Art. 38, Les pelrinages communes que crestiens fount en la Seinte Terre
ART. 38, LES PELRINAGES COMMUNES QUE CRESTIENS FOUNT EN LA SEINTE TERRE: EXPLANATORY NOTES
ABBREVIATIONS: AND: Anglo-Norman Dictionary; ANL: Anglo-Norman Literature: A Guide to Texts and Manuscripts (R. Dean and Boulton); BL: British Library (London); Bodl.: Bodleian Library (Oxford); CCC: Corpus Christi College (Cambridge); CUL: Cambridge University Library (Cambridge); IMEV: The Index of Middle English Verse (Brown and Robbins); IMEV Suppl.: Supplement to the Index of Middle English Verse (Robbins and Cutler); MED: Middle English Dictionary; MWME: A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050–1500 (Severs et al.); NIMEV: A New Index of Middle English Verse (Boffey and Edwards); NLS: National Library of Scotland (Edinburgh).
2 SEYNT ELYE. On this monastery of St. Elijah, see Pringle 1998, 2:224–26 (no. 202).
3 la CAVE SEYNT ELYE a la CARME. See Pringle 1998, 2:226–29 (no. 203).
4 SEINT JOHAN DE TYR. On this church, see Pringle 1998, 2:369–72 (nos. 272–73).
6–7 le CHASTIEL PELRYN. ‘Atlit. See Pringle 1993, 1:69–81 (nos. 26–27).
7 MERLE. Tantura; see Pringle 1998, 2:257. The city associated with Andrew in the Bible is Bethsaida (John 1:44).
8–9 la CAVE la ou Nostre Dame se mussa ov son fitz pur doute des Gyws. See Pringle 1998, 2:257.
10 NOSTRE DAME DE MARREIS. A pilgimage chapel “for people from Caesarea and for travellers proceeding south along the coast road from ‘Alit”; see Pringle 1998, 2:257–58 (no. 214).
11 CESARIE. The medieval pilgrimage sites in Caesarea are described in Pringle 1993, 1:166–83 (nos. 68–76).
12 JAPHET. Medieval Jaffa is described in Pringle, 1993, 1:264–73 (nos. 109–20).
le PEROUN SEINT JAKE. This stone was said to be the place where the martyred apostle’s body lay prior to its transport to Galicia in Spain. See Pringle 1993, 1:268.
13 une CHAPELE ou seint Abakuc soleint meindre. The Abbey Church of St. Habakkuk. See Pringle 1993, 1:283–85 (no. 127).
14 RAMES. On the Church of St. George in Ramla, see Pringle 2:195–99 (no. 189). However, the saint’s cult and martyrdom were centered at the nearby Cathedral Church of St. George in Lydda (Pringle 1998, 2:9–27 [no. 137]).
15 BETYNOBLE. Bait Nuba; see Pringle 1993, 1:102–3 (no. 34).
16 EMAUS. Abu Ghosh. See Map 8 in Pringle 1998, 2:425. According to Luke, Jesus appeared before Cleophas and another follower on the road to Emmaus after his resurrection.
18 MONT JOIE. Rama, or Nabi Samwil, also known as “Mount Joy” or “Mons Gaudii,” the location of the Abbey Church of St. Samuel. See Pringle 1998, 2:85–97 (no. 159).
21 la PORTE ou seint Estevene fust lapidé. On St. Stephen’s Gate, or Damascus Gate, in Jerusalem, see Pringle 2007, 3:478 (map 2). The Church of St. Stephen was located outside this gate (Pringle 2007, 3:372–79 [no. 359], 3:477 [map 1]). Lion’s Gate in the old city of Jerusalem was also called St. Stephen’s Gate (Boas, p. 50), and there was a tradition that the stoning occurred here, though it probably happened at Damascus Gate.
22 SEINT SEPULCRE. On the history and sacred significance of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher for medieval pilgrims, see Pringle 2007, 3:6–73 (no. 283). It was initially a basilica constructed by Constantine in the fourth century.
23 peroun. Stone, the “omphalos.” The meaning of the stone reflects ancient Jewish tradition that named Jerusalem the “navel” of the world. By medieval cosmology the city was set at the earth’s true center, both spiritually and geographically, as on a T and O map.
25 MOUNT CALVARIE. On the location of Calvary and Golgotha in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, see Pringle 2007, 3:7–9, 3:39 (floor plan).
28 Godefroy de Boylloun. Godfrey of Bouillon (ca. 1060–1100) was the first Latin ruler of Jerusalem, a standing that made him (alongside Charlemagne and Arthur) a Christian “worthy” in the celebrated roster of Nine Worthies. A Frankish knight, Godfrey helped lead the First Crusade from 1096 until his death. After Jerusalem was won in 1099, he was elected Lord of Jerusalem; he refused the title “king,” claiming that kingship belonged to God alone. He was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, and his tomb remained there until it was destroyed in the nineteenth century.
31 treis Maries. On the chapel of the Three Marys, see Pringle 2007, 3:30.
32 la trova seinte Eleyne la seinte Croyz. To Saint Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine, was attributed the discovery of the wood of the Holy Cross several hundred years after its burial. See Jacobus de Voragine, The Golden Legend, trans. Ryan, 1:277–84; Pringle 2007, 3:9; and Boas, p. 33. Described here is the way to the chapel dedicated to Saint Helena in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher (Pringle 2007, 3:39 [map], 44).
33 la CHAPELE GRYFFOUNE. The chapel indicated by this name is unclear.
35 le HOSPITAL SEINT JOHAN. The Church and Hospital of St. John the Baptist, located south of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. See Pringle 2007, 3:192–207 (nos. 322–23); and Boas, pp. 26–27.
36 la EGLISE SEINT CARYOUT. The Monastery Church of Saint Chariton, located near the northeast corner of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. See Pringle 2007, 3:158–60 (no. 310); and Boas, p. 128. The odd spelling indicates a scribal misreading of “tou” as “out.”
la LATYNE. The Abbey Church of St. Mary Latin in Jerusalem, located just south of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher; see Pringle 2007, 3:236–53 (no. 334); and Boas, pp. 121–26.
38 TEMPLUM DOMINI. For the Abbey Church of the Templum Domini (the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem), see Pringle 2007, 3:397–417 (no. 367), 3:479 (map 3); and Boas, pp. 109–10.
42 The prophecy of Zachary concerns the birth of John the Baptist (Luke 1:13).
48 JERUSALEM. The Jerusalem Gate, named in a few other early records, is either the “portico on the eastern side of the upper platform on the Temple Mount” or the “inner (western) gate of the Golden Gate” (Boas, pp. 63–64). In the Bible the actions of Peter and John occur at the gate called “Speciosa” (Beautiful) (Acts 3:2, 10).
49 PARAYS. No gate is identified by this name in Pringle or in Boas. Pringle’s map 5 (3:479) shows three northern gates of the Temple Precinct. The southern Triple Gate was also called the Spring Gate (Pringle 2007, 3:419). The repeated phrase est apele parays could be scribal error (dittography).
51 SPECIOUSE. For some of the associations surrounding this gate (also called Bab as-Silsila), see Pringle 2007, 3:405, 420–21, 432; and Boas, p. 64.
52 PORTE ORRYENE. On the history and associations of this gate, see Pringle 2007, 3:103–09 (no. 293), 3:479 (map 3); and Boas, pp. 63–64.
55 PROBATICA PISCINA. For the Chapel of the Sheep Pool, see Pringle 2007, 3:389–97 (no. 366), 3:479 (map 3); and Boas, p. 175.
57 TEMPLE SALOMON. The Templar Chapel in the Templum or Palatium Salomonis and the adjacent Church of the Templars; see Pringle 2007, 3:417–35 (nos. 368–69), 3:481 (map 5).
59 TOUR DAVID. David’s Tower, the Citadel of Jerusalem (Pringle 2007, 3:480 [map 4]).
59–60 une CHAPELE, e leynze est seint Johan bouche orriene. A relic of a portion of John the Baptist’s head was reportedly housed in a crypt below the Church of Saint John the Baptist; see Pringle 2007, 3:201.
60–61 une EGLYSE ou seint Jame fust decolé. The Armenian Cathedral Church of St. James the Great; see Pringle 2007, 3:168–82 (no. 318), 3:480 (map 4).
61 le MOUNT SYON. A district on the southwest side of Jerusalem, in which is located the Abbey Church of St. Mary of Mount Sion; see Pringle 2007, 3:261–87 (no. 336), 3:480 (map 4).
68 la PRETORIE CAYPHAS. See Pringle 2007, 3:131 and the explanatory note to line 61.
70 la CAVE GALYGANT. The Church of St. Peter of the Cock Crow on Mount Sion was reportedly the site of the house of Caiaphas and where Peter denied knowing Christ. The original site was a cave known as “Gallicantus.” See Pringle 2007, 3:346–49 (no. 352), 3:480 (map 4).
71 la NATORYE SYLOE. Exegetes frequently linked the episode of Jesus bringing sight to the man born blind at the Pool of Siloam to passages from Isaiah. See especially Isaiah 8:6, 12:3, 29:18, and 35:5. There is no direct reference to Isaiah’s death and burial in the Bible.
73 ACHELDEMAC. Where Judas hanged himself. In the Vulgate the place is “Haceldama” and defined as “ager sanguinis,” field of blood.
74 le VAL DE JOSAPHAT. As described, the Valley of Jehoshaphat lies to the east of Jerusalem, between the city and the Mount of Olives. See Pringle 2007, 3:477 (map 1), 3:479 (map 3).
75 SEINT ANNE. The Abbey Church of St. Anne; see Pringle 2007, 3:142–56 (no. 305), 3:479 (map 3); and Boas, pp. 114–19.
78–79 une EGLISE DE SEINT SALVEOUR.The Church of St. Savior in Gethsemane; see Pringle 2007, 3:358–72 (no. 357), 3:479 (map 3).
89 BETHPHAGE. On the medieval pilgrimage sites in Bethphage, see Pringle 1993, 1:157–59 (no. 64).
93 BETHANYE. The medieval pilgrimage sites of Bethany are described in Pringle 1993, 1:122–37 (nos. 59–60). The chief destinations for the faithful were the houses of Lazarus and Simon (associated with Mary Magdalen).
94 evesque de Marcille. By tradition, Lazarus served as the first bishop of Marseilles. Lazarus’s tomb was one of the destinations in Bethany.
96 la QUARANTEYNE. On the medieval priory of Quarantena, see Pringle 1993, 1:252–58 (nos. 104–07).
98 JERICO. On the pilgrimage sites in Jericho, see Pringle 1993, 1:275–76 (no. 123).
102 SEINTE ELYE. The Monastery of St. Elijah. See Pringle 1998, 2:224–26 (no. 202), 2:425 (Map 8).
105 SEINT RACHEL. On the site of Rachel’s Tomb between Jerusalem and Bethlehem, see Pringle 1998, 2:176–78, 2:425 (Map 8).
106 BEDLEHEM. On the pilgrimage sites in Bethlehem, see Pringle 1993, 1:137–57 (nos. 61–63).
110 apparust le aungel as berchers. On the location of Shepherds’ Fields, see Pringle 1998, 2:315–16 (no. 232), 2:425 (Map 8).
112 SEINT HABRAHAM. On Hebron, a major pilgrimage site, and especially the Cathedral Church of St. Abraham, see Pringle 1993, 1:223–39 (no. 100).
113 SPELUNCA DUPPLICI. The double tombs of the married patriarchs were discovered and announced in 1119. See Pringle: “The status of the sanctuary at Hebron was enhanced considerably between June and October 1119 . . . when a way into the cave beneath it was accidentally discovered and the supposed bodies of the Patriarchs were found inside” (1993, 1:225; see also 1:235–39).
119 SEINT JOHAN DE BOYS. On this church and its associations with John the Baptist’s birth and childhood, see Pringle 1993, 1:38–46 (no. 8).
121 NAPLES. On the pilgrimage sites in Nablus, see Pringle 1998, 2:94–115 (no. 160–67).
PUYTZ JACOB. On this site, named in the Bible at John 4:6, see Pringle 1993, 1:258–64 (no. 108).
123 BASQUE. Sebaste, location of the Cathedral Church and Monastery Church of St. John the Baptist, reputed to be the site of the saint’s beheading, see Pringle 1998, 2:283–301 (nos. 225–26). The name in the manuscript is a corrupt form.
125 MOUNT HERMON. A place associated both with the ascent of Elijah to heaven and with the baptism of Jesus; see the description of the Monastery Church of St. John the Baptist in Pringle 1998, 2:240–41 (no. 209).
126 NAMES. The village of Na‘im, or (in the Bible) Nain. The manuscript spelling James is a scribal error. On the site and Mount Tabor, see Pringle 1998, 2:115–16 (no. 168).
128 MOUNT TABOUR. On the pilgrimage sites of Mount Tabor, see Pringle 1998, 2:63–85 (nos. 155–58). The church referred to is the Abbey Church of the Savior, or the Transfiguration of the Lord (no. 155).
131 BEBIE. On the pilgrimages sites in Tiberias, on the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee, see Pringle 1998, 2:351–66 (nos. 255–68).
136 la CHASTIEL MAGDALON. The Church of St. Mary Magdalen (or Mary of Bethany), in Tiberias; see Pringle 1998, 2:359 (no. 262).
137 NAZAREZ. On the pilgrimage sites in Nazareth, see Pringle 1998, 2:116–50 (nos. 169–73). The first place described here is the Cathedral Church of the Annunciation (no. 169).
140 une FONTEYNE DE SEINT GABRIEL. The Church of St. Gabriel in Nazareth; see Pringle 1998, 2:140–44 (no. 170).
146 ZAPHORY. On the Galilee city of Saffuriya, traditionally thought to be the birthplace of Saint Anne, and its church probably dedicated to her, see Pringle 1998, 2:209–18 (no. 196).
148 la CANE GALYLEE. On this site, see Pringle 1998, 2:162–64 (no. 181). The name “Architelin” does not appear in the Bible.
151 la EGLISE DE SEINT SOFFROUN. This unlocated church is discussed by Pringle 1998, 2:302 (no. 227). It seems to have existed in Shafa ‘Amur, also called Saffran or Sapharanum. A scribe may have confused the place-name with Saint Sophronia of Tarentum, a female recluse of the fourth century.
153 la EGLISE SEINT NYCHOLAS. There were many Holy Land churches dedicated to Saint Nicholas; see, for example, the one at the Monastery of St. Sabas, which contained the skulls of monks martyred in the seventh century (Pringle 1998, 2:264–66 [no. 217]).
155 KOKET. A region called Kuwaikat, Coquet, or Cochetum. See Pringle 1998, 2:32, 4:163.
156 It was John the Baptist who pronounced Jesus the Lamb of God (John 1:29, 36).
158 SUR. On the pilgrimage sites of Tyre, see Pringle 2009, 4:177–230 (nos. 454–79).
162 PUTEUS AQUARUM. The location of this well is uncertain; it may be named for Canticles 4:15, “puteus aquarum viventium” (well of living waters).
163 SERPHENT. On the pilgrimage site in Sarepta and its associations with the prophet Elijah, see Pringle 1998, 2:281–82 (no. 224).
165 SEETE. On the pilgrimage sites of Sidon, see Pringle 1998, 2:317–29 (nos. 236–45).
une EGLISE DE SEINT SALVEOUR. The location of this church in Sidon is unknown. See Pringle 1998, 2:321–22 (no. 238).
168 BARUTH. On the pilgrimage sites of Beirut, see Pringle 1993, 1:111–19 (nos. 42–55), 2:316 (no. 234).
169 un ymage de Nostre Seignour. The author refers to the bleeding icon of Beirut. In around the year 765 an icon of Christ began to give forth blood after being subjected, as the story says, to ritual humiliation by the Jews. In 932 the icon was taken to Constantinople and housed in the Hagia Sophia. Feasts in celebration of it were popular in France and Spain. This reference shows that the story was also disseminated in England. See Vincent, pp. 46–48; and Pfaff, pp. 116–26. This icon is also mentioned in The Land of the Saracens (art. 95), lines 45–46.
174 Sardayné. The Monastery Church of Sardenay in Saidnaiya, a pilgrimage destination because it was the site of a legendary icon of the Virgin Mary said to have been painted by Saint Luke. See Pringle 1998, 2:219–21 (no. 198). The site is more fully described in The Land of the Saracens (art. 95).
ART. 38, LES PELRINAGES COMMUNES QUE CRESTIENS FOUNT EN LA SEINTE TERRE: TEXTUAL NOTES
ABBREVIATIONS: As: Aspin; Bö: Böddeker; Bos: Bossy; Br: Brook; BS: Bennett and Smithers; BZ: Brandl and Zippel; B13: Brown 1932; B14: Brown 1952; DB: Dunn and Byrnes; Deg: Degginger; Do: Dove 1969; Gr: Greene 1977; Ha: Halliwell; Hal: Hall; Hol: Holthausen; Hor1: Horstmann 1878; Hor2: Horstmann 1896; Hu: Hulme; JL: Jeffrey and Levy; Ju: Jubinal; Kel: Keller; Ken: Kennedy; Le: Lerer 2008; Mc: McKnight; Mi: Millett; MR: Michelant and Raynaud; Mo: Morris and Skeat; MS: MS Harley 2253; Mu: H. M. R. Murray; Pa: Patterson; Pr: Pringle 2009; Rei: Reichl 1973; Rev1: Revard 2004; Rev2: Revard 2005b; Ri1: Ritson 1877; Ri2: Ritson 1885; Ro: Robbins 1959; Sa: Saupe; Si: Silverstein; St: Stemmler 1970; Tr: Treharne; Tu: Turville-Petre 1989; Ul: Ulrich; W1: Wright 1839; W2: Wright 1841; W3: Wright 1842; W4: Wright 1844; WH: Wright and Halliwell.
7 Eufemie. So MS. MR: Eufenie.
8 nasquy. So MS. MR: nasquis.
12 um. So MS. MR: wn.
15 maveis. So MS. MR: maweis.
18 yleqe. So MS. MR: yleque.
20 de bel. So MR. MS: de de bel.
21 pus. So MS (us abbreviated). MR: puis.
24 mounde. So MS. MR: monde.
28 Delees. So MS. MR: deleis.
31 Pashe. So MS (e abbreviated). MR: Pask.
36 EGLISE. So MS. MR: esglise.
38 dedenz. So MS. MR: dedeinz.
42 par cele. So MS (ar abbreviated). MR: per cele. fitz, qe. So MS. MR: fitz qi.
67 liw. So MS. MR: lew.
d’espynes. So MS. MR: d’esspynes.
70 GALYGANT. So MS. MR: Galyqant.
71 le um. So MS. MR: um.
77 deis. So MS. MR: dois.
79 piere. So MS. MR: pere.
90 Jerusalem. So MS (abbreviated). MR: Iherusalem.
101 par. So MS. MR: pur.
102 Jerusalem. So MS (abbreviated). MR: Iherusalem.
103 Jerusalem. So MS (abbreviated). MR: Iherusalem.
106 une. So MS. MR: .j.
112 Jerusalem. So MS (abbreviated). MR: Iherusalem.
114 EVE. So MS. MR: Ewe.
115 lyw. So MS. MR: lywe.
118 Jerusalem. So MS (abbreviated). MR: Iherusalem. le lyw. So MS. MR: la lywe.
121 Jerusalem. So MS (abbreviated). MR: Iherusalem.
126 NAMES. So MR. MS: James.
129 Johan. So MS. MR: Jehan.
134 feseient. So MS. MR: fesoient.
136 MAGDALEYNE. So MS. MR: Magdalyne.
142 comaunderent. So MS. MR: commanderent.
148 la. So MR. MS: lar.
150 apartement. So MS (ar abbreviated). MR: apertement.
164 delyverer. So MS. MR: delyvrer.
165 EGLISE. So MS. MR: esglise.
168 BARUTH. So MS. MR: Baruch.
par. So MS (ar abbreviated). MR: per.
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