Art. 100, Quant vous levez le matyn
ART. 100, QUANT VOUS LEVEZ LE MATYN: EXPLANATORY NOTES
Abbreviations: AND: Anglo-Norman Dictionary; ANL: Anglo-Norman Literature: A Guide to Texts and Manuscripts (R. Dean and Boulton); BL: British Library (London); Bodl.: Bodleian Library (Oxford); CT: Chaucer, Canterbury Tales; CUL: Cambridge University Library (Cambridge); DOML: Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library; FDT: French Devotional Texts of the Middle Ages (Sinclair 1979); FDT-1: French Devotional Texts of the Middle Ages, . . . First Supplement (Sinclair 1982); IMEV: The Index of Middle English Verse (Brown and Robbins); MED: Middle English Dictionary; MWME: A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050–1500 (Severs et al.); NIMEV: A New Index of Middle English Verse (Boffey and Edwards); NLS: National Library of Scotland (Edinburgh).
1 seint Michael. The most widely invoked of the archangels, Michael (named in Daniel 10:3) is regarded the angelic leader of the heavenly host.
2 seint Gabriel. Like Michael and Raphael, Gabriel is recognized as an archangel in the Roman Catholic tradition, as well as by the Eastern Orthodox Church and Islam. As the angel used to convey spiritual mysteries to mankind, he was God’s messenger at the Annunciation.
3 seint Raphael. Raphael is named in the apocryphal book of Tobit 3:17, 12:15. With Michael and Gabriel, he is among the three archangels recognized by name in the Roman Catholic tradition. Additionally, he is seen as an archangel in the Eastern Orthodox and Islamic traditions.
5 seint Raguel. Raguel is sometime named as one of the seven archangels, although Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel are the only ones named in the Bible. Raguel is also the name of Tobias’s father-in-law in the apocryphal book of Tobit, which features other names on this list. See the explanatory notes to lines 3, 11.
6 seint Rachel. The Old Testament matriarch, wife of Jacob and mother of Joseph, and not an official saint.
8 seint Pantesseron. The identity of this figure is uncertain. The nearest angel name is “Phanuel,” listed by Pope Gregory the Great as one of the seven archangels. More distant possibilities are Gabuthelon or Zebuleon, mentioned as angels in the Greek Apocalypse of Ezra. Given the scribe’s spelling here, however, the most likely candidate seems to be the non-angel Saint Panteleon, honored widely in post-plague Europe as one of the fourteen guardian martyrs or “holy helpers.” A remote possibility is Saint Pancras.
9 seint Abyel. This name is perhaps a mistake for Azrael, known, especially in Islamic tradition, as the angel who comes to comfort one during the passage to death.
seint Brachiel. Barachiel (named in the apocryphal Third Book of Enoch) is recognized as one of the seven archangels in the Eastern Orthodox tradition.
11 seint Uryel. Named in 2 Esdras, Uriel is one of the seven archangels in the Eastern Orthodox tradition, and Pope Gregory the Great also sets him in that category.
seint Tobye. The apocryphal book of Tobit relates the story of the father Tobias and his son Tobias, who are aided by the angel Raphael.
ART. 100, QUANT VOUS LEVEZ LE MATYN: TEXTUAL NOTES
ABBREVIATIONS: As: Aspin; Bö: Böddeker; Br: Brook; BS: Bennett and Smithers; BZ: Brandl and Zippel; B13: Brown 1937; Dea: J. M. Dean; Do: Dove 1969; Fl: Flood; Fö: Förster; Fu: Furnivall; HB: Hunt and Bliss; Kem: Kemble; Ken: Kennedy; Mi: Millett; Mo: Morris and Skeat; MS: MS Harley 2253; Mu1: H. J. R. Murray; Mu2: J. A. H. Murray; NB: Noomen and van den Boogard; Pa: Patterson; Rev: Revard 2005a; Ri: Ritson 1877; Ro: Robbins 1959; SP: Short and Pearcy; Si: Silverstein; St: Stemmler 1970; Tu: Turville-Petre 1989; Ul: Ulrich; W1: Wright 1839; W2: Wright 1841; W3: Wright 1842; WH: Wright and Halliwell.
2 Qaunt. So MS. HB: Quaunt.
6 pensez. So HB. MS: pensez pensez.
Go To Art. 101, Quy velt que Dieu sovyegne de ly, introduction
Go To Art. 101, Quy velt que Dieu sovyegne de ly, text