by: Susanna Greer Fein (Editor)
Art. 35, In a fryht as Y con fare fremede
ART. 35, IN A FRYHT AS Y CON FARE FREMEDE: EXPLANATORY NOTES
ABBREVIATIONS: AND: Anglo-Norman Dictionary; ANL: Anglo-Norman Literature: A Guide to Texts and Manuscripts (R. Dean and Boulton); BL: British Library (London); Bodl.: Bodleian Library (Oxford); CCC: Corpus Christi College (Cambridge); CUL: Cambridge University Library (Cambridge); IMEV: The Index of Middle English Verse (Brown and Robbins); IMEV Suppl.: Supplement to the Index of Middle English Verse (Robbins and Cutler); MED: Middle English Dictionary; MWME: A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050–1500 (Severs et al.); NIMEV: A New Index of Middle English Verse (Boffey and Edwards); NLS: National Library of Scotland (Edinburgh).
4 gome. The word is normally specific to men. The MED lists this line as the only seeming application of the word to a woman. See gome (n.(1)), sense 4(b).
5 kenede. The narrator’s wondering involves curiosity as to her kinship and family relations, with the sense being “who in the world gave birth to, or engendered, her?” The girl’s initial golden, glistening appearance (as perceived by the narrator) and her final musings about her own ordinary mortality play off a recurrent, inquisitive examination of what her origins are, fairy or mortal, noble or low.
21 Of munnyng ne munte. For these verbs, see MED, moninge (ger.), “remembering,” and minten (v.), sense 2(a), “to think.”
25–26 These lines highlight the brief transience of the encounter. He asks her why she does not believe him any longer than the time in which he has fixed his “love” on her. The comparison underlines the flighty casualness of his feelings and the falseness of his pledges.
37–40 The word “yet” is added to the translation of line 37 because here there is a shift in the girl’s thinking, a shift that corresponds with the opening of a new stanza. Turville-Petre assigns lines 37–40 to the man, emending the pronoun me in line 40 to þe (1989, p. 26).
43–44 The man’s cavalier attitude toward troth-making is that, despite a verbal promise, no one can change or foresee what God decrees. His attitude evades honor and future responsibility for his own actions.
45 ashunche. “Be altered.” The word is attested here only, and the MED defines it as “frighten”: ashunchen (v.). But compare shunchen (v.), sense (b), “to cause (something) to turn aside.”
ART. 35, IN A FRYHT AS Y CON FARE FREMEDE: TEXTUAL NOTES
ABBREVIATIONS: As: Aspin; Bö: Böddeker; Bos: Bossy; Br: Brook; BS: Bennett and Smithers; BZ: Brandl and Zippel; B13: Brown 1932; B14: Brown 1952; DB: Dunn and Byrnes; Deg: Degginger; Do: Dove 1969; Gr: Greene 1977; Ha: Halliwell; Hal: Hall; Hol: Holthausen; Hor1: Horstmann 1878; Hor2: Horstmann 1896; Hu: Hulme; JL: Jeffrey and Levy; Ju: Jubinal; Kel: Keller; Ken: Kennedy; Le: Lerer 2008; Mc: McKnight; Mi: Millett; MR: Michelant and Raynaud; Mo: Morris and Skeat; MS: MS Harley 2253; Mu: H. M. R. Murray; Pa: Patterson; Pr: Pringle 2009; Rei: Reichl 1973; Rev1: Revard 2004; Rev2: Revard 2005b; Ri1: Ritson 1877; Ri2: Ritson 1885; Ro: Robbins 1959; Sa: Saupe; Si: Silverstein; St: Stemmler 1970; Tr: Treharne; Tu: Turville-Petre 1989; Ul: Ulrich; W1: Wright 1839; W2: Wright 1841; W3: Wright 1842; W4: Wright 1844; WH: Wright and Halliwell.
8 henyng. So MS, W3, Br, BS, St, Tu. Bö: heþyng.
18 be. So MS, W3, Bö, Br, Tu. BS, St: beþ.
31 tho. So MS, W3. Bö, Br, BS, St, Tu: þou.
33 hongren. So Bö, Br, BS, St, Tu. MS, W3: hengren.
36 clevyen. So MS, Br, BS, St, Tu. W3, Bö: clenyen.
37 yclothe. So MS, W3, Bö. Br, St, Tu: y cloþe. BS: ycloþed.
39 ywedded. So MS, W3, Bö, Br, St, Tu. BS: Y wedded.
40 me. So MS, W3, Bö, Br, BS, St. Tu: þe.
myht I. So BS. MS, W3, Bö, Br, St: myhti. Tu: myhtu.
44 mey non . So MS, Br, BS, St, Tu. W3: me y-nou. Bö: mey.
45 ne mey hit. So MS, W3, Br, BS, St, Tu. Bö: me mey.
47 that. So MS, W3, Bö, Br, BS, St. Tu: þah.
ofthunche. So MS, W3, Bö, St, Tu. Br, BS: ofthuncheþ.
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