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Play 30, The First Trial before Pilate


1 But with twistings and with deceptions to make me change my ways

2 To obey your command to proceed (go) from you I prepare myself

3 Pay attention to my command, do not deviate

4 But see that you don’t anger me with your handling, but touch me gently

5 She asks attention to that true man, with affliction not to be entrapped

6 Do cease of your speaking, and I shall examine very carefully

7 These lords, they allege that you wish not to live by our laws (customs)


ABBREVIATIONS: AV: Authorized (“King James”) Version; Meditations: Meditations on the Life of Christ, trans. Ragusa and Green; MED: Middle English Dictionary; OED: Oxford English Dictionary; RB: Richard Beadle, ed., York Plays; REED: Records of Early English Drama; YA: Davidson and O’Connor, York Art; York Breviary: Breviarium ad usum insignis ecclesie Eboracensis; York Missal: Missale ad usum insignis ecclesiae Eboracensis.

References to the Ordo paginarum are to REED: York, 1:16–27.

The most noteworthy aspect of the dramatization of the initial trial before secular authority is perhaps the addition to the story of Pilate’s wife Procula, here called Percula, derived from a single brief biblical reference (Matthew 27:19) and given extensive treatment in the Middle English Gospel of Nicodemus.1 This material seems not to have been part of the Tapiters and Couchers’ play at the time the Ordo paginarum was compiled, and the differences in versification noted by Richard Beadle and others suggest stages of composition,2 though the presence of the long alliterative line is maintained. Thus the entire drama must be later than the Ordo paginarum, and probably was written at least in part at about the same date as the previous pageant and others in the Passion series with similar use of the alliterative line, which here falls into nine-line stanzas but with differing rhyme. Lineation and the frequent errors in the text have necessitated considerable editorial attention, and in this the early edition of Lucy Toulmin Smith as well as the more recent work of Richard Beadle must be acknowledged. Nevertheless, the writer of the pageant has been admired for his skill in dramatizing the episodes included by him in the pageant and for making them come to life.3 The scenes with Percula, leading up to her dream in which the devil tempts her (a parallel that quite deliberately is intended with the temptation of Eve, a connection noted by Woolf as deriving from the Glossa Ordinaria),4 are particularly vivid. The trial itself likewise is a complex presentation designed to make the events believable as part of the collective memory. The trial certainly suggests considerable familiarity with the legal system and common-law criminal trials.5 King identifies the procedure from a legal standpoint as summary justice existing outside of the usual order of statute law.6 In general, there is careful attention to detail and argumentation, even in the monologues of Pilate and the devil, as has been noted by Hans-Jürgen Diller.7 The guilds that produced the play also, on account of their work in making ornamented cloths and bed covers, would have been able to add substantially to the visual effect of the pageant.

1–27 The ranting introduction and self-flattery of the Roman procurator distinguishes him as a bragging tyrant, historically a brutal enforcer of Roman rule. Here he is characterized by two of the Seven Deadly Sins — i.e., Pride and Wrath — in his attitude toward potential challengers (see Mussetter, “York Pilate”). He holds up a sword, a symbol of his authority, to threaten his audience, but his tone changes abruptly at lines 25–27 when his wife appears. Other complexities in Pilate’s character appear in the course of the pageant; he is anxious to maintain justice, but ultimately as a politician he will of course fail to do so under pressure. For Pilate’s parentage, see also the Stanzaic Life, p. 219.

37–45 Percula (identified in the speech tags as Uxor or Domina) describes herself as dame precious and the prize of princes and thus is a parody of the vain stereotypical woman. Presented in terms familiar in medieval anti-feminist discourse, she is dressed “in richesse of robis” that would likely have been extravagant to the extreme and hence probably ridiculous. What follows is a parody of a love scene, interrupted by Bedellus. It is to be expected that she was played by a young, fair-faced boy.

59 howe you javell jangill of Jewes. Disappointed and angry about the interruption, Percula engages in highly indecorous conduct, in this serving as a reminder of her perverse role — perverse as was Eve’s in the Garden, for, as noted above, she will be seduced by the devil in her dream to attempt to prevent the sacrifice of Christ on the cross. The present scene presents her as utterly self-centered and as a sex object, suggesting the sin of Luxuria or Lechery.

73–85 The description of the sun descending toward sunset is a purple patch, leading up to the suggestion that Percula should leave her husband’s court and go home to their dwelling. A curfew is specifically applied to her, here defended by the claim that she might “stakir in the strete” (line 85). Curfews were the rule in medieval York, and, with streets being dark and unlighted, it is not unreasonable that she should have been expected to be safely at home. But it will emerge that Pilate will have work to do as a judge, a role that was a male prerogative.

93b with wynne ye had wette yowe. They must have a drink of wine before she leaves, suggesting another of the deadly sins, Gluttony. Indeed, the scene reaches the height of ridiculousness when Pilate praises Percula at line 109 as the “fayrest figure that evere did fode fede.”

118 telle me yf any tythyngis betyde. Pilate is a jealous husband and wants his wife watched. This introduces another of the deadly sins, since jealousy is a species of Envy.

127–39 to bedde that I wer broght . . . me nere. Having “wette . . . with wyne” (line 135b), Pilate is clearly drunk and, as the preceding half-line shows, he is overweight. He will allow no noise or interruption, thus making way for a change of scene to Domina/Uxor, Percula’s maid, and his son, who organize her going to bed, necessary if she is to dream.

158a Owte owte, harrowe! Extrametrical, here added to the first half of line 158. A noisy entry, with the sleeping lady nearby. The devil’s gestures are invariably indecorous and exaggerated.

162 And he be slone, oure solace will sese. Diabolus’ fear is that Jesus, through his sacrifice on the cross, will take away the captives who sit in darkness in his den, which is hell. He will lose his rights to those who have died and are now in his custody. His “solace” comes from tormenting and denying solace to his prisoners.

163 He will save man saule fro oure sonde. Ironic, since hell is hardly a place of safekeeping.

167–75 Percula’s dream, the devil speaking directly to her in her sleep. His appeal to her is directed to her wealth, position, and fear of deprivation. The deadly sins of Pride and Covetousness are invoked.

176 I am drecchid with a dreme. Compare the Middle English Gospel of Nicodemus: “I have ben dreched with dremes so / all this nyght” (p. 35). She is affected, as Eve was, by the devil, and will do his bidding; she will send her lazy son, who is very unwilling to go to her husband at this time since he does not want to rise from sleep at this midnight hour.

196 Sir Cayphas . . . this caytiffe we have cached. Anna is speaking, and since he is a new arrival in this pageant — and a different actor than the one playing Anna in the previous pageant — he will address Caiphas by name, as the latter will also address Anna by name in the next speech. They have Jesus in their custody when they arrive at Pilate’s hall where they will charge him with capital offenses, but also they seem to be enjoying the “sporte” (see line 205) of so doing even though they are consumed by anger.

206 I am pontificall prince of all prestis. Caiphas’ position is high priest of the Temple for the year.

214 rugge hym in ropes. The dragging of Jesus, passive as a lamb (for he is the Lamb of God), becomes progressively more cruel and inhumane. Marrow quotes Ludolphus of Saxony’s Vita Christi, 2:61, concerning the way he is led to Pilate “to be devoured by the wicked judge as by a mad dog [rabido cani]” (Passion Iconography, p. 36). In line 222, the term “hurled,” signifying violent action (MED), is used to describe the manner of dragging him, and the second soldier has indicated that they will “pulle on with pride till his poure [strength] be paste” (line 218). Anna will also use the term “drawe” (line 227b), which might have the connotation of drawing either to execution or to death by being pulled apart, for which usage see Play 32, lines 230–31. See also Filius’ statement in line 391: “No ruthe were it to rug thee and ryve thee in ropes.” In Love’s Mirror he is said to have been “ladde as a thefe” (p. 169).

223 he stonyes for us, he stares where he standis. Embedded stage direction, and also one of the indications that the bullying soldiers consider him to be a fool for his passivity.

233b may rayse with oure rolyng. The soldiers with Jesus make a considerable ruckus; their agitation would perhaps have been described in contemporary terms as “riot.”

263a am I light as a roo. Pilate has sobered up.

269 stronge in youre state for to stande. That is, in the dock.

275 to the benke. To the bench for a legal proceeding or trial, but Caiphas and Anna explain that as priests of the Temple they cannot enter a secular court (line 278). Their involvement in a capital case would be a violation of British law; see Tiner, “English Law,” pp. 146 and 149 n. 28, citing William Lyndwood, Provinciale (1689), 3:29.

280–90 Filius arrives with his message from Pilate’s wife concerning her “swevene” relating to Jesus, whom she hopes to save from execution.

312–15 The Beadle, recalling the veneration extended to Jesus on Palm Sunday, must bow and kneel and worship Jesus. This will be dismissed by Jesus’ accusers and tormentors. At lines 338–46, the Beadle returns to his Palm Sunday experience, when he saw the crowd singing psalms and venerating him.

361 Pilate takes up his role as examiner, with Anna and Caiphas as accusers.

392–93 Why falles thou noght flatte here . . . / For ferde of my fadir so free? Jesus remains upright and does not bow, kneel, or fall down here, nor does he acknowledge Pilate’s authority in any way.

402 of a payne, and appere. Jesus is being summoned to the bar, where he will be accused by the priests from the Temple. They will present the charges, which are so flimsy that Pilate is not impressed. As Pilate notes, their allegations have no merit.

509 fro Galely. Pilate’s discovery that Jesus comes from Galilee allows him to evade making a judgment, since this is a region under the jurisdiction of King Herod (see Luke 23:6–8). Jesus will be passed on, again being dragged to his next location. In the pageant, this could have involved dragging him from one station to the next where this play will be repeated.


ABBREVIATIONS: Bevington: David Bevington, ed., Medieval Drama (1975); Köbling: E. Köbling, “Beiträge zur Erklärung und Textkritik der York Plays”; LTS: Lucy Toulmin Smith, ed., The York Plays (1885); RB: Richard Beadle, ed., The York Plays (1972) (incorporating numerous emendations from other sources); RB2: Richard Beadle, “Corrections to The York Plays,” in Gerald Byron Kinneavy, A Concordance to the York Plays (1986), pp. xxxi–xxxii; s.d.: stage direction; Sykes: A. C. Cawley, ed., “The Sykes MS of the York Scriveners’ Play”; Towneley: Martin Stevens and A. C. Cawley, eds., The Towneley Plays.

The base text for this edition is London, British Library, MS. Add. 35290, called the “Register” in the York civic records and here identified by the abbreviation Reg. Some variations in lineation from the manuscript are not noted here; see RB and Beadle and Meredith’s The York Play: A Facsimile. In most cases the line numbering in the present text is consistent with RB. Lineation of alliterative verse throughout is based on Reg, with line numbering adjusted accordingly to account for half lines. Scribes are identified as follows: Scribe A; Scribe B: main scribe; JC: John Clerke; LH: later scribal hand (unidentified).

7 wrekis. So LTS, RB; Reg: werkis.

9 trewys. Reg: final s added by LH.

13 plight. So RB; Reg, LTS: pight.

22 ther. So RB; Reg, LTS: the.

23–24 Lines reversed in Reg.

28 UXOR PILATI. Entered twice in Reg; also Uxor Pilaty at line 30.

34 troned. So RB; Reg, LTS: stonyd.

46a itt may. So RB; LTS, Reg: itt save may.

62–63 Lineation here follows LTS, RB.

70a wele. Moved from line 70b in Reg.

75–76 As three lines in Reg. Realigned following LTS.

79 deme. So RB; Reg, LTS: dome.

85 Following line is missing in Reg.

90 for thee. This edition; LTS, RB: forthe.

92a a repreve. So RB, following Köbling; Reg, LTS: appreve.

97 Loke, nowe. So LTS, RB; Reg: Loke, what dose thou have done nowe.
97–98 Lineation follows LTS, RB.

107 Two lines following are missing in Reg.

112 here is. So RB; Reg, LTS: he this.

115 FILIUS. Reg has Filius Secundus until line 180, subsequently Filius Primus.

127 Following line is missing in Reg.

135a A, sir . . . wele. Reg: added in left margin by Scribe B.

135 Following line is missing in Reg.

136 here. Added by LTS, RB.

224 II MILES. Reg: in LH.

225 lawe. So LTS, RB; Reg: lawne.

227a Following dowtiest in Reg: this day (canceled).

233a I MILES. Written over erasure in Reg.

244 batterand. So RB; Reg, LTS: battand.

263a roo. Corrected over erasure in Reg.

265a leve. So LTS, RB; Reg: leve i.

271a there. So LTS, RB; Reg: thenne.

283 leede. So RB; in Reg, later scribe altered to hede. So LTS.

296 PILATUS. So RB; Reg, LTS omit.

297 soth. So LTS, RB; Reg: soh.

310b heyned. So RB, who questions and, following MED, suggests possibly hoyned.

351a Saviour. Spelling corrected in Reg, a overwritten.

370 Lineation follows RB.

370d Alowde. Stage direction (not so designated as such in Reg).

371a Reg: at right, in LH: hic caret (deleted).

371b lithe. So RB; Reg, LTS: light.

377 thee. This edition; Reg, LTS, RB: he.

389 FILIUS. Reg has Junior Filius.

404 accusyng. So LTS, RB; Reg: accusymg.

419 Following line missing in Reg.

431 Following line missing in Reg.

446 dede. So RB; Reg, LTS: dethe.

470 to spede. So LTS, RB; Reg: to speke.

488 dewe. This edition; Reg: dewe als; LTS, RB: dewe of.

497 be and. So RB; Reg, LTS: and be.

514b and bredde. Reg: supplied in margin by JC.
This edition omits Scribe B’s and borne at end of line in Reg.

524 PILATUS. Reg, RB; LTS suggests Anna.

526b MILITES. So RB; omit in Reg.

529 Line following is missing in Reg.

533 deme. Alteration in Reg, from dome.

534 Is done. In Reg at end of previous line; Done repeated at beginning of this line.


Footnote 1 Middle English Harrowing of Hell and Gospel of Nicodemus, pp. 34–37; compare James, ed., Apocryphal New Testament, p. 98.

Footnote 2 See especially RB, pp. 446–47.

Footnote 3 For a survey of iconographic traditions upon which the dramatist has drawn, see Schiller, Iconography, 2:61–64.

Footnote 4 Woolf, English Mystery Plays, p. 245.

Footnote 5 See Tiner, “English Law,” p. 144, who also calls attention to proceedings before the King’s Council.

Footnote 6 King, “Contemporary Cultural Models,” p. 207.

Footnote 7 Diller, Middle English Mystery Play, p. 144 and passim.

The Tapiteres and Couchers














































































































PILATUS   Yhe cursed creatures that cruelly are cryand,
Restreyne you for stryvyng
   for strengh of my strakis;
Youre pleyntes in my presence
   use plately applyand,
Or ellis this brande in youre braynes,
   schalle brestis and brekis.
This brande in his bones brekis,
What brawle that with brawlyng me brewis,
That wrecche may not wrye fro my wrekis,
Nor his sleyghtis noght slely hym slakis,
Latte that traytour noght triste in my trewys.

For Sir Sesar was my sier
   and I sothely his sonne,
That exelent emperoure exaltid in hight
Whylk all this wilde worlde with wytes had wone;
And my modir hight Pila that proude was o plight,
O Pila that prowde, and Atus hir fadir he hight.
This Pila was hadde into Atus,
Nowe renkis, rede yhe it right?
For thus schortely I have schewid you in sight
Howe I am prowdely preved Pilatus.

Loo, Pilate I am, proved a prince of grete pride;
I was putte into Pounce the pepill to presse,
And sithen Sesar hymselffe with exynatores be his side,
Remytte me to ther remys, the renkes to redresse.
And yitte am I graunted on grounde, as I gesse,
To justifie and juge all the Jewes.
A, luffe, here lady, no lesse?
Lo, sirs, my worthely wiffe, that sche is;
So semely, loo, certayne scho schewys.

UXOR PILATI   Was nevir juge in this Jurie of so jocounde generacion,
Nor of so joifull genologie to gentrys enjoyned,
As yhe, my duke doughty, demar of dampnacion
To princes and prelatis
   that youre preceptis perloyned.
Who that youre preceptis pertly perloyned,
With drede into dede schall ye dryffe hym.
By my trouthe, he untrewly is troned
That agaynste youre behestis hase honed;
All to ragges schall ye rente hym and ryve hym.

I am dame precious Percula, of prynces the prise,
Wiffe to Ser Pilate, here prince withouten pere,
All welle of all womanhede I am, wittie and wise.
Consayve nowe my countenaunce so comly and clere.
The coloure of my corse is full clere,
And in richesse of robis I am rayed.
Ther is no lorde in this londe, as I lere,
In faith, that hath a frendlyar feere
Than yhe my lorde,
   myselffe thof I saye itt.

PILATUS   Nowe saye itt may ye saffely,
   for I will certefie the same.

UXOR PILATI   Gracious lorde, gramercye, youre gode worde is gayne.

PILATUS   Yhitt for to comforte my corse, me muste kisse you, madame.

UXOR   To fulfille youre forward, my fayre lorde, in faith I am fayne.

PILATUS   Howe, howe, felawys, nowe in faith I am fayne
Of theis lippis so loffely are lappid,
In bedde is full buxhome and bayne.

DOMINA   Yha, sir, it nedith not to layne,
All ladise we coveyte than
   bothe to be kyssid and clappid.

BEDELLUS   My liberall lorde, o leder of lawis,
O schynyng schawe that all schames escheues,
I beseke you, my soverayne, assente to my sawes
As ye are gentill juger and justice of Jewes.

DOMINA   Do herke, howe you javell jangill of Jewes.
Why, go bette horosonne boy, when I bidde thee.

BEDELLUS   Madame, I do but that diewe is.

DOMINA   But yf thou reste of thy resoune thou rewis,
For all is acursed, carle, hase in, kydde thee.

PILATUS   Do mende you, madame, and youre mode be amendand,
For me semys it wer sittand to se what he sais.

DOMINA   Mi lorde, he tolde nevir tale that to me was tendand,
But with wrynkis and with wiles to wend me my weys.1

BEDELLUS   Gwisse, of youre wayes to be wendand,
   itt langis to oure lawes.

DOMINA   Loo, lorde, this ladde with his lawes,
Howe thynke ye it prophitis wele
   his prechyng to prayse?

PILATUS   Yha, luffe, he knawis all oure custome,
I knawe wele.

BEDELLUS   My seniour, will ye see nowe the sonne in your sight,
For his stately strengh he stemmys in his stremys;
Behalde ovir youre hede how he holdis fro hight
And glydis to the grounde with his glitterand glemys.
To the grounde he gois with his bemys
And the nyght is neghand anone.
Yhe may deme aftir no dremys,
But late my lady here
   with all her light lemys
Wightely go wende till her wone,

For ye muste sitte, sir, this same nyght of lyfe and of lyme;
Itt is noght leeffull for my lady
   by the lawe of this lande
In dome for to dwelle
   fro the day waxe ought dymme,
For scho may stakir in the strete
   but scho stalworthely stande.
. . .
Late hir take hir leve whill that light is.

PILATUS   Nowe, wiffe, than ye blythely be buskand.

DOMINA   I am here, sir, hendely at hande.

PILATUS   Loo, this renke has us redde als right is.

DOMINA   Youre comaundement to kepe to kare for thee I caste me;2
My lorde, with youre leve, no lenger I lette yowe.

PILATUS   Itt were a repreve to my persone
   that prevely ye paste me,
Or ye wente fro this wones
   or with wynne ye had wette yowe.
Ye schall wende forthe with wynne
   whenne that ye have wette yowe.
Gete drinke, what dose thou, have done!
Come, semely, beside me and sette yowe.
Loke, nowe it is even here that I are behete you,
Ya, saie it nowe sadly and sone.

DOMINA   Itt wolde glad me, my lorde, if ye gudly begynne.

PILATUS   Nowe I assente to youre counsaille, so comely and clene;
Nowe drynke, madame; to deth all this dynne.

DOMINA   Iff it like yowe, myne awne lorde, I am not to lere;
This lare I am not to lere.

PILATUS   Yitt efte to youre damysell, madame.

DOMINA   In thy hande, holde nowe, and have here.

ANCILLA   Gramarcy, my lady so dere.

PILATUS   Nowe fareswele, and walke on youre way.
. . .
DOMINA   Now farewele the frendlyest, youre fomen to fende.

PILATUS   Nowe farewele, the fayrest figure that evere did fode fede,
And farewele, ye damysell, indede.

ANCILLA   My lorde, I comande me to youre ryalté.

PILATUS   Fayre lady, here is schall you lede.
Sir, go with this worthy indede,
And what scho biddis you doo,
Loke that buxsome you be.

FILIUS   I am prowde and preste to passe on apasse,
To go with this gracious hir gudly to gyde.

PILATUS   Take tente to my tale, thou turne on no trayse,3
Come tyte and telle me yf any tythyngis betyde.

FILIUS   Yf any tythyngis my lady betyde,
I schall full sone, sir, witte you to say.
This semely schall I schewe by hir side,
Belyffe, sir, no lenger we byde.

PILATUS   Nowe fareswele, and walkes on youre way.

Nowe wente is my wiffe, yf it wer not hir will,
And scho rakis tille hir reste as of nothyng scho rought.
Tyme is, I telle thee, thou tente me untill,
And buske thee belyve, belamy, to bedde that I wer broght,
. . .
And loke I be rychely arrayed.

BEDELLUS   Als youre servaunte I have sadly it sought,
And this nyght, sir, newe schall ye noght,
I dare laye, fro ye luffely be layde.

PILATUS   I comaunde thee to come nere, for I will kare to my couche;
Have in thy handes hendely and heve me fro hyne,
But loke that thou tene me not with thi tastyng, but tendirly me touche,4

BEDELLUS   A, sir, yhe whe wele.

PILATUS                                        Yha, I have wette me with wyne.
. . .
Yhit helde doune and lappe me even here,
For I will slelye slepe unto synne.
Loke that no man nor no myron of myne
With no noyse be neghand me nere.

BEDELLUS   Sir, what warlowe yow wakens
   with wordis full wilde,
That boy for his brawlyng
   were bettir be unborne.

PILATUS   Yha, who chatteres, hym chastise,
   be he churle or childe,
For and he skape skatheles
   itt were to us a grete skorne.
Yf skatheles he skape, it wer a skorne.
What rebalde that redely will rore,
I schall mete with that myron tomorne,
And for his ledir lewdenes hym lerne to be lorne.

BEDELLUS   Whe, so sir, slepe ye, and saies no more.

DOMINA   Nowe are we at home, do helpe yf ye may,
For I will make me redye and rayke to my reste.

ANCILLA   Yhe are werie, madame, forwente of youre way,
Do boune you to bedde, for that holde I beste.

FILIUS   Here is a bedde arayed of the beste.

DOMINA   Do happe me, and faste hense ye hye.

ANCILLA   Madame, anone all dewly is dressid.

FILIUS   With no stalkyng nor no striffe be ye stressed.

DOMINA   Nowe be yhe in pese, both youre carpyng and crye.

DIABOLUS   Owte, owte, harrowe! Into bale am I brought.
   This bargayne may I banne,
But yf I wirke some wile, in wo mon I wonne.
This gentilman Jesu of cursednesse he can,
Be any syngne that I see, this same is Goddis Sonne,
And he be slone, oure solace will sese.
He will save man saule fro oure sonde
And refe us the remys that are rounde.
I will on stiffely in this stounde
Unto Ser Pilate wiffe pertely, and putte me in prese.

O woman, be wise and ware, and wonne in thi witte
Ther schall a gentilman, Jesu, unjustely be juged
Byfore thy husband in haste, and with harlottis be hytte;
And that doughty today to deth thus be dyghted,
Sir Pilate, for his prechyng, and thou
With nede schalle ye namely be noyed:
Youre striffe and youre strenghe schal be stroyed,
Youre richesse schal be refte you that is rude
With vengeaunce, and that dare I avowe.

DOMINA   A, I am drecchid with a dreme full dredfully to dowte.
Say, childe, rise uppe radly and reste for no roo;
Thow muste launce to my lorde and lowly hym lowte:
Comaunde me to his reverence, as right will I doo.

FILIUS   O, what, schall I travayle thus tymely this tyde?
Madame, for the drecchyng of heven,
Slyke note is newsome to neven,
And it neghes unto mydnyght full even.

DOMINA   Go bette, boy, I bidde no lenger thou byde,

And saie to my sovereyne, this same is soth that I send hym.
All naked this nyght as I napped
With tene and with trayne was I trapped
With a swevene that swiftely me swapped
Of one Jesu, the juste man the Jewes will undoo.

She prayes tente to that trewe man, with tyne to be noght trapped,5
But als a domesman dewly to be dressand
And lelye delyvere that lede.

FILIUS   Madame, I am dressid to that dede,
But firste will I nappe in this nede,
For he hase mystir of a morne slepe that mydnyght is myssand.

ANNA   Sir Cayphas, ye kenne wele
   this caytiffe we have cached
That oftetymes in oure Tempill
   has teched untrewly,
Oure meyné with myght
   at mydnyght hym mached
And hase drevyn hym till his demyng
   for his dedis undewly.
Wherfore I counsaile that kyndely we carie
Unto Ser Pilate, oure prince, and pray hym
That he for oure right will arraye hym,
This faitour, for his falsed to flay hym
For fro we saie hym the soth
   I schall sitte hym full sore.

CAYPHAS   Sir Anna, this sporte have ye spedely aspied,
As I am pontificall prince of all prestis.
We will prese to Ser Pilate and presente hym with pride
With this harlott that has hewed owre hartis fro oure brestis
Thurgh talkyng of tales untrewe;
And therfore, ser knyghtis . . .

MILITES                        Lorde.

CAYPHAS   Sir knyghtis, that are curtayse and kynde,
We charge you that chorle be wele chyned.
Do buske you and grathely hym bynde
And rugge hym in ropes, his rase till he rewe.

I MILES   Sir, youre sawes schall be served schortly and sone,
Yha, do felawe, be thy feith, late us feste this faitour full fast.

II MILES   I am douty to this dede, delyver, have done,
Latte us pulle on with pride till his poure be paste.

I MILES   Do have faste and halde at his handes.

II MILES   For this same is he that lightly avaunted,
And God Sone he grathely hym graunted.

I MILES   He bese hurled for the highnes he haunted;
Loo, he stonyes for us, he stares where he standis.

II MILES   Nowe is the brothell boune for all the boste that he blowne,
And the Laste Day he lete no lordyngs myght lawe hym.

ANNA   Ya, he wende this worlde had bene haly his awne
Als ye are dowtiest today
   tille his demyng ye drawe hym,
And than schall we kenne
   how that he canne excuse hym.

I MILES   Here, ye gomes, gose a-rome, giffe us gate;
We muste steppe to yone sterne of astate.

II MILES   We muste yappely wende in at this yate,
For he that comes to courte, to curtesye muste use hym.

I MILES   Do rappe on the renkis
   that we may rayse with oure rolyng;
Come forthe, sir coward,
   why cowre ye behynde?

BEDELLUS   O, what javellis are ye that jappis with gollyng?

I MILES   A, goode sir, be noght wroth, for wordis are as the wynde.

BEDELLUS   I saye, gedlynges, gose bakke with youre gawdes.

II MILES   Be sufferand, I beseke you,
And more of this matere yhe meke yowe.

BEDELLUS   Why, unconand knaves, an I cleke yowe,
I schall felle yowe,
   be my faith, for all youre false frawdes.

PILATUS   Say, childe, ill cheffe you,
   what churlles are so claterand?

BEDELLUS   My lorde, unconand knaves, thei crye and thei call.

PILATUS   Gose baldely beliffe, and thos brethellis be batterand,
And putte tham in prisoune uppon peyne that may fall.
Yha, spedely spir tham yf any sporte can thei spell,
Yha, and loke what lordingis thei be.

BEDELLUS   My lorde, that is luffull in lee,
I am boxsom and blithe to your blee.

PILATUS   And if they talke any tythyngis
   come tyte and me tell.

BEDELLUS   My felawes, by youre faith,
   can ye talke any tythandis?

I MILES   Yha, sir, Sir Cayphas and Anna ar come both togedir
To Sir Pilate o Pounce and prince of oure lawe,
And thei have laughte a lorell
   that is lawles and liddir.

BEDELUS   My lorde, my lorde!

PILATUS                                     Howe?

BEDELLUS   My lorde, unlappe yow belyve wher ye lye.
Sir Cayphas to youre courte is caried
And Sir Anna, but a traytour hem taried;
Many wight of that warlowe has waried,
They have brought hym in a bande, his balis to bye.

PILATUS   But are thes sawes certayne in soth that thou saies?

BEDELLUS   Yha, lorde, the states yondir standis,
   for striffe are they stonden.

PILATUS   Now than am I light as a roo
   and ethe for to rayse;
Go bidde tham come in both,
   and the boye they have boune.

BEDELLUS   Siris, my lorde geves leve
   inne for to come.

CAYPHAS   Hayle, prince that is pereles in price,
Ye are leder of lawes in this lande,
Youre helpe is full hendely at hande.

ANNA   Hayle, stronge in youre state for to stande,
Alle this dome muste be dressed at youre dulye devyse.

PILATUS   Who is there? My prelates?

CAYPHAS                             Yha, lorde.

PILATUS                                                Nowe be ye welcome, iwisse.

CAYPHAS   Gramercy, my soverayne,
   but we beseke you all same;
Bycause of wakand you unwarly
   be noght wroth with this,
For we have brought here a lorell,
   he lokis like a lambe.

PILATUS   Come byn, you bothe, and to the benke brayde yowe.

CAYPHAS   Nay, gud sir, laugher is leffull for us.

PILATUS   A, Sir Cayphas, be curtayse yhe bus.

ANNA   Nay, goode lorde, it may not be thus.

PILATUS   Sais no more, but come sitte you beside me
   in sorowe, as I saide youe.

FILIUS   Hayle, the semelieste seeg undir sonne sought,
Hayle, the derrest duke and doughtiest in dede.

PILATUS   Now bene veneuew, beuscher,
   what boodworde haste thou brought?
Hase any langour my lady newe laught in this leede?

FILIUS   Sir, that comely comaundes hir youe too
And sais, al nakid this nyght as sche napped,
With tene and with traye was sche trapped
With a swevene that swiftely hir swapped
Of one Jesu, the juste man the Jewes will undo.

She beseches you as hir soverayne that symple to save;
Deme hym noght to deth, for drede of vengeaunce.

PILATUS   What, I hope this be he that hyder harlid ye have.

CAYPHAS   Ya, sir, the same and the selffe,
   but this is but a skaunce;
He with wicchecrafte
   this wile has he wrought.
Some feende of his sand has he sente
And warned youre wiffe or he wente.

PILATUS   Yowe, that schalke schuld not shamely be shente.
This is sikir in certayne, and soth schulde be sought.

ANNA   Yha, thurgh his fantome and falshed and fendes craft
He has wroght many wondir
   where he walked full wyde,
Wherfore, my lorde, it wer leeffull
   his liffe were hym rafte.

PILATUS   Be ye nevere so bryme, ye bothe bus abide,
But if the traytoure be taught for untrewe
And therfore sermones you no more,
I will sekirly sende hymselffe fore
And se what he sais to thee sore.
Bedell, go brynge hyme,
   for of that renke have I rewthe.

BEDELLUS   This forward to fulfille
   am I fayne in myn herte moved.
Say, Jesu, the juges and the Jewes
   hase me enjoyned
To bringe thee before tham
   even bounden as thou arte,
Yone lordyngis to lose thee
   full longe have thei heyned.
But firste schall I wirschippe thee
   with witte and with will:
This reverence I do thee forthy
For wytes that wer wiser than I;
They worshipped thee full holy on hy,
And with solempnité sange Osanna till.

I MILES   My lorde that is leder of lawes in this lande,
All bedilis to youre biding schulde be boxsome and bayne,
And yitt this boy here before yowe
   full boldely was bowand
To worschippe this warlowe;
   methynke we wirke all in vayne.

II MILES   Yha, and in youre presence he prayed hym of pees
In knelyng on knes to this knave;
He besoughte hym his servaunte to save.

CAIPHAS   Loo, lord such arrore amange them thei have
It is grete sorowe to see, no seeg may it sese.

It is no menske to youre manhed that mekill is of myght
To forbere such forfettis that falsely are feyned,
Such spites in especiall wolde be eschewed in your sight.

PILATUS   Sirs, moves you noght in this matere
   but bese myldely demeaned,
For yone curtasie I kenne had som cause.

ANNA   In youre sight, sir, the soth schall I saye,
As ye are prince, take hede, I you praye,
Such a lourdayne unlele, dare I laye,
Many lordis of oure landis
   might lede fro oure lawes.

PILATUS   Saye, losell, who gave thee leve
   so for to lowte to yone ladde
And solace hym in my sight
   so semely, that I sawe?

BEDELLUS   A, gracious lorde, greve you noght
   for gude case I hadde.
Yhe comaunded me to care
   als ye kende wele and knawe,
To Jerusalem on a journay, with seele,
And than this semely on an asse was sette
And many men myldely hym mette.
Als a God in that grounde thai hym grette,
Wele semand hym in waye with worschippe lele.

Osanna thei sange, “the sone of David,”
Riche men with thare robes, thei ranne to his fete,
And poure folke fecched floures of the frith
And made myrthe and melody this man for to mete.

PILATUS   Nowe, gode sir, be thi feith,
   what is Osanna to saie?

BEDELLUS   Sir, constrew it we may
   be langage of this lande as I leve,
It is als moche to me for to meve,
Youre prelatis in this place can it preve,
Als “Oure Saviour and soverayne,
   thou save us, we praye.”

PILATUS   Loo, senioures, how semes yow? —
   the sothe I you saide.

CAYPHAS   Yha, lorde, this ladde is full liddir, be this light,
Yf his sawes wer serchid and sadly assaied,
Save youre reverence,
   his resoune thei rekenne noght with right.
This caytiffe thus cursedly can construe us.

BEDELLUS   Sirs, trulye the trouthe I have tolde
Of this wighte ye have wrapped in wolde.

ANNA   I saie, harlott, thy tonge schulde thou holde
And noght agaynste thi maistirs to meve thus.

PILATUS   Do sese of youre seggyng, and I schall examyne full sore.6

ANNA   Sir, demes hym to deth, or dose hym away.

PILATUS   Sir, have ye saide?

ANNA                      Yha, lorde.

PILATUS                              Nowe go sette you with sorowe and care,
For I will lose no lede that is lele to oure law.
But steppe furth and stonde uppe on hight
And buske to my bidding, thou boy,
And for the nones that thou neven us a noy.

BEDELLUS   I am here at youre hande to halow a hoy;
Do move of youre maister, for I schall melle it with myght.

PILATUS   Cry Oyas.

BEDELLUS               Oyas!

PILATUS                              Yit efte, be thi feithe.

BEDELLUS                                                          Oyes!        [Alowde

PILATUS   Yit lowdar
   that ilke lede may lithe,
Crye pece in this prese uppon payne theruppon,
Bidde them swage of ther sweying
   bothe swiftely and swithe,
And stynt of ther stryvyng and stande still as a stone.
Calle Jesu, the gentill of Jacob, the Jewe,
Come preste and appere,
To the barre drawe thee nere
To thi jugement here,
To be demed for his dedis undewe.

I MILES   Whe, harke how this harlott he heldis oute of harre,
This lotterelle liste noght my lorde to lowte.

II MILES   Say, beggar, why brawlest thou? Go boune thee to the barre.

I MILES   Steppe on thy standyng so sterne and so stoute.

II MILES   Steppe on thy standyng so still.

I MILES   Sir cowarde, to courte muste yhe care.

II MILES   A lessoune to lerne of oure lawe.

I MILES   Flitte fourthe, foule myght thou fare.

II MILES   Say, warlowe, thou wantist of thi will.

FILIUS   O Jesu ungentill, thi joie is in japes;
Thou cannot be curtayse, thou caytiffe I calle thee.
No ruthe were it to rug thee and ryve thee in ropes.
Why falles thou noght flatte here, foule falle thee,
For ferde of my fadir so free?
Thou wotte noght his wisdome, iwys;
All thyne helpe in his hande that it is,
Howe sone he myght save thee fro this.
Obeye hym, brothell, I bidde thee.

PILATUS   Now, Jesu, thou art welcome ewys, as I wene,
Be noght abasshed but boldely boune thee to the barre.
What seyniour will sewe for thee sore, I have sene.
To wirke on this warlowe, his witte is in waste.
Come preste, of a payne, and appere,
And sir prelatis, youre pontes bes prevyng,
What cause can ye caste of accusyng?
This mater ye marke to be meving
And hendly in haste late us here.

CAYPHAS   Sir Pilate o Pounce, and prince of grete price,
We triste ye will trowe oure tales thei be trewe
To deth for to deme hym with dewly device,
For cursidnesse yone knave hase in case, if ye knew,
In harte wolde ye hate hym in hye.
For if it wer so,
We mente not to misdo;
Triste, ser, schall ye therto,
We hadde not hym taken to thee.

PILATUS   Sir, youre tales wolde I trowe
   but thei touche none entente.
What cause can ye fynde
   nowe this freke for to felle?

ANNA   Oure Sabbotte he saves not, but sadly assente
To wirke full unwisely, this wote I right wele,
. . .
He werkis whane he will, wele I wote,
And therfore in herte we hym hate.
Itt sittis you to strenghe youre estate
Yone losell to louse for his lay.

PILATUS   Ilke a lede for to louse for his lay is not lele.
Youre lawes is leffull, but to youre lawis longis it
This faitoure to feese wele with flappes full fele,
And woo may ye wirke hym be lawe,
   for he wranges it.
Therfore takes unto you full tyte
And like as youre lawes will you lede
Ye deme hym to deth for his dede.

CAYPHAS   Nay, nay sir, that dome muste us drede;
. . .
It longes noght till us no lede for to lose.

PILATUS   What wolde ye I did thanne? —
   the devyll motte you drawe.
Full fewe are his frendis, but fele are his fooes.
His liff for to lose thare longes no lawe,
Nor no cause can I kyndely contryve
That why he schulde lose thus his liffe.

ANNA   A, gude sir, it raykes full ryffe
In steedis wher he has stirrid mekill striffe
Of ledis that is lele to youre liffe.

CAYPHAS   Sir, halte men and hurte he helid in haste,
The deffe and the dome he delyvered fro doole
By wicchecrafte, I warande; his wittis schall waste,
For the farles that he farith with —
   loo, how thei folowe yone fole,
Oure folke so thus he frayes in fere.

ANNA   The dede he rayses anone,
This Lazare that lowe lay allone
He graunte hym his gates for to gone
And pertely thus proved he his poure.

PILATUS   Now goode siris, I saie, what wolde yhe?

CAIPHAS   Sir, to dede for to do hym or dose hym adawe.

PILATUS   Yha, for he dose wele his deth for to deme?
Go layke you sir, lightly,
   wher lerned ye such lawe?
This touches no tresoune, I telle you;
   yhe prelatis that proved are for price,
Yhe schulde be bothe witty and wise
And legge oure lawe wher it lyse,
Oure materes ye meve thus emel you.

ANNA   Misplese noght youre persone,
   yhe prince withouten pere.
It touches to tresoune, this tale I schall tell.
Yone briboure, full baynly he bed to forbere
The tribute to the emperoure, thus wolde he compell
Oure pepill thus his poyntis to applye.

CAYPHAS   The pepull, he saies, he schall save,
And Criste garres he calle hym, yone knave,
And sais he will the high kyngdome have.
Loke whethir he deserve to dye.

PILATUS   To dye he deserves yf he do thus indede,
But I will se myselffe what he sais.
Speke, Jesu, and spende nowe thi space for to spede.
Thez lordyngis thei legge thee thou liste noght leve on oure lawes.7
They accuse thee cruelly and kene,
And therfore, as a chiftene I charge thee,
Iff thou be Criste that thou telle me,
And God Sone thou grughe not to graunte thee,
For this is the matere that I mene.

JESUS   Thou saiste so thiselve, I am sothly the same,
Here wonnyng in worlde to wirke al thi will.
Mi Fadir is faithfull to felle all thi fame;
Withouten trespas or tene am I taken thee till.

PILATUS   Loo, busshoppis, why blame ye this boye?
Me semys that it is soth that he saies.
Ye meve all the malice ye may
With youre wrenchis and wiles to wrythe hym away
Unjustely to juge hym fro joie.

CAYPHAS   Nought so, sir, his seggyng is full sothly soth,
It bryngis oure bernes in bale for to bynde.

ANNA   Sir, douteles we deme als dewe the deth
This foole that ye favour, great fautes can we fynde
This daye for to deme hym to dye.

PILATUS   Saie, losell, thou lies be this light;
Naie, thou rebalde, thou rekens unright.

CAYPHAS   Avise you, sir, with mayne and with myght,
And wreke not youre wrethe nowe forthy.

PILATUS   Me likes noght his langage so largely for to lye.

CAIPHAS   A, mercy, lorde, mekely, no malice we mente.

PILATUS   Noo done is it douteles, balde be and blithe,
Talke on that traytoure and telle youre entente.
Yone segge is sotell, ye saie;
Gud sirs, wer lerned he such lare?

CAYPHAS   In faith, we cannot fynde whare.

PILATUS   Yhis, his fadir with some farlis gan fare
And has lered this ladde of his lare.

ANNA   Nay, nay, sir, he was but a write, that we wiste;
No sotelté he schewed that any segge sawe.

PILATUS   Thanne mene yhe of malice to marre hym of myght,
Of cursidnesse convik no cause can yhe knawe;
Me mervellis ye malyngne o mys.

CAYPHAS   Sir, fro Galely hidir and hoo
The gretteste agayne hym ganne goo,
Yone warlowe to waken of woo,
And of this werke beres witnesse, ywis.

PILATUS   Why, and hase he gone in Galely, yone gedlyng ongayne?

ANNA   Yha, lorde, ther was he borne,
   yone brethelle, and bredde.

PILATUS   Nowe withouten fagyng, my frendis, in faith I am fayne,
For now schall oure striffe full sternely be stede.
Sir Herowde is kyng ther, ye kenne;
His poure is preved full preste
To ridde hym or reve hym of rest.
And therfore, to go with yone gest,
Yhe marke us oute of the manliest men.

CAYPHAS   Als witte and wisdome youre will schal be wroght;
Here is kempis full kene to the kyng for to care.

PILATUS   Nowe, seniours, I saie yow sen soth schall be soght,
But if he schortely be sente it may sitte us full sore.
And therfore, sir knyghtis . . .

MILITES                          Lorde.

PILATUS   Sir knyghtis that are cruell and kene,
That warlowe ye warrok and wraste,
And loke that he brymly be braste;
. . .
Do take on that traytoure you betwene.

Tille Herowde in haste with that harlott ye hye,
Comaunde me full mekely unto his moste myght,
Saie the dome of this boy, to deme hym to dye,
Is done upponne hym dewly, to dresse or to dight,
Or liffe for to leve at his liste.
Say ought I may do hym indede,
His awne am I worthely in wede.

I MILES   My lorde, we schall springe on a-spede;
Come thens to me, this traitoure full tyte.

PILATUS   Bewe sirs, I bidde you ye be not to bolde,
But takes tente for oure tribute full trulye to trete.

II MILES   Mi lorde, we schall hye this beheste for to halde
And wirke it full wisely in wille and in witte.

PILATUS   So, sirs, me semys itt is sittand.

I MILES   Mahounde, sirs, he menske you with myght.

II MILES   And save you, sir, semely in sight.

PILATUS   Now in the wilde vengeaunce ye walke with that wight,
And fresshely ye founde to be flittand.
crying (shouting); (see note)

for fear of my strokes
plainly appealing
burst; break

brawler; brews (produces)
turn; vengeance; (t-note)
slyly; slackens
trust; truth (good faith); (t-note)

Caesar; sire

on high
wits (intelligence); conquered
of demeanor; (t-note)
was called


proudly proved [to be called]

Pontius; repress
Sent; realms; people to reform; (t-note)
execute justice

lovely; she appears

Jewry; happy lineage; (t-note)
aristocracy joined

put aside
death; drive
falsely; enthroned; (t-note)
shreds; tear

(see note)




good; pleasing


promise; glad

lovely; enclosed



show (appearance); shames shuns


brawler; chatter; (see note)
go away whoreson

what is due

(i.e., stop talking); will be sorry; (t-note)
churl, go away, behave yourself

is appropriate

tending (i.e., about me)

belongs (is in accord with)

profits well; (t-note)

love (dear)

My lord; sun; (see note)
reduces; beams
glides; radiant gleams

near at hand
judge; dreams; (t-note)
Quickly; dwelling


place of judgment
dim (at nightfall)

[line missing, see textual note]



man; advised as


rebuke; (t-note)
secretly you left
before; wet yourself (i.e., became drunk); (see note)

ere promised; (t-note)



lore; (i.e., do not need to)


[two lines missing, see textual note]
foes; fend [off]

food eat

commend; royalty



prepared to go; apace; (t-note)

quickly; (see note)

(i.e., tell you)

Quickly; abide

even if
goes; cared about
paid attention to
hurry; my friend; (see note)

[line missing, see textual note]
see that I am

wager, when you

graciously; hence

weigh well (i.e., are heavy); (t-note)

[line missing, see textual note]
cover; (t-note)
slyly (surreptitiously); later
coming near


if; unhurt (unscathed)

menial fellow; shout
lazy person
harmful misbehavior; destroyed



exhausted from; journey
Do go

cover; go away quickly

sneaking around; bothered

talking; shouting

(see note)
But unless; trick; dwell
By; sign
slain; cease; (see note)
from our safekeeping; (see note)
take from; realms; around
firmly; time
boldly; endeavor

aware; comprehend; (see note)

struck (beaten)
good fellow; put

need (deprivation); specifically annoyed
?striving; destroyed
taken from; great

tormented; fear; (see note)
quickly; rest (peace)
rush; bow

at this early time
Such a matter is a nuisance to say
is nearly



trouble; deception
dream; struck

judge; endeavoring
acquit; man


need; missed

know; (see note)

set upon
driven; judgment
by custom; proceed

provide for
deceiver; falsehood; punish

(i.e., make things go badly for him)

(i.e., the high priest); (see note)

churl; chained
harshly pull; behavior; rue; (see note)

words (sayings); obeyed
tie up

bold; hurry

boldly; admitted to

dragged along; pride; pretended
is astonished; (see note)

[has] vented; (t-note)
thought; overthrow; (t-note)

wholly; own
boldest; (t-note)


men, make room; way
star; estate

nimbly; gate

men; (t-note)
agitating; (see note)

brawlers; behave foolishly; shouting


gadlings (rascals); tricks

humble yourself

stupid; catch
knock down

let evil overtake


Go boldly quickly; beating; (t-note)

inquire; speak of

praiseworthy; tranquility


caught a rogue

uncover (i.e., get up)
bonds (ropes); sorrow to purchase


estates (magnates)

buck; (see note); (t-note)



estate; (see note)
addressed; legal deposition


beseech; together
waking; unexpectedly


in; bench hurry; (see note)

lower (i.e., more humble); suitable

must be

man; found; (see note)

welcome, good sir
illness; latched (caught); place; (t-note)

commends; to you

trouble; deception

innocent person

hither dragged

joke (deception)

fiend; message
informed; before

fellow; unjustly be destroyed; (t-note)
secure; (t-note)


reft (taken away)

Unless; shown to be


man; pity


bound (in bonds)
waited; (t-note)

(see note)





error among
man; stop it

allow; offenses
insults; should be

mild of manner

rascal disloyal; wager

bow (reverence)


understand well
good fortune
handsome one

singing psalms to him; true

flowers; forest



wicked, by
sayings; assessed

(i.e., arrested)

(see note)


man; loyal

nonce; proclaim; cry [of “Oyez”]

shout “hear ye” (“Oyez”)
(i.e., do it)




man; pay attention; (t-note)
peace; press (crowd)
stop; noise
stop; unruliness



is out of order
scoundrel; to reverence

take yourself

place for standing [in court]


have lost your mind

lowborn; (t-note)
pity; tug; tear
(see note)
fear; liberal

argue against you
quickly; pain [of punishment]; (see note)
charges to prove
produce; (t-note)

trust; believe
lawful judgment
in [this] case
high (greatly)


not the point

man; cast down (condemn)

observes; solemnly offers

[line missing, see textual note]

lose (i.e., kill); customs

man; customs (lifestyle); lawful
lawful; belongs
deceiver; punish; blows; many

lead (demand)

[line missing, see textual note]
belongs; man (man’s life)

draw [as in an execution]
(i.e., is not legal)

happens; rife (everywhere)
men; loyal

lame; healed
deaf; dumb; sorrow
marvels; busied himself with
dismays (frightens) all together

dead; (t-note)

ways; go
cleverly; power

do; to death

play [the fool]


allege; lies

briber; readily; bid (said); withhold

makes (them) call

space of time; (t-note)


in truth
cast down


saying; truly true
people; sorrow

deserving; (t-note)


avenge; wrath

out-of-bounds to be

Now; bold; (t-note)

man; subtle
where; lore (knowledge)

wonders began to entertain
taught; lore


out of malice; by your might
[to] convict
accuse falsely amiss

Galilee; (see note)
[numbers of people] to him began to
incite to

gadling bothersome


deception; glad
firmly be fixed (settled)

clear (free); deprive

strong soldiers; go

Unless; be worse for us


bind; drag away
roughly; beaten

[line missing, see textual note]

go quickly
judgment concerning; judge; (t-note)
duly; ordain; do; (t-note)
if there is anything; to him
(i.e., I am Herod’s own man); livery

pay attention

hurry along; hold

fitting (legally appropriate)

honor (bless)

vigorously; proceed; departing

Go To Play 31, The Trial before Herod