synne is no longer suffrid. Thirty-fifth chapter.

   And whan God almyty had shewid so plenteuously and so fully of Hys gode-
nes, I desired to wetyn a certeyn creature that I lovid, if it shuld continu in good
lyvyng, which I hopid be the grace of God was begonne. And in this syngular desire
it semyd that I lettyd myselfe, for I was not taught in this tyme. And than was I
answerid in my reson, as it were be a freindful mene: "Take it generally and
behold the curtesy of thi Lord God as He shewith to the, for it is mor worship
to God to behold Hym in al than in any special thyng." I assentid, and there-
with I leryd that it is more worship to God to knowen al things in general than
to lyken in onythyng in special. And if I shuld do wysely after this techyng, I
shuld not only be glad for nothyng in special, ne gretly disesid for no manner of
thyng, for al shal be wele. For the fulhede of joy is to beholden God in al. For
be the same blissid myte, wisdam, and love that He made al thyng, to the same
end our good Lord ledyth it continually, and therto Hymselfe shal bryng it. And
whan it is tyme we shal sen it. And the grounde of this was shewid in the first
and more openly in the third, wher it seyth I saw God in a peynte.
   Al that our Lord doeth is rythful, and that He suffrith is worshipful, and in
these two is comprehendid good and ille. For al that is good our Lord doith;
and that is evil, our Lord suffrith. I sey not that ony evil is worshipful, but I sey
the sufferance of our Lord God is worshipfull, wherby His goodnes shal be know
withoute end in His mervelous mekeness and myldhede by the werkyng of mercy
and grace. Rythfulhede is that thyng that is so goode that may not be better
than it is. For God Hymselfe is very rythfulhede, and al His werkes arn don
rythfully as they arn ordeynid from wythout begynnyng by His hey myte, His hey
wisdom, His hey goodnes. And ryth as He ordeynid onto the best, ryth so He
werkyth continualy and ledyth it to the same end. And He is ever ful plesid with
Hymselfe and with al His werks. And the beholdyng of this blisful accord is ful
swete to the soule that seith by grace. Al the sowlys that shal be savid in Hevyn
without ende be mad rythful in the syte of God, and be His owen goodnes, in
which rythfulhede we arn endlesly kept and mervelously, aboven al creatures.
   And mercy is a werkyng that comith of the goodnes of God, and it shal lestyn
in werkyng al along, as synne is suffrid to pursue rythful souls. And whan synne
hath no lenger leve to pursue, than shal the werkyng of mercy secyn, and than
shal al be browte to rythfulhede and therein stondin withoute ende. And by His
sufferaunce we fallyn, and in His blisful love, with His myte and His wisdom, we
are kept. And be mercy and grace we arn reysid to manyfold more joyes. And
thus in rythfulhede and in mercy He wil be knowen and lovid now without ende.
And the soul that wisely beholdyth it in grace, it is wel plesyd with bothen and
endlesly enjoyeth.
      Of another excellent dede that our Lord shal don, which be
      grace may be known a party here, and how we shul enjoyen in the same,
      and how God yet doith myracles. Thirty-sixth chapter.

   Our Lord God shewid that a dede shall be done, and Hymselfe shal don it. And
I shal do nothyng but synne, and my synne shal not lettyn His goodnes werkyng.
And I saw that the beholdyng of this is an heyly joy in a dredful soule, which
evermore kyndly be grace desirith Godds wille. This dede shal be begonne here,
and it shal be worshipful to God and plentously profitable to His lovers in erth.
And ever as we come to Hevyn we shalle sen it in mervelous joye. And it shal
lestyn thus in werkyng on to the last day; and the worship and the bliss of it
shal lestyn in Hevyn aforn God and al His holy without end. Thus was this dede
sene and understond in our Lords menyng, and the cause why He shewid it, is
to maken us enjoyen in Hym and in al His werks. Whan I saw His shewing
continuid, I understod that it was shewid for a grete thyng that was for to come,
which thyng God shewid that Hymselfe should don it, which dede hath these
properties afornseid. And this shewid He wel blisfully, menand that I should
take it wysely, feithfully, and trostily.
   But what this dede shuld be, it was kepid privy to me. And in this I saw that
He wil not we dredyn to know the thyngs that He shewith. He shewith hem for
He will we know hem, be which knowing He will we love Hym and lekyn and end-
lesly enjoyen in Hym. And for the grete love that He hat to us, He shewith us al
that is worshipfull and profitable for the tyme. And the thyngs that He will now hav
privy, yet of His grete goodness He shewith hem close, in which shewyng He
will we leven and understonden that we shal sen it verily in His endles bliss.
   Than owe we to enjoyen in Hym for al that He shewith and al that He hidyth.
And if we wilfully and mekely doe thus, we shal fynd therin gret ese, and endles
thanks we shall have of Hym therfore. And thus is the understondyng of this
word, that it shal be don by me, that is the general man, that is to sey, al that
shal be save. It shalle be worshipful and mervelous and plenteuous; and God
Hymself shal don it. And this shal be the heyest joye that may ben, to beholden
the dede that God Hymselfe shal don. And man shal do ryte nowte but synne.
Than menyth our Lord God thus, as if He seid, "Behold and se: here hast thou
matter of mekenes, here hast thou matter of love, here hast thou matter to
nowten thyself, her hast thou matter to enjoyen in me, and for my love enjoye
in me, for of al thyngs, therwith myte thou most plese me."
   And as long as we arn in this lif, what tyme that we be our folly turne us to
the beholdyng of the reprovyd, tenderly our Lord God toucht us, and blisfully
clepyth us seyand in our soule: Lete be al thi love, my dereworthy child. Entend to
me. I am enow to the, and enjoye in thi Savior and in thi salvation. And that this
is our Lordys werkyng in us, I am sekir. The soule that is aperceyvid therein be
grace shal sen it and felen it. And thow it be so that this dede be truly taken for
the general man, yet it excludith not the special; for what our good Lord will do
be His pore creatures, it is now onknowen to me.
   But this dede and the tother afornseid, they arn not both on, but two sundry.
But this dede shal be don sooner, and that shal be as we come to Hevyn. And to
whom our Lord gevyth it, it may be knowen her in party. But the gret dede
afornseid shal nether be knowen in Hevyn ner erth till it is don.
   And moreover, He gave special understondyng and techyng of werkyng of
miracles. As thus: It is knowen that I have done miracles her aforn, many and fele,
heygh and mervelous, worshipful and grete, and so as I have don, I do now con-
tinualy, and shal don in coming of tyme. It is know that afor miracles comen
sorow and anguish and tribulation. And that is that we showld know our owne
febilnes and our myschevis that we arn fallen in by synne to meken us and
maken us to dreden God, cryen for helpe and grace. Myracles commen after that,
and that of the hey myte, wisdam, and goodnes of God shewand His vertue and
the joyes of Hevyn so as it may be in this passand life; and that for to strength
our feith, and to encresyn our hope in charite; wherfor it plesyth Hym to be
knowen and worshippid in miracles. Than menyth He thus: He wil that we be
not born overlow for sorrow and tempests that fallen to us, for it hath ever so
ben aforn myracle comyng.
      God kepyth His chosen ful sekirly althowe thei synne, for in these is a godly
      will that never assayed to synne. Thirty-seventh chapter.

   God browte to my mynd that I shuld synne, and for lykyng that I had in
beholdyng of Hym, I entended not redily to that shewyng. And our Lord full
mercifully abode and gave me grace to entendyn, and thys shewyng I toke singu-
larly to myselfe. But be al the gracious comforte that folowyth, as ye shal seen,
I was leryd to take it to al my even Cristen, al in general and nothing in special.
Thowe our Lord shewid me I should synne, by me alone is understode al. And
in this I concyvid a soft drede; and to this our Lord answerid: I kepe the ful
sekirly. This word was seid with more love and sekirness and gostly kepyng than
I can or may telle. For as it was shewid that I should synne, ryth so was the com-
forte shewid, sekirnes and kepyng for al myn even Cristen. What may make me
more to love myn evyn Cristen than to seen in God that He lovyth all that shal
be savid as it wer al on soule?
   For in every soule that shal be savid is a godly wil that never assentid to
synne ne never shal. Ryth as there is a bestly will in the lower party that may
willen no good, ryth so ther is a godly will in the heyer party which will is so
good that it may never willen yll, but ever good. And therfore we arn that He
lovith, and endlesly we do that that Hym lykyt, and this shewid our Lord in the
holehede of love that we stonden in in His syght. Ya, that He lovith us now as
wele whil we arn here, as He shal don whan we arn there afore His blissid face.
But for faylyng of love on our party, therefore is al our travel.
      Synne of the chosen shall be turnyd to joye and worship. Exemple of David,
      Peter, and John of Beverley. Thirty-eighth chapter.

   Also God shewid that synne shal be no shame but worship to man. For ryth
as to every synne is answeryng a peyne be trewth, ryth so for every synne to the
same soule is goven a bliss by love. Ryth as dyvers synnes arn punyshid with
dyvers peynes after that thei be grevous, ryth so shal thei be rewardid with dyvers
joyes in Hevyn after thei have be peynful and sorowful to the soule in erthe.
For the soule that shal come to Hevyn is pretious to God, and the place so
worshipful that the goodnes of God suffrith never that soul to synne that shal
come there but which synne shal be rewardid. And it is made knowen without
end, and blisfully restorid be overpassyng worshipps.
   For in thys syte myn understondyng was lift up into Hevyn, and than God
browte merily to my minde David and other in the Old Law without numbre.
And in the New Law He browte to my mynd first Mary Magdalen, Peter and
Paul, and Thomas of Inde, and Saynt John of Beverly, and other also without
noumbre, how thei are knowen in the church in erth with ther synnes, and it is
to hem no shame, but al is turnyd hem to worship. And therfore our curtes
Lord shewith for them here in party like as it is there in fulhede. For ther the
token of synne is turnyd to worshippe.
   And Seynt John of Beverley, our Lord shewid hym ful heyly in comfort to us
for homlyhed, and browte to my mynde how he is an hende neybor and of our
knowyng. And God called hym Seynt John of Beverley pleynly as we doe, and
that with a full glad, swete chere, shewyng that he is a ful hey seynt in Hevyn in
His syght, and a blisfull. And with this he made mention that in his youngth and
in his tendyr age he was a derworthy servant to God, mekyl God lovand and
dredand; and nevertheless God suffrid him to fall, hym mercyfully kepand that
he perishid not ne lost no tyme. And afterward God reysyd hym to manyfold
more grace; and be the contrition and mekenes that he had in his living, God hat
goven hym in Hevyn manyfold joyes overpassing that he shuld hav had if he had not
fallen. And that thys is soth, God shewith in erth with plentiuous miracles doyng
aboute his body continuly. And al was this to make us glad and mery in love.
      Of the sharpnes of synne and the godenes of contrition, and how our kynd
      Lord will not we dispair for often fallyng. Thirty-ninth chapter.

Synne is the sharpest scorge that any chousyn soule may be smyten with,
which scorge al forbetyth man and woman and noyith him in his owne syte, so
ferforth that otherwhile he thynkyth hymself he is not worthy but as to synken
in Helle, til whan contrition takyth hym be touchyng of the Holy Gost and turn-
yth the bitternes in hopes of Gods mercy; and than he begynnyth his woundis
to helyn, and the soule to quickyn tunyd into the life of Holy Chirch. The Holy
Gost ledyth hym to confession wilfully to shewyn his synnes nakidly and truely,
with grete sorow and grete shame that he hath defoulyd the fair ymage of God.
Than undertakyth he penance for every synne, enjoynid by his domysman; that
is groundid in Holy Church be the teaching of the Holy Ghost. And this is on
mekenes that mekyl plesyt God; and also bodely sekenes of Gods sendyng, and
also sorow and shame from withoute, and reprove and dispyte of this world,
with al manner grevance and temptations that wil be cast in, bodily and gostly.
Ful pretiously our Lord kepyth us whan it semyth to us that we arn nere for-
sakyn and cast away for our synne and because we have deservyd it. And because
of mekenes that we gettyn hereby we arn reysyd wol hey in Godds syte be His
grace, with so grete contrition, also with compassion and trew longyng to God.
Than thei be sodenly delyveryd of synne and of peyne and taken up to bliss, and
made even hey seynts. Be contrition we arn made clene; be compassion we arn
made redy; and be trew longyng to God we arn made worthy. Thes arn three
menys, as I understond, wherby that al soulis come to Hevyn, that is to seyn,
that have ben synners in erth and shal be save.
   For be these medycines behovyth that every soule be helyd. Thow he be helyd,
his wounds arn seen aforn God, not as wounds, but as worships. And so on the
contraryewise, as we ben ponishid here with sorow and with penance, we shal be
rewardid in Hevyn be the curtes love of our Lord God Almyty that wil that non
that come there lose his travel in no degre. For He holdyth synne as sorow and
peyne to His lovers, in whome He assigneth no blame for love.
   The mede that we shal underfongyn shal not be litil, but it shal be hey, glori-
ous, and worshipfull; and so shal shame be turnyd to worship and more joye.
For our curtes Lord wil not that His servants dispeir for often ne for grevous
fallyng. For our fallyng lettyth not Hym to love us. Peas and love arn ever in us
beand and werkand. But we be not alway in pese and in love. But He wil that
we takin hede thus: that He is ground of al our hole life in love, and furthermore
that He is our everlestyng keper and mytyly defendith us ageyn our enemys that
ben ful fel and fers upon us; and so mech our nede is, the more - for we gyven
Hym occasion be our fallyng.
      Us nedyth to longyn in love with Jesus, eschewyng synne for love;
      the vyleness of synne passith al peynes; and God lovith wol tenderly
      us while we be in synne, and so us nedyth to doe our neybor. Fortieth chapter.

   This is a severayn frendshyp of our curtes Lord, that He kepyth us so tenderly
whil we be in synne. And furthermore He touchyth us ful privily and shewyth us
our synne be the swete lyte of mercy and grace. But whan we seen ourselfe so
foule, than wene we that God were wroth with us for our synne, and than aren
we steryd of the Holy Gost be contrition into prayers and desire to amendyng of
our life with al our mytes, to slakyn the wreth of God, on to the tyme we fynd a
rest in soule and softnes in consciens, and than hope we that God hath forgoven
us our synnes. And it is soth. And than shewith our curtes Lord Hymselfe to the
soul wol merily and with glad cher with frendful welcummyng as if He had ben
in peyn and in prison, sayand swetely thus: "My derlyng, I am glad thou art
comen to me; in al thi wo I have ever be with the, and now seist thou my lov-
yng, and we be onyd in bliss." Thus arn synnes forgoven be mercy and grace,
and our soule worshipfully receivid in joye, like as it shal be whan it comyth to
Hevyn, as oftentymes as it comys be the gracious werkyng of the Holy Gost and
the vertue of Crists passion.
   Here understond I sothly that al manner thyng is made redy to us be the grete
goodnes of God so ferforth that what tyme we ben our selfe in peas and charite
we be verily save. But for we may not have this in fulhede whil we arn here,
therefore it befallyth us evermore to leven in swete prayor and in lovely longyng
with our Lord Jesus. For He longyth ever to bryng us to the fulhede of joy, as it
is afornseid where He shewith the gostly threst. But now because of al this
gostly comfort that is afornseyd, if ony man or woman be sterid be foly to seyn
or to thinken, "If this be soth, than were it good to synne to have the more
mede," or ell to chargyn the less to synne - beware of this steryng. For sothly if
it come it is ontrew, and of the enemy of the same trew love that techith us all
this comforte. The same blissid love techith us that we should haten synne only
for love. And I am sekir, by myn owen felyng, the more that every kinde soul
seith this in the curtes love of our Lord God, the lother is hym to synne, and the
more he is ashamid.
   For if afor us were layd al the peynes in Helle and in Purgatory and in erth -
deth and other - and synne, we should rather chose al that peyne than synne.
For synne is so vile and so mekyl to haten, that it may be liken to no payne,
which peyne is not synne. And to me was shewid no herder helle than synne. For
a kynde soule hath non helle but synne. And we gevyn our intent to love and
mekenes, be the werkyng of mercy and grace we arn mad al fair and clene. And
as mygty and as wyse as God is to save man, as wyllyng He is, for Criste Hym-
selfe is ground of all the lawis of Cristen men; and He tawth us to doe good
ageyn ille. Here may we se that He is Hymselfe this charite, and doith to us as
He techith us to don. For He will we be like Hym in holehede of endless love
to ourselfe and to our even Cristen. No more than His love is broken to us for
our synne, no more will He that our love be broken to ourselfe and to our evyn
Cristen. But nakidly hate synne and endlesly loven the soule as God lovith it;
than shal we haten synne lyke as God hatith it, and love the soule as God lovyth
it. For this word that God seid is an endless comfort: I kepe the sekirly.
      The fourteenth Revelation is as afornseyd etc. It is impossible we shuld pray
       for mercy and want it; and how God will we alway pray thow we be drey
       and barryn, for that prayer is to Him acceptabil and plesante. Forty-first chapter.

   After this, our Lord shewid for prayers, in which shewing I se two conditions
in our Lordis menyng. On is rytfulnes; another is sekir troste. But yet often-
tymes our troste is not full, for we arn not sekir that God herith us, as us
thynkith, for our onworthyness and for we felyn ryth nowte, for we arn as barren
and dry oftentimes after our prayors as we wer aforn. And this, in our felyng,
our foly, is cause of our wekenis. For thus have I felt in myselfe. And al this
browte our Lord sodenly to my mend and shewed these words and said: I am
ground of thi besekyng. First it is my wille that thou have it, and sythen I make the
to willen it, and sithen I make the to besekyn it, and thou besekyst it. How shuld it
than be that thou shuld not have thyn besekyng?
And thus in the first reason with
the three that followen, our good Lord shewith a mytye comforte as it may be
seen in the same words. And in the first reason, thus He seith: And thou
besekyst it. There He shewith ful grete plesance and endles mede that He will
gevyn us for our besekyng. And in the sixth reason, there He seith: How shuld it
than be? etc., this was seid for an impossible. For it is most impossible that we
shuld besekyn mercy and grace and not have it. For of all thyng that our good
Lord makyth us to besekyn, Hymselfe hath ordeynid it to us from withoute
   Here may we seen that our besekyng is not cause of Godis goodness, and that
shewid He sothfastly in al these swete words when He seith: I am grounde. And
our good Lord wille that this be knowen of His lovers in erth, and the more
that we knowen, the more shuld we besekyn, if it be wisely taken; and so is our
Lords menyng. Besekyng is a new, gracious, lestyng will of the soule onyd and
festenyd into the will of our Lord be the swete privy werke of the Holy Gost. Our
Lord Hymselfe, He is the first receyvor of our prayors, as to my syte, and takyth it
ful thankfully and heyly enjoyand; and He sendyth it up aboven, and settith it in
tresour wher it shal never perishen. It is ther aforn God with al His holy, continuly
receyvyd, ever spedand our nedys. And whan we shal underfongyn our bliss it
shal be gevyn us for a degre of joye with endles worshipful thankyng of Hym.
   Full glad and mery is our Lord of our prayors, and He lokyth therafter, and
He wil have it. For with His grace He makyth us lyke to Hymself in condition
as we arn in kynd, and so is His blisful will, for He seith thus: Pray inderly thow
the thynkyth it savowr the nott. For it is profitable thow thou fele not, thow thou se
nowte, ya, thow thou thynke thou myghte nowte. For in dryhede and in barrenhede,
in sekenes and in febelnes, than is thyn prayers wel plesant to me, thow thou thynk-
yth it savowr the nowte but litil; and so is al thy levyng prayers in my syte.
For the
mede and the endles thanke that He wil gevyn us, therfore He is covetous to
have us pray continuly in His syhte. God acceptith the good will and the travel
of His servant, howsoever we felen. Wherfore it plesyth Hym that we werkyn
and in our prayors and in good levyng be Hys helpe and His grace resonably
with discrecion, kepand our myght to Hym, til whan that we have Hym that we
sekyn in fulhede of joy - that is, Jesus. And that shewid He in the fifteenth
Revelation aforn this word: Thou shalt have Me to thy mede.
   And also to prayors longyth thankyng. Thankyng is a new, inward knowing
with gret reverens and lovely drede turnyng ourselfe with all our myghts into
the werkyng that our good Lord steryth us to, enjoyng and thankyng inwardly.
And sometyme, for plenteoushede, it brekyth out with voyce, and seith, "Good
Lord, grante mercy. Blissid mot Thou be." And sumtyme whan the herte is drey
and felyth not, or ell be temptation of our enemy, than it is dreven by reason
and be grece to cryen upon our Lord with voyce, rehersyng His blissid passion
and His gret goodnes. And the vertue of our Lords word turnyth into the soule,
and quicknith the herte, and entrith it be His grace into trew werkyng, and
makyth it prayen wel blisfully and trewly to enjoyen our Lord; it is a ful blisfull
thankyng in His syte.
      Off three thyngs that longyn to prayor, and how we shuld pray; and of the goodnes of
      God that supplyeth alway our imperfection and febilnes whan we do that
      longyth to us to do. Forty-second chapter.

   Our Lord God wille we have trew understondyng, and namely in three thyngs
that longyn to our prayors. The first is be whom and how that our prayors
springyth. Be whome, He shewith when He seith, I am ground; and how, be His
goodness, for He seith, first, It is my wille. For the secund, in what manner and
how we should usen our prayors, and that is that our wil be turnyd into the will of
our Lord, enjoyand; and so menith He whan He seith, I mak the to willen it. For
the thred, that we knowen the frute and the end of our prayors: that is, to be
onyd and lyk to our Lord in al thyng. And to this menyng and for this end was
al this lovely lesson shewid; and He wil helpyn us, and we shall make it so - as
He seith Hymselfe. Blissid mot He ben.
   For this is our Lords wille, that our prayors and our troste ben both alyk
large. For if we trost not as mekyl as we preyen, we doe not ful worship to our
Lord in our prayors, and also we taryen and peyn ourselfe. And the cause is, as
I leve, for we know not truly that our Lord is ground on whom our prayors
springith. And also that we know not that it is goven us be the grace of His
love. For if we knew this, it would maken us to trosten to have, of our Lords
gyfte, al that we desire. For I am sekir that no man askyth mercy and grace with
trew menyng, but mercy and grace be first geyvin to hym. But sumtyme it cum-
yth to our mynd that we have prayd long tyme, and yet, thynkyth us, that we
have not our askyng. But herfor should we not be hevy, for I am sekir be our
Lords menyng, that eyther we abyden a better tyme, or more grace, or a better
gyfte. He will we have trow knowyng in Hymself that He is beyng; and in this
knowyng He will that our understondyng be growndid with al our mytys, and al
our entent, and al our menyng. And in this grownd He will that we taken our
stede and our wonynge. And be the gracious lyte of Hymself, He will we have
understondyng of the thyngs that folow.
   The first is our noble and excellent makyng; the second, our pretious and
derworthy agen byeing; the thred, althyng that He hath made benethen us to
serven us, and, for our love, kepith it. Than menyth He thus, as if He seyd:
Behold and se that I have don al this, beforn thi prayors, and now thou art, and
prayest me. And thus He menyth that it longyth to us to wetyn that the gretest
deds be don as Holy Church techyth. And in the beholdyng of thys with thank-
yng, we owte to pray for the dede that is now in doyng, and that is that He
reule us and gyde us to His worshippe in thys lif and bryng us to His bliss. And
therfore He hath don all. Than menyth He thus, that we sen that He doth it,
and we prayen therfor. For that on is not enow. For if we prayen and sen not
that He doth it, it makyth us hevy and doutful; and that is not His worshippe.
And if we sen that He doth and we pray not, we do not our dette - and so may
it not ben, that is to seyen, so is it not in His beholdyng. But to sen that He
doth it and to pray forthwith, so is He worshippid and we sped.
   Althyng that our Lord hath ordeynyd to don, it is His will that we prayen
therfor, other in speciyal or in generall; and the joy and the bliss that it is to
Hym, and the thanke and the worshippe that we shall have therfore, it passyth
the understondyng of cretures, as to my syte. For prayor is a rythwis under-
stondyng of that fulhede of joye that is for to cume with wel longyng and sekir
troste. Faylyng of our bliss that we ben kyndly ordeynid to makyth us for to
longen. Trew understondyng and love, with swete mynd in our Savior, graciously mak-
yth us for to trosten. And in these two werkyngs our Lord beholdyth us
continuly. For it is our dett, and His goodnes may no less assignen in us. Than
longyth it to us to don our diligens, and whan we have don it, than shal us yet
thinken that is nowte; and soth, it is. But do we as we may, and sothly aske
mercy and grace. Al that us faylyth, we shal fynd in Hym; and thus menyth He
wher He seith: I am grounde of thy besekyng. And thus in this blisful word, with the
shewing, I saw a full overcomyng agens al our wekenes and al our douteful dredis.
      What prayor doth, ordeynyd to God will; and how the goodnes
      of God hath gret lekyng in the deds that He doth be us, as He wer beholden
      to us, werkyng althyng ful swetely. Forty-third chapter.

   Prayor onyth the soule to God; for thow the soule be ever lyke to God in kynde
and substance restorid be grace, it is often onlyke in condition be synne on
manys partye. Than is prayor a wittnes that the soule will as God will, and com-
fortith the conscience and ablith man to grace. And thus He techith us to
prayen, and mytyly to trosten that we shal have it. For He beholdith us in love,
and wil makyn us partyner of His gode dede. And therfore He steryth us to prayen
that that likyth Hym to don; for which prayors and gode will that He wil have
of His gyft, He wil reward us and gevyn us endless mede. And this was shewid in
this word, And thou besekyst it. In this word God shewid so gret plesance and so
gret lykyng as He were mekyl beholden to us for every god dede that we don,
and yet it is He that doth it. And for that we besekyn Hym mytyly to don althyng
that Him lekyt, as if He seid, "What myte then plese Me more, than to besekyn
mytyly, wisely, and wilfully to do that thyng that I shal don?" And thus the
soule be prayor accordyth to God.
   But whan our curtes Lord of His grace shewith Hymselfe to eur soule, we
have that we desire, and than we se not for the tyme what we shuld more pray,
but al our entent with al our myte is sett holy to the beholdyng of Hym, and
this is an hey, unperceyvable prayor as to my syte. For al the cause wherfor we
prayen, it is onyd into the syte and beholdyng of Hym to whome we prayen,
mervelously enjoyand with reverent drede and so grete sweteness and delite in
Hym, that we can pray ryth nowte but as He steryth us for the tyme.
   And wel I wote the mor the soule seeth of God, the more it desyrith Hym be
His grace. But whan we sen Hym not so, than fele we nede and cause to pray -
for faylyng - for ablyng of ourselfe to Jesus. For whan the soule is tempested,
troublid, and left to hymself be onreste, than it is tyme to prayen to maken
hymselfe supple and buxum to God. But he be no manner of prayor makyth God
supple to hym. For He is ever alyke in love. And thus I saw that what tyme we
se nedys wherfore we prayen, than our good Lord folowyth us, helpand our
desire. And whan we of His special grace planely beholden Hym seying non
other nedys, than we folowen Hym, and He drawith us into Hym be love. For I
saw and felt that His mervelous and fulsome goodnes fulfillith al our mytys, and
then I saw that His continuate werkyng in al manner thing is don so godely, so
wysely, and so mytyly that it overpassyt al our imagyning and all that we can
wenyn and thynken; and than we can do no more but behold Hym, enjoyeng
with an hey, myty desire to be al onyd into Hym, and entred to His wonyng, and
enjoy in Hys lovyng, and deliten in His godeness.
   And then shal we, with His swete grace, in our owen meke continuat prayors,
come into Hym now in thys life be many privy tuchyngs of swete gostly syghts
and felyng, mesurid to us as our simplehede may bere it, and this wrowte, and
shal be, be the grace of the Holy Gost, so long til we shal dey in longyng for
love. And than shal we all come into our Lord, ourselfe clerely knowand and
God fulsomely havyng; and we endlesly ben al had in God, Hym verily seand,
and fulsomly feland, Hym gostly heryng, and Hym delectably smellyng, and Hym
swetely swelowyng; and than shal we sen God face to face, homly and fulsumly.
The creature that is made shal sen and endlesly beholden God which is the maker.
For thus may no man sen God and leven after, that is to sey, in this dedly life.
But whan He of His special grace wil shewn Him here, He strengthyth the
creature above the selfe, and He mesurith the shewing after His own wille as it
is profitable for the tyme.
Of the properties of the Trinite; and how mannys soule, a creature, hath
the same properties, doyng that that it was made for: seyng, beholdyng,
and mervelyng his God, so, by that, it semyth as nowte to the selfe.
Forty-fourth chapter.

   God shewid in al the Revelations oftentymes that man werkyth evermore His
will and His wership lestyngly withoute ony styntyng. And what this worke is was
shewid in the first, and that in a mervelous grounde. For it was shewid in the
werkyng of the soule of our blisfull Lady Seynt Mary, treuth and wisdam; and
how, I hope, be the grace of the Holy Gost, I shal say as I saw.
   Treuth seith God, and wisedam beholdyth God; and of these two comyth the
thred, that is, an holy, mervelous delyte in God, which is love. Wher treuth and
wisdam is, verily there is love, verily commend of hem bothyn, and al of God
makyng. For He is endles soverain trueth, endles severeyn wisdam, endles sover-
eyn love onmade. And man soule is a creature in God, which hath the same
propertyes made, and evermore it doith that it was made for: It seith God, it
beholdyth God, and it lovyth God, wherof God enjoyith in the creature, and the
creature in God, endlesly mervelyng, in which mervelyng he seith his God, his
Lord, his Maker, so hey, so gret, and so good in reward of hym that is made,
that onethys the creature semyth owte to the selfe. But the clertye and the
clenes of treuth and wisdam makyth hym to sen and to beknowen that he is
made for love, in which God endlesly kepyth him.
Of the ferme and depe jugement of God and the variant
jugement of man. Forty-fifth chapter.

   God demyth us upon our kynde substance which is ever kept on in Hym hoole
and save without end, and this dome is of His rythfulhede. And man jugith
upon our changeabil sensualyte, which semyth now on, now other, after that it
takyth of the parties and shewyth outward. And this wisdam is medyllid, for
sumtyme it is good and esye and sumtyme it is herd and grevous. And in as mekil
as it is good and esy it longyth to the rythfulhede. And in as mekyl as it is herd
and grevous, our good Lord Jesus reformyth it be mercy and grace throw the
vertue of His blissid passion and so bryngith into the rythfulhede. And thow
these two be thus accordid and onyd, yet it shal be knowen, both, in Hevyn
without end. The first dome, which is of God rythfulhed, and that is of His hey,
endless life; and this is that faire swete dome that was shewid in al the fair reve-
lation in which I saw Him assigne to us no manner of blame.
   And thow this was swete and delectabil, yet only in the beholdyng of this, I
cowd nowte be full esyd. And that was for the dome of Holy Church, which I
had aforn understond and was continuly in my syte. And therfore be this dome
methowte me behovyd neds to know me a synner, and be the same dome I
understode that synners arn worthy sumtime blame and wreth. And these two
cowth I not se in God. And there my desir was more than I can or may tell. For
the heyer dome God shewid Hymselfe in the same tyme, and therfore me
behovyd neds to taken it, and the lower dome was lern me aforn in Holy Church,
and therfore I myte in no way levyn the lower dome. Than was this my desire -
that I myte sen in God in what manner that the dome of Holy Church herin
techyth is trew in His syte, and how it longyth to me sothly to knoyn it, wherby
thei myte both be savid so as it wer worshipfull to God and ryte way to me. And
to al this I had non other answere but a mervelous example of a lord and of a
servant, as I shal seyn after, and that ful mytyly shewid.
   And yet I stond in desire, and will into my end, that I myte be grace knowen
these two domys as it longyth to me. For al hevenly and al erthly things that
longyn to Hevyn arn comprehendid in thes two domys. And the more under
stondyng be the gracious ledyng of the Holy Gost that we have of these two domys
the more we shal sen and known our faylyngs. And ever the more that we sen
hem, the more kyndly be grace we shal longen to be fulfillid of endles joye and
bliss. For we arn made therto, and our kindly substance is now blisful in God,
and hath ben sithen it was made, and shall, without end.

We cannot knowen ourself in this life but be feith and grace, but we must know
ourself synners; and how God is never wreth, being most nere the soule, it
kepyng. Forty-sixth chapter.

   But our passand lif that we have here in our sensualite knowith not what our-
self is. Than shal we verily and clerly sen and knowen our Lord God in fulhede
of joy. And therfore it behovyth neds to be that the nerer we be our bliss, the
more we shall longen; and that both be kynd and be grace. We may have know-
ing of ourselfe in this life be continuant helpe and vertue of our hey kynd, in
which knowing we may encrecin and wexen be forthing and speding of mercy and
grace. But we may never full know ourselfe in to the laste poynte, in which
poynte this passend life and manner of peyne and wo shall have an end. And
therfore it longyth properly to us, both be kynd and be grace, to longen and
desiren with al our myghts to knowen ourselfe in fulhede of endles joye.
   And yet in al this tyme from the begynnyng to the end I had two manner of
beholdyng. That one was endless continuant love with sekirnes of kepyng and
blisfull salvation. For of this was al the shewyng. That other was the common
techyng of Holy Church in which I was aforn enformyd and growndid and wil-
fully haveing in use and understondyng. And the beholdyng of this come not from
me. For be the shewing I was not sterid ne led therfrom in no manner poynte,
but I had therin teching to loven it and liken it, wherby I myte, be the helpe of
our Lord and His grace, encrese and resyn to more hevynly knowyng and heyer
lovyng. And thus in al this beholdyng methowte it behovyd nedys to sen and to
knowen that we arn synners, and don many evill that we owten to leven, and
levyn many good dedes ondon that we owten to don, wherfore we deserve peyne
and wreth.
   And notwithstondyng al this, I saw sothfastly that our Lord was never wreth
ne never shall. For He is God - good, life, trueth, love, peas. His charite and
His unite suffrith Hym not to be wroth. For I saw trewly that it is agens the
properte of myte to be wroth, and agens the properte of His wisdam, and agens
the properte of His goodnes. God is the goodnes that may not be wroth, for He
is not but goodnes. Our soule is unyd to Hym, onchangable goodnes, and betwix
God and our soule is neyther wroth nor forgifenes in Hys syte. For our soule is
fulsomly onyd to God of His owen goodnes, that atwix God and soule may ben
ryth nowte. And to this understondyng was the soul led by love, and drawne be
mygte in every shewing. That it is thus, our good Lord shewid, and how it is
thus sothly, of His gret goodnes; and He will we desire to wetyn, that is to seyen,
as it longyth to His creature to wetyn it. For althyng that the simple soule
understode, God will that it be shewid and knowen. For the thyngs that He will
have privy, mytyly and wisely Hymselfe He hydeth hem for love. For I saw in the
same shewing that mech privity is hid, which may never be knowen into the
tyme that God of His goodnes hath made us worthy to sen it. And therwith I
am wele paid, abyding our Lords will in this hey mervel. And now I yeele me to
my moder Holy Church as a simple child owyth.

We must reverently mervelyn and mekly suffren, ever enjoyand in God; and how
our blyndhede, in that we se not God, is cause of synne. Forty-seventh chapter.

   Tweyn poynts longen to our soule be dett. On is that we reverently mervelyn.
That other is that we mekely suffryn, ever enjoyand in God; for He will we
wetyn that we shal in short tyme se clerly in Hymself al that we desire. And
notwithstondyng al this, I beheld and mervelyd gretly: What is the mercy and
forgivenes of God? For be the techyng that I had aforn, I understode that the
mercy of God shuld be the forgevenes of His wreth after the tyme that we have
synned. For methowte to a soule whose menyng and desire is to loven, that the
wreth of God wer herder than any other peyne. And therfor I toke that the
forgevness of His wreth shuld be one of the principal poynts of His mercy. But
for nowte that I myte beholden and desyrin I could no se this poynte in al the
shewyng. But how I understode and saw of the werks of mercy I shal sey sumdel,
as God wil geve me grace.
   I understode this: Man is chongeable in this lif and be frelte and over-
cummyng fallith into synne. He is onmytye and onwise of hymself, and also his
wil is overleyd, and in this tyme he is in tempest and in sorow and wo. And the
cause is blindhede, for he seith not God. For if he sey God continuly, he shuld
have no mischevous felyng, ne no manner steryng the yernyng that servyth to
synne. Thus saw I and felt in the same tyme; and methowte that the syte and the
felyng was hey and plentiuous, and gracious in reward that our commen felyng
is in this lif, but yet I thowte it was but smal and low in reward of the great
desire that the soule hath to sen God.
   For I felt in me five manner of werkyngs, which be these: enjoying, morning,
desir, drede, and sekir hope. Enjoyeng, for God gave me understondyng and
knowing that it was Hymself that I saw. Morning, and that was for faylyng.
Desir, and that was that I myte sen Hym ever more and more, understondyng
and knowyng that we shal never have ful rest til we sen Hym verily and clerly in
Hevyn. Drede was for it semyd to me in al that tyme that that syte shuld fayle
and I ben left to myselfe. Sekir hope was in the endles love, that I saw I shuld
be kept be His mercy and browte to His bliss. And the joyeing in His syte with
this sekir hope of His mercyful kepyng made me to have felyng and comforte so
that morneing and drede were not gretly peynfull. And yet in al this I beheld in
the shewing of God that this manner syte of Him may not be continuant in this
lif, and that for His owen worship and for encreas of our endles joy. And therefore
we failen oftentymes of the syte of Hym, and anon we fallen into ourself and
than fynde we no felyng of ryth - nowte but contrarioust that is in ourselfe, and
that of the elder rote of our first synne with all that followyn of our contrivans;
and in this we arn traveylid and tempestid with felyng of synnys and of peynes
in many dyvers manner, gostly and bodyly, as it is knowen to us in this lif.
Off mercy and grace and their propertyes; and how we shall enjoy that ever we suffrid
wo patiently. Forty-eighth chapter.

   But our good Lord the Holy Gost, which is endles lif wonnyng in our soule,
ful sekirly kepyth us, and werkyth therin a peas, and bryngith it to ese be grace,
and accordith it to God, and makyth it buxum. And this is the mercy and the wey
that our Lord continuly ledyth us in as longe as we ben here in this lif which is
chongeabile. For I sow no wrath but in mannys partie, and that forgevyth He in us.
For wreth is not ell but a frowardness and a contrarioste to peace and to love.
And eyther it commyth of faylyng of myte, or of faylyng of wisdam, or of faylyng
of goodnes, which faylyng is not in God, but it is on our partie, for we be synne
and wretchidnes have in us a wretchid and continuant contrariuste to peace and
to love, and that shewid He full often in His lovely chere of ruth and pety. For
the ground of mercy is love, and the werkyng of mercy is our kepyng in love,
and this was shewid in swich manner that I cowth not aperceyven of the partye
of mercy otherwise but as it were alone in love, that is to sey, as to my syte.
   Mercy is a swete, gracious werkyng in love medilyd with plenteuous pitte. For
mercy werkith, us kepand; and mercy workyth, turnyng to us althyng to good.
Mercy be love suffrith us to faylen be mesur, and in as mech as we faylen, in so
mekyl we fallen, and in as mekyl as we fallen, so mekyl we dyen. For us behovyth
nedes to deyen, in as mech as we failen syght and felyng of God that is our lif.
Our faylyng is dredful, our falling is shamefull, and our deyng is sorowfull. But
in al this the swete eye of pite and love cummyth never of us, ne the werkyng of
mercy cessyth not. For I beheld the properte of mercy and I beheld the properte
of grace, which have two manner werkyng in one love. Mercy is a pitifull
propirte which longyth to the moderhode in tendyr love. And grace is a wor-
shipful propirte which longyth to the ryal Lordshipp in the same love. Mercy
werkyth, kepyng, suffring, quecknyng, and helyng; and al is of tendernes of love.
   And grace werkyth, reysing, rewardyng, and endlessly overpassyng that our
lovyng and our travel deservyth, spreding abrode, and shewyng the hey, plen-
tiuous largess of Godds ryal Lordship in His mervelous curtesye; and this is of
the abondance of love. For grace werkyth our dredfull faylyng into plentiuous
endles solace, and grace werkyth our shamefull fallyng into hey worship reysyng,
and grace werkyth our sorowfull deying into holy blisfull lif. For I saw full sek-
irly that ever as our contrarioust werkyth to us here in erth peyne, shame, and
sorow, ryth so on the contrariewise, grace werkyth to us in Hevyn solace, worship,
and bliss; and overpassyng - so fer forth that whan we cum up and receivyn the
swete reward which grace hath wrowte to us, than we shal thankyn and blissyn our
Lord, endlesly enjoyand that ever we suffrid wo. And that shal be for a properte
of blissid love that we shall know in God, which we myte never a knowen with-
oute wo goeing afore. And whan I saw all this, me behovid nedis to granten that
the mercy of God and the forgiveness is to slaken and wasten our wreth.
Our lif is growndid in love withoute the which we perish; but yet God is never wroth,
but in our wreth and synne He mercifully kepith us, and tretith us to peace, rewarding
our tribulations. Forty-ninth chapter.

   For this was an hey mervel to the soule which was continely shewid in al, and
with gret diligens beholden: that our Lord God anempts Hymself may not for-
gevyn, for He may not be wroth. It were impossible. For this was shewid, that
our lif is all groundid and rotid in love, and without love we may not levyn. And
therfore to the soul that of His special grace seyth so ferforth of the hey, mer-
velous godenes of God, and that we arn endlesly onyd to Hym in love, it is the
most impossible that may ben that God shuld be wreth. For wreth and frendship
be two contraries. For He that westith and destroyith our wreth, and makyth us
meke and mylde, it behovyth neds to ben that He be ever on in love, meke and
myld, which is contrarious to wreth. For I saw ful sekirly that wher our Lord
apperith, peas is taken and wreth hath no place. For I saw no manner of wreth
in God, neyther for short tyme ne for longe, for sothly, as to my syte, if God
myte be wroth a touch we shuld never have lif, ne stede, ne beyng.
   For verily as we have our beyng of the endles myte of God and of the endless
wisdam and of the endless godeness, as verily we have our kepyng in the endles
myte of God, in the endles wisdom, and in the endless goodnes. For thow we
felyn in us wretches, debates, and strives, yet arn we al mannerfull beclosyd in
the mildhede of God and in His mekehede, in His benignite, and in His buxum-
hede. For I saw full sekirly that al our endles frendship, our stede, our lif, and
our beyng is in God. For that same endles goodnes that kepith us whan we
synne that we perish not, the same endles goodnes continuly tretyth in us a
peace agaynst our wreth and our contrarious fallyng, and makyth us to sen our
nede with a trew drede, mytyly to sekyn into God to have forgivenes with a
gracious desire of our salvation. For we may not be blisfully save til we be verily
in peace and in love, for that is our salvation. And thow we, be the wreth and
the contrariouste that is in us, be now in tribulation, desese, and wo, as fallyth
to our blindnes and frelte, yet arn we sekirly safe be the mercifull kepyng of
God that we perish not. But we arn not blisfully saf in havyng of our endles joy
till we ben al in peace and in love, that is to sey, ful plesid with God and with al
His werks, and with al His domys, and lovand and pessible with ourselfe and
with our even Cristen, and with al that God lovith, as love likyth. And this
doeth Gods goodnes in us.
   Thus saw I that God is our very peace, and He is our sekir keper whan we arn
oureselfe at onpeace, and He continuly werkith to bring us into endles peas. And
thus whan we, be the werkyng of mercy and grace, be made meke and mylde, we arn
ful safe. Sodenly is the soule onyd to God whan it is trewly pesid in the selfe,
for in Him is fonden no wreth. And thus I saw whan we arn all in peace and in
love, we fynde no contrariouste, ne no manner of lettyng; of that contrariouste
which is now in us, our Lord of His goodnes makyth it to us ful profitable. For
that contrarioust is cause of our tribulations and al our wo, and our Lord Jesus
takyth hem and send hem up to Hevyn, and there arn thei made more swete and
delectable than herte may thynken or tongue may tellen. And whan we cum
thither we shal fynd hem redy al turnyd into very faire and endless worships.
Thus is God our stedfast ground, and He shal be our full bliss and make us
onchongeable as He is whan we arn there.
How the chosen soule was nevere ded in the syte of God, and of a mervel upon the same;
and three things boldid hir to aske of God the understondyng of it. Fiftieth chapter.

   And in this dedly lif, mercy and forgivenes is our wey and evermore ledyth us
to grace. And be the tempest and the sorow that we fallen in on our parte, we
be often dede as to manys dome in erth, but in the syte of God, the soule that
shal be save was never dede ne never shall. But yet here I wondrid and mervelid
with al the diligens of my soul menand thus: Good Lord, I se the that art very
truth and I know sothly that we synne grevously al day and ben mekyl blame-
worthy, and I ne may neyther levyn the knowyng of this sothe, ner I ne se the
shewyn to us no manner of blame. How may this be? For I knew be the common
techyng of Holy Church, and be myn owne felyng, that the blame of our synne
continuly hangith upon us from the first man into the tyme that we come up
into Hevyn. Than was this my mervel, that I saw our Lord God shewand to us
no more blame than if we were as clene and as holy as angelys be in Hevyn.
   And atwix these two contraries my reason was gretly traveylid by my blynd-
hede and cowde have no rest for drede that His blyssid presens shuld passyn
from my syte, and I to be left in onknowyng how He beholdyth us in our synne.
For either behovid me to sen in God that synne were al don awey, or ell me
behovid to sen in God how He seith it, wherby I myte trewly knowen how it
longyth to me to se synne and the manner of our blame. My longyn indurid,
Hym continuly beholding, and yet I cowde have no patience for great awer and
perplexitie, thynkand: If I take it thus that we be not synners ne no blame-
worthy, it semyth as I shuld eryn and faile of knoweing of this soth. And if it be
so that we be synners and blameworthy, Good Lord, how may it than ben that I
can not sen this sothnes in The, which art my God, my maker, in whom I desire
to sen al trueths?
   For three poynts makyn me herdy to ask it. The first is for it is so low a
thyng, for if it wer an hey, I should ben adred. The second is that it is so
common, for if it were special and privye, also I shuld ben adred. The third is
that it nedyth me to wetyn it, as me thynkyth, if I shall levyn here, for knowyng of
good and evill wherby I may be reason and grace the more depart hem on sundre,
and loven goodnes and haten evill as Holy Church techyth. I cryed inwardly with
al my myte sekyng into God for helpe, menand thus, "A, Lord Jesus, King of
bliss, how shall I ben esyd? Ho that shal techyn me and tellyn me that me
nedyth to wetyn if I may not at this tyme sen it in The?"
The answere to the doute afor by a mervelous example of a lord and a servant; and God
will be abidyn, for it was nere twenty yeres after ere she fully understode this example;
and how it is understod that Crist syttith on the ryth hand of the Fader. Fifty-first chapter.

   And than our curtes Lord answerd in shewing full mystily a wondirful example
of a lord that hath a servant, and gave me syte to my understondyng of botyrn,
which syght was shewid double in the lord, and the syte was shewid dowble in
the servant. Than on partie was shewid gostly in bodily lyknes, and the other
partie was shewid more gostly without bodyly lyknes. For the first, thus: I saw
two persons in bodyly likenes, that is to sey, a lord and a servant, and therewith
God gave me gostly understondyng. The lord sittith solemnly in rest and in
peace; the servant standyth by, aforn his lord reverently, redy to don his lords
will. The lord lookyth upon his servant ful lovely, and swetely and mekely he
sendyth hym to a certain place to don his will. The servant, not only he goeth,
but suddenly he stirtith and rynnith in grete haste for love to don his lords will,
and anon he fallith in a slade and takith ful grete sore. And than he gronith and
monith and waylith and writhith, but he ne may rysen ne helpyn hymself be no
manner wey.
   And of all this the most myscheif that I saw him in was faylyng of comforte.
For he cowde not turne his face to loke upon his lovyng lord which was to hym
ful nere, in whom is ful comfort; but as a man that was febil and onwise for the
tyme, he entended to his felyng, and induryd in wo, in which wo he suffrid seven
grete peynes.
   The first was the sore brosyng that he toke in hys fallyng, which was to hym
felable peyne. The second was the hevynes of his body. The third was febilnes
folowyng of these two. The fourth, that he was blinded in his reason and
stonyed in his mend so ferforth that almost he had forgotten his owne luf. The
fifth was that he myte not rysen. The sixth was most mervelous to me, and that
was that he lay alone. I lokid al aboute and beheld, and fer ne nere, hey ne low,
I saw to him no helpe. The seventh was that the place which he lay on was a
lang, herd, and grevous. I merveled how this servant myte mekely suffren there
al this wo.
   And I beheld with avisement to wetyn if I cowth perceyve in hym any defaute,
or if the lord shuld assigne in hym any blame. And sothly ther was none seen.
For only his good will and his grete desire was cause of his fallyng. And he was
as unlothful and as good inwardly as whan he stode afor his lord redy to don his
wille. And ryth thus continualy his lovand lord ful tenderly beholdyth him, and
now with a double cher - on outward, ful mekely and myldely with grete ruth
and pety, and this was of the first; another inward, more gostly, and this was
shewid with a ledyng of my understondyng into the lord which I saw hym heyly
enjoyen for the worshipful resting and nobleth that he will and shall bryng his
servant to be his plenteuous grace; and this was of that other shewyng. And now
my understondyng led agen into the first, both kepand in mynd. Than seith this
curtes lord in his menyng: Lo, lo my lovid servant, what harme and disese he hath
takeyn in my service for my love, ya, and for his good will; is it not skyl that I
reward hym his afray and his drede, his hurt and his mayme, and al his wo? And
not only this, but fallith it not to me to gevyn a geft that be better to hym and more
worshipfull than his own hole shuld have ben? And ell me thynkyth I dede hym no
And in this an inward gostly shewing of the lords menyng descendid into
my soule, in which I saw that it behovith neds to ben, stondyng his grete and his
own worship, that his dereworthy servant which he lovid so mech shuld ben
verily and blisfully rewardid without end aboven that he shuld a ben if he had
not fallen; ya, and so ferforth that his fallyng and his wo that he hath taken
therby shall be turnyd into hey and overpassing worship and endles bliss.
   And at this poynte the shewing of the example vanishid, and our good Lord
led forth myn understondyng in syte and in shewing of the Revelation to the
end. But notwithstondyng al this forthledyng, the mervelyng of the example cam
never from me for methowth it was goven me for an answere to my desir. And
yet cowth I not taken therin ful understondyng to myn ese at that tyme. For in
the servant that was shewid for Adam, as I shal seyn, I saw many dyvers properties
that myten be no manner way ben aret to single Adam. And thus in that tyme I
stode mekyl in onknowyng. For the full understondyng of this mervelous example
was not goven me in that tyme, in which mystye example three propertes of the
revelation be yet mekyl hidde. And notwithstondyng this, I saw and understode
that every shewing is full of privities. And therfore me behovith now to tellen
three propertes in which I am sumdele esyd. The frest is the begynnyng of tech-
yng that I understod therein in the same tyme. The second is the inward lernyng
that I have understodyn therein sithen. The third, al the hole revelation from
the begynnyng to the end, that is to sey, of this boke, which our Lord God of
His goodnes bryngyth oftentymes frely to the syte of myn understondyng. And
these three arn so onyd as to my understondyng that I cannot, ner may, depart
them. And be these three as on, I have techyng wherby I owe to leyvyn and
trostyn in our Lord God, that of the same godenes that He shewid it, and for
the same end, ryth so, of the same goodnes and for the same end, He shal
declaryn it to us whan it is His wille.
   For twenty yeres after the tyme of the shewing, save three monethis, I had
techyng inwardly, as I shal seyen. It longyth to the to taken hede to all the pro-
pertes and condition that weryn shewd in the example thow thou thynke that they
ben mysty and indifferent to thy syte.
I assend wilfully with grete desire, and see-
ing inwardly with avisement al the poynts and propertes that wer shewid in the
same tyme as ferforth as my witt and understondyng wold servyn, begynning
myn beholding at the lord and at the servant, and the manner of sytting of the
lord and the place that he sate on and tho color of his clothyng, and the manner
of shapp and his cher withouten and his nobleth and his godeness within; at the
manner of stondyng of the servant, and the place wher and how, at his manner
of clothyng, the color and the shappe, at his outward havyng, and at his inward
goodnes and his onlothfulhede.
   The lord that sate solemnly in rest and in peace, I understond that he is God.
The servant that stode aforn the lord, I understode that it was shewid for Adam,
that is to seyen, on man was shewid that tyme, and his fallyng, to maken therby
understonden how God beholdith a man and his fallyng. For in the syte of God,
al man is on man, and on man is all man. This man was hurte in hys myte and
made ful febil, and he was stonyed in his understondyng, for he turnyd from the
beholdyng of his lord. But his will was kept hole in God sygte, for his will I saw
our lord commenden and approven. But hymselfe was lettid and blyndyd of the
knowing of this will, and this is to him grete sorow and grevous disese. For
neither he seith clerly his lovyng lord, which is to him ful meke and mylde, ne
he seith trewly what himself is in the sygte of his lovyng lord. And wel I wote
whan these two are wysely and treuly seyn, we shall gettyn rest and peas her in
parte, and the fulhede of the bliss of Hevyn be His plentiuous grace. And this was a
begynnyng of techyng which I saw in the same tyme wherby I myte com to knowyng
in what manner He beholdyth us in our synne. And than I saw that only paynys
blamith and punishith, and our curtis Lord comfortith and sorowith, and ever
He is to the soule in glad cher, lovand and longand to bryngen us to bliss.
   The place that our Lord sat on was symple, on the erth, barren and desert,
alone in wildernes. His clothyng was wide and syde, and ful semely as fallyth to
a lord. The color of His cloth was blew as asure, most sad and fair. His cher was
merciful. The color of His face was faire browne with fulsomely featours; His
eyen were blak, most faire and semely, shewand ful of lovely pety; and within Him,
an hey ward, longe and brode, all full of endles hevyns. And the lovely lokeing
that He loked upon His servant continuly, and namely in his fallyng, methowte
it myte molten our herts for love and bresten hem on to for joy. The fair lokyng
shewid of a semely medlur which was mervelous to beholden. That on was ruth
and pety, that other was joye and bliss. The joy and bliss passith as fer reuth
and pite as Hevyn is aboven erth. The pite was erthly, and the blis was hevenly.
The ruth in the pite of the Fadir was of the falling of Adam, which is His most
lovid creatur. The joy and the bliss was of His dereworthy Son, which is evyn
with the Fadir. The merciful beholdyng of His lofly cher fulfilled al erth and
descendid downe with Adam into Helle, with which continuant pite Adam was
kept from endles deth. And this mercy and pite dwellyth with mankind into the
tyme we com up into Hevyn.
   But man is blindid in this life, and therfore we may not sen our Fader, God,
as He is. And what tyme that He of His goodnes will shewin Hym to man, He
shewith Him homley as man. Notwithstonding I saw sothly we owen to knowen
and levyn that the Fader is not man. But His sitting on the erth barreyn and
desert is this to menyn: He made mans soule to ben His owen cyte, and His
dwellyng place, which is most plesyng to Hym of al His werks. And what tyme
that man was fallen into sorow and peyne, he was not al semly to servyn of that
noble office. And therfore our kind Fader wold adyten him no other place, but
sitten upon the erth abeydand mankynd which is medlid with erth till what time
be His grace His derworthy Son had bowte ageyn His cyte into the noble fayrhede
with His herd travel. The blewhede of the clothing betokinith His stedfastnes;
the brownhede of His fair face with the semely blakhede of the eyen was most
accordyng to shew His holy sobirnes. The larghede of His clothyng which were
fair, flamand abowten, betokenith that He hath beclesid in hym all hevyns and
al joy and blis. And this was shewid in a touch, wher I sey, myn understondyng
was led into the Lord, in which I saw Him heyly enjoyen for the worshipful
restoring that He wil and shal bring His servant to be His plenteous grace.
   And yet I mervellyd, beholdyng the lord and the servant afornseid. I saw the
lord sitten solemnly and the servant stondand reverently aforn his lord, in which
servant is double understondyng, on withouten, another within. Outward, he
was clad simply as a labourer which wer disposid to travel, and he stode ful nere
the lord, not even fornempts hym, but in partie asyd, that on the lift. His
clothyng was a white kirtle, sengil, old and al defacid, died with swete of his
body, streyte fittyng to hym and short, as it were an handful benethe the knee,
bar, semand as it shuld sone be weryd up redy to be raggid and rent. And in this
I mervelid gretly, thynkand: This is now an onsemely clothyng for the servant
that is so heyly lovid, to stondyn afor so worship lord.
   And inward, in him was shewid a ground of love, which love he had to the
lord was even like to the love that the lord had to hym. The wisdam of the ser-
vant saw inwardly that ther was on thing to don which shuld be to the worshipp
of the lord. And the servant, for love, haveing no reward to hymselfe ne to
nothing that might fallen on him, hastely he stirt and ran at the sendyng of his
lord to don that thing which was his will and his worship. For it semyd be his
outward clothyng as he had ben a continuant labourer of leng tyme. And be the
inward syte that I had both in the lord and in the servant, it semyd that he was
anew, that is to sey, new begynnyng to travellyn, which servant was never sent
out aforn.
   Ther was a tresor in the erth which the lord lovid. I mervelid and thowte what
it myte ben. And I was answered in myn understondyng: It is a mete which is
lovesome and plesant to the lord. For I saw the lord sitten as a man, and I saw
neither mete ner drynke wherwith to servyn hym. This was on mervel. Another
mervel was that this solemn lord had no servant but on, and hym he sent owte.
I beheld, thynkyng what manner labour it myte ben that the servant shud don,
and than I understode that he shuld don the gretest labor and herdest travel that
is. He shuld ben a gardiner, delvyn and dykyn, swinkin and swetyn, and turne
the earth upsodowne, and sekyn the depnes, and wattir the plants in tyme, and
in this he shuld continu his travel and make swete flods to rennen, and noble
and plenteous fruits to springen which he shuld bryng aforn the lord and servyn
hym therwith to his lykyng. And he shuld never turne agen till he had dygte this
mete al redye as he knew that it lekyd the lord, and than he shuld take this
mete with the drinke in the mete, and beryn it ful worshipfully aforn the lord.
   And al this tyme the lord shuld sytten on the same place abydand his servant
whome he sent out. And yet I merveylid from whens the servant came. For I
saw in the lord that he hath wythyn hymselfe endles lif and al manner of goodnes,
save that tresor that was in the erth, and that was groundyd in the lord in mer-
velous depenes of endles love. But it was not all to the worship till this servant
had dygte thus nobly it, and browte it aforn him, in hymself present. And with-
out the lord was nothing but wildernes. And I understod not all what this example
ment, and therfore I merveylid whens the servant cam.
   In the servant is comprehendid the Second Person in the Trinite, and in the
servant is comprehendid Adam, that is to sey, al man. And therfore whan I sey
the Son, it menyth the Godhede which is even with the Fadir; and whan I sey
the servant, it menyth Christs manhood which is rythful Adam. Be the nerehede
of the servant is understode the Son, and be the stondyng on the left syde is under-
stod Adam. The lord is the Fadir, God; the servant is the Son, Christ Jesus; the
Holy Gost is even love which is in them both. Whan Adam fell, God Son fell.
For the rythfull onyng which was made in Hevyn, God Son myte not fro Adam,
for by Adam I understond all man. Adam fell fro lif to deth into the slade of
this wretchid world, and after that into Hell. Gods Son fell with Adam into the
slade of the Mayden wombe which was the fairest dawter of Adam, and therfor
to excuse Adam from blame in Hevyn and in erth, and mytyly He fetchid him
out of Hell.
   Be the wisdam and goodnes that was in the servant is understode Godds Son.
Be the por clothyng as a laborer standand nere the left syde is understode the
manhood and Adam, with al the mischef and febilnes that folowith. For in al
this, our good Lord shewid His owne Son and Adam but one man. The vertue
and the goodnes that we have is of Jesus Criste, the febilnes and the blindnes
that we have is of Adam; which two wer shewid in the servant. And thus hath
our good Lord Jesus taken upon Him al our blame, and therfore our Fadir may,
ne will, no more blame assigne to us than to His owen Son, derworthy Criste.
Thus was He the servant aforne His comeing into erth, stondand redy aforne
the Fader in purposs till what tyme He would send hym to don that worshipfull
dede be which mankynde was browte ageyn into Hevyn, that is to seyn, notwith-
stondyng that He is God, evyn with the Fadir as anempts the Godhede. But in1995
His forseeing purpose that He wold be man to saven man in fulfilling of His
Faders will, so He stode afore His Fader as a servant wilfully takyng upon Hym
al our charge. And than He stirt full redily at the Faders will, and anon He fell
full low in the Maydens womb, haveing no reward to Himselfe ne to His herd
peyns. The which kirtle is the flesh; the syngulhede is that there was ryte now
atwix the godhod and manhede. The steytehede is povertye. The eld is of Adams
waring; the defaceing of swete, of Adams travel. The shorthede shewith the
servant labour. And thus I saw the Son stonding, sayeing in His menyng: Lo,
my der Fader, I stond befor The in Adams kirtle alredy to sterten and to rennen. I
wold ben in the erth to don Thy
worship whan it is Thy will to send me. How long
shal I desiren?
   Ful sothfastly wist the Son whan it was the Fader will, and how long He shal
desiren. That is to sey, anempt the Godhede, for He is the wisdam of the Fader.
Wherfor this mening was shewid in understondyng of the manhode of Criste.
For all mankynd that shal be savid be the swete incarnation and blisful passion
of Criste, al is the manhood of Criste. For He is the hede, and we be His mem-
bers, to which members the day and the tyme is onknown whan every passand
wo and sorow shal have an end and the everlestyng joy and bliss shall be ful-
fylid, which day and time for to se al the company of Hevyn longyth. And al that
shall ben under Hevyn that shal come thider, ther wey is be longyng and desire,
which desir and longing was shewid in the servant stondyng aforen the Lord, or
ell thus, in the Sons stondyng aforn the Fadir in Adams kirtle. For the langor
and desire of al mankynd that shal be savid aperid in Jesus, for Jesus is al that
shal be savid, and al that shal be savid is Jesus - and al of the charite of God,
with obediens, mekeness, and patience, and vertues that longyn to us.
   Also in this mervelous example I have techyng with me as it were the begyn-
nyng of an ABC, wherby I may have sum understondyng of our Lordis menyng.
For the privities of the Revelation ben hidd therin, notwithstondyng that al the
shewing arn ful of privityes. The syttyng of the Fadir betokynyth His Godhede,
that is to sey, for shewyng of rest and peas, for in the Godhede may be no travel.
And that He shewid Hymselfe as Lord, betokynith to our manhode. The stondyng
of the servant betokynyth travel; on syde and on the left betokynyth that he was
not al worthy to stonden ever ryth aforn the Lord. His stertyng was the God-
hede, and the rennyng was the manhede. For the Godhede sterte from the Fadir
into the Maydens wombe, falling into the taking of our kynde. And in this falling
He toke gret sore. The sore that He toke was our flesh in which He had also
swithe felyng of dedly peynis. Be that He stod dredfully aforn the Lord, and not
even ryth, betokynith that His clothyng was not honest to stond in even ryth
aforn the Lord. Ne that myte not, ne shuld not, ben His office whil He was a
laborer. Ne also He myte not sitten in rest and peace with the Lord till He had
woon His peace rythfully with His herd travel. And be the left syde, that the
Fadir left His owne Son wilfully in the manhode to suffre all mannys paynys
without sparing of Him.
   Be that His kirtle was in poynte to be raggid and rent is understonden the
sweppys and the scorgis, the thornys and the naylys, the drawyng and the draggyng,
His tendir flesh rendyng - as I saw in sum partie the flesh was rent from the
hedepanne, falland in pecys into the tyme the bledyng failyd, and than it began
to dryand, agen clyngand to the bone. And be the wallowyng and wrythyng,
gronyng and monyng, is understonden that He myte never rysen al mytyly from
the tyme that He was fallen into the Maydens wombe till His body was slaine
and ded, He yeldyng the soule in the Fadirs hands with al mankynd for whom
He was sent.
   And at this poynte He began first to shewen His myte, for He went into Helle,
and whan He was there He reysid up the gret rote out of the depe depenes, which
rythfully was knit to Hym in hey Hevyn. The body was in the grave till Estern
morow, and from that tyme He lay never more. For then was rythfully endid the
walowyng and the wrythyng, the groning and the monyng. And our foule dedly
flesh that Gods Son toke on Hym, which was Adams old kirtle, streyte, bare and
short, than be our Savior was made fair, now white and bryte, and of endles
cleness, wyde and syde, fairer and richer than was than the clothyng which I saw
on the Fadir. For that clothyng was blew, and Christs clothyng is now of a fair
semely medlur which is so mervelous that I can it not discrien, for it is al of
very worshipps.
   Now sittith not the Lord on erth in wilderness, but He sittith in His noblest
sete which He made in Hevyn most to His lekyng. Now stondith not the Son aforn
the Fadir as a servant aforn the Lord, dredfully, unornely clad, in party nakid,
but He stondith aforn the Fadir ever rythe rechely clad in blissfull largess with
a corone upon His hede of pretious richess. For it was shewid that we be His
corone, which corone is the Fadirs joye, tho Sonys worshippe, the Holy Gost
lekyng, and endless mervelous bliss to all that be in Hevyn. Now stondith not the
Son aforn the Fadir on the left syde as a laborer, but He sittith on His Fadirs
ryte hond in endles rest and peace. But it is not ment that the Son syttith on
the ryte hond, syde be syde, as on man sittith be another in this lif, for ther is
no such syttyng, as to my syte, in the Trinite. But He sittith on His Fadirs ryte
hand, that is to sey, in the heyest noblyth of the Fadirs joyes. Now is the spouse,
Gods Son, in peace with His lowvid wife which is the fair mayden of endles
joye. Now sittith the Son, very God and man, in His cety in rest and peace
which His Fadir hath adyte to Him of His endles purpose, and the Fadir in the
Son, and tho Holy Gost in the Fadir and in the Son.
God enjoyeth that He is our fadir, mother, and spouse, and how the chosen have here
a medlur of wele and wo, but God is with us in three manner; and how we may eschew
synne but never it perfectly as in heaven. Fifty-second chapter.

   And thus I saw that God enjoyeth that He is our fader, God enjoyeth that He
is our moder, and God enjoyeth that He is our very spouse, and our soule is His
lovid wife. And Criste enjoyeth that He is our broder and Jesus enjoyeth that
He is our Savior. Ther arn five hey joyes, as I understond, in which He wil that
we enjoyen, Hym praysyng, Him thankyng, Him loveing, Him endlesly blissand.
Al that shall be savid, for the tyme of this life, we have in us a mervelous medlur
bothen of wele and wo. We have in us our Lord Jesus uprysen; we have in us
the wretchidnes and the mischefe of Adams fallyng, deyand. Be Criste we are
stedfastly kept, and be His grace touchyng, we are reysid into sekir troste of
salvation. And be Adams fallyng we arn so broken in our felyng on divers
manner, be synes and be sondry peynes, in which we arn made derke and so blinde
that onethys we can taken ony comfort.
   But in our menyng we abiden God, and faithfully trosten to have mercy and
grace. And this is His owen werkyng in us, and of His godeness He opynyth the
eye of our understondyng be which we have syte, sumtyme more and sumtyme
less, after that God gevyth abilite to takyn. And now we arn reysid into that on,
and now we are suffrid to fallen into that other. And thus is this medle so mer-
velous in us that onethys we knowen of ourselfe or of our evyn Cristen in what
wey we stonden, for the merveloushede of this sundry felyng, but that ilke holy
assent that we assenten to God whan we felyn Hym, truly willand to be with
Him with al our herte, with al our soule, and with all our myte. And than we
haten and dispisen our evil sterings and all that myte be occasion of synne,
gostly and bodily. And yet nevertheles whan this sweteness is hidde, we falyn
ageyn into blindhede, and so into wo and tribulation on divers manner. But
than is this our comfort, that we knowen in our feith, that be the vertue of
Criste which is our keper we assenten never therto, but we grutchin ther agen
and duryin in peyne and wo, prayand into that tyme that He shewith Him agen
to us. And thus we stonden in this medlur all the dayes of our life.
   But He will we trosten that He is lestyngly with us, and that in three manner.
He is with us in Hevyn, very man in His owne person, us updrawand, and that
was shewid in the gostly thrist. And He is with us in erth, us ledand, and that was
shewid in the thrid wher I saw God in a poynte. And He is with us in our soule
endlesly wonand, us reuland and yemand. And that was shewid in the sixteenth,
as I shal sey. And thus in the servant was shewid the mischefe and blyndhede of
Adams fallyng, and in the servant was shewid the wisdam and godeness of God
Son. And in the lord was shewid the ruth and pite of Adams wo, and in the lord
was shewid the hey noblyth and the endles worship that mankynde is cum to be
the vertue of the passion and the deth of His derworthy Son. And therfore myt-
yly He enjoyeth in His fallyng, for the hey reysing and fullhede of bliss that
mankynde is cum to, overpassing that we shuld have had if He had not fallen.
And thus to se this overpassing nobleth was myn understondyng led into God in
the same tyme that I saw the servant fallen. And thus we have now matter of
morneing, for our synne is cause of Crists paynes. And we haive lestingly matter
of joy, for endles love made hym to suffir.
   And therfore the creature that seith and felith the werkyng of love be grace
hatith nowte but synne. For of al thyng, to my syte, love and hate arn herdest and
most onmesurable contraries. And notwithstondyng all this, I saw and under-
stode in our Lord menyng that we may not in this life kepe us from synne as
holy in ful clenes as we shal ben in Hevyn. But we may wele be grace kepe us
from the synnes which will ledyn us to endles paynes, as Holy Church techith
us, and eschewen venial resonable upon our myte. And if we be our blyndhede and
our wretchedness ony tyme fallen, that we redily risen, knowand the swete
touching of grace, and wilfully amenden us upon the techyng of Holy Chuirch,
after that the synne is grevous, and gon forwith to God in love; and neither on
the on syd fallen overlow enclynand to despeyr, ne on that other syd ben over
rekles as if we gove no fors, but nakidly knowing our feblehede, witeand that we
may not stond a twincklyng of an eye but be keping of grace, and reverently
cleven to God, on Him only trostyng.
   For otherwise is the beholdyng of God, and otherwise is the beholdyng of man.
For it longyth to man mekely to accusen hymselfe. And it longith to the propir
goodnes of our Lord God curtesly to excusen man. And these be two parties that
were shewid in the double chere in which the lord beheld the fallyng of his
lovid servant. That one was shewid outward, wel mekely and myldly with gret
ruth and pite, and that of endless love. And ryth thus will our Lord that we
accusen ourselfe, wilfully and sothly seand and knowand our fallyng and all the
harmes that cum thereof, seand and witand that we may never restoren it, and
therwith that we wilfully and truly sen and knowen His everlasting love that He
hath us, and His plenteous mercy. And thus graciously to sen and knowen both
togeder is the meke accusyng that our Lord askyth of us. And Hymselfe werkith
it; then it is.
   And this is the lowor parte of manys life, and it was shewed in the outward
chere, in which shewing I saw two partes. That on is the reufull falling of man;
that other is the worshipfull asseth that our Lord hath made for man. The other
cher was shewid inward, and that was mor heyly and al on. For the life and the
vertue that we have in the lower parte is of the heyer, and it cummith downe to
us of the kinde love of the selfe be grace. Atwixen that on and that other is ryte
nowte, for it is all one love, which on blissid love hath now in us double werking.
For in the lower part arn peynes and passions, ruthes and pites, mercies and
forgevenes, and swich other that arn profitable. But in the higer parte are none of
these, but al on hey love and mervelous joye, in which mervelous joy all peynis
are heyly restorid. And in this our good Lord shewid not only our excuseing,
but also the worshipfull nobleth that He shall bring us to, turnand al our blame
into endles worshippe.
The kindness of God assigneth no blame to His chosen, for in these is a godly will that
never consent to synne. For it behovyth the ruthfulhede of God so to be knitt to these
that ther be a substance kept that may never be departid from Hym. Fifty-third chapter.

   And I saw that He will we wettynn He takith not herder the fallyng of
any creatur that shall be save than He to toke the fallyng of Adam which we
knowen was endlesly lovid and sekirly kept in the tyme of all His nede, and now
is blisfully restorid in hey, overpassing joyes. For our Lord God is so good, so
gentill, and so curtes that He may never assigne defaute in whom He shall ever
be blissid and praysid. And in this that I have now seyd was my desire in partie
answerid, and myn grete awer sumdele esid be the lovely gracious shewing of
our good Lord - in which shewing I saw and understode ful sekirly that in every
soule that shal be save is a godly wille that never assent to synne, ne never
shall; which wille is so good that it may never willen ylle, but evermore continuly
it will good and werkyth good in the syte of God. Therefore our Lord will we
knowen it in the feith and the beleve, and namly and truly, that we have all this
blissid will hole and safe in our Lord Jesus Christe. For that ilke kind that Hevyn
shall be fulfillid with behovith nedes, of Gods rythfulhede, so to be knitt and
onyd to Him that therin were kept a substance which myte never, ne shuld, be
partid from Him, and that throw His owne good will in His endles forseing
purpos. And notwithstonding this rythfull knitting and this endles onyng, yet
the redemption and the ageyn byeng of mankynd is nedefull and spedefull in
everything, as it is don for the same entent and to the same end that Holy
Church in our feith us techith.
   For I saw that God began never to loven mankynd. For ryte the same that
mankynde shal ben in endles bliss fulfilland the joye of God as anempts His
werks, ryte so the same mankynd hath ben, in the forsyte of God, knowen and
lovid from without begynnyng in His rytefull entent and be the endles assent of
the full accord of al the Trinite. The Mid-Person would be ground and hede of
this fair kinde, out of whom we be al cum, in whom we be all inclosid, into
whome we shall all wyndyn, in Him fynding our full Hevyn in everlestand joye be
the forseing purpos of all the blissid Trinite from without begynnyng. For er that
He mad us, He lovid us; and whan we were made we lovid Hym; and this is a
love made of the kindly substantial goodnes of the Holy Gost, mytye in reson of
the myte of the myte of the Fadir, and wise in mend of the wisdam of the Son.
And thus is man soule made of God, and in the same poynte knitt to God.
   And thus I understond that mannys soule is made of nought - that is to sey,
it is made, but of nought that is made, as thus: Whan God shuld make mans
body, He tooke the slyppe of erth, which is a matter medlid and gaderid of all
bodily things, and therof He made mannys bodye. But to the makyng of manys
soule, He wold take ryte nought, but made it. And thus is the kynd made ryte-
fully onyd to the maker, which is substantial kynd onmade, that is God. And
therefor it is that ther may, ne shall, be ryte nowte atwix God and mannys soule.
And in this endles love mans soule is kept hole as the matter of the revelations
menyth and shewith, in which endless love we be led and kept of God, and
never shall be lost. For He will we wetyn that our soule is a lif, which lif, of His
goodnes and His grace, shall lestin in Hevyn without end, Him loveand, Him thank-
and, Him praysand. And ryte the same we shall be withoute end, the same we were
tresurid in God, and hidde, knowen, and lovid from withoute begynnyng. Wher-
fore He will we wettyn that the noblest thing that ever He made is mankynd.
And the fullest substance and the heyest vertue is the blissid soule of Criste.
And furthermore, He will we wettyn that His derworthy soule was preciousley
knitt to Him in the makeing, which knott is sotil, and so myty that it is onyd
into God, in which onyng it is made endlesly holy. Furthermore, He will we
wettyn that al the soules that shall be savid in Hevyn without end ar knitt and
onyd in this onyng, and made holy in this holyhede.

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