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Guy of Warwyk


1 Lines 119–20: Or to pay tribute to the king of Denmark, / As a subject giving over his sovereignty

2 Lines 133–34: Either to surrender / scepter and crown, or to find a knight

3 Lines 227–28: who can deny no one / Who asks for grace with meekness and humility

4 Lines 330–32: He entered the town / resembling David, [who] long ago came against Goliath / to help [King] Saul. See note.

5 Lines 378–80: In antiquity, the place called / in English Hyde Meede / or Den Marche

6 Lines 451–52: Don’t be troubled or worried / for any reason in your desire [to know who I am]


Abbreviations: AN Gui: Weiss, ed., Boeve de Haumtone and Gui de Warewic: Two Anglo-Norman Romances; CA: Gower, Confessio Amantis; Caius: Zupitza, ed., The Romance of Guy of Warwick, Edited from the Auchinleck Manuscript (EETS, 1883); Cambridge: Zupitza, ed., The Romance of Guy of Warwick: The Second or 15th-century Version (EETS, 1875); CT: Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales; Fabula: Lydgate, Fabula Duroum Mercatorum; FP: Lydgate, Fall of Princes; Gerard: Gerard of Cornwall, Battle Between Guy of Warwick and Colbrond; Guy: Lydgate, Guy of Warwick; HH: Cambridge, MA, Harvard University, Houghton Library, MS Eng.530; Hr: London, British Library, MS Harley 7333; ME: Middle English; OE: Old English; OED: Oxford English Dictionary; Stanzaic Guy: Wiggins, ed., Stanzaic Guy of Warwick; TB: Lydgate, Troy Book; Whiting: Whiting, Proverbs, Sentences, and Proverbial Phrases.

1–2 Fro Cristis birthe. . . by computacioun. Lydgate follows his source, Gerard, in providing the specific year, 927, for the action of the poem.

3 as seith the cronycleer. “As the chronicler says.” The first of many direct references throughout the poem to Lydgate’s source.

6 Of them of Denmark. The Danes. Compare the similar descriptions of Danish ruthlessness in Lydgate’s Lives of SS Edmund and Fremund (ed. Bale and Edwards), esp. Book 2 (Edmund), lines 1340–51 and 1366–85; Book 3 (Fremund), lines 2501–06, 2920–26, and 2934–40. The Danes, also known as Norsemen or Vikings, are consistently portrayed in historical and literary sources as incarnations of evil heathens, completely outside Christianity and civilization. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle repeatedly describes their destruction of churches and monasteries, their use of fire, sword, and terror, and their pitiless slaughter of innocents. Lydgate particularly emphasizes and condemns their excessive pride, or hubris.

13 Wynchestre. Ethelstan’s capital city. Winchester has a long association with the Guy legend because of its significance to the kings of Wessex and their ongoing battles against the Danes and Norse, who invaded not only from northern Europe but also Northumbria. Winchester was the capital of Wessex and de facto capital of England until the Norman conquest. The city is actively used by Lydgate and his source Gerard as an historical backdrop for the poem; see the Introduction for additional information and for the significance of geographical references and locations in and near Winchester.

18–20 Denmark pryncis, pompous and elat . . . Did no favour to louh nor hih estaat. The Danish princes are Anelaphus and Gonelaphus. See note to lines 46–48, below.

pompous and elat. a recurrent phrase describing a dangerously proud person who abuses his power or position. Examples can be found in both Lydgate and Chaucer; see, for example, Lydgate’s TB, “þenvious fals contagiousté / Of þe serpent, pompos and elat” (5.37); and Chaucer’s Monk’s Tale, “This kyng of kynges proud was and elaat” (CT VII[B2] 3357). Excessive pride is always condemned and is usually punished. Phillipa Hardman sees lines 18–20 as the main clause of one long, loosely constructed opening sentence (“Lydgate’s Uneasy Syntax,” p. 29), whereas I suggest that the opening sentence ends at line 16, with the Danes (“them of Denmark,” line 6) as the implicit grammatical subject of the sentence. Long, paratactic constructions which often seem to lack a main verb or grammatical subject are typical of Lydgate’s practice in this poem. For a useful reassessment of Lydgate’s syntax and the difficulties in applying to it modern punctuation, see Hardman, “Lydgate’s Uneasy Syntax,” especially pp. 29–30 on Guy.

22 Froward Fortune hath at hem so dysdeyned. Lady Fortune, whose turning wheel can suddenly turn happiness into misery — or vice versa — is a familiar personage in medieval literature. While she is often figured as blind and disinterested, the random turns of her wheel affecting rich and poor, high and low alike, she can also be presented as a persecuting figure who actively seeks the destruction of someone’s happiness. At this point, Fortune seems to have turned against the English, as they are forced to flee the cruel onslaught of the Danes. The phrasing here, “hath at hem so dysdeyned” seems to be a particularly Lydgatian collocution: see also Guy, line 44, and FP: “[T]hei gan ful pitousli compleyne, / That Fortune gan at hem so disdeyne” (lines 6836–37). A search using the MED quotations field for the phrase “at disdeyn” turns up several more examples, all of them from Lydgate (MED proximity search, at and disdeyne).

23 Mars and Mercurie. Mars is the Roman god of war, Mercury the messenger god. Mercury also represents eloquence. See Lydgate’s Siege of Thebes, where Mercury endows Amphion with the “craft of rethorik” (line 219), FP, where Mercury is described as “cheeff lord and patroun / Off eloquence and off fair spekyng” (2.4544–45), and Pageant of Knowledge, where Mercury is both the “God of eloquence, and merchandyse” (line 102).

with hem at debaat. The phrase is somewhat ambiguous: if “hem” is taken as reflexive, then Mars and Mercury are quarreling with each other. If “hem” refers to the English, then both Mars and Mercury are assailing the English in the form of the Danish assaults and demands.

37 Josue. Successor to Moses, Joshua led the Israelites across the Jordan river to the promised land of Canaan, defeating a number of cities, notably Jericho, whose walls fell to the trumpets and shouts of the Israelites. See Joshua 6:3–20.

39 Nachor. The reference here must be to Achan, also known as Achar or Akar, who, disobeying God’s injunction (Joshua 6:18–19), pillaged and kept some of the riches of Jericho for himself, thereby causing the Israelites to lose their next battle at the city of Ai. Achar is punished by stoning, after which the Israelites go on to victory. See also Joshua 7 and 1 Chronicles 2:7. There is a biblical Nachor, but he is mentioned in Genesis only as brother to Abraham (see Genesis 11:22–29; Genesis 22:20–23) and father to Laban (see, for example, Genesis 11:22–29, Genesis 22:20–23). Further, that Lydgate must be referring to Achar, not Nachor, is made clear in the reference to stoning from the variant lines from Hr and HH: “Theffte of Nathor caused the aduersitee: / Till he was stonnyed they myght not prevayle” (lines 39–40). Note the t in Nathor, suggesting that the Harvard and Harley copyists may have misread the c for t, a not uncommon occurrence, or that they were working from a faulty exemplar.

44 Bellona. Roman goddess of war. The name stems from Latin bella, meaning war.

46–48 Anelaphus . . . Genaphelus. In many Middle English versions of the Guy legend, there is only one main enemy, the Danish king An(e)laf. Here, Lydgate follows Gerard who in turn follows the tradition of the AN Gui, in which there are two Danish opponents, the kings Anelaf and Gunelaf. Ward suggests that the name An(e)laf is a variation of the name of the real-life Danish King Olaf Guthfrickson, he who submitted to Ethelstan in 927 (see introduction to poem), and that Gunelaf derives from a kind of twinning of the name (Ward, Catalogue of Romances, p. 473). An(e)laf is the name of the Danish enemy in the OE Battle of Brunanburh. See Ward, Catalogue of Romances, pp. 471–72, 481, and 486, for further discussion of these names.

57–58 God for synne, by record of scripture / Hath chastysed . . . Lydgate develops the commonplace (begun in stanza 7 and continuing into stanza 9) that God will punish the wicked but will also have mercy on the repentant, listing as exempla cities that suffered for their wickedness, with the implicit suggestion that the English, because they are deserving, will receive God’s help. Lists of exempla that prove or illustrate a principle or point are a typical medieval rhetorical device and one of which Lydgate was particularly fond.

60 Nynyvee. Nineveh. Jonah was sent by God to the wicked city of Nineveh to call on its people to repent or suffer destruction; when they did repent, God spared them. See Jonah 3:5–10.

61 Paris in Fraunce. Hr and HH: Parys nerr hoome. Perhaps a reference to the French civil war, a struggle for power between the Armagnacs and the Burgundians in the first decades of the fifteenth century against the larger backdrop of the Hundred Years’ War between England and France. Henry V negotiated with both sides and concluded a peace with the Burgundians in 1420 with the Treaty of Troyes and his marriage to Catherine of Valois. However, Henry V’s early death in 1422 and the accession of his infant son Henry VI to the thrones of France and England paved the way for more fighting both between the two factions and between England and France until the end of the war in 1453.

64 Rome, Cartage, and of Troie. Classical cities that suffered destruction at the hands of, variously, Gauls, Goths, and Vandals (who raided Rome), Romans (who raided Carthage), and Greeks (who raided Troy).

69 Wynd of glad fortune bleuh not in ther saill. The metaphor of Fortune as a capricious wind is not unusual in ME literature; as Stevens points out, “The figure of Fortune as steerswoman or propelling force . . . finds wide expression in the Middle Ages” (Stevens, “Winds of Fortune,” p. 305n5). Stevens also points to Gower’s use of the figure in Confessio Amantis 5.7557, as well as Lydgate in TB 1.3392–93 and 5.630–35. See Lydgate, TB, “The wynde was good; the goddys fauourable / Fortune her frende, þouh sche be variable” (1.1235–6), and Chaucer, Boece, “The amyable Fortune maystow seen alwey wyndy and flowynge, and evere mysknowynge of hirself” (2.pr8.24).

71 Outrage and vices hath vengaunce at his tayll. “Sin and vice will bring vengeance as a consequence.” Note the singular form of the verb and pronoun despite the plural subject.

81–85 . This is the common trope of defining something by referring to its opposite. On Lydgate’s use of this device, see the Fabula’s Explanatory Note to lines 113–18.

84 Phebus. Phebus Apollo, the sun.

117 necessyté. Philosphically, something that has to happen. See Fabula, explanatory note to line 100, for the relationship between Fortune and necessité.

118–22 The kyng of Denmark . . . to fynde a knyght. In Lydgate’s source, Gerard, Ethelstan has three choices: he can give up his crown entirely; he can keep his crown but pay tribute to the Danes, essentially giving up all of his power; or he can find a champion. Lydgate seems to be preserving the idea of three choices, but the first two really are the same: the English can placate the Danes with homage or they can pay tribute to them, which seems to amount to the same thing; or they can find a champion.

123 Colybrond. Colbrond, Guy’s giant opponent. The name Colbrond itself is etymologically related to images of fire and darkness: ME col (coal; see MED col (n. 2)) + brand (burning or fire; a torch. See MED brand (n.), sense 1a). In some versions of the tale, Colbrond is an African giant, in some a Saracen; in some he is specifically described as black. In all versions, however, he is fearsome and apparently invincible. In addition to the implicit David and Goliath trope (see note to lines 331–32 below), it should be noted that gigantomachia (combat with a giant) is a familiar motif in folktale and romance. King Arthur battles the giant of Mont St. Michel, for example, and Amadis of Gaul defeats the monstrous Endriago. Guy of Warwick himself, in the longer versions of the tale, has fought the giant Amoraunt in an earlier episode. On giants in romance, see Cohen, Of Giants, especially pp. 87–91, which focuses on the Guy legend in particular. See also Rouse, “Guy of Warwick as Medieval Culture-Hero,” especially pp. 104–08.

159-60 resembled in ther wepyng / By penaunce doyng to folk of Nynyvee. In their penance, Ethelstan and his lords resemble the people of Nineveh, who repented of their wickedness. For Nineveh, see note to line 60 above.

Penaunce doyng. Literally, a doing of penance. The gerund is effective and striking.

165 Herald of Harderne. Also known as Herhaud or Heralt. Guy’s mentor and companion; also tutor to Raynbourn, Guy’s son. Here Lydgate takes the opportunity to relate the background story not present in his version of the tale: the heroic Herald, who might have been able to take on Colbrond, is out of the country searching for Raynbourne, who has been kidnapped. See also note to line 171 below.

167 manhis. Man’s. As late as Shakespeare’s time, the possessive case was often thought mistakenly to be derived from the noun plus possessive pronoun (“man his”). For example, see Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, where Antonio says to Sebastian: “Once in a sea-fight ’gainst the count his galleys / I did some service” (3.3.26–27). The mistake derives from the OE and early ME inflections for the possessive singular: mannes, which, pronounced aloud, could sound like “man his.”

168 Guy of Warwyk of manhood lode sterre. This is the first mention of Guy in the poem. That he is described as a lodestar suggests both the literal and figurative meanings of the term: literally, a lodestar shows the way for navigational purposes. Figuratively, a lodestar is a principle or person on whom one’s hopes are fixed. See OED lodestar. Guy is thus both literally and figuratively one who can show the way.

171 Raynbourne. Guy’s son with Felice, stolen by merchants. Herald is out of the country, searching for him.

181 Rowand. Felice’s father, the Earl of Warwick. Through Felice, Guy inherits the title of Earl of Warwick. The inheritance through the maternal line is emphasized throughout the poem, dovetailing with the real-life situation of the Beauchamp-Warwick succession. See the Introduction to Guy, pp. 89–92.

186 Parcas sustren. The Parcae, or the three fates. In Roman mythology, the Parcae (Gk Moirae) spin, measure, and cut the thread of a person’s life.

Sustren. An old plural form (compare children, oxen). Rowand’s life has been cut short by the Fates.

190–91 He lyk a pilgrym, endewed with all vertu, / The nexte morwe chaunged hath his weede. A reminder of an earlier episode of the Guy legend: after having been married for just two weeks to Felice, for whom he had achieved many spectacular feats of arms, Guy suddenly repented of his warlike deeds, and, renouncing the world of chivalry and knighthood, donned the guise of a pilgrim and left England and Felice, newly pregnant, on a pilgrimage of atonement. Guy’s change in clothes is a disguise, but it also signifies his inner change and change in outward goals. For more on this metaphor, see the Fabula’s explanatory note to line 545.

203 chaunged hath his weede. Ethelstan’s clothing mirrors his state of mind and desperate situation. He is no longer clad in purple, a color signifying his royalty, but black, signifying his mourning and “desolacyoun” (line 204).

209 “O Lord . . .” Unlike the fourteenth or fifteenth century Middle English versions of Guy, the Stanzaic Guy, and the AN Gui, Ethelstan’s prayer is rendered here in direct speech. Also in direct speech is the angel’s reply to Ethelstan at lines 241–64, emphasizing, as A. S. G. Edwards points out, “the power of prayer and divine agency in directing the course of earthly affairs and resisting the forces of evil the Danes embody” (“The Speculum Guy de Warwick,” p. 89). For more on direct speech in the narrative, see the Introduction to Guy, pp. 99–100.

213 doubyll were. The MED glosses this phrase as “a state of doubt or indecision between two alternatives” (wer(e (n. 5), sense 1a). Usually the context states the two alternatives; see, for example, Lydgate’s TB 4.2354–61, “Achille . . . brent in a double fyre / Of loue and Ire . . . And þus he stood in a double wer”; FP, lines 4954–56: “Thus in a weer longe [time] she dede endure . . . Whethir she shal be tendre or cruel”; and Temple of Glas (ed., Mitchell), lines 651–52, “As man dispeired in a double werre [where]: Born up with Hope and than anon Daunger.” Here, however, Ethelstan’s angst seems not to derive from indecision about which alternative to choose — it is clear that the English would choose to fight Colbrand had they a champion like Herald or Guy — but, rather, from a deep worry about just what he is going to do given that they do not have a champion. “Double were” here, then, might more accurately be glossed as “deep and terrible worry,” sense 1c rather than 1a.

230–40 Which of His goodnesse sente an aungel doun . . . in story as I reede. Hr and HH have a substantively different reading. See Textual Notes to these lines.

241 From thee voide. . . Angel messengers, a sign of God’s interest and favor, are found frequently in Biblical story and medieval hagiography. That God is intervening directly to guide Ethelstan to the place where he will meet Guy underlines what has been clear from the beginning, that God is indeed on the side of the English.

250 fleete. This unusual word means “to fall gently” (see MED fleten (v. 1), sense 3c). Interestingly, HH has “swete” here. Though this may seem a more apt word, “fleete” appears in all six of the other manuscripts as well as fulfills the grammatical construction expected by “doth” earlier in the line.

265–88 Omitted in HH and Hr. While Ward asserts that these three stanzas are “quite superfluous” (Catalogue of Romances, rpt., p. 495) in all five of the other MSS, it is more likely that they were simply omitted in error, as Robinson suggests: “It is easier . . . to assume that three stanzas were omitted in copying (they make, for example, an even page of the Leyden MS [V]) than to suppose that any one added to Lydgate’s work” (“On Two Manuscripts,” p. 195).

281–83 As the cronycle breefly doth compile . . . Of John Baptyst afore in the vygyle. A reference to Gerard, the chronicler, who had explained earlier that on the eve of St. John the Baptist’s Day, Ethelstan had prayed for aid and that on the same day, early in the morning, Guy had landed in Portsmouth and travel almost immediately to Winchester. St. John the Baptist’s Day is 24 June. “Afore” is difficult grammatically to construe. Here, it seems to mean “earlier” (in the narrative). See MED, affore (adv.), sense b. Lydgate is orienting us in time: Guy arrives in Portsmouth in the early morning and leaves for Winchester almost immediately, arriving there in the evening. On the morning of St. John the Baptist’s Day, he and Ethelstan meet at the north gate. The association between Guy and St. John’s Day is also seen in the AN Gui, the fifteenth-century version, and the Stanzaic Guy. In the AN Gui and the fifteenth century version, Guy arrives in Winchester on St. John the Baptist’s day and on that same evening, Ethelstan prays for assistance and is answered by the angel (AN Gui, lines 10855, 10925; fifteenth-century version, lines 9997, 10065). The two meet at the north gate on the following morning, the day after St. John the Baptist’s Day. St. John the Baptist’s Day is also significant in Guy’s combat with Armourant in both the AN and Stanzaic Guy; in the AN version, the combat takes place the day after June 24 (line 8571, Weiss, p. 191), in the Stanzaic, on the day before (lines 1291–92).

As Weiss points out, St. John the Baptist’s day was when the summer solstice, midsummer’s day, would have been celebrated all over Europe (AN Gui, p. 191). St. John the Baptist was a very popular medieval saint, but it is difficult to know why he is particularly associated with Guy. The association is unlikely to be connected with John’s beheading and the head’s being served on a platter at the instigation of Salome, daughter of Herod Antipas (See Matthew 14:1–12). It may rather have to do with John’s having lived as a hermit, as Guy does at the end of his story, or with John’s association with hope and deliverance: he foretold the coming of Jesus and is often seen as Jesus’ precursor; he is also known for baptizing Jesus. For more information about John the Baptist, see the Oxford Dictionary of Saints.

288 evene at the hour of pryme. Prime is the first hour of the day after sunrise, about 6 am. This is when Guy departs from Portsmouth, where he has just arrived from the continent. Guy thus begins this final leg of his journey home just as the day dawns on the morning of June 23, the day before St. John the Baptist’s Day. Traveling all day, Guy spends the night in Winchester and enters the city on the morning of St. John’s Day, a day of celebration and hope. See note to lines 281–83 above.

295 his weye right. See note to line 328 below.

322 hospytall. A charitable institution for the needy. See OED, hospital, which traces the interesting history of this word and its relatives hostel, hotel, and hospitable. Guy is taking his lodging where it is certain no one will recognize or find him; this choice also reflects his humility. The hospice is located on the site where Hyde Abbey would have been located in 1110. See also note to line 324, below. Gerard, Lydgate’s source, names this hospital specifically as the Hospital of the Sacred Cross, and it is tempting to see a reference here to the Hospital of St. Cross, an almshouse founded between 1132 and 1136 and which still exists as a continuing almshouse. See the hospital’s website, “The Hospital of St. Cross” ( and Jenkins, England’s Thousand Best Churches, p. 256. If this were Gerard’s intent, he was mistaken in its location, however, as it is south rather than north of Winchester. Perhaps this is why Lydgate did not reproduce the specific name.

324–25 Two hundrid pas withoute the north wall / Where stondeth now a menstre ful roiall. The “menstre,” or minster, is Hyde Abbey, formerly known as the New Minster, which had been located within the city of Winchester next to the Old Minster, on the site of what is now Winchester Cathedral. When the Old Minster was demolished after the Norman conquest and a new cathedral built (Winchester Cathedral), the New Minster was moved to the suburb of Hyde. The minster is “ful roiall” because it contained the bones of King Alfred, his wife, and his son, moved there when it was consecrated in 1110. Hyde Abbey was a Benedictine monastery until it was destroyed in the Reformation. For a history of the Abbey, see Doubleday and Page, “The New Minister.” See also E. Edwards’ introduction to Liber de Monasterii de Hyda, especially pp. xxiii–xxiv, xxvii–xxviii, and xliv–xlvi, and The History and Antiquities of Winchester, pp. 11–14.

328 the riht weie. Guy is guided by God to the north gate. The phrase the “right way” is also in Lydgate’s source: “recto tramite.” As Eric Auerbach points out, the “right way” is not merely directional but has an “ethical signification” (Mimesis, pp. 128–29) — it is the correct way. See also Cooper, English Romance in Time, p. 101.

331–32 David . . . Saul. David was the shepherd boy who defeated the giant Goliath with a stone and a slingshot. The well-known Biblical story tells of the plight of King Saul who faces a large force of Philistines and their giant champion Goliath, who, like Colbrand, challenges the Israelites to single combat. The boy David alone steps forward to take up the challenge and kills Goliath with the single shot of a stone from his slingshot. David becomes king of Israel after Saul. See 1 Samuel 17:37–51. The comparison of Guy to David is apt: both heroes step forward to the aid of their king, who faces an invading army; in both cases, the army is led by an apparently invincible and fearsome giant who issues a challenge; in both God ensures the outcome by sending a champion to defeat the giant singlehandedly and save an entire people. Note the mini epic-simile: “As David whilom cam ageyn Golye / to helpen Saul. . . So . . . Guy was provided to be ther champioun / Ageyn the pompe of proude Colybrond” (lines 331–36; emphasis mine).

342 God faileth never His frend on see nor lond. God never fails his friend on sea or land. Proverbial. See Whiting G211.

356 out of ews more to be clad in mayll. Guy protests that he is not accustomed to being in armor anymore.

359 comoun profit. For the common good; to the benefit of everyone. Lydgate’s Guy is unique in agreeing to fight Colbrand for the common good. See Introduction to Guy, p. 99n68. There are numerous occurrences of the phrase in ME literature, particularly in Gower. In another well-known example, the dreamer/narrator in Chaucer’s Parliament of Foules is told “What man . . . That lovede commune profyt . . . He shulde into a blysful place wende”; and Lydgate also uses the phrase in several places to underline the concept that one person can serve the common good (Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, line 3933); “[th]e Grekis . . . acordid . . . [th]at Achilles and . . . Pirrodus / For comoun profit . . . Schal take on hem [th]e charge of [th]is message” (TB 2.5397). For a brief history of the idea of the common good in medieval thought, see Black, “Individual and society,” especially pp. 595–97. See also Kellie Robertson, who sums up the idea succinctly: “The Middle English variants of ‘common profit’ (including comoun profyt and commune profit) were the usual translation of w-2 bonum commune, itself an extension of the classical concept of res publica that viewed the public good as a function of an individual’s responsibility to society” (“Common Language,” p. 212).

360 My lyf juparte. To jeopardize my life. Scribal readings of juparte vary (see Textual Note), but there are many examples of Lydgate using iuparte to mean “jeopardize.” See, for example, Lydgate’s Siege of Thebes (lines 1381, 1826); Troy Book (1.994, 1.2464; 2.224; 3.188); and Fall of Princes (1.878, 2.931, 2.3260). A Literature Online search of the scribal variations (em/im parte/n) yields only one example each of inpartye, inpartyd, and enpartythe, none of which fit the meaning here (Literature Online.

371 The date, July 12, 927, is significant. On July 12, 927, an important agreement was reached at Eamont between King Ethelstan and his Northumbrian enemies, including Scots and Danes, by which they submitted to his rule. See note to lines 1–2 above and the Introduction to Guy, especially pp. 93–94.

379–80 Hyde Meede / Or ellis Denmark. Hyde Meadow, near the site of the monastery. That is, the battle takes place at a location that will later come to be called Hyde Meadow. It was known as Danemarch at least until the late eighteenth century. For more on this name, see the Introduction to Guy, p. 95.

399–400 Colybrond of indyngnacyoun / To his requeste gaf noon audyence. That Colbrond will not give Guy a weapon to continue the fight illustrates his complete lack of moral or Christian standing; he does not behave in a chivalric way because he cannot. He is completely outside of civilization.

432 Onto ther chirche callyd Cathedrall. A detail not included in the fifteenth-century version or the AN Gui. Lydgate and Gerard are emphasizing that it is the cathedral in town, Winchester Cathedral, not Hyde Abbey, to which the party processes.

438 the ex of Colybrond. This axe was purported to have been kept in St. Swithun’s priory, the cathedral Benedictine monastery, until the dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII. See also Introduction to Guy, p. 95n59.

442–43 Guy in al haste caste off hys armure / Lyk a pilgrym put on his sclaveyn. In his change from armor to pilgrim garb, Guy rejects chivalric life again, once more becoming a pilgrim. See also note to line 488 below.

457–61 Alle your pryncys avoided by absence . . . Duryng my lyf. An extended ablative construction, outlining the conditions under which Guy will explain to Ethelstan who he is. Guy insists that Ethelstan never divulge his true identity.

461 ye gete no more of me. A common filler phrase. See also, for example, Fabula lines 490 and 852.

467 At a cros. Crosses were sometimes placed at crossroads or along byways for travelers passing outside the sacred places designated within cities.

484 avouh. While the MED lists only verbal meanings for avouh (avouen) the word is clearly meant to function as a noun here. The noun form is usually vou(e, but the MED acknowledges that forms with a are ambiguous (MED vou(e n. 1).

488 doon off. Note again the metaphorical force of the clothing Guy wears. His assertion that he will never remove his hermit’s garment underlines his refusal of gold and riches from the king and illustrates his determination not to return to the knight’s life but, rather, to remain as a hermit for the rest of his days.

492 Warwyk, his castell, and his toun. A reminder of Guy’s close ties to the locality of Warwick.

499–500 Thre daies space he was oon of tho / That took almesse with humble and louh corage. This episode, in which Guy receives alms at the hand of Felice, who does not recognize him, is often given more dramatic effect in other versions of the Guy legend. In the fifteenth century version, the disguised Guy reminds Felice of her husband, and she asks a squire to tend especially to him (Cambridge, lines 10505–15). She feels a kind of kinship with this pilgrim and comes close to recognizing him.

502–03 Nat fer fro Warwyk . . . Of aventure kam to an hermytage. Here, Lydgate differs from his source, Gerard, who describes the hermitage as quite a distance from Warwick. John Frankis suggests as a reason for this discrepancy the possible influence on Lydgate of the Prose Guy, a French prose redaction of the AN Gui, extant in two manuscripts, one in England and one in France though probably both of English origin, and probably commissioned either by John Talbot or Richard Beauchamp (Frankis, “Taste and Patronage,” pp. 80–81 and 88–89), in which the hermitage is described as being close to Warwick (Frankis, “Taste and Patronage,” p. 88). In the second, or fifteenth-century version (Cambridge), the hermitage is similarly described as close to Warwick. Frankis suggests that Lydgate and the author of the fifteenth-century version have been influenced here by the Beauchamps, whether Talbot or Richard (Frankis, “Taste and Patronage,” p. 88).

573–74 Wich wrot the dedis with gret dilligence / Of them that wern in Westsex crowned kynges. For Gerard’s purported history of the West Saxon kings, see the Introduction to Guy in this volume, p. 88n20.

585–92 Meekly compiled . . . . This final stanza is truncated in HH and Hr. See corresponding Textual Note.

589–90 In Tullius gardyn he gadrid never flour / Nor of Omerus he kam never in the meede.

Tullius. Cicero, an important Roman orator and rhetorician.

Omerus. Homer. This familiar modesty topos, in which the poet protests his lack of rhetorical talent, is used frequently by Lydgate and here particularly recalls Chaucer’s Franklin, who prefaces his tale by saying that he has never learned anything about the colors of rhetoric: I sleep nevere on the Mount of Pernaso, / Ne lerned Marcus Tullius Scithero. / Colours ne knowe I none, withouten drede, / But swiche colours as growen in the mede” (CT V[F], 721–24). See also Gower’s closing words of the Confessio Amantis (ed., Peck, 8.3115–119):
For thilke scole of eloquence
Belongith nought to my science,
Uppon the forme of rethorique
My wordis for to peinte and pike,
As Tullius som tyme wrot.


Abbreviations: HH: Cambridge, MA, Harvard University, Houghton Library, MS Eng.530; Hr: London, British Library, MS Harley 7333; L: London, British Library, MS Lansdowne 699; MS: Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Laud Misc. 683 (base manuscript); M: MacCracken, ed., Lydgate’s Minor Poems; P: Peterborough, Peterborough Central Library MS, s. n.; T: Cambridge University Library, MS Trinity R.3.21; V: Leiden, University Library, MS Vossius Germ. Gall. Q.9; Z: Zupitza, ed., “Lydgate’s Leben des Guy von Warwick.

Incipit Here gynneth the lyff off Guy of Warwyk. HH, Hr: Her now begynnyth an abstracte owte the cronycles in latyn made by Gyrade Cornubyence the worthy the cronyculer of Westsexe & translatid into Englishe be lydegate Daun Iohan at the request of Margret Countasse of Shrowesbury ladyTalbot ffournyvale & lysle of the lyffe of that moste worthy knyght Guy of Warrewyk of whos blode she is lenyally descendid. L: Incipit Guydo de Warwik. V: Danico invasio regnante Ethelstano un cum historia Guidonis de Warwik. T: A Tale of Guy & Colbrond.

1 complet. T: omitted.

3 the. Hr: omitted.

5 also. HH, Hr: þane harde.

6 them of Denmark. HH, Hr: þe daanes.

wich with. HH: that with her. Hr: who che with þeire.

7 brent. T: Bruto.

and. P: omitted.

made. T: and made.

9 Spared. HH, Hr: They sparyd.

10 Chirchis collegis. T: Churche ne college.

that they. HH, Hr: omitted. V: thy.

11 every. HH, Hr: many.

12 furie. HH, Hr: wodnesse.

14 wylde. V: wylle.

feer. HH, Hr: ffuyre. P, T: fyyre. V, L: fyr.

15 And in ther mortall persecucyoun. HH, Hr: omitted. HH supplies in the right-hand margin the following: without all mercy they frett and frown.

16 Spared. HH, Hr: ne spared.

greet. HH, Hr: goon grete.

chylde. V: clyde.

17 this. P: the.

18 Two. So HH, Hr. MS: To. L, V: Too. P, T: The.

Denmark. HH, Hr: daanisshe.

19 void. HH, Hr: & voyde.

20 Did no favour. HH, Hr: no ffauour shewe. T: Shewyd no fauour.

nor. Hr: nor to.

estaat. P: degre.

21 so. HH: than. Hr: þoo.

dysconsolaat. T: desolate.

22 hath at hem. HH, Hr: at hem hath.

so dysdeyned. V: disdeyne.

23 Mars and Mercurie wer with hem at debaat. HH, Hr: Mercury & Mars held with hem debate.

debaat. T: bate.

24 That bothe. HH, Hr: So was.

pryncis. HH, Hr: lordes.

and. T: and þe.

distreyned. HH, Hr: þane constreyned. V, L, P, T: constreyned.

25 By froward force. HH, Hr: By fforce ellas.

the. T: omitted.

flyght. P: fy3t.

26 Thes. HH, Hr: þe.

27 On hih hilles. HH, Hr: On hillis hie. T: on theyre hygh hylles.

fyres gaff suych. HH, Hr: beekens were so.

suych. P: gret.

lyght. Hr: bright.

29 robbed and spoiled. HH, Hr: spoyled & robbed.

robbed. T: they robbyd.

30 verray. HH, Hr: mortall.

31 the. P: omitted.

red. HH, Hr: omitted.

32 a. HH, Hr: þe.

gret. HH, Hr: omitted.

fro. T: fro the.

mounteyne. HH, Hr: the hille.

33 for. HH, Hr: ffrome.

trespace. HH: antiquite.

34 of. HH, Hr, T: of olde.

antyquyté. HH: trespace.

35 hap, fortune, and grace. HH: in cronycles as ye may see.

36 in cronycles ye may see. HH: on happe ffortune & grace.

39 The thefte of Nachor made Israell to fle. HH, Hr: The is omitted.

Nachor. HH, Hr: Nathor.

made Israell to fle. HH, Hr: caused þe aduersytee.

40 Out of the feld, and in ther conquest faile. HH, Hr: till he was stoonyd they myght not prevayle.

in. L, P, T: of.

faile. T: to fayle.

41 the. P: omitted.

ambycioun. T: Abusion.

42 And. HH, Hr: þe.

furie. T: furyes.

43 This. HH: þe.

destruccyoun. P: confusion.

44 The swerd of Bellona. HH, Hr: Bellonas swerd.

so. HH, Hr, V: omitted. T: to.

45 wer. HH, Hr: omitted.

46 Oon of. HH, Hr: On.

47 And as. HH, Hr: As that.

48 tother was named. V: the thodir so mamed.

50 God. T: ffor god.

with his punisshyng. HH, Hr: to punysshe offt.

51 Suerd. P, T: The sword.

a. L, V: omitted.

punssheth. HH, Hr: sleþe ffolke. P: smyth.

52 With furious hand mortall and vengable. HH, Hr: þeyre ffuryous handes ben wode & vengeable. T: Thorough furyous Ire & mortall vengebyll.

53 Wher. T: There.

the Lord. HH, Hr: oure lorde. T: god.

ay. T: euer.

tretable. HH, L: mercyable.

54 wich halt all. T: with merci.

wich. HH, Hr: &.

55 But thes tirauntys, to scheden blood most able. HH, Hr: thise twoo to shedyn blode thyrauntes full able.

56 troubled. HH, Hr: they troubled.

57 for. HH: for the.

by. HH, Hr: omitted.

58 Hath chastysed. HH, Hr: Chastised hath.

greet. HH, Hr: ffayre.

59 hem. HH: omitted.

60 Record. HH, L, T: Recorde of.

on. HH, L, P, T: of. Hr: omitted.

61 Paris in Fraunce. HH, Hr: Parys nerr hoome.

pardé. V: payd.

62 veyn. HH, Hr, L, P, T, V: ffals.

ambucyoun. T: Abusion.

63 examples at eye. V: at eye examplis. at eye. HH, Hr: her. T: as.

65 This mater ofte hath been. T: The mater hath oft be.

66 For lak. HH, Hr: Lackyng.

of2. HH: omitted.

wisdam. P: witte.

67 peplys. HH, Hr: ffolkes.

wer. HH, Hr: ne wer.

68 To. HH, Hr: ffor to.

69 Wynd of glad fortune. HH, Hr: Of glad fortune the wynde.

Wynd. T: The wynde.

in. HH, Hr: omitted.

70 of. HH, Hr: omitted.

72 Thouh. P: And yit.

Kyng Ethelstan. HH, HR: Edelston king.

73 Cruell. HH, Hr: þese cruwell. P: Of cruell.

Inglyssh. HH: þis Englissh. Hr: þenglisshe.

74 swerd was. HH, Hr: swerdes wer.

75 Yit. P: And yit.

in. L: omitted.

cronycle. Hr, L, P, T, V: cronycles. HH: the cronnycles.

at leyser. HH, Hr: omitted.

who. V: who so.

lyst. HH, Hr: list bokes.

77 his. V: his his.

78 nobless and royall. HH, Hr: ryall and marcyall.

noblesse. P, T: nobilness.

79 God. V: good.

always. T: euer.

in his myght. P: with the ryght.

82 folweth. HH, Hr: is next.

85 After. HH, Hr: Next the.

trouble. L, P, T, V: gret trouble.

87 to. Hr: omitted.

mercyable. HH: counfortable.

88 Upon his knyght, the forseid Ethelstan. HH, Hr: to recounforte his knyght kynge Ethelstan.

89 In. HH, Hr: thus in.

90 adversyté. P: necessite.

91 cronycle. L, P, T, V: cronycles.

92 alle. HH, Hr: omitted.

93 have a. HH, Hr: holde.

at. P: in.

the. HH, Hr, P: omitted.

94 Som. HH, Hr: theyr.

in all haste to provyde. HH, Hr: in haste for to. P: to fynde and hastyly.

95 and. Hr: of.

97 the lond. HH, Hr: this reaume.

98 Remedy to schapen. HH, Hr: to ben avysed hole.

100 In that cyté. HH, Hr: At Wynchestre wer they.

101 Hap. HH, Hr: hope.

102 Ther hope. HH, Hr: ffor theyre trust.

turned. HH: ffell in. Hr: ffel vn. T: was turnyd.

to. V: omitted.

104 spere. HH, Hr: swerd.

105 that. HH, Hr: theyre.

party. HH: prayer.

was. Hr: þere was.

108 the. HH: in þis.

109 Strong wer the Danys. HH: The daneys stronge. Hr: þe danys so strong.

proud. HH: omitted. T: and proud.

110 Kyng. HH: þis. Hr: þus.

by. V: in.

111 that. V: the.

112 to. V: omitted.

113 By. HH: Be the.

this. HH, Hr: hit.

115 telle. HH, Hr: seyne.

116 Benbassatrie, or mene of som tretee. Hr: omitted.

117 Streythtly. T: Streyte.

of. HH, Hr: of pure.

Hr adds in left margin between 117 and 118: [?re]cord ryght as ye shall see.

118 The kyng of Denmark. HH, Hr: Alle þo danys.

for. P: omitted.

119 this. T: hys.

121 ellis pleynly. HH, Hr: to appoynte.

partyes. HH, Hr, L, P, T, V: parties bi.

124 Day. L, T, V: A day. P: At day.

assigned. T: sygned.

in. L: to.

125 to. P: ii [i.e., two]. HH, Hr: twoo.

126 with. HH: the.

127 a. HH, Hr: omitted.

by2. P: omitted.

128 in quyete of. HH, Hr: hooly in.

129 beyng there. Hr: ther beyng.

130 loud. HH, Hr, L, P, T, V: long.

131 fynall. HH, Hr: ffull.

132 How they list quyten hem. HH, Hr: Tacquyte hem selfe.

hem. L: omitted.

134 and. Hr: of.

outher. HH, Hr, P: or elles. T: orelles.

135 ther. HH, Hr: his. T: the.

137 Denmark. HH: danyes. Hr: danyshe.

138 wylful. HH, Hr: contrarye.

139 lyst. Hr: ne lyst.

be. HH, L, P, T, V: to ben.

141 or. HH, Hr: omitted.

for. HH, Hr: or.

142 this. V: the.

convencioun. L: relacioun relacioun.

relacioun. HH, Hr: aunswer.

to. HH, Hr: for to.

143 How. P: If.

caste hem. HH: purpossen. Hr: purposid.

144 The. HH, Hr: omitted.

145 so. HH: ffull.

146 furious. HH, Hr: yrous.

haste. T: Ire.

they. HH, Hr: the danys.

have. HH, Hr: omitted.

147 so hard was. HH: was so harde.

so. P: ful.

149 the. HH, Hr: thise.

150 mende. L, P, V: mynde.

151 And weel. HH, Hr: ffulle moche.

weel. L: wele. V: wyll. P, T: well.

152 to. T: for to.

153 Knew no bet. HH, Hr: kouþe thenke no. T: And knew no mene.

as in. L: in al.

mateer. T: manere.

154 Redres. HH, Hr: remedy.

to2. HH, Hr: be.

155 Than. HH, Hr: but.

hym. T: hem.

156 to. HH, Hr, P: in.

157 Pore. HH, Hr: þe poure.

withoute more. HH, Hr: to make no.

158 attonys. HH, Hr: echon.

159 salte. HH, Hr: bytter.

resembled in. HH, Hr: semed be.

160 By. HH, Hr: omitted.

to. HH, Hr: as. P: like.

161 hih. L: his. HH, Hr, T: the hye.

162 Of. HH, Hr: Soughte. founde was. HH: but they ffynde. Hr: but they fonde.

164 Ageyn the geaunt of Denmark for to fight. HH, Hr: line omitted.

for. P: omitted.

165 Harderne. T: order.

the. Hr, P: that. T: and the.

noble. HH, Hr: goode.

Hr adds a line between 165 and 166: Koud not be found in nomans syght.

167 in1. HH, Hr: of.

in2. HH: to.

168 of manhood. HH, Hr: most knyghtly.

lode sterre. P: þe lodsterre.

169 This. HH, Hr, L, P, T, V: The.

beyng tho. Hr: thoo beyng þens. T: tho beyng.

172 alle. T: in all.

173 yong age. HH, Hr: his youthe.

174 By straunge. HH, Hr: And by.

ongoodly. V: vngodly.

175 tendirly. HH, Hr: ryght tendrely.

176 compleynyng. HH: wepyng.

177 hir. HH, Hr, L, V: his.

178 yonge. HH, Hr: dere.

to. HH, Hr: ffor to.

179 In. HH, Hr: In alle.

180 the. HH, Hr, L: omitted.

and. L: in.

181 Rowand. HH, Hr: Ronaulde. P: Rewynd. T: Rowland.

182 Erl. HH, Hr: þan eorlle.

oon. HH, Hr: omitted. P: on of.

beste. T: boldyst.

183 That was. HH: levyng. Hr: levyng in.

184 allas. HH: was so. Hr: ellas so. P: forsoth.

185 Paide. V: Pay.

of. L, V: bi.

186 was. HH, Hr: þat.

his. HH, Hr: þe.

187 And. HH, Hr: omitted.

189 seyde. Hh, Hr: omitted. P, T: the said.

sone affter. HH, Hr: hir sone Reynebroune.

as. HH, Hr: as þat.

190 He lyk a pilgrym. HH, Hr: The next morwe.

He. L, P, T, V: omitted.

endewed. P: endowed.

all. HH, Hr: omitted.

191 The nexte morwe. HH, Hr: Lyche a pilgrym.

192 hym. T: hymsylf.

193 to. HH, V: of.

194 hih. HH, Hr: omitted. T: hys.

195 and2. HH, Hr: omitted.

kyn. P: child.

bekam. HH, Hr: became so.

196 for. V: omitted.

was. P: he.

197 Crist. T: for cryst.

his. P: omitted.

198 In. T: With.

pompe. HH, Hr: wellthe. P: pryde.

he lyst not to. HH, Hr: hym list no more.

199 onto. HH, Hr: nowe to.

200 Kyng. HH, Hr: To.

wyll. V: well.

201 As I began in order. HH: Ryght as I ffyrst gan. Hr: Right as I firste gave for.

202 make. HH, Hr: make clere.

203 but. HH, Hr: omitted.

205 Because there was. HH, Hr: þis was the cause.

206 Founde no persone. HH, Hr: was ffounde no man.

207 seyde. HH, Hr, P: he saide.

208 His grace doun. HH: some grace hym. Hr: some grace to him.

to. P: wold.

210 Cast doun. HH, Hr: Enclyne.

211 upon. HH, Hr: lord.

212 But fro. HH, Hr: ffrome alle.

turne. HH, Hr: þou tourne.

thy. HH, Hr: my.

213 Disespeired. HH, Hr: I dispeyred.

stondyng. P: I stonde.

in. T: thus in.

214 kyngdam. HH, Hr: reaume.

216 gracious mene. HH, Hr: benygne lord.

partye. HH, Hr: prayer.

217 My feith, myn hope. T: My hoope my feythe.

219 My sheeld, my sheltroun. HH, Hr: shelde & sheltroun.

eek. T: omitted.

220 Be. HH, Hr: Alle.

power. HH, Hr: ffortune. V: pore.

221 But grace with mercy list be my champioun. HH, Hr: Saue grace & mercy I haue no chaumpyon.

be. T: to be.

222 Thorgh Thy. HH, Hr: But thou.

223 this. HH: this his. Hr: þus his.

224 Or he was war. HH, Hr: hym alle vnwist.

he fyll into. T: was fall in.

into a slombre. HH, Hr: in slepe & slombyr.

225 trouble. HH, Hr: thoughte.

lay. P: he lay.

226 Devoutly knelyng. HH, Hr: knelyng devoutly.

Devoutly. T: Benygnely.

by. HH, T: besyde.

228 grace. P: mercy.

with meekness void. HH, Hr: & is devoyde.

230–40 Which of His goodnesse sente an aungel doun . . . in story as I reede. These eleven lines are substantively different in HH and Hr. HH reads as follows:
Sent an aungell Ethelston to recounforte
Be twene midnyght & the morwe tyde
Spake to the kynge as I cane me reporte
I goddes aungell sent ffrome hevenly kynge
ffor to releesse thyn hevy perturbaunce
Whether thou slepe or that thou be wakyng
God hath resceyued thy prayer & penaunce
þyne pytous wepyng & alle thyne olde greuaunce
shall hastly chaunge to ioy & to plesaunce
Ne drede the not but haue thou in remembraunce
As I to the shall nowe here expresse
Hr exhibits four substantive variants from HH:

232 cane me. Hr: schall you.

238 plesaunce. Hr: blyse. There is clearly a correction written over an erasure. The erased word looks very much as if it could have been plesaunce.

239 thou. omitted.

240 shall nowe here expresse. Hr: here right shall nowe expresse. Robinson suggests that these lines may represent an alternate version of the poem because they seem closer to Gerard (p. 196). Whether or not this is so, these ten lines (with or without Hr’s correction of the breach in ballad-stanza by the rhyme in HH’s line 238) are arguably less effective than the version represented by L and the other “Group B” texts.

231 dreede. T: feare.

feer. T: drede.

a syde. V: on side.

232 mercy. P: goodness.

233 cast. P: he cast.

234 Bad. T: And bade.

235 entyeer. T: vttyr.

236 in riht. P: in. T: withyn.

240 hadde. T: harde.

241 thee. MS, L, P, V: the. T: thee.

voide. HH, Hr: to avoyde.

242 Whan. HH, Hr: Whan þat.

hir. P: his.

243 Tomorwen, erly. HH, Hr: Eorly to morowe.

244 Crist Ihesu. P: Ihesu Crist.

245 sight. T: sute.

246 upon. HH: well in. Hr: well on.

in. T: yef.

trust. HH, Hr: hope.

247 shall. HH, Hr: will.

and. HH: & of.

248 for He ys. HH, Hr: he is so.

249 Phebus. HH, Hr: the sonne.

set. HH, Hr: ne sette.

250 flete. HH: swete.

251 toward. HH, Hr: vn to.

252 that. P: euer.

253 Hath on the levys. HH, Hr: on leve & herbe hath.

weete. HH, Hr: hete.

254 Abide there meekly. HH, Hr: Mekely þer byde.

God. V: omitted.

to. P, T: omitted.

thee sende. P: thi d[?] send.

255 Fyrst among. HH, Hr: Amonges the.

256 hym goodly. HH, Hr: þou hym.

thy. T: the.

257 Clad as a pilgrym. HH, Hr: symply arayed.

in a brood. HH: in a rowe. Hr: and cladde in rovghe.

259 Marke. HH, Hr: Thou merke.

riht weell. HH, Hr: thou full. L: riht trist.

weell2. P: omitted.

261 To. HH, Hr: ffor to.

262 on. P: in.

and. HH: omitted.

263 Goddis myht that. HH, Hr: myght of god.

schall. HH, Hr: shalle the ther.

L: Newly reioissed out of all hevynisse.

265 The. P: Thes.

265–88 The woordis seid . . . hour of pryme. These stanzas are omitted in HH and Hr.

267 dyd onwarly. T: vnwarely dyd.

270 Neuly. T: And newly.

271 two. MS: too. P: ii. T: two. L, V: too. I have made this same emendation at lines 324 and 510.

as. V: omitted.

274 humble. P: dew.

276 At. T: Alle.

279 Whan. T: When that the.

280 in. T: of.

at. P: in. T: into.

at the. V: atte.

282 Unto. P: vnto a.

287 By. T: By the.

288 how. T: how that.

289 briht Phebus. HH, Hr: Phebus bryght.

gold tressed. HH, Hr: golden.

290 hih. T: omitted.

291 on. T: in the.

and. HH, Hr: omitted.

hoote. HH, Hr: feruent.

292 perlis silver. HH, Hr: silver perlys.

293 Whan seide. HH, Hr: And that.

seide. P, T: the said.

Guy the noble. P: noble Guy. HH: Guy þat noble.

294 long. HH, Hr: omitted.

295 took. HH, Hr, P, T: he toke.

296 To. HH, Hr: Vnto.

holdyng. HH: strayte he held. Hr: streght heelde.

297 By. HH, Hr: By the.

trowly. HH, Hr: hit trwly.

298 thys. HH, L, T: his.

301 He. HH: here.

for to be. Hr: for toke.

303 hym. T: whom.

304 how. HH, Hr: how þat.

305 They told hym firste. HH: he tolde the kynge. Hr: .

306 Harald. HH, Hr, P: harald of.

307 the sone. HH, Hr: Reynebroune þe.

308 maner. T: maner of.

310 tytle. HH, Hr: cleyme.

famous. HH, Hr: clene of.

in. P: of.

311 Cristis. T: goddes.

his. P: omitted.

312 Earl. HH, Hr: þeorldame.

313 They told hym also. HH, Hr: Men tolde eke Guy.

grete. HH, Hr: dredefull. T: omitted.

314 them of Denmark. HH, Hr: the danys.

315 that Rowand, fader. HH: Rohauld þat was ffader. Hr: Rohauld was ffadir.

to hys wyff. HH, Hr: to Guys wyffe.

Rowand. P: Richard. T: Rowlond.

316 Old. HH: þe olde. Hr: þe older.

ful. HH, Hr, P: omitted.

318 clos. HH, Hr, T: full close.

319 his leve there. Hr: ther his leve.

320 Goth. T: went.

Goth to Wynchestre. HH, Hr: to Wynchester gooyth.

321 Guy. HH, Hr: he.

took. T: to.

loggyng. HH, Hr: herboroughe.

322 at. HH, Hr: therat. T: in.

old. Hr: omitted.

323 Wery. T: Were.

onknowe to every wight. HH, Hr: whan hit droughe to night.

to. P: of.

324 without the north. HH, Hr: & ffyffty ffrom þe.

325 Wher. L: Ther. T: Where as.

stondeth now. T: now stondeth.

now a menstre. Hr: a mynster nowe.

327 was his guyde. HH, Hr: guyded hym ther.

his. P: omitted.

328 Mong pore men. HH, Hr: with oþer poure.

330 into toun. P: the town. HH, Hr, T: into the towne.

331 whilom. T: somtyme.

333 for1. T: for the.

335 provided. T: prouyd.

336 pompe. HH, Hr: danys.

of proude Colybrond. HH, Hr: & ffuryous Colbronde. L: of fowle Colibrond.

337 By. HH, Hr: boþe be.

338 Thilke tyme. HH, Hr: þo.

clad in a round. HH: eclade with a rowe. Hr: ecladde al with a rowght.

339 Of. T: on.

kyng. T: kynde.

340 Sauh. P: he saw.

promys. HH, Hr: be hest.

341 Took. HH, Hr, T: he tooke.

up his herte. HH: good hede. Hr: good herte.

his. P: omitted.

riht weel serteyn. HH, Hr: well ffor certayne.

342 never. HH, Hr: not.

on. HH, Hr, T: in.

lond. Hr, T: in lond.

343 lik. HH, Hr: as.

344 For verray. HH, Hr: of hye.

he. HH: omitted.

took. Hr: to.

345 Besekyng. HH, Hr: Requeryng.

in. HH, P, T: in the. Hr: omitted.

louly. P: humble.

346 was. P: it was.

347 this knyhtly hih. HH: the dredfull. Hr: þis dredfull.

349 this. HH, Hr: þat.

350 In his dyffence that he. T: In thys that ye.

wyll. L: hym.

351 for. HH, Hr, L, P, T: omitted.

352 For. T: ffrom.

darreyne. HH, Hr: to derrain.

the. HH, Hr, P: this. T: hys.

353 of look and. Hr: and looke of.

of 2. P, T: omitted.

354 and2. HH, Hr: ffull.

of. HH, Hr: of his.

355 was. P: omitted.

356 And. HH, Hr: longe.

more to be clad in. HH, Hr: to were plate or mayll.

357 he. HH, Hr: Guy.

Yif. Hr: if þat.

it. V: I.

myhte avayll. HH: may prevaylle.

358 to appeese. HH, Hr: ffor to peese.

359 For comoun profit good wil shal nat fayll. HH, Hr: To the comoune goode my servyce shall not fayle.

360 juparte. MS: in parte (or iu parte). V: Iuperte (or Inperte). L: Iuperte (or Inperte). HH: in Iuperde. Hr: in Iuberde. P: ieperdye. T: to in (or iu)patte. M: juparte. Z: inparte. This emendation is based on several considerations, the first of which is the difficulty of determining whether MS, V, L, and T read in or iu. However, in Hr and HH, this is fairly clearly intended to be iu, given the preceding word in. T adds another layer of difficulty (although MacCracken reads im parte, I cannot concur). However, I do agree with MacCracken in making the final emendation to juparte. While Zupitza’s inparte can make sense, it is much rarer (see MED imparten/emparten); further, the evidence of HH, Hr, and particularly P, as well as Lydgate’s own usage, suggests that the best reading is iuparte, “jeopardize” (see MED juparten). See also the Explanatory Note.

to set thys lond. HH, Hr: this lande to sette. P: and set.

361 kyng. T: kyng and.

362 To. T: Of.

this. Hr: his.

363 Guy, for to doon onto. HH: And he most mekely doo. Hr: And he moste mekelye to do.

364–65 For Jhesus sake . . . ye schall heere. P: transposes.

365 Ys. HH: ye.

367 requere. HH, Hr: appere.

368 At. HH, Hr: omitted. T: At a.

assigned. T: y sygnyd.

mete. HH, Hr: mete with.

369 long. T: lengor.

370 This. HH, Hr: þeise. L, P, T: The.

convencyoun. HH, Hr: covenauntes. L: condicion. P: bataill.

371 Tyme. HH, Hr, T: þe tyme.

upon. HH, Hr: omitted.

372 Place. HH, Hr: þe plase.

and meetyng of thes. HH: betweene hem. Hr: bytwene þeos ylke.

374 Doubylnesse. HH, Hr: Alle doublenesse.

set. T: to be set.

375 As. HH, Hr: omitted. T: Of.

were. HH, Hr: omitted.

in serteyn. HH, Hr: vnder a surtee pleyne.

376 For short. HH, Hr: in.

therby to abyde. Hr, Hr: ther to assent & byde.

378 of. HH, Hr: of olde.

379 Inglyssh. HH, Hr: oure.

named. P: called.

Hyde. HH, Hr: the Hyde.

380 Denmark. HH, Hr: Denmarche.

nat fer from. HH, Hr: vndir.

the. HH, Hr, L, T: that.

381 Meetyng togedre. HH, Hr: þey assembled.

see. HH, Hr: well see.

382 lyk. Hr: liche to.

383 Sparklys. L: sparkis. HH, Hr, P: Sparklis of ffuyre.

harneys. T: armes dyd.

384 a. HH, Hr: omitted.

385 old. HH, Hr: vnkouthe.

386 Spared. HH, Hr: he sparid.

to. HH, Hr: ffor to.

387 his. HH, Hr: whos.

smet at hym. HH, Hr, P: he smote. L: smet hym. P: he smote him.

suych. Hr: moche.

myht. V: a myht.

388 aventayll. V: aven entayle.

389 A. HH, Hr: þat.

390 wood. V: omitted. T: was woode.

this hydous. HH, Hr: þer with this seid.

391 Thoughte it sholde gretly hym avayll. HH, Hr: ffor to ben venged ne cast hym not to ffayle. T: That with all hys myght he gaue hym suche batayle.

gretly hym. V: hym gretly.

392 That Guyes suerd was broke. HH, Hr: brake Guys swerd on tweyne.

393 Whan. HH, T: Whane þe.

sauh. HH, Hr, T: saughe þat.

394 a maner. HH, Hr: þer by gret. P: in maner a. T: a maner of.

395 Guy, lyk a knyght in herte nat aferd. HH, Hr: þoughe he wer stonyed yit was he not afferd.

396 manly. HH, Hr: knyghtly.

397 he of wepnys hadde so gret. HH, Hr: þat he hade of weponys suche.

398 in. V: of.

399 Colybrond of. HH, Hr: of ffals ire &.

400 gaff. HH, Hr: he gave.

401 For. HH, Hr: omitted.

set. HH, Hr: hole sett.

on wrak. T: in wrethe.

402 To execute his purpos set on pryde. HH, Hr: ffor to be vengid of verray ffroward pryde.

404 All. HH, Hr: þane alle.

out. P: onto.

asyde. L, V: on side. P: a syde. T: on a syde.

405 Cauhte. HH, Hr: he caught. T: And caute.

lyst. HH, Hr: & list.

byde. P: abide.

406 Smette the geaunt evene in the firste wounde. HH, Hr: of knyghtly prowes þe Geaunt to confounde.

the furste. P: þat.

wounde. P: stound.

407 Made. HH, Hr: he made. P: And made.

to. P: omitted.

408 his. P: both his.

409 wich. HH, Hr: the whiche.

410 armure and boody. HH, Hr: harney & armure. T: body and armure.

411 gan reche forth. HH, Hr: he raught out.

413 and grace. HH, Hr: ffortuned hym.

gaff hym. HH, Hr: to haue.

415 Fleih with his ax. HH, Hr: with stroke of axe.

Fleih. L: ffleith. T: ffowte.

the. V: omitted.

sturdy. HH, Hr: geauntes.

416 Of the geaunt. HH, Hr: called Colbrond.

hym. T: hym the.

417 thyng accomplisshed. HH, Hr: bataille wonne.

418 prowesse. HH, Hr: manhode.

Guy. HH, Hr: omitted.

this. L: the.

419 statute. HH, Hr: covenauntes.

bond. T: was bonde.

420 take. Hr: to.

ther. L: the.

421 cuntre. HH, Hr: land.

423 by grace. HH, Hr: thus be. T: because.

of Goddys. HH, Hr: Crystes.

424 Hadde of Denmark the pompe ful repressed. HH: in wele recured as is to ffor exppressid. Hr: is wele recured as is to ffor exppressid.

425 Ther froward pompe with meknesse. HH, Hr: And eke the pryde of danys.

was repressed. HH: sore oppressed. Hr: so repressed.

pompe. P: pride.

426 is. Hr: his.

427 have. HH: omitted.

428 Pryncys. HH: prynces &. T: Bothe Pryncys.

and. Hr: omitted.

429 With al the comounte; for short conclusioun. HH, Hr: In oon assembled of pure devocyoun.

430 Hih. HH, Hr, T: Both hye.

431 Hym. HH, Hr: Guy.

with. HH, Hr: with þeyr. T: with a.

432 ther. V, L: the.

chirche callyd. HH, Hr: mynster & chyrche.

433 This. T: Thus.

seide Guy. HH, Hr: noble knyght.

435 thilke. HH, Hr: þat same. P, T: that.

436 Danys. HH, Hr: denmarke.

the. HH, Hr: þer her.

437 instrument. HH, Hr: wepon yit.

al. T: omitted.

438 Is yit callid. HH: yit is hit called. Hr: Yit is callid. T: ys callyd.

of. HH, Hr: of gret.

439 Kept. HH, Hr: And kept.

440 the. HH, Hr: theyr.

as ye shall. HH: I. Hr: yee schall.

shall. L, P: may.

441 is. L, P: was.

442 caste. Hr: he caste.

443 Lyk. HH, Hr, T: & lyche.

put on his sclaveyn. HH: clothed hym with. Hr: he clothid hym with.

put. T: cast.

444 The kyng. HH, Hr: Kinge Ethelston.

ful goodly affter did his cure. HH, Hr: did his besy cure. P: full goodly did his besy cure. T: aftyr full gladly dyd his cure.

afftir. V: omitted.

446 tellyn. HH, Hr: tell hym.

spare. HH, P: to spare.

447 to. L, V: omitted. P: of.

tellyn. HH, Hr: shewe. P: omitted.

448 What was his name pleynly. HH, Hr: his name to hym pleynely ffor.

What. P: And what.

449 Certes. HH, Hr: My lorde. P: Truly.

Guy. HH, Hr: he.

450 Touchyng. P: As touching.

your1. HH, Hr: þis.

and your. HH, Hr: or.

451 Beth nat besy and. HH, Hr: ne be not besy ne.

and. P: nor.

455 of a. HH, Hr: this. T: &.

456 Assuraunce. HH, Hr: of assuraunce.

maad tween. HH, Hr: be you. V: be tweyn yo. The rest of V’s line missing because a corner of page is torn.

457 avoided. T: devoydyd.

458 oursilff. HH, Hr, P: youre selfe.

460 that. HH, Hr: omitted.

be. HH, Hr: keep.

secre. P: pryvee.

462 I. Hr: I ne.

463 nor. T: &.

465 confermed. HH, Hr: ensured.

ful. HH, Hr: & wordes.

466 Passed. HH, Hr, P: they passed.

subbarbys and boundys. HH, Hr, L, P, T: boundes & subbarbis. V: bondis of subbarbis.

467 At. HH, Hr: out at.

feer. T: for.

wall. P: walls.

468 devoutly. HH, Hr: konyngly.

469 all. HH, Hr: alle menys.

470 Of feith. P: my lorde.

471 Your. P: Your own.

472 trewly. HH: sere trwuly. Hr: sir.

473 gan chaunge. HH: omitted. Hr: chaunged. P: gan.

and. P: of.

474 gan wepyn for. HH, Hr: wepped ffor gret.

475 And. HH, Hr: þan.

477 With offte kyssyng. HH, Hr: with honde in honde.

478 With gret proffres. HH, Hr: Gret profyres made.

479 of2. HH, T: &. Hr: and of.

of3. T: omitted.

of gret. HH: muche. Hr: of muche.

480 yif. Hr: yf þat.

481 Alle. HH, Hr: but alle.

meekly he. HH: Guy clene. Hr: Guy þeire clene.

483 Hym. HH, Hr: with.

484–90 At his departyng . . . . speche made interupcyoun. These lines are re-arranged and recast in HH and Hr:
And pytous knelyng on his knee
At þat departing þis avowe made he
duryng Guys lyffe hit wille noon oþer be
He should neuer wer oþer garment
til Ihesu Cryste of mercy & pitee
here in this eorþe hathe ffor his soule sente.
Hr exhibits two substantive variants from HH:

484 And petouse wepyng knelyng on his knee.

486 Hr: Duryng Guyes lyf it wil noon oþer be.

484 maad he. V: he made.

486 in. L, P: with.

full. P: his.

489 but. HH: omitted. L: ful.

490 Sweem of ther speche. HH, Hr: þeyr hevynesse.

Sweem. T: S is present, but the rest of the word is left blank. However, Swem is added in left margin.

491 goth. T: went.

took. Hr: to.

493 man. HH, Hr: wyght.

of hym havyng. T: hauyng of hym.

496 for2. V: omitted.

hir2. HH: his.

497 writeth. HH, Hr: tellith.

so. V: omitted.

498 his1. Hr: omitted.

499 Thre. HH, Hr: be thre.

501 in haste took. HH, Hr: made þan his.

502 Warwyk. HH, Hr: thens.

503 Of. P: By.

505 hym. HH, Hr: whome.

506 For. HH, Hr, P: As ffor.

there. HH, Hr: with hym. P: the.

507 same. Hr: omitted.

a. Hr. omitted.

508 the fyn. HH: & the ende. Hr: þe Ende. P: to the fyne.

his. T: thys.

509 whos day. HH, Hr: whome.

day. T: dethe.

his. HH: the. Hr: þer.

successour. T: socour.

512 Ay. P: Euer.

513 the. P: what.

he. HH, Hr, L, P, T: þat he.

514 moost. HH, Hr: omitted.

515 hys. T: omitted.

517 his. HH: whos.

518 Affter he sente in haste. HH, Hr: þan in alle hast he send.

520 come. P: to come.

to been. HH, Hr, T: & be.

deyng. Hr: [?e]onding. The first letter is difficult to distinguish.

521 And. HH, Hr: omitted.

hir. HH, Hr: ther hir.

522 By. HH, Hr: As by.

a maner. P: all maner of. T: maner of.

wyfly. HH: of wyffly.

523 ordeyne. HH: for to ordeyne. Hr, T: to ordeyne. P: tordeyn.

524 With no gret dyspence. HH: no gret reuerence.

no2. P: omitted.

525 Gan haste hir faste tyl she kam in presence. V: omits line.

Gan haste hir faste. HH, Hr: she hastid hir. P: She hasted fast. T: And she gan hast fast.

in. T: to.

526 as he. HH, Hr: þat Guy.

and. HH, Hr: omitted.

528 swownyng. T: sowyng.

swownyng she did. HH, Hr: ffelyce did þer.

529 And as. HH, Hr: omitted.

famous. HH, Hr: & ffamous.

worthy. L: & worthi. P: omitted.

530 to seyne. P: word.

eek. HH, Hr: omitted.

531 that. P: that same.

anoon. P: omitted.

532 as. HH, Hr, P: þat.

a. Hr: in a.

533 And that she sholde. HH, Hr: And affter þis.

534 For. HH, Hr: þer ffor.

hirsilf dyspoce. T: her lyfe to dyspose.

535 The fifteenth day. HH, Hr: xv dayes.

536 To be buryed faste. HH, Hr: she to be buryed þer.

his. HH, Hr: Guyes.

537 this. T: omitted.

thyng. HH, Hr: omitted.

heed. HH, Hr: goode hede.

538 Guy. HH, Hr: he.

lyst. HH, Hr: & list. P: she list.

539 trouthe and. HH, Hr: wyffely.

540 She. HH, Hr: ffor she.

ful. HH, Hr: omitted.

from. T: of.

541 Sente. P: She sent.

544 Al. HH, Hr: Eche.

thyng. L: this.

ye han herd. P: she koud best.

545 And. HH, Hr: And alle. P: All. T: And in.

this mater breefly. HH, Hr: this coronycle ffor.

546 his. HH: whos. Hr: hos.

old. HH: bothe olde.

547 dyverse. P: grete.

statys there. HH, Hr: ffolke.

549 And lyk. HH: Eche a. Hr: lyche.

551 afforn of hih. HH, Hr: be marcyall.

552 the. P: omitted.

to. T: for to.

553 Whos. P: hos.

I hope. HH, Hr: I truste. T: omitted.

555 ay. HH, Hr: omitted.

to. HH, Hr: to hir.

556 The. P: That.

approchyng. HH, Hr: gan neyghe.

557 ordeyned in. HH: provyded of. Hr: provided in.

hir. V: ther.

558 Hir sone Reynborne be tytle of hir possede. HH: Reynebroune than Eyere ioustely to succede. Hr: Reynebroune than þeire ioustely to succede.

possede. T: to possede.

559 Heyr trewly born by lyneal dyscent. HH, Hr: be title of hir & lynyall discent.

560 In. HH, Hr: omitted.

the. V: ther.

to succede. HH: ioustely to possede. Hr: trewly to possede. T: to procede.

561 of antyquté. HH, Hr: downe be the pedugree.

563 deth. V: det.

of. L, P, T: bi.

565 Affter al this. HH, Hr: Claymyng his ryght.

566 unto. P: of.

567 the. HH, Hr: þat.

568 With a good ende. HH, Hr: whiche ended ffayr.

was maad. HH: & made was.

569 more auctorité as of. HH, Hr: ffor to auctoryse better.

more. T: none.

of. T: for.

570 is suych. HH, Hr: shewith þe. V: sewht in. L, P: seweth in. T: sheweth.

571 the. HH, Hr, L: omitted. T: a.

the cronycleer. P: cronicler.

573 Which wrot the dedis. HH, Hr: whiche whilome wrote.

574 Of them that wern. HH, Hr: dedes of hem.

575 for. HH: of.

576 his. HH, Hr: whos.

578 marcyal name. HH, Hr: knyghtly ffame.

puttyng. HH, Hr: to putten.

581 hard goyng. HH, Hr: hard lyggyng. P: his hard lyving.

and. T: in.

582 Brought onto me a chapitle to translate. HH, Hr: Alle sent to me in Englisshe to translate.

me. T: and.

to. V: for to.

583 metre. P: mater.

in2. HH, Hr, L: omitted.

584 the. HH, Hr: alle the.

for. HH: of.

dulness. P: dowbilness.

on. HH, P, V: of.

585 Meekly compiled under correccyoun. L: adds Lenvoie in left margin.

585–92 Meekly compiled under . . . whan they reede. This final stanza is shortened and recast as an Envoy in HH and Hr. The following text comes from Hr, as the final three words are unavailable in HH:
Mekely translatid vnder correcciou[n]
Settyng a syde preyde and presompcioune
And praye echoon þ[at] shalle of hit take hede
ffavoure and supporte whan þei þe clause Rede

586 Lyf. P, T: The lyf.

590 Nor of. T: wherof.

592 the. T: these.

whan they. T: who ye.

Explicit Explicit. L, V: Explicit Guydo de Warwick.


























































































































Fro Cristis birthe complet nyne hundrid yeer 
Twenty and sevene by computacioun,
Kyng Ethelstan, as seith the cronycleer,
Reynyng that tyme in Brutys Albyoun,
Duryng also the persecucyoun
Of them of Denmark, wich with myhty hond
Rod, brente, and slouh — made noon excepcioun Rode,
By cruel force thorughout al this lond,


Spared nouther hih nor louh degré,
Chirchis, collegis, but that they bete hem doun,
Myhty castellis and every greet cyté
In ther furie, by fals oppressioun,
On to the boundys of Wynchestre toun;
With suerd and feer they madyn al wast and wylde,
And in ther mortall persecucyoun
Spared nat women greet with chylde.


In this brennyng, furious cruelté,
Two Denmark pryncis, pompous and elat,
Lyk woode lyouns void of all pité,
Did no favour to louh nor hih estaat.
Allas! this lond stood so dysconsolaat,
Froward Fortune hath at hem so dysdeyned,
Mars and Mercurie wer with hem at debaat,
That bothe the kyng and pryncis wer distreyned


By froward force to take hem to the flyght,
Thes Danyssh pryncis ageyn hem wer so wood.
On hih hilles ther fyres gaf suych lyght,
Fortune of werre in suych disjoynt tho stood,
The peple robbed and spoiled of ther good,
For verray dreed of colour ded and pale,
Whan the stremys ran doun of red blood,
Lyk a gret ryver fro mounteyne to the vale.


Paraventure for sum old trespace,
As is remembrid of antyquyté,
Of o persone hap, fortune, and grace
Myhte be withdrawe, in cronycles ye may see:
Reed how the myhty famous Josue
Was put abak thre dayes in batayll,
The thefte of Nachor made Israell to fle
Out of the feld, and in ther conquest faile.


Thus by the pryde and veyn ambycioun
And cruel furie of thes pryncis tweyne
This rewm almost brouht to destruccyoun,
The swerd of Bellona gan at hem so disdeyne,
Lordis wer pensif, the porail gan compleyne.
Oon of thes tirauntys callid Anelaphus,
And as myn auctour remembreth in serteyn,
The tother was named Genaphelus.


This myschef, wers than strok of pestilence,
God with his punsshyng is founde mercyable:
Suerd of a tyraunt punssheth with vyolence,
With furious hand mortall and vengable.
Wher folk repente, the Lord is ay tretable
That sit above, wich halt all in His hond,
But thes tirauntys, to scheden blood most able,
With suerd and flawme troubled al this lond.


God for synne, by record of scripture,
Hath chastysed many a greet cyté
And suffred hem gret myschef to endure;
Record Jerusalem, record on Nynyvee;
Paris in Fraunce hath had his part, pardé,
For leccherie and veyn ambucyoun;
Palpable examples at eye men may see
Of Rome, Cartage, and of Troie toun.


This mater ofte hath been exemplefyed:
For lak of wisdam and of good consayll,
That peplys hertys wer nat full applyed
To sue vertu for ther owne avayll.
Wynd of glad fortune bleuh nat in ther saill,
For ther dismeritées, God punshed hem of right:
Outrage and vices hath vengaunce at his tayll.
Thouh kyng Ethelstan was a manly knyght,


Cruell Danys Inglyssh blood to scheede,
Ther swerd was wheet and ther fyres lyght.
Yit in cronycle, at leyser who lyst reede,
Kyng Ethelstan was a full noble knyght,
Though for a tyme eclypsed was his lyght;
Of his noblesse and royall magesté,
The hand of God stood always in his myght
To chaunge his trouble into prosperyté.


The sonne is hatter after sharpe schours,
The glade morwe folweth the dirke nyght,
After wynter cometh May with fresshe flours,
And after mystys Phebus schyneth bright;
After trouble hertys be maad lyght,
And to conclude, lyk as I began,
God lyst to caste his mercyable syght
Upon his knyght, the forseid Ethelstan.


In this mater forther to procede:
Constreynt of werre and gret adversyté
Made hym to drawe, in cronycle as I reede,
With alle his lordis of hih and louhe degré
To have a counsayll at Wynchestre, the cyté,
Som remedye in all haste to provyde
Ageyn the malys and furious cruelté
Wrouht by the Danys in ther marcyal pride.


Of al the lond gadryd were the statys,
Remedye to schapen in this mateere;
Pryncys, barouns, bysshopis, and prelatys
In that cyté assembled wern in feere.
Hap and Fortune shewyd hem hevy cheere,
Ther hope turned to dysesperaunce,
Knyghthood of armes had lost the maneere,
So destitute they were of spere and launce.


In that party was no remedye,
Redres to fynde, nor consolacyoun.
Mars set abak all ther chevalrye,
Thus stood the lond in desolacyoun.
Strong wer the Danys, proud by ambucioun;
Kyng Ethelstan, by constreynt and distresse,
Held with his lordis a counsayll in that toun
To fynde a mene his myschef to redresse,


By grace of God how this myht ben amendyd,
Recure to fynde of ther adversyté.
Breefly to telle, they were thus condescendyd
Benbassatrie, or mene of som tretee,
Streyghtly driven of necessyté,
The kyng of Denmark with homage for to queme,
Or under tribute to have this liberté1
As a soget rejoysshe his dyademe;


Or ellis, pleynly of partyes covenaunt,
Kyng Ethelstan for hym to fynde a knyght
With Colybrond of Denmark, the geaunt,
Day assigned to entre with hym in fyght,
For to darreyne atween hem to the right,
Who shal rejoisshe, with strong and myhty hond,
To holde a septre by manhood and by myght,
And have poscessioun in quyete of this lond.


The kyng, the lordis, beyng there present,
Withoute respight or loud dylacyoun
To yeve answere of ther fynall entent
How they list quyten hem: for short conclusioun,
Outher to make a resygnacyoun
Of septre and crowne, outher to fynde a knyht, 2
As I seyde erst, to be ther champioun previously
Geyn Colybrond to entryn into fight.


The Denmark dukis, of malys importable,
Wood and wylful in ther marcyal rage,
In outher wise lyst nat be tretable,
Requyred in haste benbassat or massage
To have answere or pleggis for hostage,
Of this convencioun relacioun to sende
How they caste hem to puttyn in morgage
The lyf of tweyne to make a fynal ende.


This apoyntement so streitly was forth lad,
Of furious haste they wolde have no delay,
Kyng Ethelstan so hard was bestad,
And alle his pryncis put in gret affray;
Afore Wynchestre the proude dukis lay,
The kyng withinne astoned in his mende,
And weel the more because he knew no way
In his dyfence a champioun to fynde.


Knew no bet mene as in this mateer
Redres to fynde to resoun accordyng
Than by assent to taken hym to prayeer,
He and his lordis to wakyng and fastyng,
Pore and riche, withoute more tarying,
Alle attonys, as they wern of degré,
With salte teris resembled in ther wepyng
By penaunce doyng to folk of Nynyvee.


From hih estatys doun to the porayll,
Of alle degrees founde was no wyght
To underfonge th’emprise of this batayll
Ageyn the geaunt of Denmark for to fight.
Herald of Harderne, the noble famous knyht,
Callid in his tyme, of prowesse nyh and ferre,
Fader in armes in every manhis sight,
Next Guy of Warwyk of manhood lode sterre.


This seide Herald beyng tho absent,
Out of this rewm to seke the sone of Guy
Callid Raynbourne in contrees adjacent
And alle the provyncis that stoode faste by,
Wich in yong age was stole traytourly
By straunge marchauntis, ongoodly lad a way.
Felyce, his moder, wepyng tendirly
For his absence, compleynyng nyht and day,


Born by dyscent to ben hir fadris hayr,
Hir yonge sone, Raynborne, to succede.
In hir tyme was holde noon so fayr,
Callid the example of trouthe and womanhede.
Rowand, hir fader, for noblesse and manheede,
Erl of Warwyk, named oon the beste knyht
That was tho dayes, in story as I reede;
But he, allas, flouryng in hys myght,


Paide his dette of deth onto nature;
By Parcas sustren was spoune his lyves threede.
And, as the story remembreth by scripture,
Whan that Felyce conseyved hadde in deede
By seyde Guy, sone after, as I reede,
He lyk a pilgrym, endewed with all vertu,
The nexte morwe chaunged hath his weede
And spedde hym forth for love of Crist Jhesu;


Forsook the world, onknowe to every wight,
Of hih perfeccyoun to leven in penaunce,
Left wyf and kyn and bekam Goddis knyght,
Whom for to serve was set all his plesaunce.
Content with lytel, Crist was his suffysaunce:
In wordly pompe he lyst not to sojourne.
Callyng ageyn onto remembraunce
Kyng Ethelstan, my penne I wyll retourne


As I began, in ordre to proceede,
Of his compleynt to make mencyoun.
Not clad in purpil, but chaunged hath his weede,
Blak for mornyng and desolacyoun,
Because there was in all his regyoun
Founde no persone his quarell to dyfende;
To God above seyde this orysoun
Bespreynt with teris, His grace doun to sende:


“O Lord,” quod he, “of moost magnyfycence,
Cast doun Thyn erys unto my prayeere.
Remembre nat upon my greet offence,
But fro my synnes turne away Thy cheere;
Disespeired, stondyng in doubyll were
To lese my kyngdam, septre, and regalye
But medyacioun of Thy moder deere
Be gracious mene to save my partye.


My feith, myn hope, my trust, myn affyaunce,
All hoolly restith in Thy proteccyoun;
My sheeld, my sheltroun, my suerd, and eek my launce
Be blont and feble, my power is bore doun;
But grace with mercy list be my champioun
Thorgh Thy support, my foon shal me encombre.”
While Ethelstan seyde this orysoun,
Or he was war, he fyll into a slombre.


For wach and trouble lay in an agonye,
Devoutly knelyng by his beddys syde,
The Lord above, wich can no man denye
That asketh grace with meeknesse void of pride, 3
For His servaunt lyst gracyously provyde,
Which of His goodnesse sente an aungel doun,
Bad hym nat dreede, but set al feer a syde,
Wich of His mercy had herd his orysoun.


Toward the kyng cast his look benygne,
Bad hym truste al hoolly in his grace,
By a tookene and an entyeer signe
Which shal be shewed to hym in riht short space;
Of sleep adawed, the kyng left up his face,
Marked every thyng and prudently took heede,
To whom the angel his hevynesse tenchase
These wordis hadde, in story as I reede:


“From thee voide al dyspeir and dreede!
Whan Aurora shewith hir pale light
Tomorwen, erly arys and take good heede,
For Crist Jhesu, of His gracyous myght,
To thy requeste hath cast doun His sight;
Trust upon Hym, and in thy trust be stable;
He shall conserve of equyté and ryght
Thy roiall tytle, for He ys mercyable.


At Phebus upriste, set no lenger date:
Whan silver deuh doth on the flours fleete,
Make thy passage toward the north gate,
Or that the sonne with his fervent heete
Hath on the levys dryed up the weete.
Abide there meekly and God shal to thee sende
Fyrst among pore, a pilgrym thou shalt meete;
Entrete hym goodly thy quarell to dyfende.


Clad as a pilgrym in a brood sclaveyn,
Old and forgrowe amongys the porayll,
Marke hym weell, and be riht weell serteyn
At thy requeste that he schall nat fayll
To accomplysshe manly thy batayll;
Trust on hym weell, and for thy purpartye,
With Goddis myht that he schall prevayll,
In this mater thyn axing nat denye.”


The woordis seid as ys rehersed heere
Onto the kyng by revelacyoun,
The angell dyd onwarly dysapeere,
And Ethelstan of greet devossioun
Gaf thank to God of this avysioun;
Neuly rejoisshed out of all hevynesse,
With two bisshopis, as maad ys mencyoun,
And erlis tweyne forth he gan hym dresse;


Thankyng the lord of His benygne graunt
As he was bounde, of humble affeccyoun,
With his bisshopis and erlys exspectaunt,
At thilke party northward of the toun,
Lyk as the aungell, for short conclusioun,
Had told the hour onto the kyng but late,
Whan poore folk for sustentacyoun food
Hadde in costom to entren at the gate.


As the cronycle breefly doth compile,
Unto purpos maketh rehersayll
Of John Baptyst afore in the vygyle,
How Guy of Warwik maad his arryvaylle
At Portysmouth, myn auctour wil nat fayle;
In his writyng assignyng hour and tyme,
By grace of God, wich may most avaylle,
Tellith how Guy evene at the hour of pryme,


Whan briht Phebus, with his gold tressed bemys,
On hillis hih gan shewe his hevenly lyght
Erly on morwe, and with his hoote stremys
Dried up the deuh as perlis silver bright,
Whan seide Guy, the noble famous knyght,
Repeired was from his long pylgrymage,
Fro Portysmouth took his weye right,
To Wynchestre holdyng his vyage.


By grace of God I deeme trowly,
Guy was hom sent into thys regyoun
Here taccomplisshe in knyghthood fynally
The laste empryse of his hih renoun,
He for to be the kyngys champioun,
Onknowe of alle; but whan he cam to lond,
To hym was maad pleyn relacyoun
Of his requestis, how it did stond;


They told hym firste in ordre ceryously,
Harald Harderne, that was so good a knyht,
Was goon to seke the sone of Guy,
Gretly desired of every maner wight,
Wich by discent was born of verray riht
By tytle of Felyce, famous in womanhede,
At his repair, with grace of Cristis myght,
Erl of Warwyk justly to succede.


They told hym also of the grete stryf
Tween them of Denmark and Ethelstan the kyng,
And how that Rowand, fader to hys wyf,
Old erl of Warwik, ful notable of levyng,
Was ded also; and Guy herd everythyng,
Of hih prudence kept hymsilf clos,
Lyk a pilgrym his leve there takyng,
Goth to Wynchestre anoon as he aroos.


Guy took his loggyng whan it drouh to nyht
With pore men at an old hospytall,
Wery of travayl, onknowe to every wight,
Two hundrid pas withoute the north wall
Where stondeth now a menstre ful roiall.
The next morwe, anoon as Guy awook,
God was his guyde, in especyall,
Mong pore men the riht weie he took


To the north gate, as grace did hym guye,
By resemblaunce, so entryng into toun,4
As David whilom cam ageyn Golye
To helpen Saul, by grace of God sent doun;
So for refuge and for savacyoun,
Bothe of the kyng and of al this lond,
Guy was provided to be ther champioun
Ageyn the pompe of proude Colybrond.


By his habite and his pylgrym weede,
Thilke tyme clad in a round sclaveyn,
Of whos array whan the kyng took heede,
Sauh Goddis promys was nat maad in veyn,
Took up his herte and knew riht weel serteyn
God faileth never His frend on see nor lond.
With wepyng teris, his chekis spreynt lik reyn,
For verray gladnesse he took Guy by the hond,


Besekyng hym in moost louly wyse,
With sobbyng cheer that routhe was to see,
To underfonge this knyhtly hih empryse
For Goddys sake and mercyfull pyté,
To do socour in this necessyté,
In his dyfence that he wyll nat fayll
Geyn Colybrond his champioun for to be,
For his party darreyne the batayll.


Guy, wonder sad of look and of vysage,
Feynt and wery and dulled of travayll,
Made his excuse that he was falle in age,
And out of ews more to be clad in mayll.
“My wil,” quod he, “Yif it myhte avayll
The cruell ire of Danys to appeese,
For comoun profit good wil shal nat fayll,
My lyf juparte to set thys lond in ese.”


The kyng, the lordys made greet instaunce
To this pylgrym with language and prayers;
Guy, for to doon unto the kyng plesaunce
For Jhesus sake and for his moder deere,
Ys condescendyd, lyk as ye schall heere,
With Goddys grace, after the covenaunt,
As the convencyoun justly doth requere,
At place assigned to mete the geaunt.


Of this empryse was maad no long delay
This convencyoun pleynly to darreyne,
Tyme set of Jule upon the twelfth day,
Place assigned, and meetyng of thes tweyne;
The accord rehersed, the statute and the peyne,
Doubylnesse and fraude set asyde,
As the partyes were boundyn in serteyn,
For short conclusioun therby to abyde.


Withoute the gate, remembred as I reede,
The place callyd of antyquyte5
In Inglyssh tonge named Hyde Meede
Or ellis Denmark, nat fer from the cyté,
Meetyng togedre there men myghte see
Terryble strokys lyk the dent of thonder,
Sparklys out of ther harneys flee,
That to beholde it was a verray wonder.


The old pylgrym quyt hym lyk a knyght,
Spared nat the geaunt to assaylle;
On his left shulder smet at hym with suych myht,
Undir the bordour of his aventayll
A streem of blood gan by his sydes rayll;
The geaunt wood, this hydous Colybrond,
Thoughte it sholde gretly hym avayll
That Guyes suerd was broke out of his hond.


Whan Danys sauh Guy had lost his suerd,
They cauhte a maner consolacyoun;
Guy, lyk a knyght in herte nat aferd,
Requered manly of the champioun,
Sith he of wepnys hadde so gret foysoun,
To graunte hym oon that hour in his difence;
But Colybrond of indyngnacyoun
To his requeste gaf noon audyence,


For he was set on malys and on wrak
To execute his purpos set on pryde,
And while that he and Guy togedre spak,
All attonys Guy sterte out asyde,
Cauhte a pollex, lyst no lenger byde,
Smette the geaunt evene in the firste wounde,
Made his strok so myghtyly to glyde,
That his left arme and shuldir fyll to grounde;


With wich strok, the geaunt Colybrond
Al his armure and boody was maad reed,
Stoupyng asyde, gan reche forth his hond
To take a suerd, wherof Guy took heed.
God and grace that day gaf hym suych speed
To put his name ever after in memorie,
Fleih with his ax, smet off the sturdy heed
Of the geaunt and hadde of hym vyctorye.


This thyng accomplisshed by grace of Goddis hond
And by the prowesse of Guy this noble knyght,
They of Denmark, as the statute bond,
Han crossed sail and take ther weye right
Toward ther cuntré, nouther glad nor light,
Ther surquedye and ther pompe oppressed.
Kyng Ethelstan, by grace of Goddys myht,
Hadde of Denmark the pompe ful repressed.


Ther froward pompe with meknesse was repressed
By Guy of Warwyk, as maad is mencioun,
The kyng, the clergye, devoutly have hem dressed,
Pryncys, barouns, and burgeis of the toun,
With al the comounte; for short conclusioun,
Hih and lowe, to speke in generall,
Hym to conveie with proscessioun
Onto ther chirche callyd Cathedrall.


This seide Guy, ther knelyng on his kne,
With gret meknesse made his oblacioun
Of thilke ex, with wich aforn that he
Hadde of Danys slayn the champioun,
Wich instrument thorugh al this regyoun
Is yit callid the ex of Colybrond,
Kept among men of relygyoun
In the vestiarie, as ye schall understond.


Whan al was doon, ther is no more to seyn,
Guy in al haste caste off hys armure,
Lyk a pilgrym put on his sclaveyn.
The kyng ful goodly after dyd his cure,
That he myhte the grace so recure obtain
Of this pilgrym to tellyn and nat spare,
In secre wyse to tellyn his aventure,
What was his name pleynly to declare.


“Certys,” quod Guy, “Ye must have me excused,
Touchyng your ascyng and your petycioun.
Beth nat besy and lat no more be mused6
In your desire for noon occasioun;
To myn excuse I have ful greet resoun,
For I shal never dyscure this mateer
But under bond of a condycyoun,
Assuraunce maad tween yow and me in feere:


Alle your pryncys avoided by absence,
Sool be oursilf, out of this cyté,
Noon but we tweyne beyng in presence,
With trouthe assured that ye shal be secré
Duryng my lyf — ye gete no more of me.
To no persone, I aske no more avayll
Of feith and oth, to hih nor louh degré,
That ye shall never dyscure my counsayll.”


This thyng confermed by promys ful roiall,
Passed the subbarbys and boundys of the toun,
At a cros that stood feer from the wall,
Ful devoutly the pilgrym knelith doun
To sette asyde all suspecyoun.
“My lord,” quod he, “Of feith withouten blame,
Your lyge man of humble affeccyoun,
Guy of Warwyk trewly is my name.”


The kyng, astoned, gan chaunge cher and face,
And in maner gan wepyn for gladnesse;
And al attonys he gan hym to enbrace
In bothe his armes, of royall gentylnesse,
With ofte kyssyng of feithfull kyndenesse,
With grete proffres on the tother syde,
Of gold, of tresour, and of gret rychesse
Withinne his paleys, yif he wolde abyde.


Alle thes profres meekly he forsook,
And to the kynges royall magesté
Hym recomaundyng, anoon his weie he took.
At his departyng, this avouh maad he
With pitous wepyng, knelyng on his kne
Unto the kyng in full humble entent:
“Duryng my lyf, it may noon other bee,
Schall I never doon off this garnement.”


At ther departyng was but smal langage;
Sweem of ther speche made interupcyoun.
The kyng goth hom; Guy took his vyage journey
Toward Warwyk, his castell, and his toun,
No man of hym havyng suspecyoun,
Where day be day Felyce, his trewe wyf,
Fedde poore folk of greet devocyoun
To praie for hir and for hir lordys lyf,


Thrittene in noumbre, myn auctour writeth so.
Guy at his comyng forgrowe in his vysage,
Thre daies space he was oon of tho
That took almesse with humble and louh corage;
Thankyng the contesse, in haste took his viage.
Nat fer fro Warwyk, the cronycle doth expresse,
Of aventure kam to an hermytage,
Where he fond one dwellyng in wyldirnesse.


To hym he drouh, besechyng hym of grace
For a tyme to holde there sojour;
The same hermyte, withinne a lytel space,
By deth is passed, the fyn of his labour.
After whos day Guy was his successour,
Space of two yeer, by grace of Cryst Jhesu,
Dauntyng his flessh by penaunce and rigour,
Ay more and more encresyng in vertu.


God made hym knowe the day he sholde deie
Thorugh His moost gracyous vysytacyoun
Be an angel, hys spirit to conveye
After his bodyly resolucyoun,
For his merites, to the hevenly mansioun;
After he sente in haste his weddyng ryng
Unto his wyf, of trewe affeccyoun,
Praied hir come to been at his deying,


And that she sholde doon hir besy cure,
By a maner wyfly dyllygence,
In haste ordeyne for his sepulture,
With no gret cost nor with no gret dyspence;
Gan haste hir faste tyl she kam in presence
Where as he lay, dedly and pale of face;
Bespreynt with teris, knelyng with reverence,
The dede body swownyng she did enbrace.


And as this notable, famous, worthy knyght
Sente hir to seyne eek be his massangeer,
In that place to burye hym anoon right
Where as he lay aforn a small auhteer;
And that she sholde doon trewly hir deveer
For hirsilf dyspoce and provyde, arrange
The fifteenth day folwyng the same yeer,
To be buryed faste be his syde.


Hys hooly wyf of al this thyng took heed,
Lyk as Guy bad, lyst no lenger tarye
To quyte hirsilf of trouthe and womanheed;
She was ful loth from his desire to varye,
Sente in al haste for the ordynarye
Whiche ocupied in that dyocyse;
She was nat founde in o poynt contrarye
Al thyng taccomplisshe, as ye han herd devyse.


And this mater breefly to conclude:
At his exequyes, old and yong of age
Of dyverse statys there cam gret multytude
With gret devoycyoun to that hermytage,
And, lyk a prynce with al the surplusage,
They took hym up and leyd hym in his grave,
Ordeyned of God, aforn of hih corage
Ageyn the Danys thys regyoun to save;


Whos sowle I hope restith now in glorye,
With hooly spiritis above the firmament.
Felyce, his wyf, ay callyng to memorie
The day approchyng of hir enterment,
Aforn ordeyned in hir testament
Hir sone Reynborne be tytle of hir possede,
Heyr trewly born by lyneal dyscent,
In the erldam of Warwyk to succede,


The stok descendyng of antyquyté
To Guy his fader be tytle of mariage,
After whos deth, of lawe and equyté,
Reynborne to entre into his herytage.
After al this, his mooder, of good age,
Hath yolde hir dette by deth unto nature.
Beside hir lord in the hermytage,
With a good ende was maad hir sepulture.


For more auctorité as of this mateer,
Whos translacioun is suych in sentence
Out of the Latyn maad by the cronycleer
Callyd of old Gerard Cornubyence,
Wich wrot the dedis with gret dilligence
Of them that wern in Westsex crowned kynges,
Gretly comendyng for knyghtly excellence
Guy of Warwyk in his famous writynges,


Of whos noblesse ful gret heed he took,
His marcyal name puttyng in remembraunce
The eleventh chapitle of his hystorial book
The parfight lyf, the vertuous governaunce,
His wylful povert, hard goyng, and penaunce,
Brought onto me a chapitle to translate.
Yif ought be wrong in metre or in substaunce,
Putteth the wyte for dulnesse on Lydgate.


Meekly compiled under correccyoun,
Lyf of sir Guy by dyllygent labour,
Sette aside pryde and presumpcioun
Because he hadde of cadence no colour;
In Tullius gardyn he gadrid never flour
Nor of Omerus he kam never in the meede.
Praying echon of support and favour,
Nat to dysdeyne the clauses whan they reede.


In the year 927; (see note); (t-note)

(see note); (t-note)
(see note); (t-note)
burnt, and slew; (t-note)

neither; (t-note)
(see note)
fire; (t-note)

proud and haughty; (see note); (t-note)
lions crazed with anger; (t-note)
Perverse; turned scornfully against them; (see note); (t-note)
(see note), (t-note)
compelled; (t-note)

warlike; put them; (t-note)
them; furious; (t-note)
gave; (t-note)
in such a plight then stood
property; (t-note)

Perchance; wrongdoing; (t-note)
From one; chance; (t-note)
Joshua; (see note)

(see note); (t-note)

realm; (t-note)
held them in such contempt; (see note); (t-note)
anxious; poor wretched people; (t-note)
(see note); (t-note)

calamity; (t-note)
conducive to understanding; (t-note)


(see note); (t-note)
For example; (see note); (t-note)
indeed; (see note), (t-note)
clearly; (t-note)
(see note)

pursue; welfare; (t-note)
(see note); (t-note)
Wrongdoing; (see note)

honed; (t-note)
wish; (t-note)


hotter; (see note)

(see note)

wished; merciful; (t-note)

[Ethelstan]; (t-note)
martial (warlike)


together; (t-note)
Chance; looked doleful; (t-note)
despair; (t-note)


group; (t-note)
put aside
arrogance (overweening ambition); (t-note)
means (way); (t-note)

agreed; (t-note)
By negotiation; (t-note)
(see note); (t-note)
placate; (see note); (t-note)

both parties having agreed; (t-note)

(see note)
to decide by combat; (t-note)
rule; (t-note)
scepter; (t-note)
in peace; (t-note)

delay; (t-note)
give; (t-note)
wished to acquit themselves; (t-note)

previously; (t-note)

intolerable malice; (t-note)
by negotiation or message
pledges; (t-note)
agreement; report; (t-note)
decided; trial by combat; (t-note)
two; (t-note)

strictly; (t-note)
beset; (t-note)
stunned (bewildered); (t-note)

better way; (t-note)
himself; (t-note)
without delay; (t-note)
all together; according to rank; (t-note)
(see note); (t-note)
performance of penance; (t-note)

wretched; (t-note)
no one; (t-note)
undertake; task
(see note), (t-note)
near and far
man’s; (see note); (t-note)
Next to; guiding star; (see note); (t-note)

then, (t-note)

(see note)
nearby; (t-note)
wickedly; (t-note)

heir; (t-note)
(see note); (t-note)
one [of]; (t-note)
[in] those; (t-note)

(see note); (t-note)

imbued; (see note); (t-note)
garments; (t-note)

to live; (t-note)
became God’s; (t-note)


(see note); (t-note)

prayer; (t-note)
Sprinkled, (t-note)

(see note)
ears; (t-note)
face; (t-note)
indecision; (see note); (t-note)

solemn promise; (t-note)
protective phalanx; (t-note)
Unless; (t-note)
foes; (t-note)
Before he knew it; (t-note)

Because of sleeplessness and anxiety [he]; (t-note)


Who; (see note); (t-note)


token; excellently perfect
From; awakened; lifted
Noted; (t-note)
to chase away; (t-note)

yourself cast off; (see note); (t-note)
arise early; (t-note)

do not delay; (t-note)
dew; fall gently; (see note); (t-note)
Before; (t-note)
leaves; moisture; (t-note)

cloak, (t-note)
covered with long hair (bearded)
Note; (t-note)

rightful inheritance; (t-note)

(see note); (t-note); (t-note)

suddenly; (t-note)

made glad; (t-note)
earls; he set forth

expectant (hopeful)
that section; (t-note)

just lately
food; (t-note)

(see note)
earlier [in the story]; night

exactly at sunrise; (see note); (t-note)

dew; (t-note)
Returned; (t-note)
(see note); (t-note)
proceeding on his way, (t-note)

believe; (t-note)
to accomplish
great undertaking

what the situation was; (t-note)

in succession; (t-note)
seek; (t-note)
everybody; (t-note)

On his [i.e., Guy’s son’s] return; (t-note)

eminent during his lifetime; (t-note)

did not reveal himself; (t-note)
as soon as; (t-note)

lodging; night drew [on]; (t-note)
almshouse; (see note); (t-note)
(see note), (t-note)

(see note); (t-note)

(see note); (t-note)


Against; (t-note)

garments; (t-note)
That; cloak; (t-note)
(see note); (t-note)
sprinkled; (t-note)

Beseeching; way; (t-note)
pitiful; (t-note)
undertake; noble task; (t-note)

Against; (t-note)
part to undertake; (t-note)

very; expression; (t-note)
Faint; (t-note)
no longer accustomed; (see note); (t-note)
(see note); (t-note)
jeopardize my life; (see note); (t-note)

entreated; (t-note)
agreed, as you shall hear; (t-note)

agreement; (t-note)
treaty; (t-note)

on 12 July; (see note); (t-note)

Outside of
(see note), (t-note)
armor flew; (t-note)

acquitted himself; (t-note)
smote; (t-note)
chain mail; (t-note)
gush; (t-note)
infuriated; (t-note)
help; (t-note)

received a kind [of]; (t-note)
abundance; (t-note)
one; (t-note)
(see note); (t-note)

evil; (t-note)

at once (suddenly); (t-note)
poleax; wishing to delay no longer; (t-note)
Smote; right; (t-note)

reach; (t-note)


Flew; (t-note)

country; neither; (t-note)

wicked; (t-note)
prepared themselves; (t-note)
burgesses; (t-note)
community; (t-note)
(see note); (t-note)

presented as an offering
ax; (t-note)
still; (see note); (t-note)
vestry; (t-note)

(see note); (t-note)
pilgrim’s cloak; (t-note)
tried very hard; (t-note)

tell of his experience; (t-note)

About; question; (t-note)
concerned; wondering; (t-note)
for no reason

Unless; (t-note)
between; together; (t-note)

sent away; (see note); (t-note)
Alone by ourselves; (t-note)

discreet; (t-note)
(see note)
[Than your] faith; (t-note)
reveal (discover)

suburbs; (t-note)
(see note); (t-note)
truly [and] with respect; (t-note)
liege; (t-note)

in a way (i.e., almost weeping); (t-note)

offers; other; (t-note)


vow; (see note); (t-note); (t-note)


remove; (see note)

little conversation; (t-note)
Sorrow over; (t-note)
journey; (t-note)
(see note)


heavily bearded; (t-note)
those; (see note); (t-note)
alms; meek disposition
(see note); (t-note)
a man

approached; (t-note)
to stay there temporarily; (t-note)
a short time; (t-note)
end; (t-note)
For two years
Always; (t-note)

By; (t-note)
dissolution (death)
ryng; (t-note)

death; (t-note)

do her best; (t-note)
In the best possible way; (t-note)
make arrangements for; burial; (t-note)

swooning; (t-note)

Sent to tell her also by his messenger; (t-note)
immediately; (t-note)
altar; (t-note)
do her best; (t-note)
arrange; (t-note)

had bidden; wished not to delay; (t-note)
acquit; (t-note)
reluctant; (t-note)
ecclesiastical authority; (t-note)

funeral; (t-note)

trappings; (t-note)



always; (t-note); (t-note)
will (final wish); (t-note)
by virtue of her title; (t-note)
Heir; (t-note)



yielded; (t-note)

wisdom; (t-note)

(see note); (t-note)

perfect (i.e., unblemished, faultless)
blame (responsibility); (t-note)

(see note); (t-note); (t-note)

[formal training in] metrics or rhetoric
Cicero’s garden; (see note)
Homer; (t-note)



Go To Appendix: Gvydo de Warwyke