Art. 95, L’enqueste que le patriarche de Jerusalem fist

ART. 95, L’ENQUESTE QUE LE PATRIARCHE DE JERUSALEM FIST: EXPLANATORY NOTES


Abbreviations: AND: Anglo-Norman Dictionary; ANL: Anglo-Norman Literature: A Guide to Texts and Manuscripts (R. Dean and Boulton); BL: British Library (London); Bodl.: Bodleian Library (Oxford); CT: Chaucer, Canterbury Tales; CUL: Cambridge University Library (Cambridge); DOML: Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library; FDT: French Devotional Texts of the Middle Ages (Sinclair 1979); FDT-1French Devotional Texts of the Middle Ages, . . . First Supplement (Sinclair 1982); IMEV: The Index of Middle English Verse (Brown and Robbins); MED: Middle English Dictionary; MWME: A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050–1500 (Severs et al.); NIMEV: A New Index of Middle English Verse (Boffey and Edwards); NLS: National Library of Scotland (Edinburgh).

29 Mier. Referring to Cyprus, this word seems a mistake for an original word meaning “island.”

33 le mount de Sardayné. The Monastery Church of Sardenay in Saidnaiya, a pilgrimage destination because it was the site of a legendary icon of the Virgin Mary said to have been painted by Saint Luke. See Pringle 1998, 2:219–21 (no. 198). Reaching the monastery requires a steep climb. The site is mentioned briefly in Pilgrimages in the Holy Land (art. 38), line 174.

43 le mount Lyban. Mount Lebanon is the Lebanese mountain range that extends across the whole country, parallel to the Mediterranean coast. In the Douai Reims Bible, it is Mount Libanus; see Judges 3:3 and Ecclesiasticus 50:13.

45–46 For another mention of this icon, see the explanatory note to Pilgrimages in the Holy Land (art. 38), line 169.

47 Abban e Phar. Today these rivers are the Litani and the Orontes.
47–48 ou Placidas perdi ces fitz. By legend, Placidas was a Roman military commander under Titus (79–81) and Trajan (98–117) who converted to Christianity and became Saint Eustathius. As he attempted to flee with his young sons to escape a perilous situation, he was blocked by a raging river. Placidas carried one son over the river to safety, but the other was seized by a lion as he returned for him. Before he could go back to the first son, that one was seized and carried off by a wolf. See the romance Sir Isumbras for a similar situation.

49 Jor e Dan. The Dan River is the largest tributary of the Jordan river, located at the base of Mount Hermon. A tributary named the Jor is not known.
le mont Sibboe. That is, Mount Gelboe or Gilboa, where Saul died in battle by falling on his own sword so that the Philistines would not be the ones to kill him (1 Samuel 3:1–6).

76 Attanise. Tennis or Tinnis, an ancient port city in Egypt, located southwest of present-day Port Said.

86 le flum de Cobar. The Khabar River, largest tributary to the Euphrates, which was the major river bordering the territory of the Chaldeans, associated with Nabuchodnosor.


ART. 95, L’ENQUESTE QUE LE PATRIARCHE DE JERUSALEM FIST: TEXTUAL NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: As: Aspin; : Böddeker; Br: Brook; BS: Bennett and Smithers; BZ: Brandl and Zippel; B13: Brown 1937; Dea: J. M. Dean; Do: Dove 1969; Fl: Flood; : Förster; Fu: Furnivall; HB: Hunt and Bliss; Kem: Kemble; Ken: Kennedy; Mi: Millett; Mo: Morris and Skeat; MS: MS Harley 2253; Mu1: H. J. R. Murray; Mu2: J. A. H. Murray; NB: Noomen and van den Boogard; Pa: Patterson; Rev: Revard 2005a; Ri: Ritson 1877; Ro: Robbins 1959; SP: Short and Pearcy; Si: Silverstein; St: Stemmler 1970; Tu: Turville-Petre 1989; Ul: Ulrich; W1: Wright 1839; W2: Wright 1841; W3: Wright 1842; WH: Wright and Halliwell.

15 Nota. MS: ta. In the left margin the scribe inserts a mark of notation (abbreviation for ta), apparently planning to add No later in red ink. Compare art. 83, lines 83, 153 (fols. 117v–118r).
Sarce. MS: Sarco.

40 veniment. MS: venimez.

 
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¶ C’est l’enqueste que le patriarche de Jerusalem fist de la terre a sarazyns par le
comaundement le apostoille pur ensenser les chretiens.

¶ Saladyn e Saphadyn furent freres en la Terre Seinte e morirent.

Saladyn avoit un fitz apelee Foradyn. Yl tint par heritage tote la terre de Halape,
plus qe cent cités e chastels fortz.

Saphadyn out xv fitz.

Melalyn, le premer, tint aprés son piere tote la terre de Alisaundre, Kayre,
Babiloyne, Damyote, Egipte vers Ynde, e sire fut de ces freres.

Coradyn, le secunde fitz, tint la terre de Jerusalem e la Terre de Promission qe
chretienz ount perdu, plus que trois cent cytés e chastels.

Melchifas, le tierce fitz, tint la terre de Caine, plus qe quatre cent cités e chastels
fortz.

Melamadaim, le quart fitz, tient le reygne d’Asye e tot qe afert, qe chastels que cités
ccc e plus estre les viles.

Nota Melchifatan, le quinte fitz, tint la terre de Sarce, ou Abel fust ocis, bien a viic cités.     


Makemet, le sisme fitz, tint tote la terre de Baldac, ou le apostoille dé sarazyns
meint en la cité de Kalife. Cesti apostoille ne doit estre veu for deuz foith par an
quant il va aorer Mahomet soun dieu. Yl est dé sarazyns come le apostoille de
Rome des chretienz.

Saraphas, le septime frere, est ov soun frere eynsné e porte sa banere.

Le utisme fitz e le nefyme gardent le Sepulcre Nostre Seignour Jesu Crist, e lur
office valt par an quatre myl besauntz d’or.

Le disme frere e le unzyme, duzyme, e tressyme — ceux quatre ont le rente de la
eawe qu’est | apelé Nyl, que aruse cheschun aust la terre de Egipte, e lur office valt
par an xm besauntz.

Les deus puisné fitz gardent lur Mahomet en fertre.

Jerusalem est enmy le mounde. Vers orient est la terre de Arabye. Vers le south est
la terre de Egipte. Vers le occident est la grant Mier Gregeis. Vers le north est la
terre de Surie e la Mier de Cypre.

De Jerusalem a Acres sunt trois jornés.

A Dames, v jornés.

Dames est une bone cité e forte. La est une ymage de Nostre Dame qe fust depeint
en Constantinople e est en le mount de Sardayné, e de sa mamele yst oille qe fet
medicine a chescun maner enfermeté.

Pres de Antioche ad une gentz hautasyns qe vyvent saunz ley, quar il gisent ov lur
mieres e ov lur sueres e files. Ly sire de cele terre ad un tres bel palois en un
montaigne qu’est apelé Parays. La fet il norir les fitz de ces vileyns, qe jamés ne
verrount honme si lur mester noun, que les fet entendre que tiele vie averount
perdurable pur fere le comaundement lur seigneur. Quant chretiens entrent la
terre, le seigneur lur baille totels en veniment, e les premettent parays pur les
ocyre.

Fenice est un grant regioun en la quele est Surs, Acres, Cete, Baruch, Sarepte,
Sydoygne, Sache, Gibelete, Triple, e le mount Lyban.

Surs est le chief citee de Fenice.

En Baruch est une ymage de Jesu Crist crucifié, qe un Giw feri de une launce, e le
sang en issist, par quele miracle tote la terre convertist a Dieu.

De le mont Lyban issint deus fluvies, Abban e Phar. Abban court a la mier ou
Placidas perdi ces fitz. Phar court par Surie vers Antioche.

En cele terre sunt deus fluvies, Jor e Dan, qe se assemblent juste le mont Sibboe e
est donqe apelé Jordan. La le roy Saul fust ocys e Jesu baptizé. Trois lues de Jerico
ceste fluvie devise la terre de Jerusalem e de Galylé e de Ydumee.


De Antioche a Acres sunt xij jornés par terre, e iiij par myer.

De Acres a Nazareth ad vj lues.

A mont Tabor, vynt lues; al mont Cayphas, iiij lius; a le chastel peregrin, vij lyus;
a Japhet, xij lyus.

A Ascaloyne, vij lyus.

De Jerusalem a le flum, ix lyus.

A Bedlehem, iij lyus.

A Damas, v jornés.

Gadres est une cité sur la mer pres de Ascaloyne, ou Sampson le fort enporta les
portes.

De Jerusalem al mont Synay, ou gist seinte Katerine, sunt xij jornees. La terre
parent est deserte e poy de eawe.

De une part est la Rouge Mer, | la ou Moises passa ov lé Hebreus e le roy Pharaon
fust neyé. Aprés est Arabie e pus Egipte.

Egipte est une terre molt chaude quar poy y pluet. La court le avantdite eawe de
Nyl, que norist molt des peisshouns, mes poi sunt bons. La sont cocatris e autres
verms.

Nyl comence a crestre enmy joyn desqe enmy septembre. E quant ele est destrue,
si seme un tote maneres blees, e les sient en mars.

La ou Nil chet en la mer est Damiote, la cité que chief est de paynyme e de pors
vers chretiens.

Cele cité est enclos de xxx grantz tours e xl toreles. Enmy le eawe est un grant tour
qe garde les entrees e les issues par trois grosse cheynes.


De Damiote a le mont Synay ad xij jornés.

De Damiote a Attanise, un autre port, ad un jorné, e ces deus portz plus desturbent
chretiens qe tot le remenaunt de paynyme.

De Damiote a la novele Babiloyne ad iiij journés, e pus a Kayre une lue. E la
hauntent tote manere des gentz, e chescun tient sa ley.

La est un arbre que porte la baume q’est resçu en vessels de veer e pus est purgé
demi an en fient de collonbes. Verroi balme n’est pas en cele terre si cele noun.


Pres de Kayre ad une fonteyne ou Nostre Dame soleit laver les draps son fitz quant
ele fust demoraunt en Egipte. La est un palmer que porte dates, qe se abeissa e
dona fruit a le petit enfaunt Jesu. Puis un sarazyn le coupa, e lendemeyn fust trovee
redressé. E uncore honurent cel lu.

Trois Babiloynes sunt: le grant Babiloyne sur le flum de Cobar ou regna
Nabugodonosor; un autre en Egipte ou fust le roy Pharaon. E ces deus sunt
destrutes. En la novele Babiloyne en Egipte reygne le Soudan dé sarazyns.

De yleqe a Alysaundre sunt trois jornés par terre e vj par mier.

Alisaundre est une riche cité, mes yl n’y a point de eawe fresshe si par condut
noun. La habitent plusours chretienz que rendent truage par an al Soudan.

La fust seint Matheu le Ewangeliste martirize pur la parole Dieu, e gist en fertre.


Les berbitz e chievres de cele terre founissent deu foyth par an. |
¶ This is the inquest that the patriarch of Jerusalem made of the land of the
Saracens in accord with the Apostles’ order to instruct the Christians.

¶ Saladin and Saphadin were brothers in the Holy Land and died.

Saladin had a son named Foradin. He holds in inheritance all the land of Aleppo,
more than one hundred cities and fortified castles.

Saphadin had fifteen sons.

Melalin, the first, holds from his father all the land of Alexandria, Cairo, Babylon,
Damietta, Egypt toward India, and is lord of his brothers.

Coradin, the second son, holds the land of Jerusalem and the Promised Land that
Christians had lost, more than three hundred cities and castles.

Melchifas, the third son, holds the land of Canaan, more than four hundred cities
and fortified castles.

Melamadaim, the fourth son, holds the kingdom of Asia and all that belongs to it,
both castles and more than three hundred cities in addition to the towns.

Note Melchifatan, the fifth son, holds the land of Syria, where Abel was killed, fully
seven hundred cities.

Makemet, the sixth son, holds all the land of Baghdad, where the apostle of the
Saracens dwelled in the city of the Caliph. This apostle may not be seen except
twice each year when he goes to worship Mahomet his god. He is to Saracens as the
Apostle of Rome is to Christians.

Saraphas, the seventh brother, is with his eldest brother and carries his banner.

The eighth son and the ninth guard the Sepulcher of Our Lord Jesus Christ, and
their office is worth 4,000 gold bezants a year.

The tenth son and the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth — these four have the
income from the river that is | called the Nile, which each August waters the land
of Egypt, and their office is worth 10,000 bezants a year.

The two youngest sons guard their idol Mahomet in his tomb.

Jerusalem is in the middle of the world. Toward the east is the land of Arabia.
Toward the south is the land of Egypt. Toward the west is the great Greek Sea [the
Mediterranean]. Toward the north is the land of Syria and the [Isle] of Cyprus.

From Jerusalem to Acre is three days’ journey.

To Damascus, five days.

Damascus is an important and strong city. In that place is an image of Our Lady
that was painted in Constantinople and is on Mount Sardenay, and from her breast
flows an oil that produces medicine for every kind of infirmity.

Near Antioch is a very haughty people who live without law, for they lie with their
mothers and with their sisters and daughters. The lord of this land has a very fine
palace on a mountain that is called Paradise. In that place he raises the sons of his
peasants, who will never see any man other than their master, who has them
understand that they will gain that everlasting life for performing the commands
of their lord. When Christians enter the land, the lord hands them all over to them
on arrival, and promises them paradise for killing them.

Phoenicia is a large region in which are found Tyre, Acre, Safita, Beirut, Sarepta,
Sidon, Nablus, Yibna, Tripoli, and Mount Lebanon.

Tyre is the capital city of Phoenicia.

In Beirut is an image of Jesus Christ crucified, which a Jew struck with a lance, and
blood flows from it, by which miracle all the land converted to God.

From Mount Lebanon flow two rivers, the Abban and the Phar. The Abban flows to
the sea where Placidas lost his sons. The Phar flows through Syria toward Antioch.

In this land are two rivers, the Jor and the Dan, which join together near Mount
Gelboe and are therefore called the Jordan. In that place King Saul was killed and
Jesus baptized. Three leagues from Jericho this river separates the land of
Jerusalem from both Galilee and Idumea.

From Antioch to Acre is twelve days’ journey by land and four by sea.

From Acre to Nazareth is six leagues.

To Mount Tabor, twenty leagues; to Mount Haifa, four leagues; to the Pilgrims’
Castle, seven leagues; to Jaffa, twelve leagues.

To Ascalon, seven leagues.

From Jerusalem to the river, nine leagues.

To Bethlehem, three leagues.

To Damascus, five days’ journey.

Gaza is a city on the sea near Ascalon, where Samson the strong brought down the
gates.

From Jerusalem to Mount Sinai, where Saint Catherine lies buried, is twelve days’
journey. The land in between is uninhabited and lacking in water.

On one side is the Red Sea, | where Moses crossed with the Hebrews and King
Pharaoh was drowned. Beyond is Arabia and then Egypt.

Egypt is a very hot land where it rains little. The aforesaid water of the Nile flows
there, which nourishes many fish, but few are good. In that place are crocodiles
and other reptiles.

The Nile begins to rise from mid-June to mid-September. And when it has
receded, all kinds of grains are sowed, and they are harvested in March.

In that place where the Nile flows into the sea is Damietta, the city that is the
capital of the pagan lands and the port for Christians.

This city is enclosed by thirty large towers and forty turrets. In the middle of the
bay is a large tower that guards the entries and the exits by means of three thick
chains.

From Damietta to Mount Sinai is twelve days’ journey.

From Damietta to Tennis, another port, is a day’s journey, and these two ports
distress Christians more than all other pagan lands.

From Damietta to the new Babylon is four days’ journey, and then to Cairo one
league. And all manner of people dwell there, and each follows its own law.

In that place is a tree that bears the balm that is gathered in vessels of glass and
then is refined for half a year in the dung of doves. There is no true balm in this
land if not this one.

Near Cairo is a fountain where Our Lady used to wash her son’s clothes when she
was living in Egypt. In that place is a palm tree that bears dates, which lowered
itself and gave fruit to the little baby Jesus. Then a Saracen cut it down, and the
next day it was found standing again. And they still honor this place.

There are three Babylons: the great Babylon on the Khabur River where
Nabuchodnosor reigned; another in Egypt where King Pharaoh was. And these two
are destroyed. In the new Babylon in Egypt reigns the Sultan of the Saracens.

From there to Alexandria is three days’ journey by land and six by sea.

Alexandria is a rich city, but there is fresh water only by means of aqueduct. In that
place live many Christians who pay tribute each year to the Sultan.

In that place Saint Matthew the Evangelist was martyred for the sake of God’s
word, and he lies in a tomb.

The sheep and goats of this land produce twice a year. |


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