SHORTER POEMS: FOOTNOTES1 The meek maiden marvelled at this message
2 Who exalts the lowly and lowers (those of) high (rank)
3 Then [he] broke into the chamber, brought home the lady fair
4 In return for your capering you should walk crippled and fearful
5 As nonsense widely gathered, foolish not good
6 As for your medicine, by measure I have weighed its value
7 With sweet dregs of wine and sorrel, the juice of the sage
8 This prescription is very expensive and excellent in part
9 Seven sobs of a seal, the blast of a whale
10 Who can [sing] placebo (I will please), and not half a dirge. The sense is: "Who can flatter and not stumble." The line is undoubtedly corrupt.
11 For worldly gain thus proceeds when the wiser close their eyes
SHORTER POEMS: NOTESThe Annunciation
This poem exists only in the National Library of Scotland, Adv. MS 34_7_3 (the Gray Manuscript). The title is speculative. The poem was presumably written later than 1503, at least in the manuscript, based on evidence relating to the mention of the death of James Stewart. In the manuscript, the poem is attributed to Henryson.
1 Fox translates likand as "pleasing," in accordance with DOST (1981, p. 768). "Likened" in the sense of "compared" is also a good possibility, since the form may also function as the past participle of the verb "like" or "liken." See DOST, pp. 768-74_ The line echoes Song of Songs 8:6_
2 quhome. Fox drops the final -e here and in syne (lines 11, 18, 70), thane (line 21), and Aarone (line 43).
suet is. The manuscript reading is suetis.
4 letis. This term is troublesome. Elliott makes a connection between this word and "tarry" or "linger." "Permits" or "accepts" are other possible explanations, as are "thinks" or "considers." This line perhaps alludes to I John 4:16 or Paul's paean to love in I Cor. 13_
12 The manuscript has decretis. This emendation was suggested by Smith, and its logic has persuaded all subsequent editors.
22 Smith glosses begild as "deprived" and suggests the sense of the line is "by God's grace in no way deprived of her chastity by fraud or mortal sin." Using the word in its more regular sense (as shown in the modern reflex) also works. In emphasizing Mary's chastity, the sense of the line would then be "by God's grace, not at all beguiled (into sin)." See DOST, p. 217_
23 chaumer is ambiguous and may equally well refer to Mary's womb.
24 cround is. The manuscript reading is croundis.
39-40 The allusion is to the burning bush (Exod. 3:2), commonly glossed as a figure for the Virgin Mary. Compare the Prologue to the Prioress' Tale (CT VII. 467-72).
43-44 wand of Aarone. See Num. 17:8, where Aaron's dry rod blooms. The event is regularly glossed as a prefiguration of Mary (n.b. pun on virga [twig] / virgo [virgin]). The Biblia Pauperum shows Aaron's rod blooming in the central position of the menorah as a companion/commentary on the left of the Annunciation (Plate A). See Biblia Pauperum: The Bible of the Poor: a facsimile edition of the British Library Blockbook C.9_d.2, ed. Albert Labriola (Pttsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1990).
45-46 flesch all donk. In Judges 6:37 God showed Gideon as a sign of earnest a wet fleece in a dry desert. Commentators commonly gloss the sign as a figure of Mary. the pregnant virgin in a spiritually dessicated land. The Biblia Pauperum places Gideon and the wet fleece on the side of the Annunciation opposite to Aaron's blooming rod (Plate A).
51 dreid. Smith reads as deid; however, the Gray Manuscript reads dreid.
57 The word bacis is another puzzle, and my gloss is speculative. Smith suggests the word should be glossed as "kisses" or "embraces." Fox speculates the word could mean "moisten," but etymological sources provide no help. My gloss is based on the possibility that the word is a variant of "Bak" meaning to "back up, support, assist" (DOST, p. 169). This gloss keeps the sense, particularly given the objective form of the pronoun which immediately precedes this word.
68 Termigant has the general meaning of "fierce devil."
The Abbey Walk
The textual history of this poem is complicated. The title was provided by Lord Hailes in Ancient Scottish Poems (1770). The poem is attributed to Henryson in the Bannatyne Manuscript, the source of this text. Because one version exists in the Bannatyne draft and another in the Bannatyne Manuscript proper, the two versions will be distinguished here. The third major text exists in the Maitland Folio.
6 saw. Maitland Folio: fand.
15 Maitland Folio: Sen þir but dout þou man assay.
18 Thobe is the Middle Scots form of Tobias, who, in his elder days, was blind. See Tobit. 2:11-14_
23 in patience is from the version in the draft form of the manuscript. Bannatyne: rycht patiently.
25 Maitland Folio: For thocht þow be hurt or halt.
29 thy lord. Maitland Folio: <é>þi go .
30-32 Compare Chaucer's "Truth: Balade de Bon Conseyl," especially lines 10-14, 19_
32 The tag line is not completely given in the Bannatyne version which states Obet etc. This line is taken from the draft version. The same emendation has been made to lines 40 and 48_
43 Bannatyne reads bot instead of throw. Maitland Folio: Cowdis nowdir throw fortoun nor chance.
47 Maitland Folio: Thairfoir quhone evir ye till him bown.
53 that deit on tre. Fox (1981) follows the Maitland Folio reading of that on the tre.
54 In line 54, Fox (1981) uses gustit from the Maitland Folio version of the poem. Both Bannatyne and the Bannatyne draft read taistit the. However, taistit also solves the metric problem.
The Bludy Serk
This poem is attributed to Henryson in the Bannatyne Manuscript, which is the basis for this text. On the origins of the story Fox notes:
The story of a lover-knight (Christ) who fights a battle in which he frees his lady (man's soul) but then dies of his wounds is extremely widespread. [Rosemary] Woolf says that there is "only one well-known preaching book which does not include the exemplum" ["The Theme of Christ the Lover-Knight in Medieval English Literature," RES n.s. 13 (1962), 14]. There are many forms of the tale: sometimes the lady is seduced by an evil man; sometimes the Christ-King asks in vain for the lady's love before the battle, or makes conditions; sometimes the lady is unkind and must be pleaded with after the battle. I have not found any single version which is a satisfactory 'source' for this poem. The version in the Gesta Romanorum, which G. G. Smith suggested as a source, does have some of the elements of the version in the poem. The lady's father is mentioned and later explained as a pater celestis, a detail which is not usually included, and in one of the English versions of the Gesta it is a blody serke that the maiden hangs up. But in the Gesta version the maiden is seduced by a dux tyrannus, not stolen by a giant, while there is no mention of a prison or of the princely rank of the knight, two details which can be found in other versions. It seems likely that the poem is simply a free variation on a tale known in many forms (1981, p. 438).
18 fowll gyane of ane. "An especially foul giant." Alternative readings are "a foul giant of a (time past)," and "a doltish giant." See DOST, pp. 76-77_
24 wane. Bannatyne: wame. The emendation of wame (belly) to wane (dwelling) is Fox's and maintains the rhyme. Fox (1981) suggests "a minim error," with waine as a probable source for the confusion. Wood keeps wame. Both readings make sense.
28 fyve quarteris. Five-fourths of an ell; Fox estimates "about 46 inches" (1981, p. 440).
35 gif of her a sicht. Fox (1981) suggests "let anyone look at her." But the sense might well be "have pity on her," with sicht being glossed as "sigh."
73 de. Bannatyne places the word de not directly following I but rather at the start of the next line. Line 74 then reads De, trestly. . . .
95 Bannatyne inserts with between day and nycht. Fox (1981) logically emends this to and.
96 Smith solves a grammatical dilemma here by emending With to And, which Fox (1981) follows. Mak could be a past participle, however, the sense being "with prayers made to him." The repetition of mak as the rhyme word in lines 92 and 96 is neither a sign of corruption nor doggerel, as Fox suggests, but is in keeping with high style as in Chaucer and French rhetoric.
103 Bannatyne inserts gyane between The and pit.
113, 119 deir. Another instance of verbal repetition for rhyme.
The Garmont of Gud Ladeis
This poem is attributed to Henryson in the Bannatyne Manuscript, from which the text is drawn. The clothing of oneself in virtue became a common literary trope, following the Biblical admonition.
13 A kirtill in Middle Scots refers to a garment similar to a modern slip.
26 A tepat or tippet was originally an article of ornamentation on the apex of a hood which was later worn around the shoulders like a modern muffler.
27 A patelet is an article made of satin or velvet typically worn around the neck and upper part of the chest.
32 hyd hir. Fox's emendation (1981); Bannatyne: gyd. Wood reads gyd (guide) which makes a kind of sense - fingers need guidance - but not by gloves.
39 Smith suggests the sense of this line is "whether gaily or quietly dressed."
Against Hasty Credence
In the Bannatyne Manuscript, the source for this edition, the poem is attributed to Henryson. Themes against gossip, flattery, and nïive gullibility are common in Henryson.
5 I se. Maitland Folio: and se.
12 The line is garbled in the Bannatyne Manuscript. The Maitland Folio weill avow it is a good substitution for the Bannatyne abyd at it he. Bannatyne also contains a writeover.
17 Stanzas three and four are transposed in the Maitland Folio.
18 Bannatyne: The fals. The reading of fals alone is attested in the Maitland Folio.
23 This line is proverbial, and its sense is "no matter how good it sounds, it is not logical."
27 with thair serwandis wreith. Maitland Folio: with freyndes and nychtbours wraithe.
28 baneist. Maitland Folio: troublit.
45 that hes joy or desyre. Maitland Folio: with mynd þat dois.
46 thair eirris is from the Maitland Folio. Bannatyne: his eir.
49 Maitland Folio: To heir bakbyttaris, traist weill, it is na bourd.
50 Fox (1981) emends Bannatyne's excommunicat to planlie curst from the Maitland Folio. His argument is that the word is not recorded in Middle Scots as a verb or a past participial adjective before the sixteenth century. Given Henryson's broad learning, I find this usage acceptable in the poem. Moreover, it is reinforced by the fact that it seems to reflect earlier Scottish religious rites rather than later Protestantism.
The Praise of Age
The poem is attributed to Henryson in the Bannantyne manuscript. I have followed Wood and Fox in basically reprinting the Chepman and Myllar text.
3 and is from Bannatyne. Chepman and Myllar: et.
6 for my wis means approximately "as to my own desire."
7 and is from Chepman and Myllar. Bannatyne: et.
10 Chepman and Myllar: oursel with syt and other synnis mo.
11 is all tynt. Chepman and Myllar: is tynt.
12 Chepman and Myllar: and wrachitness his turnyt all fra weill to wo. Bannatyne: Wretchitnes hes wrocht all weill to wo.
18 sik. Chepman and Myllar: grit.
19 full smal. Bannatyne draft: speciall.
19-20 Chepman and Myllar: can nane gane stand the ragyne of his blud, / na yit be stabil one til he agit be
31 glore. Chepman and Myllar: joy.
Ane Prayer for the Pest
This poem exists in two versions: one in the Bannatyne draft and the other in the Bannatyne Manuscript proper. The attribution to Henryson in the Bannatyne Manuscript is obviously in a later hand. The reference here is undoubtedly to bubonic plague, which apparently came to Scotland in the middle of the fourteenth century, with sporadic outbursts for the next two hundred years.
3 sal be is is from the Bannatyne draft. Bannatyne: evir sal be.
29 pungetyfe meaning "irritating," "stinging," or "sharp" is first attested here.
32 fra this perrelus pestilens is from the Bannatyne draft. Bannatyne: etc, though giving the entire line in line 40.
53 Bannatyne reads bot dreid instead of be deid from the draft, but the text is garbled in the manuscript proper. See Fox (1981), p. 455_
64 Bannatyne draft reads Finis here, after which the Supplication follows as in Bannatyne.
65-88 These lines show Henryson at his most aureate. He engages in techniques widely used by Dunbar. Part of the interest is in the unusual word choice, involving Latin neologisms, but part is also in the internal rhyme. For maximum effect, students should attempt to read the passages out loud.
68 For is from the Bannatyne draft. Bannatyne: O.
71 for to arrace is from the Bannatyne draft. Bannatyne: and ws imbrace. Fox (1981) prefers the draft use of For instead of Send as the first word in the line. However, by end-stopping line 70, the line makes perfect sense with Send.
76 and thame begyle. Bannatyne draft: falsly and begyle. This is Fox's emendation (1981).
80 that Thow sa deir hes bocht is from the Bannatyne draft. Bannatyne: etc.
81-82 Fox (1981) end stops line 81, and muses on the meaning of Sen in the context of the first line. I speculate that line 81 was not end-stopped and that justice mon correct is an interruptive element. This allows Sen to be interpreted as "Then" with the meaning "as for." The sense of the lines would be "as for our sins, which justice must correct, oh king most high, now pacify thy anger."
84 dislug is from the Bannatyne draft. Bannatyne: deluge.
dreid. Bannatyne draft: steid.
86 For we is from the Bannatyne draft. Bannatyne: We ws.
forthocht. The critical question here involves whether forthocht is a verb or an adjective. I have followed Smith in interpreting it as an adjective. However, as Fox (1981) observes, neither alternative is terribly attractive. This gloss is traditional but if the word is used in the sense of "anticipated" or "premeditated" (DOST, p. 524), the line may actually mean "For we repent all time misspent (in the past and) anticipated." However, I have used the DOST sense of "repented" or "remembered with regret." The latter avoids repetition in the line.
The Ressoning betuix Aige and Yowth
Texts exist in the Bannatyne draft, the Bannatyne Manuscript, the Makculloch Manuscript, and the Maitland Folio. The basic text used here is from the Bannatyne draft, but all subtitles are from the Bannatyne Manuscript text. This poem might be profitably compared with the debate of Youth, Middle Elde, and Elde in The Parlement of the Three Ages.
5 Movand. Makculloch: musand, a tempting reading.
7 that sueitly. Bannatyne: richt sweitly. Maitland Folio: suttellie, which Fox (1981) follows.
9 me is from Bannatyne. Bannatyne draft: ws.
10 I . . . a. Bannatyne: And . . . ane.
11 lene. Bannatyne: clene. Makculloch, Maitland Folio, and Bannatyne draft: leyn.
13 and1 is from all manuscripts but Bannatyne which reads richt.
ony. Makculloch: ane.
15 les. Bannatyne: lyis.
16 fellone. Makculloch and Maitland Folio: ferly.
18 misdum is from the Makculloch Manuscript. Bannatyne draft: makdome. Fox (1981) emends this word to the more common form, misdome.
21 The sense is "no one can challenge me."
22 half wirth a prene. Makculloch and Maitland Folio: wirth half a prene. Bannatyne: of wirth a prene.
25-32 In the Bannatyne draft these lines are transposed with lines 33-40.
28 bayth frak, forsy, and is from the Maitland Folio. Bannatyne draft: als fors and.
30 that day is ordrawyne is from Makculloch. Bannatyne draft: thai dayis ourdrevin is. Fox (1981) emends this to read that day is ourdrevin.
31 laythly is attested in both Makculloch and the Maitland Folio. Bannatyne draft: laikly.
32 fadis fellone sone is from the Bannatyne Manuscript. Bannatyne draft: etc. The same expansion has been made in lines 48 and 64_
33 this yungman yit is from the Makculloch and Maitland Folio. Bannatyne: yit this yungman. Bannatyne draft: yit this yungman yit.
33-40 The sense of the text requires (and other witnesses show) that the order must be changed as in this text.
37 mowis is from Makculloch. Bannatyne draft: mowthis, which could make sense but seems less appropriate in the context.
38 secreitnes. Bannatyne: secreit place. Maitland Folio: sacreit wyse.
we is omitted in the Bannatyne draft but attested in all other witnesses.
39 And so with birdis blyhtlie my baillis beit. A reader who perceives double entendre in the last two words has good reason for suspicion.
40 in to thi flowris grene is from the Makculloch. Bannatyne draft: etc. The same expansion has been made in line 56_
41 austryne man. Maitland Folio: ancient man.
gaif is from the Maitland Folio. Bannatyne draft: greif.
43 And. Bannatyne: sa it also.
44 Maitland Folio: Quhen pane sall the depryve for paramour.
46 move. Bannatyne: wendin. Maitland Folio: mynnis, which Fox (1981) follows.
51 Maitland Folio: My self is sauf fra seikness and fra sair.
52 in dew. Maitland Folio: ar dowbill in.
53 is. Omitted in Maitland Folio.
55 The Bannatyne draft reads no ressoun. no is omitted based on the reading of the Maitland Folio.
57 bevir hair. "Trembling greybeard" is Fox's gloss (1981, p. 464). The meaning of bevir is uncertain.
62 heill. Bannatyne: helth.
63 wane is from Maitland Folio. Bannatyne: vaneis.
65 galyart grutchit and is from the Maitland Folio. Bannatyne draft: gowand grathit.
and began to greif. Bannatyne: with sic grit greif.
66 Bannatyne reads he on his wayis wrethly went but wene. Maitland Folio: And on full sone he went his wayis but wein.
67 This is from the Bannatyne Manuscript. Bannatyne draft: Thus. Bannatyne: lene awld man luche not.
68 I is omitted in the Bannatyne draft but attested in the Bannatyne Manuscript.
69 quhen is omitted in the Bannatyne draft but attested in the Bannatyne Manuscript. Maitland Folio: That takkin suthelie, fra that I had sein.
70 trevist is from the Maitland Folio. Bannatyne draft: tremefit. Bannatyne: triumphit.
The Ressoning betuix Deth and Man
In the Bannatyne Manuscript, this poem is ascribed to Henryson, though not in the Bannatyne draft, which also lacks the title. Fox says, "There is little to choose from between the two versions" (1981, p. 467) and follows the draft. Wood follows Bannatyne, as do I. In the draft, the speakers are called "Mors" and "Homo" instead of "Deth" and "Man." In many ways, this poem is a typical debate couched around the memento mori theme.
Bannatyne draft separates stanzas with the Latin terms Mors and Homo.
5 roall stait. Bannatyne draft: ryell estait.
7 Bannatyne draft omits and.
12 Bannatyne draft: I trest trewly of that that thow sall le.
15 Bannatyne draft: so wicht so stark.
16 Bot. Bannatyne draft: Nor.
17 at me. Omitted in Bannatyne. Emendation from Bannatyne draft, for reasons of meter.
26 Bannatyne draft omits with.
30 Fox (1981) uses the version from the Bannatyne Manuscript for this line, in which ay is placed directly after Trestand. He notes that ay had been written and then crossed out in the same position in the Bannatyne draft. The fact that it was added in the position reflected in this text indicates some care to transmit this version of the line.
37 thy self. Bannatyne draft: for the.
38 Bannatyne draft omits and and for and is metrically superior.
40 Thocht thow wer paip, empriour, and king al thre. Perhaps with a distant echo of the refrain of Chaucer's poem "Gentilesse": "Al were he mytre, croune, or diademe."
44 hummilly is from the Bannatyne draft. Bannatyne gives humly, which leaves the line a syllable short.
45 Beseikand. Bannatyne gives Beseiking.
Robene and Makyne
The poem is attributed to Henryson in the Bannatytne Manuscript. This poem is apparently an example of the Pastourelle. A great deal of critical debate has centered around how this poem fits in the tradition of medieval and early Renaissance love poetry. Robin and Makyne, or Malyne (see Chaucer's Reeve's Tale), or Matilda, are names often given to pastoral lovers. Fox notes that Malkyne is a term used for the female pudendum (1981, p. 471).
5 The sense of lowd and still is "in every possible way."
7 "My woe in secret unless you assuage." Fox (1981) points out that dern has a sexual connotation.
8 dreid. In love matters the word suggests "fear of denial," "anxiety," and "danger" as well as "awe" and "reverence."
11 wid. Fox (1981) notes that the spelling obscures the rhyme, but is used elsewhere in Bannatyne. The romance rhyme tag "under the wood" which does not rhyme perhaps shows some wit.
21 Fox (1981) translates denger as "disdain." That sense fits the context, but "denger" means more specifically the control of one lover over another, sometimes resulting in haughtiness and disdain. This sense of control is also the first meaning cited for "danger" in DOST (p. 9). Lovers were indeed expected to be fearless of all physical danger as well, as illustrated in the Romance of the Rose, where Daunger repeatedly frustrates the lover.
84 The sense here is "without fickleness or infidelity."
120 The sense of this line is "goodbye, for we met as separate individuals and leave each other as such."
Sum Practysis of Medecyne
This is one of Henryson's most puzzling poems. It contains an interesting mixture of pharmaceutical terminology and bawdry. At least in some passages, Henryson shows himself at his most colloquial and, simultaneously, his most complex. The poem derives from a tradition of medical burlesques. It is basically, like "My Last Duchess," a dramatic monologue, assuming the presence of another person. It shares characteristics of the flyting poems (feisty debates, of which the best examples are Dunbar's) in that the speaker is obviously antagonistic to his imaginary companion. Even though the poem is attributed to Henryson in the Bannatyne Manuscript, its differences in tone, style, and structure may lead one to question its authorship. It was first printed in 1865 by Laing. Fox suggests that the thirteen-line stanza with a wheel, which Henryson uses only here, apparently was "employed by Scots poets especially for humorous verse, grotesqueries, and flytings in the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries" (1981, p. 416).
1 Guk guk is glossed by Fox (1981) and others as the cuckoo's cry. If it represents an example of onomatopoeia, in that sense, it may also mean "open wide." The latter sense is reinforced by the idea that the listener must "gape while you get it" in having the medicine administered. However, Smith's argument that Guk means "fool" and is an address to the imaginary listener is also a good possibility. For additional proof of Smith's argument see line 905 of the Fabillis for the adjectival form gukait. In addition, gape may also mean "seek" so that gape quhill ye get it would mean "seek until you find it (a cure?)." See line 1107 in the Fabillis for such usage. See also DOST, pp. 742-43_ Or the sense of the line may address the gaping fool who, in his desire for remedy, is, so to speak, "cuckoo" or a "gawk." Fox interprets the manuscript hand of Bannatyne to read schir instead of ser.
2 gud laik in your hude basically means "you are an object of scorn" - further demonstration of the speaker's antagonism to the listener.
10 longis. Bannatyne: lougis. The sense of the idiom is "I was panting for fear."
18 If fell is translated as "accident" the sense of the line is "there is neither fever nor accident that exists in the world." See Fabillis, for similar constructions. lines 126 and 2442_ In the second half of this line, the MS has in tyme gif I seid deleted.
21-23 These lines state "on your soul be it that you be certain of this prescription I send you with the reliable men (the pharmacists)." The sense is "be sure to give exact directions."
24 This line is another puzzle. Smith suggests it means "That cure all illnesses."
Dia culcakit. Fox (1981) glosses: "befouled buttock drug." The term "dia" in pharmacy usually stands for "made of" with the major ingredent following in the title.
27 cuk maid is obscure, but probably means "excrement." Thus, the entire line would be "Take excrement and gather the water pepper."
37 cow. Bannatyne: sow. Fox's emendation. Fox compares " 'kis þe cunt of ane kow' in The Flyting Montgomerie and Polwart (Montgomerie, Poems, p. 186, line 817)" (1981, p. 482). It's not altogether clear how one would mix such a kiss into the remedy. The genitalia of the sow are also mentioned in satire literature (though usually unkissed), so perhaps emendation is unnecessary.
Dia longum may mean merely "a long prescription." However, "long" and "longue" are also variant spellings of the modern word "lung" (see DOST pp. 846-47). It makes sense to include a prescription for the lungs, but the area treated in line 49 is much lower on the body. Whether "longum" might have a sexual meaning is at this point merely a subject for speculation.
45 The overall translation of this line is "with a sleeve full of algae that grow in the mud." This reading is based on Smith's suggestion. Fox (1981) speculates that the original text may have contained seif full "sieve full."
Dia glaconicon does not have an established meaning.
Dia custrum also has no known meaning. However, the term custroun means "knave" or "varlet" (DOST, p. 793). If this is a variant, the title would then be "knavish prescription," befitting the tone of the poem.
71 This line is truly ambiguous, based on the lack of attestations for oster poik. One sense that would fit Henryson's meaning and scatological tone would be "an ounce of an oyster poked at the nether part." Nonsensical as it is, this reading would fit the tone of the poem.
77 The translation of stok as "log" is Fox's (1981). However, Smith and Wood both argue for "winter cabbage."
86 "For it shall put them to flight, indeed, in a state of confusion." The phrase out of the fary may also suggest the remedy could kill the patient, since "the land of fary" is used to refer to the netherworld.
The Thre Deid Pollis
Authorship of this poem may be questionable. In the Bannatyne Manuscript it is ascribed to Patrick Johnston. Attribution to Henryson is found in the Maitland Folio Manuscript. The text here is primarily based on the Bannatyne Manuscript.
1 this mortall se. A conventional figure of instability and mortality. In the eighth age, when the New Jerusalem comes and time desists, the sea shall be no more (Apoc. 21:1).
2 the vaill. Maitland Folio: þe well and.
9 For suth. Maitland Folio: Off treuthe.
10 suffer deid. Maitland Folio: thole þe dethe.
14 MS repeats this line.
15 sair. Bannatyne: fair.
27 so is from the Maitland Folio. It is omitted in Bannatyne.
33 wofull. Maitland Folio: wilfull.
38 erdly. Maitland Folio: uþer.
45 expert is from the Maitland Folio. Bannatyne: excellent. The phrase science or in lare generally means all types of learning.
47 sowld be. Maitland Folio: still sould be.
48 Maitland Folio: And think rycht sure, as þus all heldis manly.
52 and is from the Maitland Folio. It is omitted in Bannatyne.
53 orisionis. This is clearly the word in the Maitland Folio. As Fox (1981) notes, the word in Bannatyne could be either oritionis or orisionis.
56 to rew and glorifÙ is from the Maitland Folio. Bannatyne: quhen he sall call and cry.
59 mercy cry and is from the Maitland Folio. Bannatyne: our sawlis to.
61 ring. Maitland Folio: Regnne. In Bannatyne the line reads that throwch his blude we may ay leif and ring.
The Want of Wyse Men
After a thorough review of the evidence, Fox concluded that this poem is not Henryson's. He contends "there seems no real evidence for assigning it to Henryson" (1981, p. cxvi). I agree that it is at best of questionable authorship. There is no attribution in Chepman and Myllar, but the text is collocated with Orpheus. In Bannatyne there is no attribution at all. Nonetheless, the poem is reproduced in previous editions and discussed in Henryson criticism, and it is included here for the sake of completeness. The basic text used here is that of the Chepman and Myllar print (1508). The metrics are quite irregular in Bannatyne, with many six-stress lines. I have included the Bannatyne readings in the notes.
1 mervellis is from Bannatyne. Chepman and Myllar: ferlyis.
2 clerk of connyng. Bannatyne: cunnand clerk of clergy.
3 upsyd doun is from Bannatyne. Chepman and Myllar: up so doun.
6 wit is worthin wrynkis. Bannatyne: wit is now wrochtin to wrinkis
7 Now sele is sorow. Bannatyne: No seill is sover now.
8 makis. Bannatyne: garris.
9 That tyme. Bannatyne: As bukis beiris witnes.
11 Bannatyne: Nou ellis we wat, forsuth, quhithir it turnis.
12 Bannatyne: The quhilk Octaviane, the man riche, coud hald. Octavian is Augustus Caesar who, according to Virgil, brought peace to all the earth, reestablishing the Golden Age and the reign of Saturn (Eclogue 4, see lines 6-9). This rule marks the peace at the time of Christ's nativity (Luke 2:1).
13 hertis. Bannatyne: mennis hertis.
14 reule. Bannatyne: gud rewll.
15 prudence, nobilitee. Bannatyne: nobilite, prudens now is.
17 his. Bannatyne: all his grit.
18 dyvine. Bannatyne: all thair devyne.
19 half. Bannatyne: to half.
20 pill. Bannatyne: peill full bair.
21 in, and thay. Bannatyne: in sone, quhen that they.
22 wyn. Bannatyne: wonyng.
23 sik is. Bannatyne: sa is now.
24 Sen. Bannatyne: That.
to sitt. Bannatyne: sit.
25-40 In the Bannatyne Manuscript these two stanzas are transposed.
25 Now. Bannatyne: Weir.
26 na. Bannatyne: and.
28 pore. Bannatyne: pure folkis.
33 Bannatyne: Lord, quhiddir ar exylit all noble corage.
34 and. Bannatyne: with kyndnes and.
35 Bannatyne: No thing is fundin now stable in no stagis.
36 wyth sad maturitee. Bannatyne: availis with moralitee.
37 Bannatyne: Peas is away, flemit is all proplexite.
38 policy. Bannatyne: wisdome.
39 Bannatyne: The worldis war may seyme weill callit to be.
41 Bannatyne: Quhare is the balme of Justice, evin equite.
42 Nouthir meryt is preisit. Bannatyne: No meryt is present.
43 ledis. Bannatyne: leidis now.
44 ox or. Bannatyne: one.
45 fraellar. Bannatyne: frewollar.
47 A fasse is something of no value. I have glossed the word as "knot," which is one of its translations in Modern Scots, for the reason that a knot is something that almost anyone can make.
Bannatyne: our governante nocht keipis gud rewll nor compass.
49-64 These stanzas appear only in Bannatyne. I have emended line 64 to complete the refrain with wise men makis fulis sit on binkis. Bannatyne: etc.
61 heble hable. A nonsense form very much like "helter skelter."
67 and honoure. Bannatyne: gudnes, and he honour.
69 Bannatyne: as thy evangell planely dois express.
70 thingis. Bannatyne: faltis.
71 Quhilk ar degradit. Bannatyne: as it is deformit.
72 Smith and Wood emend this line by adding men and fulis. Bannatyne's version of this line is a kind of benediction. That without fulis may wysemen sit on binkis.
- The Annunciation
- The Abbey Walk
- The Bludy Serk
- The Garmont of Gud Ladeis
- Against Hasty Credence
- The Praise of Age
- Ane Prayer for the Pest
- The Ressoning betuix Aige and Yowth
- The Ressoning betuix Deth and Man
- Robene and Makyne
- Sum Practysis of Medecyne
- The Thre Deid Pollis
- The Want of Wyse Men
Forcy as deith is likand lufe,
Throuch quhome al bittir suet is;
No thing is hard, as writ can pruf,
Till him in lufe that letis;
Luf us fra barret betis.
Quhen fra the hevinly sete abufe
In message Gabriell couth muf,
And with myld Mary metis,
And said, "God wele the gretis;
In the He will tak rest and rufe,
But hurt of syne or yit reprufe;
In Him sett thi decret is."
This message mervale gert that myld, 1
And silence held but soundis,
As weill aferit a maid infild.
The angell it expoundis,
How that hir wame but woundis
Consave it suld, fra syne exild;
And quhen this carpin wes compilit,
Brichtnes fra bufe aboundis.
Thane fell that gay to groundis,
Of Goddis grace na thing begild;
Wox in hir chaumer chaist with child,
With Crist our kyng that cround is.
Thir tithingis tauld, the messinger
Till hevin agane he glidis;
That princes pure withoutyn peir
Full plesandly applid is,
And blith with barne abidis.
O worthy wirschip singuler,
To be moder and madyn meir,
As Cristin faith confidis;
That borne was of hir sidis
Our makar, Goddis sone so deir,
Quhilk erd, wattir, and hevinnis cleir
Throw grace and virtu gidis.
The miraclis ar mekle and meit
Fra luffis ryver rynnis;
The low of luf haldand the hete
Unbrynt full blithlie birnis;
Quhen Gabriell beginnis
With mouth that gudely may to grete,
The wand of Aarone, dry but wete,
To burioun nocht blynnis;
The flesch all donk within is,
Upon the erd na drop couth fleit;
Sa was that may maid moder suete
And sakeles of all synnis.
Hir mervalus haill madinhede
God in hir bosum bracis,
And Hir divinité fra dreid
Hir kepit in all casis.
The hie God of His gracis
Him self dispisit, us to speid,
And dowtit nocht to dee on deid;
He panit for our peacis,
And with His blude us bacis,
Bot quhen He ras up, as we rede,
The cherité of His Godhede
Was plane in every placis.
O lady lele and lusumest,
Thy face moist fair and schene is;
O blosum blith and bowsumest,
Fra carnale cryme that clene is;
This prayer fra my splene is,
That all my werkis wikkitest
Thow put away and mak me chaist
Fra Termigant that teyn is,
And fra his cluke that kene is,
And syne till hevin my saule thou haist,
Quhair thi makar, of michtis mast,
Is kyng, and thow thair quene is.
The Abbey Walk
Allone as I went up and doun,
In ane abbay wes fair to se,
Thinkand quhat consolatioun
Wes best in to adversitie,
On cais I kest on syd myne e
And saw this writtin upoun a wall:
"Off quhat estait, man, that thow be,
Obey and thank thi God off all.
"Thy kindome and thy grit empyre,
Thy ryeltie nor rich array,
Sall nocht indure at thi desyre,
Bot as the wind will wend away;
Thy gold and all thi gudis gay,
Quhen fortoun list, will fra the fall:
Sen thow sic sampillis seyis ilk day,
Obey and thank thi God of all.
"Job was moist riche, in writ we find,
Thobe moist full of cheretie -
Job wox peur and Thoby blynd,
Baith temptit with adversitie:
Sen blindnes wes infirmitie,
And povertie was naturall,
Thairfoir in patience baith he and he
Obeid and thankit God of all.
"Thocht thow be blind or haif ane halt,
Or in thy face deformit ill,
Sa it cum nocht throw thy defalt,
Na man sowld the repreif by skill:
Blame nocht thy lord, sa is his will,
Spur nocht thy fute aganis the wall,
Bot with meik hairt and prayar still
Obey and thank thy God of all.
"God of His justice mon correct,
And of His mercy petie haif;
He is ane juge to nane suspect,
To puneis synffull man and saif:
Thocht thow be lord attouir the laif,
And eftirwart maid bund and thrall,
Ane peure begger with skrip and staif,
Obey and thank thy God of all.
"This changeing and grit variance
Of erdly staitis up and doun
Is nocht throw casualtie and chance,
As sum men sayis, withowt ressoun,
Bot be the grit provisioun
Of God aboif that rewill the sall:
Thairfoir evir thow mak the boun
To obey and thank thy God of all.
"In welth be meik, heiche not thy self,
Be glaid in wilfull povertie;
Thy power and thy warldlie pelf
Is nocht bot verry vanitie:
Remembir him that deit on tre
For thy saik taistit bittir gall,
Quha hyis law and lawis he - 2
Obey and thank thy God of all."
The Bludy Serk
This hindir yeir I hard be tald
Thair was a worthy king;
Dukis, erlis, and barronis bald
He had at his bidding;
The lord was anceane and ald
And sexty yeiris cowth ring,
He had a dochter fair to fald,
A lusty lady ying.
Off all fairheid scho bur the flour,
And eik hir faderis air,
Off lusty laitis and he honour,
Meik bot and debonair;
Scho wynnit in a bigly bour,
On fold wes none so fair,
Princis luvit hir paramour
In cuntreis our-allquhair.
Thair dwelt alyt besyde the king
A fowll gyane of ane;
Stollin he hes the lady ying,
Away with hir is gane,
And kest hir in his dungering
Quhair licht scho micht se nane;
Hungir and cauld and grit thristing
Scho fand in to hir wane.
He wes the laithliest on to luk
That on the grund mycht gang,
His nailis wes lyk ane hellis cruk,
Thairwith fyve quarteris lang;
Thair wes nane that he ovrtuk,
In rycht or yit in wrang,
Bot all in schondir he thame schuke,
The gyane wes so strang.
He held the lady day and nycht
Within his deip dungeoun,
He wald nocht gif of hir a sicht
For gold nor yit ransoun,
Bot gife the king mycht get a knycht
To fecht with his persoun,
To fecht with him both day and nycht
Quhill ane wer dungin doun.
The king gart seik baith fer and neir,
Beth be se and land,
Off ony knycht gife he micht heir
Wald fecht with that gyand;
A worthy prince that had no peir
Hes tane the deid on hand,
For the luve of the lady cleir,
And held full trew cunnand.
That prince come prowdly to the toun,
Of that gyane to heir,
And fawcht with him his awin persoun
And tuke him presoneir,
And kest him in his awin dungeoun
Allane withouttin feir,
With hungir, cauld, and confusioun,
As full weill worthy weir.
Syne brak the bour, had hame the bricht 3
Unto hir fadir deir;
Sa evill wondit was the knycht
That he behuvit to de;
Unlusum was his likame dicht,
His sark was all bludy;
In all the warld was thair a wicht
So peteous for to sy?
The lady murnyt and maid grit mone
With all hir mekle micht,
"I luvit nevir lufe bot one
That dulfully now is dicht.
God sen my lyfe wer fra me tone
Or I had sene yone sicht,
Or ellis in begging evir to gone
Furth with yone curtas knycht!"
He said, "Fair lady, now mone I de,
Trestly ye me trow;
Tak ye my sark that is bludy,
And hing it forrow yow;
First think on it and syne on me
Quhen men cumis yow to wow."
The lady said, "Be Mary fre,
Thairto I mak a wow!"
Quhen that scho lukit to the serk
Scho thocht on the persoun,
And prayit for him with all hir harte
That lowsd hir of bandoun,
Quhair scho was wont to sit full merk
In that deip dungeoun;
And evir quhill scho wes in quert
That was hir a lessoun.
Sa weill the lady luvit the knycht
That no man wald scho tak;
Sa suld we do our God of micht
That did all for us mak,
Quhilk fullely to deid wes dicht
For sinfull manis saik;
Sa suld we do both day and nycht,
With prayaris to him mak.
This king is lyk the Trinitie,
Baith in hevin and heir,
The manis saule to the lady,
The gyane to Lucefeir,
The knycht to Chryst that deit on tre
And coft our synnis deir,
The pit to hell with panis fell,
The syn to the woweir.
The lady was wowd, bot scho said nay
With men that wald hir wed;
Sa suld we wryth all syn away,
That in our breist is bred.
I pray to Jesu Chryst verrey,
For us His blud that bled,
To be our help on domysday
Quhair lawis ar straitly led.
The saule is Godis dochtir deir,
And eik his handewerk,
That was betrasit with Lucifeir
Quha sittis in hell full merk,
Borrowit with Chrystis angell cleir;
Hend men, will ye nocht herk?
For His lufe that bocht us deir,
Think on the bludy serk.
The Garmont of Gud Ladeis
Wald my gud lady lufe me best
And wirk eftir my will,
I suld ane garmond gudliest
Gar mak hir body til.
Off he honour suld be hir hud,
Upoun hir heid to weir,
Garneist with govirnance so gud,
Na demyng suld hir deir.
Hir sark suld be hir body nixt
Of chestetie so quhyt,
With schame and dreid togidder mixt
The same suld be perfyt.
Hir kirtill suld be of clene constance,
Lasit with lesum lufe,
The mailyeis of continwance,
For nevir to remufe.
Hir gown suld be of gudlines,
Weill ribband with renowne,
Purfillit with plesour in ilk place,
Furrit with fyne fassoun.
Hir belt suld be of benignitie
Abowt hir middill meit,
Hir mantill of humilitie
To tholl bayth wind and weit.
Hir hat suld be of fair having,
And hir tepat of trewth,
Hir patelet of gud pansing
Hir hals ribbane of rewth.
Hir slevis suld be of esperance
To keip hir fra dispair,
Hir gluvis of gud govirnance
To hyd hir fynyearis fair.
Hir schone suld be of sickernes
In syne that scho nocht slyd,
Hir hois of honestie, I ges,
I suld for hir provyd.
Wald scho put on this garmond gay,
I durst sweir by my seill
That scho woir nevir grene nor gray
That set hir half so weill.
Against Hasty Credence
Fals titlaris now growis up full rank,
Nocht ympit in the stok of cheretie,
Howping at thair lord to gett grit thank
Thay haif no dreid on thair nybouris to lie;
Than sowld ane lord awyse him weill I se
Quhen ony taill is brocht to his presence
Gif it be groundit in to veretie,
Or he thairto gif haistely creddence.
Ane worthy lord sowld wey ane taill wyslie,
The tailltellar, and quhome of it is tald,
Gif it be said for luve or for invy,
And gif the tailisman weill avow it wald;
Than eftirwart the pairteis sowld be cald
For thair excuse, to mak lawfull defence:
Than sowld ane lord the ballance evinly hald
And gif not at the first haistie creddence.
It is no wirschep for ane nobill lord
For fals tailis to put ane trew man doun,
And gevand creddence to the first recoird,
He will not heir his excusatioun;
The tittillaris so in his heir can roun
The innocent may get no awdience:
Ryme as it may, thair is na ressoun,
To gif till taillis hestely creddence.
Thir teltellaris oft tymes dois grit skaith,
And raissis mortall feid and discrepance,
And makis lordis with thair serwandis wreith,
And baneist be withowtin cryme perchance.
It is the grund of stryfe and all distance,
Moir perrellus than ony pestillence,
Ane lord in flatterreris to haif plesance,
Or to gif lyaris hestely creddence.
O thow wyse lord, quhen cumis a flatterrer,
The for to pleis and hurt the innocent,
Will tell ane taill of thy familiar,
Thow sowld the pairteis call incontinent,
And sitt doun sadly in to jugement,
And serche the caus weill, or thow gif sentence,
Or ellis heireftir in cais thow may repent
That thow to tailis gaif so grit creddence.
O wicket tung, sawand dissentioun,
Of fals taillis to tell that will not tyre,
Moir perrellus than ony fell pusoun,
The pane of hell thow sall haif to thi hyre;
Richt swa sall thay that hes joy or desyre
To gife thair eirris to heird with patience,
For of discord it kendillis mony fyre,
Throwch geving talis hestely creddence.
Bakbyttaris to heir it is no bowrd,
For thay ar excommunicat in everie place;
Thre personis severall he slayis with ane wowrd -
Him self, the heirar, and the man saiklace;
Within ane hude he hes ane dowbill face,
Ane bludy tung undir a fair pretence.
I say no moir, bot God grant lordis grace
To gife to taillis nocht hestely creddence.
The Praise of Age
Wythin a garth, under a rede rosere,
Ane ald man and decrepit herd I syng;
Gay was the note, suete was the voce and clere;
It was grete joy to here of sik a thing.
"And to my dome," he said in his dytyng,
"For to be yong I wald not, for my wis,
Off all this warld to mak me lord and king:
The more of age, the nerar hevynnis blis.
"False is this warld and full of variance,
Besoucht with syn and othir sytis mo;
Treuth is all tynt, gyle has the gouvernance,
Wrechitnes has wroht all welthis wele to wo,
Fredome is tynt and flemyt the lordis fro,
And covatise is all the cause of this;
I am content that youthede is ago:
The more of age, the nerar hevynnis blisse.
"The state of youth I repute for na gude,
For in that state sik perilis now I see
Bot full smal grace; the regeing of his blude
Can none gaynstand quhill that he agit be;
Syne of the thing that tofore joyit he
Nothing remaynis for to be callit his,
For quhy it were bot veray vanitee:
The more of age, the nerar hevynnis blisse.
"Suld no man traist this wrechit warld, for quhy
Of erdly joy ay sorow is the end,
The state of it can noman certify;
This day a king, to morne na gude to spend.
Quhat have we here bot grace us to defend?
The quhilk God grant us, for to mend oure mys,
That to His glore He may oure saulis send:
The more of age, the nerar hevynnis blisse."
Ane Prayer for the Pest
O eterne God of power infinyt,
To Quhois hie knawledge na think is obscure-
That is, or wes, or sal be, is perfyt
Into Thi sicht, quhill that this warld indure-
Haif mercy of us, indigent and peure;
Thow dois no wrang to punis our offens:
O lord, That is to mankynd haill succure,
Preserve us fra this perrelus pestilens!
We The beseik, O lord of lordis all,
Thy eiris inclyne and heir our grit regrait:
We ask remeid of The in generall,
That is of help and confort dissolait:
Bot Thow with rewth our hairtis recreate,
We ar bot deid, but only Thy clemens:
We The exhort on kneis law prostrait,
Preserve us from this perrellus pestilens!
We ar rycht glaid Thow punis our trespas
Be ony kynd of udir tribulatioun:
Wer it Thy will, O lord of hevin, allais,
That we suld thus be haistely put doun
And de as beistis without confessioun,
That nane dar mak with udir residens?
O blissit Jesu, that wore the thorny croun,
Preserve us frome this perrelus pestilens!
Use derth, O lord, or seiknes and hungir soir,
And slak Thy plaig that is so penetryfe:
Thy pepill ar preist - quha may remeid thairfoir,
Bot Thow, O lord, that for thame lost Thy lyfe?
Suppois our syne be to The pungetyfe,
Our deid ma na thing our synnis recompens;
Haif mercy, Lord, we may nocht with The stryfe;
Preserve us fra this perrelus pestilens!
Haif mercy, Lord; haif mercy, Hevyns King;
Haif mercy of Thy pepill penitent;
Haif mercy of our petous punissing;
Retreit the sentence and Thy just jugement
Aganis us synnaris that servis to be schent;
Without mercy we may mak no defens;
Thow that but rewth upoun the Rud wes rent,
Preserve us frome this perrellus pestilens!
Remembir, Lord, how deir Thow hes us bocht,
That for us synnaris sched Thy pretius blude;
Now to redeme that Thow hes maid of nocht,
That is of virtew barrane and denude,
Haif rewth, Lord, of Thyne awin similitude,
Punis with pety and nocht with violens;
We knaw it is for our ingratitude
That we ar puneist with this pestillens.
Thow grant us grace for till amend our mis
And till evaid this crewall suddane deid;
We knaw our sin is all the caus of this;
For opin sin thair is set no remeid;
The justice of God mon punis than be deid,
For by the law he will with nane dispens;
Quhair justice laikis thair is eternall feid
Of God, that suld preserf fra pestilens.
Bot wald the heidismen, that suld keip the law,
Punis the peple for thair transgressioun,
Thair wald na deid the peple than ourthraw;
Bot thay ar gevin sa plenly to oppressioun
That God will nocht heir thair intecessioun,
Bot all ar punist for thair inobediens
Be swerd or deid, withouttin remissioun,
And hes just caus to send us pestilens.
Superne Lucerne, guberne this pestilens,
Preserve and serve that we nocht sterf thairin,
Declyne that pyne be Thy devyne prudens,
For trewth, haif rewth, lat nocht our slewth us twyn;
Our syte, full tyte, wer we contryt, wald blin;
Dissivir did nevir, quha evir The besocht.
Send grace, with space, for to arrace fra sin;
Lat nocht be tint that Thow sa deir hes bocht!
O Prince preclair, this cair quotidiane,
We The exort, distort it in exyle;
Bot Thow remeid, this deid is bot ane trane
For to dissaif the laif and thame begyle.
Bot Thow, sa wyse, devyse to mend this byle,
Of this mischeif quha may releif us ocht
For wrangus win, bot Thow our sin oursyle?
Lat nocht be tint that Thow sa deir hes bocht!
Sen for our vice, that justice mon correct,
O king most hie, now pacifé thy feid;
Our sin is huge, refuge we nocht suspect;
As Thow art juge, dislug us of this dreid,
In tyme assent, or we be schent with deid,
For we repent all tyme mispent forthocht;
Thairfoir, evirmor, be gloir to Thy Godheid;
Lat nocht be tint that Thow sa deir hes bocht!
The Ressoning betuix Aige and Yowth
Quhen fair Flora, the godes of the flouris,
Baith firth and feildis freschly had ourfrete,
And perly droppis of the balmy schouris
Thir widdis grene had with thair watter wete,
Movand allone in mornyng myld I mete
A mirry man, that all of mirth cowth mene,
Singand the sang that sueitly wes sete:
"O yowth, be glaid in to thi flouris grene!"
I lukit furth a litill me before:
I saw a cative on a club cumand,
With cheikis lene and lyart lokis hore;
His ene wes how, his voce wes hes hostand,
Wallowit and wan and waik as ony wand;
Ane bill he beure upoun his breist abone,
In letteres leill but les, with this legend:
"O yowth, thi flouris fedis fellone sone!"
This yungman lap upoun the land full lycht,
And mervellit mekle of his misdum maid;
"Waddin I am," quod he, "and wonder wicht,
With bran as bair, and breist burly and braid.
Na growme on grund my gardoun may degraid,
Nor of my pith may pair half wirth a prene;
My face is fair, my figour will nocht faid:
O yowth, be glaid in to thi flouris grene!"
This senyeour sang, bot with a sobir stevin;
Schakand his berd, he said, "My bairne, lat be.
I wes within thir sexty yeiris and sevin
Ane freik on fold bayth frak, forsy, and fre;
Als glad, als gay, als yung, als yaip as ye.
Bot now that day is ordrawyne and done;
Luk thow my laythly lykyne gif I le:
O yowth, thy flouris fadis fellone sone!"
Ane uthir vers this yungman yit cowth sing:
"At luvis law a quhyle I think to leite,
In court to cramp clenely in my clething
And luke amangis thir lusty ladeis sueit;
Of marriege to mell with mowis meit,
In secreitnes quhair we may nocht be sene,
And so with birdis blythlie my baillis beit:
O yowth, be glaid in to thi flowris grene!"
This austryne man gaif ansuer angirly:
"For thi crampyn thow sall bayth cruk and cowr, 4
And thy fleschely lust thow sall defy,
And pane the sall put fra parramour -
Than will no bird be blyth of the in bour,
Quhen thi manheid sall move as the mone;
Thow sall assay gif that my sang be sour:
O yowth, thy flouris fadis fellone sone!"
This myrry man of mirth yit movit moir:
"My cors is clene without corruptioun,
My self is sound, but seiknes or but soir,
My wittis fyve in dew proportioun,
My curage is of clene complexioun,
My hairt is haill, my lever, and my splene;
Thairfoir to reid this rowll I haif ressoun:
O yowth, be glaid in to thy flouris grene!"
This bevir hair said to this berly berne:
"This breif thow sall obey, sone, be thow bald;
Thy stait, thi strenth thocht it be stark and sterne,
The feviris fell and eild sall gar the fald;
Thy corpis sall clyng, thi curagis sall wax cald,
The heill sall hynk and tak a hurt bot hone;
Thy wittis fyve sall wane, thocht thow not wald;
O yowth, thi flouris fadis fellone sone!"
This galyart grutchit and began to greif,
And on his wayis wrechitly he went but wene;
This lene man luche na thing bot tuk his leif,
And I abaid ondir the levis grene.
Off the cedullis the suth quhen I had sene,
On trewth, me thocht thai trevist in thair tone:
"O yowth, be glaid in to thi flouris grene!"
"O yowth, thi flouris fedis fellone sone!"
The Ressoning betuix Deth and Man
"O mortall man, behold, tak tent to me,
Quhilk sowld thi mirrour be baith day and nycht.
All erdly thing that evir tuik lyfe mon die:
Paip, empriour, king, barroun, and knycht,
Thocht thay be in thair roall stait and hicht,
May nocht ganestand quhen I pleiss schute this derte;
Waltownis, castellis, and towiris nevir so wicht
May nocht risist quhill it be at his herte."
"Now quhat art thow that biddis me thus tak tent
And mak ane mirrour day and nycht of the,
Or with thy dert I sowld richt soir repent?
I trest trewly off that thow sall sone lie.
Quhat freik on fold sa bald dar maniss me,
Or with me fecht, owthir on fute or horss?
Is non so wicht or stark in this cuntré,
Bot I sall gar him bow to me on fors."
"My name, at me forswth sen that thou speiris,
Tha call me Deid, suthly I the declair,
Calland all man and woman to thair beiris
Quhen evir I pleiss, quhat tyme, quhat plais, or quhair.
Is nane sa stowt, sa fresche, nor yit sa fair,
Sa yung, so ald, so riche, nor yit sa peur;
Quhair evir I pass, owthir lait or air,
Mon put thame haill on forss undir my cure."
"Sen it is so that nature can so wirk
That yung and awld, with riche and peure, mon die,
In my yowtheid, allace, I wes full irk,
Cowld not tak tent to gyd and governe me
Ay gude to do, fra evill deidis to fle,
Trestand ay yowtheid wold with me ay abyde,
Fulfilland evir my sensualitie
In deidly syn and specialy in pryd."
"Thairfoir repent and remord thi conscience,
Think on thir wirdis I now upoun the cry:
O wrechit man, O full of ignorance,
All thi plesance thow sall deir aby;
Dispone thy self and cum with me in hy,
Edderis, askis, and wormis meit for to be;
Cum quhen I call; thow may, me nocht denny,
Thocht thow wer paip, empriour, and king al thre."
"Sen it is sua fra the I may not chaip,
This wrechit warld for me heir I defy,
And to the, Deid, to luke undir thi caip,
I offer me with hairt, richt hummilly,
Beseikand God, the Divill, my ennemy,
No power haif my sawill till assay.
Jesus, on the with peteous voce I cry,
Mercy on me to haif on Domisday."
ffinis: quod hendersone
Robene and Makyne
Robene sat on gud grene hill
Kepand a flok of fe;
Mirry Makyne said him till,
"Robene, thow rew on me!
I haif the lovit lowd and still
Thir yeiris two or thre;
My dule in dern bot gif thow dill,
Dowtles but dreid I de."
Robene anserit, "Be the Rude,
Na thing of lufe I knaw,
Bot keipis my scheip undir yone wid;
Lo quhair thay raik on raw.
Quhat hes marrit the in thy mude,
Makyne, to me thow schaw,
Or quhat is lufe, or to be lude?
Fane wald I leir that law."
"At luvis lair gife thow will leir,
Tak thair ane A B C:
Be heynd, courtas, and fair of feir,
Wyse, hardy, and fre,
So that no denger do the deir,
Quhat dule in dern thow dre;
Preis the with pane at all poweir,
Be patient and previe."
Robene anserit hir agane,
"I wait nocht quhat is luve,
Bot I haif mervell in certane
Quhat makis the this wanrufe.
The weddir is fair and I am fane,
My scheip gois haill aboif;
And we wald play, us in this plane,
Thay wald us bayth reproif."
"Robene, tak tent unto my taill
And wirk all as I reid,
And thow sall haif my hairt all haill,
Eik and my madinheid.
Sen God sendis bute for baill,
And for murning remeid,
I dern with the bot gif I daill,
Dowtles I am bot deid."
"Makyne, to morne this ilk a tyde,
And ye will meit me heir,
Peraventure my scheip ma gang besyd
Quhill we haif liggit full neir.
Bot mawgré haif I and I byd,
Fra thay begin to steir;
Quhat lyis on hairt I will nocht hyd,
Makyn, than mak gud cheir."
"Robene, thow reivis me roif and rest;
I luve bot the allone."
"Makyne, adew, the sone gois west,
The day is neir hand gone."
"Robene, in dule I am so drest
That lufe wilbe my bone."
"Ga lufe, Makyne, quhair evir thow list,
For lemman I bid none."
"Robene, I stand in sic a styll;
I sicht, and that full sair.
`Makyne, I haif bene heir this quhyle;
At hame God gif I wair."
"My huny Robene, talk ane quhyll,
Gif thow will do na mair."
"Makyne, sum uthir man begyle,
For hamewart I will fair."
Robene on his wayis went,Als licht as leif of tre;
Mawkin murnit in hir intent,
And trowd him nevir to se.
Robene brayd attour the bent;
Than Mawkyne cryit on hie,
"Now ma thow sing, for I am schent;
Quhat alis lufe at me?"
Mawkyne went hame withowttin faill,
Full wery eftir cowth weip.
Than Robene in a ful fair daill
Assemblit all his scheip;
Be that, sum pairte of Mawkynis aill
Outthrow his hairt cowd creip.
He fallowit hir fast thair till assaill,
And till hir tuke gude keip:
"Abyd, abyd, thow fair Makyne
A word for ony thing!
For all my luve it salbe thyne,
All haill thy harte for till haif myne
Is all my cuvating;
My scheip to morne quhill houris nyne
Will neid of no keping."
"Robene, thow hes hard soung and say
In gestis and storeis auld,
`The man that will nocht quhen he may
Sall haif nocht quhen he wald.'
I pray to Jesu every day,
Mot eik thair cairis cauld
That first preisis with the to play,
Be firth, forrest, or fawld."
"Makyne, the nicht is soft and dry,
The wedder is warme and fair,
And the grene woid rycht neir us by
To walk attour all quhair;
Thair ma na janglour us espy,
That is to lufe contrair:
Thairin, Makyne, bath ye and I,
Unsene we ma repair."
"Robene, that warld is all away
And quyt brocht till ane end,
And nevir agane thairto perfay
Sall it be as thow wend,
For of my pane thow maid it play,
And all in vane I spend;
As thow hes done, sa sall I say,
`Murne on, I think to mend.'"
"Mawkyne, the howp of all my heill,
My hairt on the is sett,
And evirmair to the be leill
Quhill I may leif but lett;
Nevir to faill as uthiris feill,
Quhat grace that evir I gett."
"Robene, with the I will nocht deill;
Adew, for thus we mett."
Malkyne went hame blyth annewche,
Attour the holttis hair;
Robene murnit and Malkyne lewche;
Scho sang, he sichit sair;
And so left him bayth wo and wewche,
In dolour and in cair,
Kepand his hird under a huche,
Amangis the holtis hair.
Sum Practysis of Medecyne
Guk guk, gud day, ser! Gaip quhill ye get it.
Sic greting may gane weill; gud laik in your hude.
Ye wald deir me I trow, becaus I am dottit,
To ruffill me with a ryme - na, ser, be the rude.
Your saying I haif sene and on syd set it,
As geir of all gaddering, glaikit nocht gude; 5
Als your medicyne by mesour I haif meit met it, 6
The quhilk I stand ford ye nocht understude,
Bot wrett on as ye culd to gar folk wene
For feir my longis wes flaft,
Or I wes dottit or daft:
Gife I can ocht of the craft,
Heir be it sene.
Becaus I ken your cunnyng in to cure
Is clowtit and clampit and nocht weill cleird,
My prettik in pottingary ye trow be als pure
And lyk to your lawitnes - I schrew thame that leid.
Is nowdir fevir nor fell that ovr the feild fure,
Seiknes nor sairnes, in tyme gif I seid,
Bot I can lib thanne and leiche thame fra lame and lesure,
With salvis thame sound mak: on your saule beid,
That ye be sicker of this sedull I send yow,
With the suthfast seggis
That glean all egeis
With dia and dreggis
Of malis to mend yow.
Cape cuk maid, and crop the colleraige,
Ane medecyne for the maw and ye cowth mak it
With sueit satlingis and sowrokis, the sop of the sege, 7
The crud of my culome, with your teith crakit,
Lawrean and linget seid and the luffage,
The hair of the hurcheoun nocht half deill hakkit,
With the snowt of ane selch, ane swelling to swage:
This cure is callit in our craft dia culcakkit.
Put all thir in ane pan with pepper and pik.
Syne sett in to this
The count of ane cow kis;
Is nocht bettir I wis,
For the collik.
Recipe thre ruggis of the reid ruke,
The gant of ane gray meir, the claik of ane gus,
The dram of ane drekters, the douk of ane duke,
The gaw of ane grene dow, the leg of ane lows,
Fyve unce of ane fle wing, the fyn of ane fluke,
With ane sleiffull of slak that growis in the slus;
Myng all thir in ane mas with the mone cruke.
This untment is rycht ganand for your awin us,
With reid nettill seid in strang wesche to steip,
For to bath your ba cod,
Quhen ye wald nop and nod;
Is nocht bettir be God,
To latt yow to sleip.
This dia is rycht deir and denteit in daill, 8
Caus it is trest and trew: thairfoir that ye tak
Sevin sobbis of ane selche, the quhidder of ane quhaill, 9
The lug of ane lempet is nocht to forsaik,
The harnis of ane haddok, hakkit or haill,
With ane bustfull of blude of the scho bak,
With ane brewing caldrun full of hait caill,
For it wilbe the softar and sweittar of the smak:
Thair is nocht sic ane lechecraft fra Lawdian to Lundin
It is clippit in our cannon
For till fle awaye fon
Quhair fulis ar fundin.
The ferd feisik is fyne and of ane felloun pryce,
Gud for haising and hosting or heit at the hairt.
Recipe thre sponfull of the blak spyce,
With ane grit gowpene of the gowk fart,
The lug of ane lyoun, the gufe of ane gryce,
Ane unce of ane oster poik at the nethir parte,
Annoyntit with nurice doung for it is rycht nyce,
Myngit with mysdirt and with mustart.
Ye may clamp to this cure, and ye will mak cost,
Bayth the bellox of ane brok,
With thre crawis of the cok,
The schadow of ane yule stok,
Is gud for the host.
Gud nycht, guk guk, for sa I began;
I haif no come at this tyme langer to tary,
Bot luk on this lettir and leird gif ye can,
The prectik and poyntis of this pottingary:
Ser, minister this medecyne at evin to sum man
And or pryme be past, my powder I pary,
Thay sall blis yow or ellis bittirly yow ban,
For it sall fle thame in faith out of the fary.
Bot luk quhen ye gadder thir gressis and gers,
Outhir sawrand or sour,
That it be in ane gude oure:
It is ane mirk mirrour,
Ane uthir manis ers.
The Three Deid Pollis
O sinfull man, in to this mortall se,
Quhilk is the vaill of murnyng and of cair,
With gaistly sicht behold oure heidis thre,
Oure holkit ene, oure peilit pollis bair.
As ye ar now, in to this warld we wair,
Als fresche, als fair, als lusty to behald:
Quhan thow lukis on this suth examplair
Off thy self, man, thow may be richt unbald.
For suth it is that every man mortall
Mon suffer deid and de, that lyfe hes tane;
Na erdly stait aganis deid ma prevaill;
The hour of deth and place is uncertane,
Quhilk is referrit to the hie God allane.
Heirfoir haif mynd of deth, that thow mon dy:
This sair exampill to se quotidiane
Sowld caus all men fra wicket vycis fle.
O wantone yowth, als fresche as lusty May,
Farest of flowris, renewit quhyt and reid,
Behald our heidis, O lusty gallandis gay;
Full laithly thus sall ly thy lusty heid,
Holkit and how, and wallowit as the weid;
Thy crampand hair and eik thy cristall ene
Full cairfully conclud sall dulefull deid;
Thy example heir be us it may be sene.
O ladeis quhyt, in claithis corruscant,
Poleist with perle and mony pretius stane,
With palpis quhyt and hals so elegant
Sirculit with gold and sapheris mony ane;
Your finyearis small, quhyt as quhailis bane,
Arrayit with ringis and mony rubeis reid:
As we ly thus, so sall ye ly ilk ane,
With peilit pollis, and holkit thus your heid.
O wofull pryd, the rute of all distres,
With humill hairt upoun our pollis pens;
Man, for thy mis, ask mercy with meiknes;
Aganis deid na man may mak defens:
The empriour, for all his excellens,
King and quene, and eik all erdly stait,
Peure and riche, salbe but differens
Turnit in as and thus in erd translait.
This questioun, quha can obsolve, lat see,
Quhat phisnamour or perfyt palmester -
Quha was farest or fowlest of us thre,
Or quhilk of us of kin was gentillar,
Or maist expert in science or in lare,
In art, musik, or in astronomye?
Heir sowld be your study and repair,
And think as thus all your heidis mon be.
O febill aige, drawand neir the dait
Of dully deid, and hes thy dayis compleit,
Behald our heidis with murning and regrait,
Fall on thy kneis, ask grace at God, and greit,
With orisionis and haly salmes sweit
Beseikand him on the to haif mercy,
Now of our sawlis, bydand the decreit
Of His Godheid, to rew and glorifé.
Als we exhort that every man mortall,
For His saik that maid of nocht all thing,
For mercy cry and pray in generall
To Jesus Chryst, of hevin and erd the king,
Throwch your prayar that we and ye may ring
With the hie Fader be eternitie,
The Sone alswa, the Haly Gaist conding,
Thre knit in ane be perfyt unitie.
The Want of Wyse Men
Me mervellis of this grete confusion;
I wald sum clerk of connyng walde declerde,
Quhat gerris this warld be turnyt upsyd doun.
Thare is na faithfull fastnes founde in erd;
Now are noucht thre may traistly trow the ferde;
Welth is away, and wit is worthin wrynkis;
Now sele is sorow this is a wofull werde,
Sen want of wyse men makis fulis to sit on binkis.
That tyme quhen levit the king Saturnus,
For gudely gouvernance this warld was goldin cald;
For untreuth we wate noucht quhare to it turnis;
The tyme that Octaviane, the monarch, coud hald,
Our all was pes, wele set as hertis wald:
Than regnyt reule, and resone held his rynkis;
Now lakkis prudence, nobilitee is thralde,
Sen want of wyse men makis fulis to sitt on bynkis.
Arestotill for his moralitee,
Austyn, or Ambrose, for dyvine scripture,
Quha can placebo, and noucht half dirige, 10
That practik for to pike and pill the pure,
He sall cum in, and thay stand at the dure;
For warldly wyn sik walkis, quhen wysar wynkis; 11
Wit takis na worschip, sik is the aventure,
Sen want of wysemen makis fulis to sitt on binkis.
Now, but defense, rycht lyis all desolate,
Rycht, na resone under na rufe has rest;
Youth his but raddour, and age is obystynate,
Mycht but mercy, the pore ar all opprest.
Lerit folk suld tech the peple of the best,
Thouch lare be lytil, fer lesse in tham sinkis:
It may noucht be this warld ay thus suld lest,
That want of wyse men makis fulis sitt on binkis.
For now is exilde all ald noble corage,
Lautee, lufe, and liberalitee;
Now is stabilitee fundyn in na stage,
Nor degest connsele wyth sad maturitee;
Peas is away, all in perplexitee;
Prudence and policy ar banyst our al brinkis:
This warld is uer, sa may it callit be,
That want of wisemen makis fulis sitt on bynkis.
Quhare is the balance of just and equitee?
Nouthir meryt is preisit, na punyst is trespas;
All ledis lyvis lawles at libertee,
Noucht reulit be reson, mare than ox or asse;
Gude faith is flemyt, worthin fraellar than glas;
Trew lufe is loren, and lautee haldis no lynkis;
Sik gouvernance I call noucht worth a fasse,
Sen want of wise men makis fulis sitt on binkis.
Now wrang hes warrane, and law is bot wilfulness;
Quha hes the war is worthin on him all the wyte,
For trewth is tressoun, and faith is fals fekilness;
Gylle is now gyd, and vane lust is also delyte;
Kirk is contempnit, thay compt nocht cursing a myte;
Grit God is grevit, that me rycht soir forthinkis:
The caus of this ony man may sone wit,
That want of wysemen garis fulis sit on binkis.
Lue hes tane leif, and wirschip hes no udir wane;
With passing poverty pryd is importable;
Vyce is bot vertew, wit is with will soir ourgane;
As lairdis so laddis, daly chengeable;
But ryme or ressone all is bot heble hable;
Sic sturtfull stering in to Godis neiss it stinkis;
Bot he haif rew, all is unremedable,
For want of wise men makis fulis sit on binkis.
O lord of lordis, God and gouvernour,
Makar and movar, bath of mare and lesse,
Quhais power, wisedome, and honoure,
Is infynite, sal be, and ewir wes,
As in the principall mencioun of the messe,
All thir sayd thingis reforme as thou best thinkis;
Quhilk ar degradit, for pure pitee redresse,
Sen want of wise [men] makis [fulis] sit in binkis.
Strong; pleasing; (see note)
sweet is [made]; (see note)
authority can prove
love who lingers; (see note)
As messenger; did speak
In you; peace
decision; (see note)
womb without blemish
Conceive; from sin
message was completed
beguiled; (see note)
Grew; chamber chaste; (see note)
crowned; (see note)
princess; poor; peer
flame of love retaining; (see note)
Unconsumed; joyously burns
without moisture; (see note)
fleece; moist; (see note)
maiden made mother
fear; (see note)
feared; die a death
restores; (see note)
loyal; most proper
happy; most obedient
the devil; angry; (see note)
in times of
By chance I cast aside; eye
fortune wishes; from you
Since; such examples; see each; (see note)
Tobias; (see note)
grew poor; Tobias
both [of them]; (see note)
lame; (see note)
reprove you by argument
Kick; (see note)
compromised by no one
made bound; slave
poor; bag; staff
must rule thee
yourself ready; (see note)
beauty; bore the prize
also [was]; heir
Of pleasant manners; high
lived; grand chamber
a little way
singularly foul giant; (see note)
suffered; dwelling; (see note)
claws; fiend's crook
Unless (But if)
fight him in person
Until one; struck
Both by sea
well appropriate were
was bound; die
Hideous; body wound
mourned; great lament
must I die; (see note)
hang; in front of
paid [for]; dearly
horrible; (see note)
laws; strictly enforced
do as I wish
garment the best
Have made for her body
shift; next to her body
chastity so white
shift; fidelity; (see note)
Laced; lawful love
eyelets of steadfastness
tippet; (see note)
partlet; meditation; (see note)
fingers; (see note)
wore; green or gray cloth; (see note)
should; (see note)
if; gossip; swear; (see note)
should be called [forward to make]
side of the story
gossips; ear; whisper
angry; (see note)
banished; perhaps; (see note)
before you pass
for your efforts
Just as; (see note)
ears to hear; (see note)
Backbiters to hear; joke; (see note)
Within a garden; rose-tree
voice; (see note)
desire; (see note)
Beset; sorrows more; (see note)
lost; (see note)
Miserliness; brought; value; (see note)
Generosity; lost; driven away from
such perils; (see note)
raging; (see note)
withstand when; aged
Because; only total
not a cent
glory; (see note)
Whose high; nothing
perfectly; (see note)
all source of succor
ears lend; great lament
relief from You
Unless; pity; rejuvenate
dead without; clemency
By any; other
Even if; irritating; (see note)
without pity; Cross; torn
created from nothing
pity; own likeness
to evade; death
must punish rather than be dead; (see note)
But if; leaders; uphold
By sword or death
Supreme Light abate; (see note)
have mercy; sloth; divide; (see note)
grief; quickly; cease
Parted [from you]
time; escape from; (see note)
illustrious; daily sorrow
exhort you, divert
Unless; remedy; trap
deceive the survivors; (see note)
Unless; heal; illness
harm; at all
wrongful gain; unless; cover over
lost; (see note)
remove; fear; (see note)
remembered with regret; (see note)
composed; (see note)
wretch; staff coming; (see note)
grey-streaked white hair; (see note)
eyes; sunken; hoarsely coughing
Withered; pallid; weak; twig; (see note)
placard; bore; above
true without lie; inscription; (see note)
fade horribly; (see note)
danced (leapt); dexterously
much; misjudgment given; (see note)
Supple; wondrously strong
muscle like a bear; broad
man on earth; reward; diminish; (see note)
strength; impair; pin; (see note)
old man; somber voice; (see note)
creature; earth; bold, strong; (see note)
passed; (see note)
loathly visage; lie; (see note)
horribly; (see note)
Another; (see note)
copulate; tricks appropriate; (see note)
ladies; cares relieve; (see note)
stern; (see note)
renounce; (see note)
pain; sexual love; (see note)
lady; happy; bedroom
wane; moon; (see note)
without illness or disease; (see note)
wholesome; (see note)
read; scroll; (see note)
trembling greybeard; youth; (see note)
condition; strong; hard
horrible fever; age; gain
corpse; shrivel; grow cold
health; falter; without delay; (see note)
though you'd not wish it so; (see note)
gallant grumbled; become angry; (see note)
without doubt; (see note)
lean; laughed; leave; (see note)
remained under; (see note)
meanings; truth; (see note)
Truly; contradicted; (see note)
Even though; granduer; (see note)
to launch this shaft
Walled towns; towers; strong; (see note)
when it reaches his heart
lie; (see note)
creature; earth so bold; menace
strong; fierce; (see note)
But; make him; by; (see note)
in truth since; ask; (see note)
whether; either; early
must die; (see note)
Trusting; always youth; (see note)
dearly pay for
Make disposition; haste; (see note)
Adders; newts; (see note)
wretched; here I renounce
sincerely; humbly(see note)
Beseeching; (see note)
silently; (see note)
woe; secret unless you assuage; (see note)
Certainly for anxiety I die; (see note)
woods; (see note)
go in a line
disturbed you; mind
lore if; learn
disdain cause you dread; (see note)
No matter what sorrow in secret you suffer
Press forward; penance and strength
If; open field
Since; relief; pain
fear; unless I dally
tomorrow; same time
Perhaps; may stay nearby
Until; lain together
blame have I if I remain
such a state
if only I were
sweet; a moment
hurried; above; field
What does love have against me
By then; ailment
at any price
variance; (see note)
heard song and proverb
would like to
Might also; increase
may get together
by my faith
suffering; made light
live without delay
Through; woods grey
Cuckoo; Seek; (see note)
Such; sport; hood; (see note)
confuse; rhyme; cross
wrote; make; believe
fear; lungs; fluttered; (see note)
patched; botched; enlightened
ignorance; curse; lie
accident; over; earth fares; (see note)
cure; heal; injury
remedies; be it; (see note)
illnesses; (see note)
Take excrement; gather water pepper (see note)
Laurel; linseed; lovage
hedgehog; half chopped
cunt; kiss; (see note)
Take; tugs; red crow
yawn; mare; cry; goose
drake's penis; dive
bile; dove; louse
ounces; flea; flounder
sleeve-full of algae; mud; (see note)
Mix; crescent of the moon
ointment; suitable; use
seed; stale urine; soak
brains; chopped; whole
jar-full; female bat
fourth; prescription; outrageous
hoarseness; cough; heartburn
two handfuls; cuckoo
ear; grunt; piglet
ounce; oyster poked; (see note)
Mixed; mouse droppings
add; if; accept the cost
Both; testicles; badger
log; (see note)
gullible fool (cuckoo)
before; medicine; wager
cause them to flee; (see note)
skulls; (see note)
sea; (see note)
mourning; (see note)
hollow eyes; skulls peeled bare [of flesh]
true; (see note)
Must suffer death; taken; (see note)
Therefore; must die; (see note)
hard; daily; (see note)
vices [to] flee
Hollowed; sunken; withered
curling; also; eye
sorrowfully end; doleful
breasts white; neck; (see note)
Encircled; many [a] one
fingers; whale's bone
lie; lie every one
peeled skulls; hollow
root; (see note)
humble; skulls think
also; earthly estates; (see note)
Buried; dust transformed
learning; (see note)
Here should; resort; (see note)
must; (see note)
weep; (see note)
prayers; psalms; (see note)
submitting to the decree
pity; (see note)
Through; abide; (see note)
of equal rank
I marvel; (see note)
learning; declare; (see note)
causes; (see note)
has become trickery; (see note)
happiness; fate; (see note)
fools sit on court benches; (see note)
lived; (see note)
knew; where to; (see note)
reign; (see note)
Over; peace; (see note)
reigned order; course; (see note)
vanished; made a slave; (see note)
Aristotle; (see note)
St. Augustine; (see note)
steal; dupe; poor; (see note)
case; (see note)
without; (see note)
Neither right nor reason; roof; (see note)
without; (see note)
learning; takes hold
benches [of law]
Loyalty; (see note)
serious; sad age; (see note)
Peace; (see note)
sides; (see note)
worse; (see note)
scales; justice; (see note)
praised; (see note)
folk; (see note)
banished; having become; (see note)
lost; loyalty maintains no bonds
knot; (see note)
warrant; (see note)
worse; become; reason
Love; leave; other dwelling
reason; wilfulness overcome
lords so servants
Without; (nonsense); (see note)
Such vexatious ruling; nose
Whose; (see note)
Mass; (see note)
Whoever; (see note)