Art. 38, Les pelrinages communes que crestiens fount en la Seinte Terre

ART. 38, LES PELRINAGES COMMUNES QUE CRESTIENS FOUNT EN LA SEINTE TERRE: EXPLANATORY NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: AND: Anglo-Norman Dictionary; ANL: Anglo-Norman Literature: A Guide to Texts and Manuscripts (R. Dean and Boulton); BL: British Library (London); Bodl.: Bodleian Library (Oxford); CCC: Corpus Christi College (Cambridge); CUL: Cambridge University Library (Cambridge); IMEV: The Index of Middle English Verse (Brown and Robbins); IMEV Suppl.: Supplement to the Index of Middle English Verse (Robbins and Cutler); MED: Middle English Dictionary; MWME: A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050–1500 (Severs et al.); NIMEV: A New Index of Middle English Verse (Boffey and Edwards); NLS: National Library of Scotland (Edinburgh).

2 SEYNT ELYE. On this monastery of St. Elijah, see Pringle 1998, 2:224–26 (no. 202).

3 la CAVE SEYNT ELYE a la CARME. See Pringle 1998, 2:226–29 (no. 203).

4 SEINT JOHAN DE TYR. On this church, see Pringle 1998, 2:369–72 (nos. 272–73).

6–7 le CHASTIEL PELRYN. ‘Atlit. See Pringle 1993, 1:69–81 (nos. 26–27).

7 MERLE. Tantura; see Pringle 1998, 2:257. The city associated with Andrew in the Bible is Bethsaida (John 1:44).

8–9 la CAVE la ou Nostre Dame se mussa ov son fitz pur doute des Gyws. See Pringle 1998, 2:257.

10 NOSTRE DAME DE MARREIS. A pilgimage chapel “for people from Caesarea and for travellers proceeding south along the coast road from ‘Alit”; see Pringle 1998, 2:257–58 (no. 214).

11 CESARIE. The medieval pilgrimage sites in Caesarea are described in Pringle 1993, 1:166–83 (nos. 68–76).

12 JAPHET. Medieval Jaffa is described in Pringle, 1993, 1:264–73 (nos. 109–20).
le PEROUN SEINT JAKE. This stone was said to be the place where the martyred apostle’s body lay prior to its transport to Galicia in Spain. See Pringle 1993, 1:268.

13 une CHAPELE ou seint Abakuc soleint meindre. The Abbey Church of St. Habakkuk. See Pringle 1993, 1:283–85 (no. 127).

14 RAMES. On the Church of St. George in Ramla, see Pringle 2:195–99 (no. 189). However, the saint’s cult and martyrdom were centered at the nearby Cathedral Church of St. George in Lydda (Pringle 1998, 2:9–27 [no. 137]).

15 BETYNOBLE. Bait Nuba; see Pringle 1993, 1:102–3 (no. 34).

16 EMAUS. Abu Ghosh. See Map 8 in Pringle 1998, 2:425. According to Luke, Jesus appeared before Cleophas and another follower on the road to Emmaus after his resurrection.

18 MONT JOIE. Rama, or Nabi Samwil, also known as “Mount Joy” or “Mons Gaudii,” the location of the Abbey Church of St. Samuel. See Pringle 1998, 2:85–97 (no. 159).

21 la PORTE ou seint Estevene fust lapidé. On St. Stephen’s Gate, or Damascus Gate, in Jerusalem, see Pringle 2007, 3:478 (map 2). The Church of St. Stephen was located outside this gate (Pringle 2007, 3:372–79 [no. 359], 3:477 [map 1]). Lion’s Gate in the old city of Jerusalem was also called St. Stephen’s Gate (Boas, p. 50), and there was a tradition that the stoning occurred here, though it probably happened at Damascus Gate.

22 SEINT SEPULCRE. On the history and sacred significance of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher for medieval pilgrims, see Pringle 2007, 3:6–73 (no. 283). It was initially a basilica constructed by Constantine in the fourth century.

23 peroun. Stone, the “omphalos.” The meaning of the stone reflects ancient Jewish tradition that named Jerusalem the “navel” of the world. By medieval cosmology the city was set at the earth’s true center, both spiritually and geographically, as on a T and O map.

25 MOUNT CALVARIE. On the location of Calvary and Golgotha in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, see Pringle 2007, 3:7–9, 3:39 (floor plan).

28 Godefroy de Boylloun. Godfrey of Bouillon (ca. 1060–1100) was the first Latin ruler of Jerusalem, a standing that made him (alongside Charlemagne and Arthur) a Christian “worthy” in the celebrated roster of Nine Worthies. A Frankish knight, Godfrey helped lead the First Crusade from 1096 until his death. After Jerusalem was won in 1099, he was elected Lord of Jerusalem; he refused the title “king,” claiming that kingship belonged to God alone. He was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, and his tomb remained there until it was destroyed in the nineteenth century.

31 treis Maries. On the chapel of the Three Marys, see Pringle 2007, 3:30.

32 la trova seinte Eleyne la seinte Croyz. To Saint Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine, was attributed the discovery of the wood of the Holy Cross several hundred years after its burial. See Jacobus de Voragine, The Golden Legend, trans. Ryan, 1:277–84; Pringle 2007, 3:9; and Boas, p. 33. Described here is the way to the chapel dedicated to Saint Helena in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher (Pringle 2007, 3:39 [map], 44).

33 la CHAPELE GRYFFOUNE. The chapel indicated by this name is unclear.

35 le HOSPITAL SEINT JOHAN. The Church and Hospital of St. John the Baptist, located south of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. See Pringle 2007, 3:192–207 (nos. 322–23); and Boas, pp. 26–27.

36 la EGLISE SEINT CARYOUT. The Monastery Church of Saint Chariton, located near the northeast corner of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. See Pringle 2007, 3:158–60 (no. 310); and Boas, p. 128. The odd spelling indicates a scribal misreading of “tou” as “out.”

la LATYNE. The Abbey Church of St. Mary Latin in Jerusalem, located just south of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher; see Pringle 2007, 3:236–53 (no. 334); and Boas, pp. 121–26.

38 TEMPLUM DOMINI. For the Abbey Church of the Templum Domini (the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem), see Pringle 2007, 3:397–417 (no. 367), 3:479 (map 3); and Boas, pp. 109–10.

42 The prophecy of Zachary concerns the birth of John the Baptist (Luke 1:13).

48 JERUSALEM. The Jerusalem Gate, named in a few other early records, is either the “portico on the eastern side of the upper platform on the Temple Mount” or the “inner (western) gate of the Golden Gate” (Boas, pp. 63–64). In the Bible the actions of Peter and John occur at the gate called “Speciosa” (Beautiful) (Acts 3:2, 10).

49 PARAYS. No gate is identified by this name in Pringle or in Boas. Pringle’s map 5 (3:479) shows three northern gates of the Temple Precinct. The southern Triple Gate was also called the Spring Gate (Pringle 2007, 3:419). The repeated phrase est apele parays could be scribal error (dittography).

51 SPECIOUSE. For some of the associations surrounding this gate (also called Bab as-Silsila), see Pringle 2007, 3:405, 420–21, 432; and Boas, p. 64.

52 PORTE ORRYENE. On the history and associations of this gate, see Pringle 2007, 3:103–09 (no. 293), 3:479 (map 3); and Boas, pp. 63–64.

55 PROBATICA PISCINA. For the Chapel of the Sheep Pool, see Pringle 2007, 3:389–97 (no. 366), 3:479 (map 3); and Boas, p. 175.

57 TEMPLE SALOMON. The Templar Chapel in the Templum or Palatium Salomonis and the adjacent Church of the Templars; see Pringle 2007, 3:417–35 (nos. 368–69), 3:481 (map 5).

59 TOUR DAVID. David’s Tower, the Citadel of Jerusalem (Pringle 2007, 3:480 [map 4]).

59–60 une CHAPELE, e leynze est seint Johan bouche orriene. A relic of a portion of John the Baptist’s head was reportedly housed in a crypt below the Church of Saint John the Baptist; see Pringle 2007, 3:201.

60–61 une EGLYSE ou seint Jame fust decolé. The Armenian Cathedral Church of St. James the Great; see Pringle 2007, 3:168–82 (no. 318), 3:480 (map 4).

61 le MOUNT SYON. A district on the southwest side of Jerusalem, in which is located the Abbey Church of St. Mary of Mount Sion; see Pringle 2007, 3:261–87 (no. 336), 3:480 (map 4).

68 la PRETORIE CAYPHAS. See Pringle 2007, 3:131 and the explanatory note to line 61.

70 la CAVE GALYGANT. The Church of St. Peter of the Cock Crow on Mount Sion was reportedly the site of the house of Caiaphas and where Peter denied knowing Christ. The original site was a cave known as “Gallicantus.” See Pringle 2007, 3:346–49 (no. 352), 3:480 (map 4).

71 la NATORYE SYLOE. Exegetes frequently linked the episode of Jesus bringing sight to the man born blind at the Pool of Siloam to passages from Isaiah. See especially Isaiah 8:6, 12:3, 29:18, and 35:5. There is no direct reference to Isaiah’s death and burial in the Bible.

73 ACHELDEMAC. Where Judas hanged himself. In the Vulgate the place is “Haceldama” and defined as “ager sanguinis,” field of blood.

74 le VAL DE JOSAPHAT. As described, the Valley of Jehoshaphat lies to the east of Jerusalem, between the city and the Mount of Olives. See Pringle 2007, 3:477 (map 1), 3:479 (map 3).

75 SEINT ANNE. The Abbey Church of St. Anne; see Pringle 2007, 3:142–56 (no. 305), 3:479 (map 3); and Boas, pp. 114–19.

78–79 une EGLISE DE SEINT SALVEOUR.The Church of St. Savior in Gethsemane; see Pringle 2007, 3:358–72 (no. 357), 3:479 (map 3).

89 BETHPHAGE. On the medieval pilgrimage sites in Bethphage, see Pringle 1993, 1:157–59 (no. 64).

93 BETHANYE. The medieval pilgrimage sites of Bethany are described in Pringle 1993, 1:122–37 (nos. 59–60). The chief destinations for the faithful were the houses of Lazarus and Simon (associated with Mary Magdalen).

94 evesque de Marcille. By tradition, Lazarus served as the first bishop of Marseilles. Lazarus’s tomb was one of the destinations in Bethany.

96 la QUARANTEYNE. On the medieval priory of Quarantena, see Pringle 1993, 1:252–58 (nos. 104–07).

98 JERICO. On the pilgrimage sites in Jericho, see Pringle 1993, 1:275–76 (no. 123).

102 SEINTE ELYE. The Monastery of St. Elijah. See Pringle 1998, 2:224–26 (no. 202), 2:425 (Map 8).

105 SEINT RACHEL. On the site of Rachel’s Tomb between Jerusalem and Bethlehem, see Pringle 1998, 2:176–78, 2:425 (Map 8).

106 BEDLEHEM. On the pilgrimage sites in Bethlehem, see Pringle 1993, 1:137–57 (nos. 61–63).

110 apparust le aungel as berchers. On the location of Shepherds’ Fields, see Pringle 1998, 2:315–16 (no. 232), 2:425 (Map 8).

112 SEINT HABRAHAM. On Hebron, a major pilgrimage site, and especially the Cathedral Church of St. Abraham, see Pringle 1993, 1:223–39 (no. 100).

113 SPELUNCA DUPPLICI. The double tombs of the married patriarchs were discovered and announced in 1119. See Pringle: “The status of the sanctuary at Hebron was enhanced considerably between June and October 1119 . . . when a way into the cave beneath it was accidentally discovered and the supposed bodies of the Patriarchs were found inside” (1993, 1:225; see also 1:235–39).

119 SEINT JOHAN DE BOYS. On this church and its associations with John the Baptist’s birth and childhood, see Pringle 1993, 1:38–46 (no. 8).

121 NAPLES. On the pilgrimage sites in Nablus, see Pringle 1998, 2:94–115 (no. 160–67).
PUYTZ JACOB. On this site, named in the Bible at John 4:6, see Pringle 1993, 1:258–64 (no. 108).

123 BASQUE. Sebaste, location of the Cathedral Church and Monastery Church of St. John the Baptist, reputed to be the site of the saint’s beheading, see Pringle 1998, 2:283–301 (nos. 225–26). The name in the manuscript is a corrupt form.

125 MOUNT HERMON. A place associated both with the ascent of Elijah to heaven and with the baptism of Jesus; see the description of the Monastery Church of St. John the Baptist in Pringle 1998, 2:240–41 (no. 209).

126 NAMES. The village of Na‘im, or (in the Bible) Nain. The manuscript spelling James is a scribal error. On the site and Mount Tabor, see Pringle 1998, 2:115–16 (no. 168).

128 MOUNT TABOUR. On the pilgrimage sites of Mount Tabor, see Pringle 1998, 2:63–85 (nos. 155–58). The church referred to is the Abbey Church of the Savior, or the Transfiguration of the Lord (no. 155).

131 BEBIE. On the pilgrimages sites in Tiberias, on the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee, see Pringle 1998, 2:351–66 (nos. 255–68).

136 la CHASTIEL MAGDALON. The Church of St. Mary Magdalen (or Mary of Bethany), in Tiberias; see Pringle 1998, 2:359 (no. 262).

137 NAZAREZ. On the pilgrimage sites in Nazareth, see Pringle 1998, 2:116–50 (nos. 169–73). The first place described here is the Cathedral Church of the Annunciation (no. 169).

140 une FONTEYNE DE SEINT GABRIEL. The Church of St. Gabriel in Nazareth; see Pringle 1998, 2:140–44 (no. 170).

146 ZAPHORY. On the Galilee city of Saffuriya, traditionally thought to be the birthplace of Saint Anne, and its church probably dedicated to her, see Pringle 1998, 2:209–18 (no. 196).

148 la CANE GALYLEE. On this site, see Pringle 1998, 2:162–64 (no. 181). The name “Architelin” does not appear in the Bible.

151 la EGLISE DE SEINT SOFFROUN. This unlocated church is discussed by Pringle 1998, 2:302 (no. 227). It seems to have existed in Shafa ‘Amur, also called Saffran or Sapharanum. A scribe may have confused the place-name with Saint Sophronia of Tarentum, a female recluse of the fourth century.

153 la EGLISE SEINT NYCHOLAS. There were many Holy Land churches dedicated to Saint Nicholas; see, for example, the one at the Monastery of St. Sabas, which contained the skulls of monks martyred in the seventh century (Pringle 1998, 2:264–66 [no. 217]).

155 KOKET. A region called Kuwaikat, Coquet, or Cochetum. See Pringle 1998, 2:32, 4:163.

156 It was John the Baptist who pronounced Jesus the Lamb of God (John 1:29, 36).

158 SUR. On the pilgrimage sites of Tyre, see Pringle 2009, 4:177–230 (nos. 454–79).

162 PUTEUS AQUARUM. The location of this well is uncertain; it may be named for Canticles 4:15, “puteus aquarum viventium” (well of living waters).

163 SERPHENT. On the pilgrimage site in Sarepta and its associations with the prophet Elijah, see Pringle 1998, 2:281–82 (no. 224).

165 SEETE. On the pilgrimage sites of Sidon, see Pringle 1998, 2:317–29 (nos. 236–45).
une EGLISE DE SEINT SALVEOUR. The location of this church in Sidon is unknown. See Pringle 1998, 2:321–22 (no. 238).

168 BARUTH. On the pilgrimage sites of Beirut, see Pringle 1993, 1:111–19 (nos. 42–55), 2:316 (no. 234).

169 un ymage de Nostre Seignour. The author refers to the bleeding icon of Beirut. In around the year 765 an icon of Christ began to give forth blood after being subjected, as the story says, to ritual humiliation by the Jews. In 932 the icon was taken to Constantinople and housed in the Hagia Sophia. Feasts in celebration of it were popular in France and Spain. This reference shows that the story was also disseminated in England. See Vincent, pp. 46–48; and Pfaff, pp. 116–26. This icon is also mentioned in The Land of the Saracens (art. 95), lines 45–46.

174 Sardayné. The Monastery Church of Sardenay in Saidnaiya, a pilgrimage destination because it was the site of a legendary icon of the Virgin Mary said to have been painted by Saint Luke. See Pringle 1998, 2:219–21 (no. 198). The site is more fully described in The Land of the Saracens (art. 95).


ART. 38, LES PELRINAGES COMMUNES QUE CRESTIENS FOUNT EN LA SEINTE TERRE: TEXTUAL NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: As: Aspin; Bö: Böddeker; Bos: Bossy; Br: Brook; BS: Bennett and Smithers; BZ: Brandl and Zippel; B13: Brown 1932; B14: Brown 1952; DB: Dunn and Byrnes; Deg: Degginger; Do: Dove 1969; Gr: Greene 1977; Ha: Halliwell; Hal: Hall; Hol: Holthausen; Hor1: Horstmann 1878; Hor2: Horstmann 1896; Hu: Hulme; JL: Jeffrey and Levy; Ju: Jubinal; Kel: Keller; Ken: Kennedy; Le: Lerer 2008; Mc: McKnight; Mi: Millett; MR: Michelant and Raynaud; Mo: Morris and Skeat; MS: MS Harley 2253; Mu: H. M. R. Murray; Pa: Patterson; Pr: Pringle 2009; Rei: Reichl 1973; Rev1: Revard 2004; Rev2: Revard 2005b; Ri1: Ritson 1877; Ri2: Ritson 1885; Ro: Robbins 1959; Sa: Saupe; Si: Silverstein; St: Stemmler 1970; Tr: Treharne; Tu: Turville-Petre 1989; Ul: Ulrich; W1: Wright 1839; W2: Wright 1841; W3: Wright 1842; W4: Wright 1844; WH: Wright and Halliwell.

7 Eufemie. So MS. MR: Eufenie.

8 nasquy. So MS. MR: nasquis.

12 um. So MS. MR: wn.

15 maveis. So MS. MR: maweis.

18 yleqe. So MS. MR: yleque.

20 de bel. So MR. MS: de de bel.

21 pus. So MS (us abbreviated). MR: puis.

24 mounde. So MS. MR: monde.

28 Delees. So MS. MR: deleis.

31 Pashe. So MS (e abbreviated). MR: Pask.

36 EGLISE. So MS. MR: esglise.

38 dedenz. So MS. MR: dedeinz.

42 par cele. So MS (ar abbreviated). MR: per cele. fitz, qe. So MS. MR: fitz qi.

67 liw. So MS. MR: lew.

d’espynes. So MS. MR: d’esspynes.

70 GALYGANT. So MS. MR: Galyqant.

71 le um. So MS. MR: um.

77 deis. So MS. MR: dois.

79 piere. So MS. MR: pere.

90 Jerusalem. So MS (abbreviated). MR: Iherusalem.

101 par. So MS. MR: pur.

102 Jerusalem. So MS (abbreviated). MR: Iherusalem.

103 Jerusalem. So MS (abbreviated). MR: Iherusalem.

106 une. So MS. MR: .j.

112 Jerusalem. So MS (abbreviated). MR: Iherusalem.

114 EVE. So MS. MR: Ewe.

115 lyw. So MS. MR: lywe.

118 Jerusalem. So MS (abbreviated). MR: Iherusalem. le lyw. So MS. MR: la lywe.

121 Jerusalem. So MS (abbreviated). MR: Iherusalem.

126 NAMES. So MR. MS: James.

129 Johan. So MS. MR: Jehan.

134 feseient. So MS. MR: fesoient.

136 MAGDALEYNE. So MS. MR: Magdalyne.

142 comaunderent. So MS. MR: commanderent.

148 la. So MR. MS: lar.

150 apartement. So MS (ar abbreviated). MR: apertement.

164 delyverer. So MS. MR: delyvrer.

165 EGLISE. So MS. MR: esglise.

168 BARUTH. So MS. MR: Baruch.

par. So MS (ar abbreviated). MR: per.

 
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Art. 38, Les pelrinages communes que crestiens fount en la Seinte Terre

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¶ Ces sunt les pelrinages communes que crestiens fount en la Seinte Terre:

De la vyle de ACRES a SEYNT ELYE, iiij liws de cele terre.

E de la CAVE SEYNT ELYE a la CARME, j liwe.

E de la Carme a SEINT JOHAN DE TYR, j liwe.

La yl y a une vile de seint johan le baptistre.

E a j liwe de ileque est le peroun sur qui Dieu se resposa, devant le CHASTIEL
PELRYN. E dedenz le chastel gist le cors seint Eufemie. E deprés est MERLE. La seint
André nasquy [John 1:44]. E deprés si est la CAVE la ou Nostre Dame se mussa ov
son fitz pur doute des Gyws.

E de ileqe a NOSTRE DAME DE MARREIS , iij liwes. La Nostre Dame se resposa.

E d’yleoque a CESARIE, j liwe.

E de yleqe a JAPHET, xij liwes. La est um peron qe um apele le PEROUN SEINT JAKE,
e une CHAPELE ou seint Abakuc soleint meindre.

E de yleqe a RAMES, la ou seint George fust martirizé, iiij liwes.

E d’ileqe a BETYNOBLE, maveis chymyn, iij liwes.

E ii liwes a EMAUS, la ou Jesu parla ov Cleophas, e le conust par fraccion de pain
[Luke 24:13–35].

E de yleqe a MONT JOIE, ij liwes, e la fust ensevely Samuel le prophete [1 Samuel
25:1].

| E d’yleque a la cité de JERUSALEM sunt ij liwes de bel chymyn. E le entre en la cité
est parmy la PORTE ou seint Estevene fust lapidé [Acts 7:58–59]. E pus vous vendrez
a SEINT SEPULCRE, e la frez vous vos oreysouns.


Le compas dedentz le cuer ne est mie loyns de le Sepulcre. E la est un peroun,
lequel Dieu dit qe fust la meene du mounde.

¶ MOUNT CALVARIE, ou Jesu fust crucefié, est al destre part de le cuer, e uncore est
le sang apparysant sur la roche q’est apelé GOLGATHA.

E deprés yl y a une tounbe de piere ou gisent les vij roys qe furent jadis de la cité,
e Godefroy de Boylloun. Delees le haut auter la est le piler a qui Jesu fust lyé quant
fust flaelé.

Deprés est la prisone e la cheyne dont Dieu fust encheyné en meisme la prisone. E
la furent vewes le jour de Pashe treis Maries [Mark 16:1]. E delees descendrez xl
degrees, e la trova seinte Eleyne la seinte Croyz.

E deprés, descendaunt xl degreez, la est la CHAPELE GRYFFOUNE. E la est une
ymage de Nostre Dame, qe parla a la Egipciene e la emprist la loy.

E de coste la Sepulcre, ne mie molt loyns, est le HOSPITAL SEINT JOHAN, e la deprés
si est la EGLISE SEINT CARYOUT, e delees si est la LATYNE. La les treis Maries
decyrerent lur chevels quant Dieu dust estre crucifié.


E de yleque, le tret de un arc, si est TEMPLUM DOMINI, e la dedenz sunt plusours
merveilles. E dedenz sunt xx hus e fortz portes. La est est la piere sur qui Dieu fust
mys le jour de la Chandelour devant le vyel Symeon [Luke 2:25–32].


La vist Jacob l’eschele par ount descendirent angles de ciel a terre [Genesis 28:12].
E par cele eschele vint un angle a Zacarie, qe ly anuncia qu’il avereit un fitz, qe
a|nunciereit la advenement Dieu [Luke 1:13]. E la, dedenz un arch, si est la verge
Aaron, e les vij chaundelabres de or, e les tables Moyses. E la pres Dieu pardona la
femme que fust pris en avoterie, come le Ewangelie tesmoigne [John 8:3–11].


E la pres est la porte ou seint Pere e seint Johan troverent le countret qe lur
demanda bien. E seint Pere ly dist: “Je n’ay or ne argent, mes ce qe j’ay, je vous
dorray; levez, fi alez seyn” [Acts 3:1–7]. E cele porte est apelé JERUSALEM, e la porte
del north est apelé PARAYS. La est la founteyne qe est apelé PARAYS, dont seint
Eglise list qe eawe vyne en issist.

La porte de west est apelé SPECIOUSE.

La porte de le est si est apellé PORTE ORRYENE, e par cele porte entra Dieu,
chevalchant le asne [John 12:14], e uncore sur la dure roche les pies de la asne sunt
apparissauntz.

E de la part del north est PROBATICA PISCINA [John 5:2], e la soleit un angle mover
le ewe, e celi qe primes y entroit soleit recoveryr saunté de chescune enfermeté.


E bien de yleque est le TEMPLE SALOMON. E plus amount est le bayn ou Nostre
Dame soleit bayner soun fitz. E la molt pres est le lyt ou Jesu soleit cocher. E delees
si est la TOUR DAVID. E devant la Tour si est une CHAPELE, e leynze est seint Johan
bouche orriene [Luke 1:64–66] e autres reliques plusours. De la est est une EGLYSE
ou seint Jame fust decolé [Acts 12:2]. E par la poez passer vers le MOUNT SYON. La
devya Nostre Dame, e les apostles la ensevelyrent | graunt piece de yleque en le val
de Josaphat.


En le Mount Syon fist Dieu sa cene e lava les pyés de ces apostles [John 13:2–20].


E la vint Jesu a eux e lur dit, “Pax vobis.” E la mostra ces playes a seint Thomas
[John 20:21–29].

E noun pas loins de yleque est le liw ou Jesu fust desolee e coroné d’espynes, e la
fust le paleis e la PRETORIE CAYPHAS [Matthew 26:3, 57; 27:29]. E la pres est la eglise
ou le seint Espirit descendi le jour de Pentecoste desuz les apostles [Acts 2:1–4].


E la pres est la CAVE GALYGANT ou seint Pere refusa conustre Jesu [Luke 22:54–62].


E delees est la NATORYE SYLOE, e la Jesu eslumina le um qe fust nee veogle [John
9:1–41], e la fust ensevely Ysaye le prophete.

E de coste est ACHELDEMAC [Matthew 27:8].

Entre le MOUNT OLYVETE e la cyté est le VAL DE JOSAPHAT, dont avant est dit. E
deprés le val yl y a un lyw qe um apele SEINT ANNE. La fust Nostre Dame primes
norye.

E la pres est JESSEMANY, la fust Jesu pris, e ces deis sunt uncore aparisauntz sur la
dure roche ou yl mist sa meyn. E un petit de yleque est une EGLISE DE SEINT
SALVEOUR — la ala Dieu tot soul pur orer a son piere devant sa Passioun [Matthew
26:36–46], e la sua Dieu sang. E desuz le Mount de Olyvete, dont eynz est dit, est
un lyw ou Dieu veauntz ces disciples mounta en ciel.


E la est un peroun sur qui Dieu mist soun un pié, qe uncore est apparisaunt e tous
jours serra.

E la pres est ensevely une seynte femme, par quy nul peccheour puet passer ne
aproscher | a sa tounbe.

La pres est le lu ou Dieu fist la Pater Nostre [Luke 11:2–4; Matthew 6:9–15].


E la pres est un lu ou Dieu se mostra le jour de Pasche a ces disciples [Luke
24:36–53].

E de ileque, a le amountance de une lywe Englesshe, est BETHPHAGE. De yleqe
maunda Dieu Phelip e Johan a Jerusalem pur le asne le jour de Palmes. A quel jour
le greindre honour qe Dieu avoit en terre les enfauntz Hebreus li fyrent [John
12:12–13].

E de yleqe avez, a BETHANYE ou Dieu resuscita Lazer [John 11:1–44], ij liwes, e pres
fust evesque de Marcille. E yleque en la mesoun Symond Dieu pardona la
Magdaleyne ces pecchiés [Luke 7:36–50].

E de ileque a la QUARANTEYNE, ou Dieu iuna xl jours e nuytz [Matthew 4:1–2], sunt
vij liwes.

E la pres si est JERICO.

E de yleque a le FLUM JORDAN sunt ij liwes a le lu ou seint Johan baptiza Dieu
[Matthew 3:13–15], e une colombe descendi sur Dieu en forme de seinte Espyryt
[Matthew 3:16; Luke 3:22; John 1:32]. E par cest chemyn ne poez vous passer avant.
Mes si vous alez de Jerusalem vers la cité de Bedlehem, vous irrez par SEINTE ELYE,
j liwe de la cyté de Jerusalem. E la delees si est le CHAMP FLORY, un tres bel lu. E la
recevera, a ce qe um dit, chescuny solum ce qu’il avera si deservi. E la deprés gist
SEINT RACHEL.


E de yleque a une liwe est BEDLEHEM. E la vindrent les Trois Rois fere lur present
— Jaspar, Melchyor, e Baltazar — e chescun de eux porta or, mirre, e encenz
[Matthew 2:1–12]. Delees le cuer est un PUT ou la esteyle chey qe amena les Treis
Rois. De l’autre part sunt les Innocens que furent ocis [Matthew 2:16–18].


E a j liwe de yleoqe apparust le aungel as berchers, | anunciant la nativeté Dieu
[Luke 2:8–14].

E de Jerusalem a SEINT HABRAHAM sunt vij liwes, e la fust Adam fourmé.


E la deprés est SPELUNCA DUPPLICI [Genesis 23:9–20]. E la fount enclos de mur en
char e en os le treis patriarkes Habraham, Ysaac, e Jacob. E la est la SEPULTURE EVE
e les treis femmes des patriarkes, en un lyw.

E de coste la vile est une CAVE ou Adam longement habita. E autres merveilles sunt
yleque.

E de Jerusalem est j liwe a le lyw ou crust le arbre dount la seinte Croiz fut fet.


E de ileque a ij liwes est SEINT JOHAN DE BOYS, e la nasqui seint Johan le Baptist
[Luke 1:57]. E la sunt autres pelrynages plusours.


E de Jerusalem a NAPLES sunt xij liwes. La est PUYTZ JACOB, ou Dieu parla ov la
Samaritane [John 4:5–26].

E de ileque a BASQUE, la ou seint Johan le Baptist fust decolee [Matthew 14:8–11],
sunt ij liwes.

E de yleque a MOUNT HERMON sunt ix liwes.

E de south est la cyté NAMES, e a la porte de la vile Jesu resuscita le fitz de une
vedue [Luke 7:11–15].

E de yleque a MOUNT TABOUR sunt ij liwes. E la est une EGLISE ou Dieu se mostra
a Piere e a Johan qe il fust Dieu e homme, e tot fust vestu de blanc, e ceux qe la
furent cheyerent palmes a terre [Matthew 17:1–8; Mark 9:2–8; Luke 9:28–36].


E de yleque a BEBIE sunt v lyws. E de la si est la MER DE GALYLEE e la entour, en
diverse lyws, Dieu fist meinte myracle. E la pres Dieu pust ov ij pesshouns e v payns
vm de homes [Matthew 14:13–21; Mark 6:32–44; Luke 9:10–17; John 6:1–15]. E
Piere e André la pres lesserent lur batyl e siwerent Dieu e autres myracles feseient
la plusours [Matthew 4:18–20; Mark 1:16–18].


E la de coste est la CHASTIEL MAGDALON la fust la Magdaleyne nee.

E de ileque poez aler a NAZAREZ, la ou Nostre Dame nasqui, e al lu ou le
Annunciacioun fust fet a Nostre Dame qe ele concevereit le Salveour de ciel e de
terre [Luke 1:26–31].

La est une FONTEYNE DE SEINT GABRIEL. La soleit Nostre Dame e soun fitz Jesu
quere eawe.

E la pres est le saut la ou le Gyws comaunderent Jesu sayler [Luke 4:29] | [quire 8]
pur ce que il lur aprist la parole Dieu, e ileque dist Dieu qe nully serra tenu pur
prophete in soun pays demeyne [Luke 4:24; compare Matthew 13:57; Mark 6:4; John
4:44].

E de Nazarez a ZAPHORY est j liwe. E ileque nasqui seint Anne, la mere Marie, la
mere Dieu.

E de yleqe est j liwe a la CANE GALYLEE, la ou Nostre Seignour fist vyn de eawe en
la mesoun Architelin [John 2:1–11], e ce fust un des primere myracles que Dieu
apartement fist.

E de yleque a la EGLISE DE SEINT SOFFROUN sunt ij liwes, e la furent seint Johan te
seint Jame nee.

E de yleque sunt iij liwes a la EGLISE SEINT NYCHOLAS. E la gist meynt seint cors, e
pardoun a demesure graunt est graunté a tous que la vendront.


De Acres a KOKET est j liwes.

La devynt Dieu aignel e prist fourme de aignel [John 1:29, 36; compare 1 Corinthians
5:7].

E de yleque a SUR sunt ix liwes.

La precha Jesus la parole Dieu. E une femme ly dit, “Benet seit le ventre qe vous
porta e les mameles qe vous aletterent.” E Jesu la respondy, “Benet soient que oyent
la parole Dieu e que la garde bien” [Luke 11:27–28].

E de ileque a PUTEUS AQUARUM est j liwe [compare Canticles 4:15].

E de Sur a SERPHENT sunt iiij liwes. La fust seint Elye maundé a une povre femme
pur delyverer ly e sa meisné de poverté [1 Kings 17:8–24; 2 Kings 4:1–7].


E de yleque a SEETE sunt iij liwes. La est une EGLISE DE SEINT SALVEOUR, e la sunt     
relykes plusours. La delivera la femme Cananee Dieu par sa pieté [Matthew
15:21–28; compare Mark 7:24–30], e autres merveilles sunt la plusours.


E de yleque a BARUTH par terre ou par eawe sunt ix liwes. La fust en temps auncien
un ymage de Nostre Seignour, e un Giwz le fery de une launce e le coste, e
meyntenaunt en issi sang e eawe. | E pur ceste myracle plusours Gyws se
convertyrent a Dieu, e de cet sang est en plusours terres — a Rome, Fraunc,
Engletere, e en autres liws devers — de qy Dieu fet meynte myracle.

Plusours autre pelrynages sunt en cele terre, que je ne pus, ne ne say, trestouz
nomer. De Sardayné, de la Mont Synay, e autres pelrynages qe sunt en celes
countrés, ne ay je parlé rien quar les passages sunt estroytes e les veyes longes.
¶ These are the usual pilgrimages that Christians make in the Holy Land:

From the city of ACRE to [the Monastery of] ST. ELIJAH, four leagues of that land

And from ST. ELIJAH’S CAVE to CARMEL, one league.

And from Carmel to [the Church of] ST. JOHN OF TYRE, one league.

There is a dwelling there of Saint John the Baptist.

And at one league from there is the rock on which God rested, in front of the
PILGRIMS’ CASTLE. And inside the castle lies the body of Saint Euphemia. And close
by is TANTURA. There was Saint Andrew born [John 1:44]. And close by is the CAVE
where Our Lady hid herself with her son for fear of the Jews.

And from there to OUR LADY OF THE MARSHES, three leagues. There Our Lady rested.

And from there to CAESAREA, one league.

And from there to JAFFA, twelve leagues. There is a rock there that is called ST.
JAMES’S ROCK, and a CHAPEL where Saint Habakkuk was wont to dwell.

And from there to RAMATH, where Saint George was martyred, four leagues.

And from there to BAIT NUBA, by a bad road, three leagues.

And two leagues to EMMAUS, where Jesus spoke with Cleophas, and he knew him by
the breaking of bread [Luke 24:13–35].

And from there to MOUNT JOY, two leagues, and there the prophet Samuel was
buried [1 Samuel 25:1].

| And from there to the city of JERUSALEM are two leagues of good road. And the
way into the city is through the GATE where Saint Stephen was stoned [Acts
7:58–59]. And then you will come to the HOLY SEPULCHER, and there you will say
your prayers.

The compass inside the choir is not far at all from the Sepulcher. And there is a
rock, which God said was the center of the world.

¶ MOUNT CALVARY, where Jesus was crucified, is to the right side of the choir, and
the blood is still visible on the rock that is called GOLGOTHA.

And close by there is a stone tomb where lie the seven kings who were formerly of
that city, and Godfrey of Bouillon. Alongside the high altar there is the pillar to
which Jesus was tied when he was flagellated.

Close by is the prison and the chain with which God was enchained in the same
prison. And there were seen on Easter the three Marys [Mark 16:1]. And from there
you will descend forty degrees, and there Saint Helena found the Holy Cross.

And close by, descending forty degrees, there is the GRIFFIN CHAPEL. And there is
an image of Our Lady, who spoke to the Egyptian woman and taught her the faith.

And alongside the Sepulcher, not at all far, is the HOSPITAL OF ST. JOHN [THE
BAPTIST], and close by it is also the CHURCH OF ST. CHARITON, and also nearby is
the [ABBEY CHURCH OF ST. MARY] LATIN. There the three Marys tore their hair
when God had to be crucified.

And from there, the flight of an arrow, is the TEMPLUM DOMINI, and inside it are
many wonders. And inside are twenty doors and strong gates. East of there is the
stone on which God was placed on Candlemas Day before aged Simeon [Luke
2:25–32].

There saw Jacob the ladder by which angels descended from heaven to earth
[Genesis 28:12]. And by this ladder an angel came to Zachary, who announced to
him that he would have a son, who would an|nounce the coming of God [Luke
1:13]. And there, inside an arch, are also Aaron’s staff, and the seven candlesticks
of gold, and the tablets of Moses. And near there God forgave the woman who was
taken in adultery, as the Evangelist attests [John 8:3–11].

And near there is the door where Saint Peter and Saint John found the adversary
who asked them for money. And Saint Peter said to him: “I do not have gold or
silver, but what I have, I will give you; rise, and go in health” [Acts 3:1–7]. And this
gate is called JERUSALEM, and the north gate is called PARADISE. There is the spring
that is called PARADISE, from which Holy Church teaches that water issued as wine.

The west gate is called BEAUTIFUL.

The east gate there is called the GOLDEN GATE, and through this gate God entered,
riding on the ass [John 12:14], and the tracks of the ass are still visible on the hard
rock.

On the north side is the SHEEP POOL [John 5:2], and there an angel was accustomed
to move the water, and the one who entered there first was bound to recover health
from every illness.

And a ways from there is SOLOMON’S TEMPLE. And higher up is the bath where Our
Lady used to bathe her son. And very near there is the bed where Jesus used to
sleep. And in that vicinity there is also DAVID’S TOWER. And in front of the tower is
a CHAPEL, and therein is Saint John [the Baptist]’s golden mouth [Luke 1:64–66]
and many other relics. East of there is a CHURCH where Saint James was beheaded
[Acts 12:2]. And through there you can pass toward MOUNT ZION. Our Lady died
there, and the apostles buried her | a good ways from there in the Valley of
Jehoshaphat.

On Mount Zion God made his supper and washed the feet of his apostles [John
13:2–20].

And there Jesus came to them and said to them, “Peace be with you.” And there he
showed his wounds to Saint Thomas [John 20:21–29].

And not far from there is the place where Jesus was defiled and crowned with
thorns, and there were the palace and PRETORIUM OF CAIAPHAS [Matthew 26:3, 57;
27:29]. And near there is the church where the Holy Spirit descended on the day
of Pentecost upon the apostles [Acts 2:1–4].

And near there is the GALLICANT CAVE where Saint Peter denied knowing Jesus
[Luke 22:54–62].

And near from there is the POOL OF SILOAM, and there Jesus gave sight to the man
who was born blind [John 9:1–41], and there was buried the prophet Isaiah.

And alongside is the FIELD OF BLOOD [Matthew 27:8].

Between the MOUNT OF OLIVES and the city is the VALLEY OF JEHOSHAPHAT, which
is spoken of above. And near the valley is a place that people call ST. ANNE. There
was Our Lady first nurtured.

And near there is GETHSEMANE, where Jesus was taken, and [the imprint of] his
fingers is still visible on the hard rock where he put his hand. And a little way from
there is the CHURCH OF THE HOLY SAVIOR — God went there all alone to pray to his
father before his Passion [Matthew 26:36–46], and there God sweat blood. And
below the Mount of Olives, which is spoken of already, is a place where God in the
sight of his disciples rose into the sky.

And there is a rock on which God placed his own foot, which still is visible and
always will be.

And near there is buried a holy woman, by whom no sinner can pass nor approach
| her tomb.

Near there is the place where God performed the Paternoster [Luke 2–4; Matthew
6:9–15].

And near there is a place where God showed himself on Easter to his disciples [Luke
24:36–53].

And from there, at the distance of an English league, is BETHPHAGE. From there
God sent Philip and John to Jerusalem for the ass on Palm Sunday. On that day the
greatest honor that God had on earth was accorded him by the Hebrew children
[John 12:12–13].

And from there you have, to BETHANY where God revived Lazarus [John 11:1–44], two
leagues, and nearby was the bishop of Marseilles [i.e., Lazarus’s tomb]. And there in
Simon’s house God pardoned the Magdalen for her sins [Luke 7:36–50].

And from there to the [PRIORY OF] QUARANTENA, where God fasted for forty days
and nights [Matthew 4:1–2], are seven leagues.

And near there also is JERICHO.

And from there to the RIVER JORDAN are two leagues to the place where Saint John
baptized God [Matthew 3:13–15], and a dove descended on God in the form of the
Holy Spirit [Matthew 3:16; Luke 3:22; John 1:32]. And on this road you cannot go
any further. But if you go from Jerusalem toward the city of Bethlehem, you will go
by [the MONASTERY OF] ST. ELIJAH, one league from the city of Jerusalem. And in
that vicinity also is the FIELD OF FLOWERS, a very beautiful place. And there one will
receive, so it is said, each according to what he deserves. And near there lies [the
TOMB OF] ST. RACHEL.

And from there at one league is BETHLEHEM. And there came the Three Kings to
make their gifts — Jaspar, Melchior, and Balthazar — and each among them
carried gold, myrrh, and frankincense [Matthew 2:1–12]. In the vicinity of the choir
is a WELL where the starlight fell that led the Three Kings. On the other side are the
Innocents who were killed [Matthew 2:16–18].

And at one league from there the angel appeared to the shepherds, | announcing
the nativity of God [Luke 2:8–14].

And from Jerusalem to [the CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF] ST. ABRAHAM are seven
leagues, and Adam was fashioned there.

And there nearby is the DOUBLE CAVE [Genesis 23:9–20]. And there are enclosed in
a wall the flesh and bones of the three patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. And
there is EVE’S SEPULCHER along with the three wives of the patriarchs, in one place.

And next to the city is a CAVE where Adam lived for a long time. And other wonders
are there.

And from Jerusalem it is one league to the place where grew the tree from which
the Holy Cross was made.

And from there at two leagues is [the CHURCH OF] ST. JOHN OF THE WOODS, and
there was born Saint John the Baptist [Luke 1:57]. And there are many other
pilgrimages there.

And from Jerusalem to NABLUS are twelve leagues. There is JACOB’S WELL, where
God spoke to the Samaritan [John 4:5–26].

And from there to SEBASTE, where Saint John the Baptist was beheaded [Matthew
14:8–11], are two leagues.

And from there to MOUNT HERMON are nine leagues.

And below is the city of NAMES, and at the gate of the city Jesus revived the son of
a widow [Luke 7:11–15].

And from there to MOUNT TABOR are two leagues. And a CHURCH is there where
God showed himself to Peter and John that he was God and man, and was all
clothed in white, and those who were there fell swooning to the ground [Matthew
17:1–8; Mark 9:2–8; Luke 9:28–36].

And from there to TIBERIAS are five leagues. And also there is the SEA OF GALILEE
about which, in various places, God performed many miracles. And near there God
with two fish and five loaves fed five thousand people [Matthew 14:13–21; Mark
6:32–44; Luke 9:10–17; John 6:1–15]. And Peter and Andrew near there left their
boat and followed God and performed there many other miracles [Matthew 4:18–20;
Mark 1:16–18].

And alongside there is the MAGDALEN CASTLE where the Magdalen was born.

And from there you can go to NAZARETH, where Our Lady was born, and to the
place where the Annunciation was made to Our Lady that she would conceive the
Savior of heaven and earth [Luke 1:26–31].

There is a WELL OF ST. GABRIEL. There Our Lady and her son Jesus were
accustomed to seek water.

And near there is the leap where the Jews ordered Jesus to leap forth [Luke 4:29]
| [quire 8] since he taught them the word of God, and there God said that none
would be held as a prophet in his own land [Luke 4:24; compare Matthew 13:57;
Mark 6:4; John 4:44].

And from Nazareth to SAFFURIYA is one league. And there was born Saint Anne, the
mother of Mary, the mother of God.

And from there is one league to CANA GALILEE, where Our Lord made wine from
water in Architelin’s house [John 2:1–11], and this was one of the first miracles that
God performed openly.

And from there to the CHURCH OF ST. SAFFRAN are two leagues. And there were
born Saint John and Saint James.

And from there are three leagues to the CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS. And many holy
bodies lie there, and pardon of extraordinary magnitude is granted to all those who
come there.

From Acre to COQUET is one league.

There God became a lamb and took the form of a lamb [John 1:29, 36; compare 1
Corinthians 5:7].

And from there to TYRE are nine leagues.

Jesus preached the word of God there. And a woman said to him, “Blessed be the
womb that carried you and the breasts that nursed you.” And Jesus answered her,
“Blessed are those who hear the word of God and keep it well” [Luke 11:27–28].

And from there to the WELL OF WATERS is one league [compare Canticles 4:15].

And from Tyre to SAREPTA are four leagues. There was Saint Elijah sent to a poor
woman to deliver her and her household from poverty [1 Kings 17:8–24; 2 Kings
4:1–7].

And from there to SIDON are three leagues. There is the CHURCH OF THE HOLY
SAVIOR, and there are many relics. There God delivered the Canaanite woman for
her piety [Matthew 15:21–28; compare Mark 7:24–30], and many other wonders are
there.

And from there to BEIRUT by land or by sea are nine leagues. There was in ancient
times an image of Our Lord, and a Jew struck it with a lance in the side, and now
blood and water issue from it. | And on account of this miracle many Jews converted
to God, and some of this blood is in many lands — in Rome, France, England, and
in various other places — by which God performs many miracles.

Many other pilgrimages exist in this land, of which I’m either unable, or know not
how, to name them all. Of Sardenay, Mount Sinai, and other pilgrimages in these
regions, I have said nothing because the paths are narrow and the ways long.


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