Art. 26, Enseignement sur les amis
ART. 26, ENSEIGNEMENT SUR LES AMIS: EXPLANATORY NOTES
ABBREVIATIONS: AND: Anglo-Norman Dictionary; ANL: Anglo-Norman Literature: A Guide to Texts and Manuscripts (R. Dean and Boulton); BL: British Library (London); Bodl.: Bodleian Library (Oxford); CCC: Corpus Christi College (Cambridge); CUL: Cambridge University Library (Cambridge); IMEV: The Index of Middle English Verse (Brown and Robbins); IMEV Suppl.: Supplement to the Index of Middle English Verse (Robbins and Cutler); MED: Middle English Dictionary; MWME: A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050–1500 (Severs et al.); NIMEV: A New Index of Middle English Verse (Boffey and Edwards); NLS: National Library of Scotland (Edinburgh).
16 sa. “Her.” In this translation the beloved one is gendered feminine. The speaker seems to be a man giving advice to other men. Kennedy uses masculine gender for the beloved, a choice that paints the topic as more generally about friendship than about romantic love, or else as advice to women.
17 Si toun ami as esprové. Kennedy notes how “the poet alternates second person plural and singular without apparent purpose. In reference to the lovers as a couple, he always uses the plural; but in speaking to the individual lover, that is, the reader, he uses both forms: ‘toun ami’ (17), ‘ton consail’ (30), ‘vostre . . . ami’ (33), ‘vostre consail’ (37), etc.” (p. 16).
65 fyn amour. Here and in line 108 the poet uses a term frequently used by Provençal and French poets to refer to refined secular love.
97 pas. According to Kennedy, “this word has the double meaning of 1) the literal passages in the poem and 2) the figurative steps or way of practice of ‘fyn amour.’ It is the second sense which leads into the next stanza with its reference to the ‘droite voie’” (p. 22). See also the explanatory note to line 107.
107 prenge le travers. According to Kennedy, this phrase “has both the literal meaning of ‘take a short-cut’ . . . and the figurative meaning of ‘take amiss,’ or ‘take something wrong.’ Thus it relates to both meanings of pas (97)” (p. 23). See the explanatory note to line 97.
111 “Tu autem”. The Latin phrase ends the poem with an imitation of liturgical ritual. A common way to close a prayer from the pulpit is “Tu autem, Domine, miserere nobis” (But thou, O Lord, have mercy on us). The poet-cum-preacher concludes the Lesson for True Lovers by asking for a “respounz” (a liturgical term) from the audience. Kennedy suggests an alternate meaning, believing that the phrase alludes to Matthew 6:6, where Christ instructs believers to pray the Pasternoster in private: “Tu autem cum oraveris, intra in cubiculum tuum, et clauso ostio, ora Patrem tuum in abscondito” (But thou, when thou shalt pray, enter into thy chamber, and having shut the door, pray to thy Father in secret: [and thy Father, who seeth in secret, will reward thee]). According to Kennedy, “the full quote suggests the courtly convention of secrecy” (p. 23).
ART. 26, ENSEIGNEMENT SUR LES AMIS: TEXTUAL NOTES
ABBREVIATIONS: As: Aspin; Bö: Böddeker; Bos: Bossy; Br: Brook; BS: Bennett and Smithers; BZ: Brandl and Zippel; B13: Brown 1932; B14: Brown 1952; DB: Dunn and Byrnes; Deg: Degginger; Do: Dove 1969; Gr: Greene 1977; Ha: Halliwell; Hal: Hall; Hol: Holthausen; Hor1: Horstmann 1878; Hor2: Horstmann 1896; Hu: Hulme; JL: Jeffrey and Levy; Ju: Jubinal; Kel: Keller; Ken: Kennedy; Le: Lerer 2008; Mc: McKnight; Mi: Millett; MR: Michelant and Raynaud; Mo: Morris and Skeat; MS: MS Harley 2253; Mu: H. M. R. Murray; Pa: Patterson; Pr: Pringle 2009; Rei: Reichl 1973; Rev1: Revard 2004; Rev2: Revard 2005b; Ri1: Ritson 1877; Ri2: Ritson 1885; Ro: Robbins 1959; Sa: Saupe; Si: Silverstein; St: Stemmler 1970; Tr: Treharne; Tu: Turville-Petre 1989; Ul: Ulrich; W1: Wright 1839; W2: Wright 1841; W3: Wright 1842; W4: Wright 1844; WH: Wright and Halliwell.
68 n’ert. So MS, Ken. W3: n’est.
69 dolour. So MS, W3. Ken: doulour.
78 puet. So MS, Ken. W3: peut.
106 chaut qe l’oye. So MS, Ken. W3: chant qe loye.
112 respounz. So MS W3. Ken: repounz.
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