Art. 48, Lustneth, lordinges, bothe yonge ant olde
ART. 48, LUSTNETH, LORDINGES, BOTHE YONGE ANT OLDE: EXPLANATORY NOTES
ABBREVIATIONS: AND: Anglo-Norman Dictionary; ANL: Anglo-Norman Literature: A Guide to Texts and Manuscripts (R. Dean and Boulton); BL: British Library (London); Bodl.: Bodleian Library (Oxford); CCC: Corpus Christi College (Cambridge); CUL: Cambridge University Library (Cambridge); IMEV: The Index of Middle English Verse (Brown and Robbins); IMEV Suppl.: Supplement to the Index of Middle English Verse (Robbins and Cutler); MED: Middle English Dictionary; MWME: A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050–1500 (Severs et al.); NIMEV: A New Index of Middle English Verse (Boffey and Edwards); NLS: National Library of Scotland (Edinburgh).
11 arewe. “Resent, feel a grievance.” See MED, areuen (v.), sense 3.
15 anonen. “Immediately, at once, soon”; see MED, an-on (adv. & conj.), sense 1(a).
17 fullaris. “The fullers beat the cloth to clean and thicken it” (Robbins 1959, p. 251).
19 Conyng. The surname puns in at least two ways. The first is a play on “king,” derived from Old English cyning, a pun expressed in this line. The second is on “rabbit”; see the explanatory note to line 69. A possible third wordplay is on the gerund conninge, “skill, knowledge, cleverness.” Peter de Conyng was master of the cloth-weavers in Bruges and a leader of the revolt against the French garrison.
20 cheveuteyn. “Ringleader.” See MED, chevetaine (n.), sense 3.(b).
26 destaunce. “Civil strife, rebellion.” See MED, distaunce (n.), sense 2.
30 avowerie. “Offical sanction, authorization, permission.” See MED, avouerie (n.), sense 2.
36 mounde. “Military force, body of troops.” See MED, mounde (n.(1)), sense 3.(f).
38 basyns. “Basins used as gongs.” See MED, bacin (n.), sense 1.(b), and Robbins’s note (1959, p. 251).
39 todryven. “To beat, smash to pieces.” See MED, todriven (v.), sense (d).
65 Rauf de Nel is the name of the Earl of Bologne. Wright 1839 and Robbins 1959 mistakenly place the name inside the earl’s speech.
66–67 The noble speaks a full line in French, and the word assoygne, “excuse, delay,” also slips in. Compare, too, the insertion of French at lines 50, 56, and 61. On various instances of linguistic mockery in this poem, see Scattergood 2000a, pp. 172–74.
68 This line completes, with an English idiom, the sense of French line 66: “We won’t leave any alive, at all!”
69 The line puns on coning, “rabbit”; see MED, coning (n.), sense 1.(a), and also sense 1.(b), figuratively, “a soldier as quick as a rabbit” (citing this line). They will prepare Coning like a roast rabbit. See also the explanatory note to line 19, and Scattergood 2000a, p. 172. But it is the French who will be caught like rabbits (line 81).
81 so the hare. See explanatory note to line 69.
85 dabbeth. This is the only attestation of this word with the military meaning “strike on the head, defeat”; see MED, dabben (v.).
87 doddeth. See MED, dodden (v.), sense 2(c) ~ of, “cut off (someone’s head).”
89–92 The tone taken by the French noble is imperious and haughty, explaining to Coning how he ought to act if he is to be honorable.
91 vylte. “Dishonor, disgrace, vulgarity, ignominy.” See MED, vilte (n.), sense 2.(a). The word is of French origin.
93 leaute. The French word spoken by either Coning or his partner John Breydel (master of the butchers) conveys the sarcasm of his response. The word bocher may indicate that the speaker is Breydel, who is not elsewhere mentioned. See Robbins 1959, p. 251, and Scattergood 2000a, pp. 172–73.
95–96 The implication is that the earl’s life is not worth the expense of feeding him in prison.
97–104 I agree with Wright that line 97 depicts the mass grave of the French army (1839, p. 193). A different interpretation is offered, however, by the glossary of Robbins 1959: “There they were defeated in the ambush.” The MED follows Robbins: knillen (v), sense (d), and pit-falle (n.), sense (b). However, the other meaning is available in pit-falle, sense (a). Böddeker seeks to improve the order of ideas by transposing lines 99–100 with lines 103–04.
106 The French king’s gesture figuratively imitates the literal beheading of his nobles.
113 “The poet reminds Pope Boniface VIII of his degradation of two cardinals of the Colonna family in 1294 [and] advises him to go to Rome to put things right” (Scattergood 2000a, p. 174). See also Robbins 1959, p. 252.
133 Prince of Walis. Edward of Carnarvon, the future Edward II, also mentioned at the end of The Death of Edward I (art. 48), line 73. See also The Execution of Sir Simon Fraser (art. 25), line 81 (and explanatory note).
ART. 48, LUSTNETH, LORDINGES, BOTHE YONGE ANT OLDE: TEXTUAL NOTES
ABBREVIATIONS: As: Aspin; Bö: Böddeker; Bos: Bossy; Br: Brook; BS: Bennett and Smithers; BZ: Brandl and Zippel; B13: Brown 1932; B14: Brown 1952; DB: Dunn and Byrnes; Deg: Degginger; Do: Dove 1969; Gr: Greene 1977; Ha: Halliwell; Hal: Hall; Hol: Holthausen; Hor1: Horstmann 1878; Hor2: Horstmann 1896; Hu: Hulme; JL: Jeffrey and Levy; Ju: Jubinal; Kel: Keller; Ken: Kennedy; Le: Lerer 2008; Mc: McKnight; Mi: Millett; MR: Michelant and Raynaud; Mo: Morris and Skeat; MS: MS Harley 2253; Mu: H. M. R. Murray; Pa: Patterson; Pr: Pringle 2009; Rei: Reichl 1973; Rev1: Revard 2004; Rev2: Revard 2005b; Ri1: Ritson 1877; Ri2: Ritson 1885; Ro: Robbins 1959; Sa: Saupe; Si: Silverstein; St: Stemmler 1970; Tr: Treharne; Tu: Turville-Petre 1989; Ul: Ulrich; W1: Wright 1839; W2: Wright 1841; W3: Wright 1842; W4: Wright 1844; WH: Wright and Halliwell.
6 Flemmysshe. So MS, W1, Ro. Ri1: Flemmyssh. Bö: flemmyshe.
15 anonen. So MS, Bö. W1, Ri1: an oven. Ro: anouen.
20 cheveuteyn. So MS, Ro. W1, Ri1, Bö: cheuenteyn.
33 hou. So W1, Ri1, Bö, Ro. MS: hout.
57 Phelip. So MS, W1, Bö, Ro. Ri1: Philip.
63 with. So W1, Ri1, Bö, Ro. MS: omitted.
65 de Nel. So MS, Ro. W1, Ri1, Bö: Deuel.
67 ritht. So MS (ri3t), W1, Ri1, Ro. Bö: riht.
assoygne. So MS, W1, Ri1, Ro. Bö: assoyne.
73 eorles. So MS, W1, Bö, Ro. Ri1: eorls.
74 Fiftene. So MS, W1, Ri1, Bö. Ro: Fyftene.
87 doddeth. So MS, W1, Bö, Ro. Ri1: deddeth.
99–104 So MS, W1, Ri1, Ro. Bö: lines 99–100 transposed with lines 103–04.
101 knyhtes. So MS, W1, Bö, Ro. Ri1: kynhtes.
107 springe. So MS (ri abbreviated), W1, Bö, Ro. Ri1: sprynge.
114 meste. So MS, W1, Bö, Ro. Ri1: mest.
127 hy. So MS, W1, Bö, Ro. Ri1: by.
129–30 So MS, W1, Ri1, Ro. Bö: the bataille thus bigon (line 129) transposed with hou hue weren fon (line 130).
131 heden. So MS, W1, Bö, Ro. Ri1: hedeu.
133 Yef. So W1, Ri1, Bö, Ro. MS: 3e.
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