Art. 24, Chaunter m’estoit
ART. 24, CHAUNTER M’ESTOIT: EXPLANATORY NOTES
ABBREVIATIONS: AND: Anglo-Norman Dictionary; ANL: Anglo-Norman Literature: A Guide to Texts and Manuscripts (R. Dean and Boulton); BL: British Library (London); Bodl.: Bodleian Library (Oxford); CCC: Corpus Christi College (Cambridge); CUL: Cambridge University Library (Cambridge); IMEV: The Index of Middle English Verse (Brown and Robbins); IMEV Suppl.: Supplement to the Index of Middle English Verse (Robbins and Cutler); MED: Middle English Dictionary; MWME: A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050–1500 (Severs et al.); NIMEV: A New Index of Middle English Verse (Boffey and Edwards); NLS: National Library of Scotland (Edinburgh).
7–8 Aspin believes that these lines refer to the pacification achieved later, at the Parliament of Marlborough in November 1267 (p. 26). She uses these lines to date the poem’s composition in 1267–68. But see also Shields, pp. 205–06, who dates the poem within mere weeks or months of the battle.
16 Ly quens Mountfort. Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, eulogized here and named also in A Song of Lewes (art. 23), line 41.
20 un mardi. The Battle of Evesham was fought on Tuesday, August 4, 1265.
24 Welsh infantry were present, but they fled (Aspin, p. 34).
29 Sire Edward. Lord Edward, Henry III’s son (and the future Edward I). He led the royalist forces at Evesham. Compare A Song of Lewes (art. 23), line 57, and explanatory note.
40–41 ly martyr / De Caunterbyr. Thomas Beckett, to whom Simon de Montfort was compared by those who wished to see him canonized. This poem may have been written as part of that effort.
55–56 Sire Hue le fer / Ly Despencer. Hugh Despenser (1223–1265), chief justice of England (1260–61, 1263–65), sided with the barons and was killed at Evesham.
61 Sire Henri. Simon de Montfort’s son. The poet singles out Montfort, his son Henry, and Hugh Despenser as the most prominent losses among the many dead at Evesham.
66 le cuens de Gloucestre. The Earl of Gloucester led the moderates on the baronial side, defecting to the royalist cause at Evesham. The poet blames him for the defeat.
91–93 The discovery of the hair shirt again links Montfort’s piety to that of Thomas Beckett.
112 l’enfant. An apparent reference to Montfort’s youngest son, Amaury (Aspin, p. 34).
120 This line alludes to the clergy who sided ardently with the baronial cause and wanted to make Montfort a saint.
136–38 Of these lines on the flatterer and the fool, Aspin comments: “No particular individuals seem to be indicated. The phrase may be meant to emphasize the contrast between the honest bluntness and strict respect for the law, attributed to Montfort and his supporters, and the insincerity imputed to the royalist victors” (p. 34).
154–56 This mention of prisoners “presumably [refers to] those captured at Evesham, of whom Guy de Montfort, Simon’s third son, was one. He escaped to France in April or May 1266” (Aspin, p. 34).
ART. 24, CHAUNTER M’ESTOIT: TEXTUAL NOTES
ABBREVIATIONS: As: Aspin; Bö: Böddeker; Bos: Bossy; Br: Brook; BS: Bennett and Smithers; BZ: Brandl and Zippel; B13: Brown 1932; B14: Brown 1952; DB: Dunn and Byrnes; Deg: Degginger; Do: Dove 1969; Gr: Greene 1977; Ha: Halliwell; Hal: Hall; Hol: Holthausen; Hor1: Horstmann 1878; Hor2: Horstmann 1896; Hu: Hulme; JL: Jeffrey and Levy; Ju: Jubinal; Kel: Keller; Ken: Kennedy; Le: Lerer 2008; Mc: McKnight; Mi: Millett; MR: Michelant and Raynaud; Mo: Morris and Skeat; MS: MS Harley 2253; Mu: H. M. R. Murray; Pa: Patterson; Pr: Pringle 2009; Rei: Reichl 1973; Rev1: Revard 2004; Rev2: Revard 2005b; Ri1: Ritson 1877; Ri2: Ritson 1885; Ro: Robbins 1959; Sa: Saupe; Si: Silverstein; St: Stemmler 1970; Tr: Treharne; Tu: Turville-Petre 1989; Ul: Ulrich; W1: Wright 1839; W2: Wright 1841; W3: Wright 1842; W4: Wright 1844; WH: Wright and Halliwell.
16 Mountfort. So MS, Ri1, As. W1: Montfort.
18 en plorra. So MS, W1, As. Ri1: emplorr.
31–36 MS, W1, Ri1, As: Ore est ocis &c.
42 sa. So MS, W1, As. Ri1: la.
49–54 MS, W1, Ri1, As: Ore est ocys &c.
67–72 MS, W1, Ri1, As: Ore est ocis &c.
74 mentenir. So MS, W1, As. Ri1: mentenyr.
85–90 MS, W1, Ri1, As: Ore est &c.
102 sonme. So MS, W1. Ri1, As: soume.
103–08 MS, W1, Ri1, As: Ore est &c.
121–26 MS: written out by scribe. So W1. Ri1, As: Ore est ocis etc.
139–44 MS, W1, Ri1, As: Ore est ocis &c.
157–62 MS, W1, Ri1, As: Ore est ocys &c.
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