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The Towneley Plays: Bibliography


Ed. Francis Douce. Judicium, a Pageant: Extracted from the Towneley MS. of Ancient Mysteries. London: Richard and Arthur Taylor for The Roxburghe Club, 1822.

Ed. James Raine. The Towneley Mysteries. With a Preface by Joseph Hunter and a Glossary by James Gordon. Surtees Society, Vol. 3. London: J. B. Nichols and Son, 1836.

Ed. George England. The Towneley Plays. Re-edited from the unique ms. by George England with side-notes and introduction by Alfred W. Pollard. EETS e.s. 71. London: Oxford University Press, 1897.

Ed. A. C. Cawley. The Wakefield Pageants in the Towneley Cycle. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1958.

Ed. and trans. Martial Rose. The Wakefield Mystery Plays. New York: Norton, 1961.

The Towneley Cycle: A Facsimile of Huntington MS HM 1, With an Introduction by A. C. Cawley and Martin Stevens. San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1976.

Ed. Martin Stevens and A. C. Cawley. The Towneley Plays. 2 vols. EETS s.s. 13, 14. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.


Augustine. “City of God.” In A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Vol. 2: St. Augustin’s City of God and Christian Doctrine. Trans. Marcus Dods. Ed. Philip Schaff. Buffalo, NY: The Christian Literature Co., 1887. Pp. 1–511.

———. “On Christian Doctrine.” In A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Vol. 2. St. Augustin’s City of God and Christian Doctrine. Trans. J. F. Shaw. Ed. Philip Schaff. Buffalo, NY: The Christian Literature Co., 1887. Pp. 519–97.

Baum, Paull Franklin. “The Mediæval Legend of Judas Iscariot.” PMLA 31.3 (1916), 481–632.

Bibliotheca Towneleiana: A Catalogue of the Curious and Extensive Library of the Late John Towneley, Esq. . . . The books will be sold by auction by R.H. Evans . . . . London: W. Bulmer, 1814.

Bonnier, C. “List of English Towns in the Fourteenth Century.” English Historical Review 16 (1901), 501–03.

The Book of Common Prayer. 1549. Web. Online at 1549/BCP_1549.htm.

Butterworth, Philip. Theatre of Fire: Special Effects in Early English and Scottish Theater. London: The Society for Theatre Research, 1998.

———. Staging Conventions in Medieval English Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

The Cabinet Cyclopædia, conducted by the Rev. Dionysius Lardner . . . assisted by eminent literary and scientific men. Biography. Eminent Literary and Scientific Men of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. 1. London: A. Spottiswoode for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longman, 1836.

The Castle of Perseverance. Ed. David N. Klausner. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2010.

Catholic Encyclopedia. Gen. ed. Kevin Knight, 1995–2016. Online at

Cawley, A. C. “Iak Garcio of the Prima Pastorum.” Modern Language Notes 68.3 (1953), 169–72.

———. “The Towneley Processus Talentorum: A Survey and Interpretation.” Leeds Studies in English, n.s. 17 (1986), 131–39.

Cawley, A. C., Jean Forrester, and John Goodchild. “References to the Corpus Christi Play in the Wakefield Burgess Court Rolls: The Originals Rediscovered.” Leeds Studies in English 19 (1988), 85–104.

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Riverside Chaucer. Third edition. Gen. ed. Larry D. Benson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987.

Chester Mysteries: De Deluvio Noe, De Occisione Innocentium. Ed. James Heywood Markland. London: The Roxburghe Club, 1818.

The Chester Mystery Cycle. Ed. R. M. Lumiansky and David Mills. EETS s.s. 3. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Clay, William Keatinge, ed. Private Prayers Put Forth by Authority during the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1851.

“Cleanness.” In The Poems of the Pearl Manuscript. Ed. Malcolm Andrew and Ronald Waldron. Fourth edition. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2002. Pp. 111–84.

Clopper, Lawrence M. Drama, Play, and Game: English Festive Culture in the Medieval and Early Modern Period. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.

Coletti, Theresa, and Gail McMurray Gibson. “The Tudor Origins of Medieval Drama.” In A Companion to Tudor Literature. Ed. Kent Cartwright. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Pp. 228–45.

Collier, John Payne. The History of English Dramatic Poetry to the Time of Shakespeare. 3 vols. London: J. Murray, 1831.

———. Five Miracle Plays, or Scriptural Dramas. London: [privately printed], 1836. Cotgrave, Randle. A Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues. London: Adam Islip, 1611.

The Coventry Corpus Christi Plays. Ed. Pamela M. King and Clifford Davidson. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2000.

Craigie, W. A. “The Gospel of Nicodemus and the York Mystery Plays.” In An English Miscellany Presented to Dr. Furnivall in Honour of his Seventy-Fifth Birthday. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1901. Pp. 52–61.

Croxton Play of the Sacrament. Ed. John T. Sebastian. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2012.

Dane, Joseph A. “Myths of the Wakefield Master.” In Abstractions of Evidence in the Study of Manuscripts and Early Printed Books. Farnham: Ashgate, 2009. Pp. 57–74.

“The Dream of the Rood.” Ed. Michael Swanton. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1996. Reprinted from Manchester University Press, 1970.

[DSL] Dictionary of the Scots Language. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd., 2004. Online at

Dutka, JoAnna. Music in the English Mystery Plays. Early Drama, Art, and Music Reference Series, 2. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1980.

Edminster, Warren. The Preaching Fox: Festive Subversion in the Plays of the Wakefield Master. New York: Routledge, 2005.

[eLALME] Benskin, Michael, Angus McIntosh, M. L. Samuels, Margaret Laing, Vasilis Karaiskos, and Keith Williamson. An Electronic Version of A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English. University of Edinburgh. Online at Originally published in Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1986.

Elliott, J. K., ed. The Apocryphal New Testament: A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in an English Translation Based on M. R. James. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Epp, Garrett P. J. “Visible Words: The York Plays, Brecht, and Gestic Writing.” Comparative Drama 24.4 (1990–91), 289–305.

———. “The Towneley Plays, or, The Hazards of Cycling.” Research Opportunities in Renaissance Drama 32 (1993), 121–50.

———. “Noah’s Wife: The Shaming of the ‘Trew.’” In Domestic Violence in Medieval Texts. Ed. Eve Salisbury, Georgiana Donavin, and Merrall Llewelyn Price. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2002. Pp. 223–41.

———. “‘Corected & not playd’: An Unproductive History of the Towneley Plays.” Research Opportunities in Renaissance Drama 43 (2004), 38–53.

———. “Doubting Thomas: ‘Womans Witnes’ and the Towneley Thomas Indie.” In ‘Bring furth the Pagants’: Essays in Early English Drama Presented to Alexandra F. Johnston. Ed. David N. Klausner and Karen Sawyer Marsalek. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007. Pp. 165–80.

———. “The Towneley Conspiracy.” Ed. Jill Stevenson and Mario Longtin. Special Issue, ROMARD 51 (2012), 101–06.

———. “The Towneley Conspiracy: Coded. Ed. Jill Stevenson and Mario Longtin. Special Issue, ROMARD 51 (2012), 107–51.

———. “Re-editing Towneley.” Yearbook of English Studies 43 (2013), 87–104.

———. “‘Thus am I Rent on Rode’: Taking Apart the Towneley Crucifixion.” In “The Best Pairt of our Play.” Essays Presented to John J. McGavin. Part 1. Ed. Sarah Carpenter, Pamela M. King, Meg Twycross, and Greg Walker. Special Issue, Medieval English Theatre 37 (2015), 119–33.

———. “‘Be ye thus trowing’: Medieval Drama and Make-Belief.” In Happé and Hüsken. Pp. 384–405.

Foster, Francis A. “The Mystery Plays and the Northern Passion.” Modern Language Notes 26.6 (1911), 169–71.

Frampton, Mendal G. “The Date of the Flourishing of the ‘Wakefield Master.’” PMLA 50.3 (1935), 631–60.

Gardner, John. The Construction of the Wakefield Cycle. Carbondale and Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1974.

Goldberg, Jeremy. “From Tableaux to Text: The York Corpus Christi Play c. 1378–1428.” Viator 43.2 (2012), 247–76.

Greg, W. W. Bibliographical and Textual Problems of the English Miracle Cycles: Lectures Delivered as Sandars Reader in Bibliography in The University Of Cambridge, 1913. Reprinted from The Library, 1914. London: Alexander Moring, 1914.

Happé, Peter. The Towneley Cycle: Unity and Diversity. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2007.

Happé, Peter, and Wim Hüsken, eds. Staging Scripture: Biblical Drama, 1350–1600. Leiden: Brill-Rodopi, 2016.

Hardison, O. B. Christian Rite and Christian Drama in the Middle Ages: Essays in the Origin and Early History of Modern Drama. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1965.

Helterman, Jeffrey. Symbolic Action in the Plays of the Wakefield Master. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1981.

Horae Eboracenses: The Prymer or Hours of the Blessed Virgin Mary According to the Use of the Illustrious Church of York. Ed. C. Wordsworth. Surtees Society, Vol. 132. London: Andrews & Co., 1920.

Holkham Bible Picture Book. Ed. W. O. Hassall. London: Dropmore Press, 1954.

The Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments, with the Apocryphal books, in the Earliest English Versions Made from the Latin Vulgate by John Wycliffe and His Followers. Ed. Josiah Forshall and Frederic Madden. 4 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1850.

The Holy Bible: Douay-Rheims Version. Rockford, IL: Tan Books and Publishers, 1899.

Hussey, S. S. “How Many Herods in Middle English Drama?” Neophilologus 48 (1964), 252–59.

Jacobus de Voragine. The Golden Legend: Readings on the Saints. Trans. William Granger Ryan. 2 vols. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Jambeck, Thomas J. “The Canvas-Tossing Allusion in the ‘Secunda Pastorum.’” Modern Philology 76.1 (1978), 49–54.

Jennings, Margaret, C. S. J. Tutivillus: The Literary Career of the Recording Demon. Special Issue, Studies in Philology 74.5 (1977), 1–95.

Johnston, Alexandra F. “The Plays of the Religious Guilds of York: The Creed Play and the Paternoster Play.” Speculum 50.1 (1975), 55–90.

———. “The Second Shepherds’ Play: A Play for the Christmas Season.” In “The Best Pairt of our Play”: Essays presented to John J. McGavin. Part 1. Ed. Sarah Carpenter, Pamela M. King, Meg Twycross, and Greg Walker. Special Issue, Medieval English Theatre 37 (2015), 134–48.

Johnston, Paul A., Jr. “Notes on the Dialect of the York Corpus Christi Plays.” In Davidson. Pp. 535–57.

Jungmann, Robert E. “Mak and the Seven Names of God in the Wakefield Second Shepherds’ Play.” Lore and Language 3.6 (1982), 24–28.

King, Pamela M. The York Mystery Cycle and the Worship of the City. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2006.

Kolve, V. A. The Play Called Corpus Christi. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1966.

Langland, William. The Vision of Piers Plowman. Ed. A. V. C. Schmidt. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1978.

Lindsay, Sir David. Ane Satyre of The Thrie Estaitis. Ed. Roderick J. Lyall. Edinburgh: Canongate Press, 1989.

Love, Nicholas. Nicholas Love’s Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ. Ed. Michael G. Sargent. New York: Garland Publishing, 1992.

Lyle, Marie C. The Original Identity of the York and Towneley Cycles. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, 1919.

Maltman, Sister Nicholas. “Pilate — Os Malleatoris.” Speculum 36.2 (1961), 308–11.

Mankind. Ed. Kathleen M. Ashley and Gerard NeCastro. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2010.

Marriott, William. A Collection of English Miracle-Plays or Mysteries: Containing Ten Dramas from the Chester, Coventry, and Towneley Series, with Two of Latter Date. To which is prefixed, an historical view of this description of plays. Basel: Schweighauser & Co., 1838.

McGillivray, Murray. “The Towneley Manuscript and Performance: Tudor Recycling?” In Editing, Performance, Texts: New Practices in Medieval and Early Modern English Drama. Ed. Jacqueline Jenkins and Julie Sanders. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. Pp. 49–69.

Meredith, Peter. “The York Millers’ Pageant and the Towneley Processus Talentorum.” Medieval English Theatre 4 (1982), 104–14.

———. “The Towneley Pageants.” In The Cambridge Companion to Medieval English Theatre. Second edition. Ed. Richard Beadle and Alan J. Fletcher. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Pp. 152–82.

Meredith, Peter, and John E. Tailby, eds. The Staging of Religious Drama in Europe in the Later Middle Ages: Texts and Documents in English Translation. Trans. Raffaella Ferrari, Peter Meredith, Lynette R. Muir, Margaret Sleeman, and John E. Tailby. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1983.

[MED] Middle English Dictionary. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2001–2013. Online at

Merie Tales of the mad men of Gotam. Gathered to gether by A. B. of Phisike Doctour. London: Thomas Colwell [1565].

The Middle-English Harrowing of Hell and Gospel of Nicodemus. Ed. William Henry Hulme. EETS e.s. 100. London: Oxford University Press, 1907.

The Middle English Metrical Paraphrase of the Old Testament. Ed. Michael Livingston. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2011.

Mills, David. “The Towneley Plays or The Towneley Cycle?” Leeds Studies in English n.s. 17 (1986), 95–104.

———. Recycling the Cycle: The City of Chester and Its Whitsun Plays. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.

Milton, John. “L’Allegro.” In John Milton: The Complete Poems. Ed. John Leonard. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1998. Pp. 21–25.

———. Paradise Lost. Ed. David Scott Kastan. Based on the edition by Merritt Y. Hughes. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2005.

Napolitano, Frank M. “Discursive Competition in the Towneley Crucifixion.” Studies in Philology 106.2 (2009), 161–77.

“The Northern Passion.” In Codex Ashmole 61: A Compilation of Popular Middle English Verse. Ed. George Shuffelton. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2008. Pp. 232–74.

[OED] The Oxford English Dictionary. Ed. J. A. Simpson and E. S. C. Weiner. Second edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. Online at

Palmer, Barbara D. “‘Towneley Plays’ or ‘Wakefield Cycle’ Revisited.” Comparative Drama 21 (1988), 318–48. [Reprinted in Drama in the Middle Ages. 2nd series. Ed. Clifford Davidson and John H. Stroupe. New York: AMS Press, 1991. Pp. 290–320.]

———. The Early Art of the West Riding of Yorkshire. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1990.

———. “Corpus Christi ‘Cycles’ in Yorkshire: The Surviving Records.” Comparative Drama 27.2 (1993), 218–31.

———. “Recycling ‘The Wakefield Cycle’: The Records.” Research Opportunities in Renaissance Drama 41 (2002), 88–130.

———. “The Relation Between Drama and Art in the West Riding Yorkshire.” Presentation at the 19th International Congress on Medieval Studies, Kalamazoo, MI, May 11, 1984.

Parkes, M. B. “The Influence of the Concepts of Ordinatio and Compilatio on the Development of the Book.” In Medieval Learning and Literature: Essays Presented to Richard William Hunt. Ed. J. J. G. Alexander and M. T. Gibson. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976. Pp. 115–41. [Reprinted in M. B. Parkes. Scribes, Scripts and Readers: Studies in the Communication, Presentation, and Dissemination of Medieval Texts. London: Hambledon, 1991. Pp. 35–70.]

Peck, Russell A. “Public Dreams and Private Myths: Perspective in Middle English Literature.” PMLA 90.3 (1975), 461-68.

“Peregrine Edward Towneley, Esq., Membership Since 1812.” The Roxburghe Club. The Roxburghe Club. N.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2016. Online at index.php?MemberID=24.

The Pilgrimage to Parnassus with the two parts of The Return from Parnassus. Three comedies performed in St. John’s College, Cambridge, A.D. 1597–1601. Ed. W. D. Macray. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1886.

Poole, Russell. “A Disguised Stage Direction in the Towneley Second Shepherds’ Play?” Notes and Queries 57.3 (2010), 315–19.

Rastall, Richard. The Heaven Singing: Music in Early English Religious Drama I. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 1996.

———. Minstrels Playing: Music in Early English Religious Drama II. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2001.

[REED: Cheshire] Records of Early English Drama: Cheshire, Including Chester. Ed. Elizabeth Baldwin, Lawrence M. Clopper, and David Mills. 2 vols. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007.

[REED: Coventry] Records of Early English Drama: Coventry. Ed. Reginald W. Ingram. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981.

[REED: Lancashire] Records of Early English Drama: Lancashire. Ed. David George. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991.

[REED: York] Records of Early English Drama: York. Ed. Alexandra F. Johnston and Margaret Rogerson. 2 vols. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1979.

Religious Lyrics of the XVth Century. Ed. Carleton Brown. Oxford: Clarendon, 1939.

Robert of Brunne’s “Handlyng Synne,” A.D. 1303, with those parts of the Anglo-French treatise on which it was founded, William of Wadington’s “Manuel des Pechiez,” re-edited from MSS. in the British Museum and Bodleian Libraries. Ed. Frederick J. Furnivall. 2 vols. EETS o.s. 119, 123. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., Ltd., 1901, 1903; Reprinted as 1 vol. Milwood, NY: Kraus Reprint Co., 1973.

Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. The Norton Shakespeare, Based on the Oxford Edition. Ed Stephen Greenblatt, Walter Cohen, Jean E. Howard, and Katharine Eisaman Maus. New York: W. W. Norton, 1997. Pp. 1659–759.

Sheingorn, Pamela. The Easter Sepulchre in England. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1987.

Skey, Miriam Anne. “Herod the Great in Medieval European Drama.” Comparative Drama 13 (1979), 330–64.

Speculum Christiani: A Middle English Religious Treatise of the 14th Century. Ed. Gustaf Holmstedt. EETS o.s. 182. London: Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, 1933.

Stevens, Martin. “The Missing Parts of the Towneley Cycle.” Speculum 45 (1970), 254–65. ———. “Did the Wakefield Master Write a Nine-Line Stanza?” Comparative Drama 15 (1981), 99–119.

———. Four Middle English Mystery Cycles: Textual, Contextual, and Critical Interpretations. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

———. “The Towneley Plays Manuscript (HM 1): Compilatio and Ordinatio.” TEXT 5 (1991), 157–73.

Sugano, Douglas, ed. The N-Town Plays. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2007.

[Ten Articles] Articles devised by the kynges highnes maiestie, to stablyshe christen quietnes and vnitie amonge us, and to auoyde contentious opinio[n]s, which articles be also approued by the consent and determination of the hole clergie of this realme. London: Thomas Cranmer, 1536.

A Tretise of Miraclis Pleyinge. Ed. Clifford Davidson. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1993.

Twycross, Meg. “‘They did not come out of an Abbey in Lancashire’: Francis Douce and the manuscript of the Towneley Plays.” In “The Best Pairt of our Play”: Essays presented to John J. McGavin. Part 1. Ed. Sarah Carpenter, Pamela M. King, Meg Twycross, and Greg Walker. Special Issue, Medieval English Theatre 37 (2015), 149–65.

Tyson, Cynthia Haldenby. “Noah’s Flood, the River Jordan, the Red Sea: Staging in the Towneley Cycle.” Comparative Drama 8.1 (1974), 101–11.

Virgil. Eclogues. In Virgil with an English Translation by H. Rushton Fairclough. Vol. 1. Ed. E. Capps, T. E. Page, and W. H. Rouse. The Loeb Classical Library. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1916. Reprinted 1922. Pp. 2–77.

Walker, J. W. Wakefield: Its History and People. 2 vols. Second edition. Wakefield: [privately printed], 1939.

Wann, Louis. “A New Examination of the Manuscript of the Towneley Plays.” PMLA 43.1 (1928), 137–52.

Whiting, Bartlett Jere, and Helen Wescott Whiting. Proverbs, Sentences, and Proverbial Phrases. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1968.

Williams, Arnold. The Characterization of Pilate in the Towneley Plays. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State College Press, 1950.

The York Corpus Christi Plays. Ed. Clifford Davidson. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2011.

Young, Karl. “Ordo Prophetarum.” Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 20 (1922), 1–82.