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Item 33, Stimulus Consciencie Minor


1 What you have done to God, your soul, and your neighbor

2 What the grace of God, virtue, and good works do

3 Lines 737a–d: Note that Thomas Aquinas says that mercy is visible and justice hidden in the salvation of the impious, and justice is visible and mercy hidden in the damnation and punishment of children dying unbaptized.

4 Lines 744a–h: Each is hidden, as in the trials of the just and the innocent, just as was the case in the trials of Job and the Innocents and in the infirmity of little children. Each is visible, as in the reward of the just and the condemnation of the wicked. For God rewards the just beyond their merits, but punishes the evil short of their deserts, which is characteristic of [his] mercy, which is in heaven and earth and hell and everywhere, etc.

5 Lines 760a–c: But if God judged just and unjust subjects according to their merits, good for good and bad for bad, then that would be the justice, not the mercy, of God.

6 Lines 784a–b: Here ends the Prick of Conscience Minor. / Now I have completed the sermon (text); give me what I deserve.


Abbreviations: Ad3: London, British Library MS Additional 33995; C: Cambridge, University Library MS Ff.2.38; MED: Middle English Diction­ary; NIMEV: A New Index of Middle English Verse; PC: The Pricke of Conscience; PL: Patrologia Latina; Whiting: Whiting, Proverbs, Sentences and Proverbial Phrases.

Title No title or incipit. The title given here is taken from the expli­cit, where the text is called the Stimulus Consciencie Minoris. Wellesley College MS 8 preserves only a fragment of the text, but it also contains The Prick of Con­science, and that text appears with the incipit “Here begynnes the langer Pryck of consci­ence,” thus corroborating the title given in Ashmole 61. In C and Cam­bridge, Magdalene College MS Pepys 1584, the text is called “The Markys of Meditacion.”

8 we schall yeld the goste. C reads “we the dethe shall taaste,” a reading supported by the other manuscripts.

10 in this exile. A common trope in contemptus mundi literature, the idea of earthly existence as an exile from the joys of heaven dates back to some of the earliest Christian writers, especially Augustine, and to neo-Platonism. See line 378.

25 Many deyes. All other manuscripts read “Many lyfs” (or variants thereof). The sense of the original line is that many live heedlessly or without self-knowledge. Rate’s error anticipates the next line’s concern with the death of those unprepared for judgment.

28 That can wele lyve and is redy. Ad3 reads “That can lif wele and es ay slyeghe” (i.e., “is always clever”). C reads “That here in erthe leveth ryghtwyselye” (“right­eously”).

42 To lyve wele and ryghtfully. Other manuscripts read “To lyve wele and dye ryghtfully.”

45 Weynd out every dey of thi lyve here. This suggests that the text was meant to be used as a prompt for daily meditation; C and other manuscripts read “Wende owt eche day of thy selfe here,” emphasizing this meditative goal.

84 Whyll thou here lyves, the fendys to felle. The strained syntax is Rate’s; C and other manuscripts read “Whyles thou levest where fendys ben felle” (“numerous” or “keen”).

97 For as fyre is hotter everywher. Compare lines 97–100 to PC lines 6615–20; there, in lines 6625–26, the text goes on to quote a Latin couplet as the source of these lines: “Quam focus est mundi picto fervencior igne, / Tam focus inferni superat fervenicia mundi.”

101 Yite is ther sych colde ever more. Compare lines 101–04 to PC, lines 6637–44.

105 Ther is ever smoke and stynke imonge. Compare PC line 6748: “And that sal be menged with smoke and stynk.”

106 And derknes more than ever was here. Compare PC line 6796: “The sext [pain] es over mykel myrknes.”

107 Ther is hungour, thyrst, and throng. Compare PC line 6563: “The ferthe [pain] es hunger sharpe and strang.”

108 And ugly fendys of grete powere. Compare PC lines 6841–94.

113 Ther is no hope of helpe ne rede. Compare PC lines 7233–70.

117 withouten deth. All other manuscripts read “withouten dede” and thus preserve the rhyme. Compare PC lines 7285–88: “Bot thair lyf salle seme mare ded than lyfe; / Thair lyfe in mydward the ded salle stand, / For thai salle lyfe ever-mare deghand, / And deghe ever-mare lyfand with-alle.”

123 Of the syght of blys that lastys aye. As line 130 eventually makes clear, the damned were believed to have sight of the blessed in heaven, though the syntax in this stanza obscures the point here. The belief that the damned could see heaven and that this furthered their torment was based on the story of the rich man and the poor man (Dives and Pauper) in Luke 16. In line 121, all other manuscripts read “Over all other peynes,” making it clear that this punishment is the worst of all. Compare PC lines 7298–7301.

133 The lest peyn that to them is wrought. Compare PC lines 7476–77: “And the lest payne thare es mare to se / Than alle the payns of this world may be.”

137 Therfor, the lest peyn in helle. Compare lines 141–44 to PC lines 7482–85: “For alle the sorow of this world, ilka dele, / War noght bot als solace and joy to fele, / Als to regard of the lest payne / That es in helle; this es certayne.”

163 That all the tourmentys scherpe and felle. Compare PC lines 2722–24: “Wharfore the payne that the saule thar hentes / Es mare bitter than all turmentes / That alle marters in erthe tholed.”

168 Bot as a bath of water clere. Compare PC lines 7480–81: “Als to the lest payne thare moght noght be tald, / Bot as a bathe of water, nouther hate ne cald.” In The Prick of Conscience, this analogy describes the pains of hell, not purgatory.

169 That fyre is hotter and more myghty. Compare lines 169–72 to PC lines 3094–99.

176 Als is the gold in fyre meltand. Compare PC lines 2720–21: “For swa pured and fyned never gold was / Als thai sal be, ar thai thethen pas.”

181 unsought. The MED definition for “unsought” (ppl.) records several instances of the phrase “sorrow unsought,” and suggests that the word may be influenced by “unsaught” (“violent, fierce, hostile”). Ad3 also reads “unsought,” but C reads “unthought.”

184 And can not thinke were are they. This is probably a figurative description of the pain felt in purgatory and not a claim that those in purgatory did not know whe­ther or not they were damned. Bonaventure and Aquinas both affirmed that souls in purgatory remained secure in their knowledge that they would even­tually escape torment; for a summary of this debate see The Catholic Encyclo­pedia, “Purgatory — Duration and Nature,” p. 578.

195 the lest peyn is more to dre. Compare lines 195–96 to PC lines 2732–35.

204 More joy than erthly man can neven. This text’s description of the joys of heaven very closely follows PC lines 7783–88. In The Prick of Conscience, the text takes its cue from 1 Corinthians 2:9, “But as it is written, that eye hath not seen, nor ear heard: neither hath it entered into the heart of man, what things God hath prepared for them that love him.”

217 syker and endles beying. Rate has repeated “syker” on the basis of the previous stanza; Ad3 and C read “sely” (“happy or blessed”).

229–32 Rate, or possibly his copy-text, has transposed lines 231–32 and lines 229–30, without any significant alteration of the sense of the stanza.

256–64 Rate has transposed the two halves of this stanza.

323 The werldys joys are bot fantyse. Rate has revised this line and the following, some­what altering the sense of the extended conditional statement in lines 321–26. C’s reading follows Ad3 and the other manuscripts:
If thou beholde on thys wyse
The worlde when thou these joyes haste sene,
That false ys and full of fayntyse
And ever dysceyvable to men hathe bene,
That syght schall stere thee to dyspyse
And forsake the worlde all bydene.
347 Some tyme was that thou were nought. Compare PC line 442: “Some tyme was, when a man was noght.”

349 were thou conseyved and wrought. Compare PC lines 452–55, where the lines appear as a translation of Psalm 50:7, “For behold I was conceived in iniquities; and in sins did my mother conceive me.”

358 Naked and pore withouten myght. Compare PC lines 518–22: “Thus a man es, at the first comyng, / Naked and bringes with him nathyng / . . . That es bot a blody skyn.” There the lines interpret Job 1:21, “Naked came I out of my mother's womb, and naked shall return thither.”

362 Thou arte bot stynkand slyme withine. Compare PC lines 564–66: “. . . man here es nathyng elles / Bot a foule slyme, wlatsome [loathsome] til men, / And a sekful of stynkand fen [dirt].” There the lines translate a quotation from the Medita­tiones piissime attributed to Bernard of Clairvaux, “Homo nihil aliud est, quam sperma fetidum, saccus stercorum et esca vermium” (PL 184.490).

365 Fowler fylth may here non be. Compare lines 365–76 to PC lines 614–28. Once again, the ultimate source is the Meditationes piissime attributed to Bernard of Clairvaux (PL 184.489).

378 Thou arte here in a exile. Compare lines 378–82 to PC lines 1164–69.

383 Thow arte in a wyldernes weyst. Compare PC lines 1225–28: “Yhit may the world here, that wyde es, / Be likend to a wildernes / That ful of wild bestes es sene, / Als lyons, libardes and wolwes kene.” In Canto 1 of Dante’s Inferno, the narrator enters a wilderness and is beset by a lion, a leopard, and a wolf, often taken as symbols of pride, lust, and greed. This trio of beasts derives in part from Jeremiah 5:6, “Wherefore a lion out of the wood hath slain them, a wolf in the evening hath spoiled them, a leopard watcheth for their cities: every one that shall go out thence shall be taken, because their transgressions are multiplied, their rebellions are strengthened.”

385 Thou arte as in a forest duelland. Compare PC lines 1235–37: “The world alswa may lykend be / Til a forest, in a wilde cuntré / That es ful of thefs and outlawes.”

387 Thou arte as in a se flowand. Compare PC lines 1212–20.

393 Thou arte as in a feld of batayle. Compare PC lines 1244–48: “The world may yhit, as yhe sal here, / Be likend . . . / To a feld ful of batailles / Of enemys that ilk day men assayles.”

395 thes thre. For these three traditional “enemies of man,” see the note to line 77 of Maidstone’s Seven Penitential Psalms (item 32).

407 Yit schall thou have no sertenté. The certainty of death but the uncertainty of its timing is one of the most frequently cited proverbial sentiments in medieval English literature; see Whiting D96, and Ecclesiastes 9:12. See also How the Wise Man Taught His Son, line 87 (item 3).

438 ordeynyd ryght. All other manuscripts read “so[o]ne.” In a characteristic example of rolling revision, Rate has altered line 440 so that his error has a rhyme in “thinkys thou full lyght”; most other manuscripts, including Ad3 and C, read “thynkes over fone,” per­haps a shared error for “sone.”

449 Fyve thousand. The traditional number of Christ’s wounds was five, occasionally enlarged to seven (see The Wounds and the Sins, item 38), but various legendary tales involve the revelation of 5,475 wounds to a holy anchoress or other devotee, who then is told to venerate them by saying fifteen Pater Nosters or Aves every day of the year (thus producing the number 5,475). For examples of this legend, see Herbert, Catalogue of Romances, 3:552. The number crops up elsewhere; cf. line 93 of “Meditation on the Passion” (NIMEV 2613), in Bowers, Three Middle English Religious Poems, pp. 33–43. John Hirsh notes a Middle English poem followed by a prose commentary that promises 5,475 years of pardon for the “memoryall of all Hys wondys gret and small” (“Fifteenth-Century Commentary on ‘Ihesu for Thy Holy Name’”). Other texts feature a similar, but variable, number; see line 245 of Horstmann’s “St. Ber­nard’s Lamentation on Christ’s Passion” (in Minor Poems, p. 308).

471 For what thou doyst withouten synne. A standard doctrine of St. Paul; see Romans 13.1 and Philippians 2.13.

475 Foules and fyssches small and grete. A definitive source for these lines has not been identified, but compare chapter 6, lines 35–55, of St. Edmund of Abingdon’s Mirour de Seinte Eglyse, also known as the Speculum ecclesie, an influential set of instructions for mystical contemplation (Wilshere, Mirour, pp. 18–21).

493 Bot if thou to God be unbuxome. All other manuscripts read “unbuxom,” but Rate mistakenly copied “buxsome,” and then attempted to cover up his mistake by altering the next line to “synne fro the take.” But since the phrase “Bot if” cannot mean “un­less,” the lines have been emended to conform with the readings of the other manuscripts.

505 mene. “To remember, to mull over.” See MED, “menen” (v. 1), 4a and 4c.

520 serve swythe. This is Rate’s misreading; all other manuscripts read “service kithe” (“perform”).

529 know and se. “Know and perceive.” The phrase emphasizes the understanding of behavior as well as the awareness of what is happening. Cf. line 537.

572 fro all hys Godhed. Compare the reading in Ad3, “fra alle thee shede.” Sheden means “to divide, to separate”; Rate may not have recognized the word “shede” as a participle.

615–16 Though the syntax of these lines seems slightly strained, Ad3 and C share this reading.

618 And fro the foull desyring of pride. Rate has revised the reading shared by Ad3 and C: “Of the fyre of foule yernyng pryvé” (“secret longing”). He then alters line 620 to create a rhyme; for line 620, Ad3 reads “That thou noght in tham drunkened be,” while C reads “Of the synne of lecherye to flee.”

619 water of lust and lyking. Here water suggests the “spring” or “well” of lechery and delight (desire).

622 And fro the cley of lechery for to se. Rate’s reading should be compared to the reading of Ad3, “Of the day of litchery to fle.” Other manuscripts vary considerably in this line. Rate’s metaphorical (“clay of lechery”) reading may have been inspired by the somewhat unusual phrase in line 619 of “the water of lust and lyking.” See pre­ceding note.

721 For thei wold nought unto the pore. The first four lines of the stanza comprise a single dependent clause: “Because they would not show mercy to the poor . . . they shall be damned.”

732 Opyn when the other is privey. The balance between God’s mercy and justice was the subject of much theological discussion and literary allegorization; see, for example, The King and His Four Daughters (item 26).

736a Thomas Alquinus dicit. In fact, this quotation comes from Hugh Ripelin of Stras­bourg’s Compendium theologice veritatis, a work that was erroneously attributed to Aquinas, Albertus Magnus, and Bonaventure. The original text from book 1, chapter 33, of the Compendium reads as follows:
Nota quod in omnibus operibus Dei invenitur justitia et misericordia: sed justitia quandoque est occulta, et misericordia manifesta, ut in justificatione impii, et in primo adventu Christi; aliquando est e contrario, scilicet aperta justitia, et occulta misericordia, ut in punitione parvulorum sine baptismo decedentium, et in secundo adventu Christi; aliquando utrumque est occultum, ut in tribulatione justorum et innocentum, sicut fuit in infirmitatibus parvulorum; aliquando utrumque est apertum, ut in remuneratione justorum, et damnatione reproborum: quia illos remnerat supra meritum, et istos punit citra condignum, quod est misericordiae: sed utrisque retribuit secundum merita, hoc est, bonis bona, et mailis mala, quod est justitiae. (S. Bonaventurae Opera omnia, 8:86–87)
In C and Cambridge, Magdalene College MS Pepys 1584, the quotation appears before the previous stanza. In Ad3 and Wellesley College Library MS 8, the Latin appears as in Ashmole 61.

760 beth ay myghty. In London, British Library MS Royal 17.B.17, this line is followed by another couplet present in no other manuscript: “If mon serve God and paynes drede / And to endeles blis hym dight redy.”

766 Of alkyns werke fully sought. Rate has made an obvious error, repeating the end of line 764. Compare the reading in Ad3: “Of alle werkys of worde, of wille and thought.”

769 Now have ye herd. London, British Library MS Royal 17.B.17 ends not with these two stanzas, but with two stanzas not recorded in the other seven manuscripts:
And therfore chese thee, or thou wende,
Whether thou wolt to payne or blis.
But if thou purvyaunce byfore send
Til that place that redy is,
With gode dedes thi lyve amende,
Ellis comes thou never ther al joye is,
But ever to duelle with tho fende,
Departyd fro God and fro alle His.

For His love on Rode con blede
And boght monnus soule unto blis,
On this boke takes gode hede
And reulis yow after rightwisnys.
He that loves God and Hym wol drede,
Mon and wommon, more and lesse,
To that blis He wil you lede
Ther joy and blisse ever es.
772 Both dey and nyght, on this maner. Rate has reversed lines 772 and 774, with little change to the sense of the stanza. The exact sense of this injunction to meditate on the text day and night and to “Hold it in mynde whyll ye are here” (line 774) remains subject to interpretation. The text may have been intended as a prompt for meditative contemplation of some of its images (of hell, the Passion, etc.), or simply as a set of principles to be kept in mind at all times.

779 For hym specyally that ye wyll praye. Though this request that the audience pray for the author/translator is conventional, it may suggest that the author’s name was once known.

784a EXPLICIT STIMULUS CONCIENCIE MINOR. The bad Latin of the manuscript reading, MINORIS, has been emended. Rate has drawn horizontal stems of flowers between the lines of this colophon. The second line seems to be a demand for payment, but may simply have been taken from the copy-text. See the section on the scribe in the general introduction. Rate has added one of his usual drawings of a smiling fish after the end of this colophon and before the title of the following text.


Abbreviations: see Explanatory Notes

8 when we. MS: whe we.

26 dare. MS: ther.

35 of. MS: gof (g is scratched out).

46 Throught thought, and. MS: Throught and.

96 not it abate. MS: not whate.

98 Than is. MS: Thas is.

100 MS: Never is written in the left margin before the line, but does not scan.

106 MS: ther is hunger appear as a catchphrase in the margin after this line.

137–39 MS: Generai is written vertically in the margin by the sixteenth-century hand.

141 were we duelle. MS: were duelle.

150 not. MS: no.

152a MS: this whole line is written in the left margin.

154 where thou. MS: with thou.

163 scherpe. MS: scheper.

167 peyne. MS: peynes.

190 that may thei. MS: thei may thei.

200a MS: this whole line is written in the top margin.

222 lyking. MS: kyking.

278 ryght knew. MS: right joy knew .

286 corrupcyon. MS: corrupcon.

288a MS: this whole line is written in the left margin.

292 merkyd. MS: mekyd.

295 of the plenty. MS: of plenty.

297 All. MS: Off.

304 withouten. MS: withoten.

329 When thou hast sen. MS: When hast sen.

335 as I thee telle. MS: as I te thee telle (te is marked for deletion).

344a MS: this whole line is written in the top margin.

346 What thou was fyrst. MS: What thou fyrst.

353 Whethyn. MS: Hethyn.

360a MS: this whole line is written in the left margin.

376a MS: this whole line is written in the left margin.

399a MS: this whole line is written in the left margin.

408a MS: this whole line is written in the left margin.

432a MS: this whole line is written in the left margin.

438 ordeynyd. MS: ordeyd.

446 his. MS: is.

480a MS: this whole line is written in the left margin.

493 unbuxome. MS: buxsome.

494 to thee. MS: fro thee.

496a MS: this whole line is written in the right margin.

512a MS: this whole line is written in the left margin.

519 makys it to thi. MS: makys thi.

520a MS: this whole line is written in the left margin.

525 Or in. MS: Other in.

528a facit. MS: fecit.
The whole line is written in the right margin.

536 Thys were to thee a syker rede. MS: Thys with to thee a syker wede.

552a MS: this whole line is written in the left margin.

556 welth. MS: wehthe.

566 Thy soule schall. MS: Thy schall.

584a MS: this whole line is written in the right margin.

600 To. MS: Do.

624a MS: this whole line is written in the right margin.

626 werke doyth were. MS: werke were.

636 sovereyn. MS: suffereyn.

637 Another the encresyng. MS: Another encresyng.

645 thi synne bonde. MS: thi bonde.

653 that. MS: thi.

656a MS: this whole line is written in the left margin.

670 all that to God are. MS: all that God are.

671 delyvers men. MS: delyvers o men (the o is scratched out).

679 kepys us. MS: kepys ws.

684 hys. MS: hym.

702 wanten myght. MS: wantys myght.

712 wytneses. MS: wytnes.

723 MS: mersy wher is scratched out at the end of this line.

735 ryghtwysnes. MS: rwyghtwysnes.

782 The Jues nalyd. MS: That Jues nakyd.

784a MINOR. MS: MINORIS. This whole line is surrounded by a chain of flowers.

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Allmyghty God in Trinité,
Fader and Sone and Holy Goste,
That is one God and persones thre,
O stedfast God of myghtys moste,
Gyff us grace folys to fle,
And wele to lyve, and kepe us chaste
So that oure saulys may redy be
To God when we schall yeld the goste.

He may be callyd wyse and wytty
That can wele lyve in this exile.
Who so wele lyves and ryghtwysly,
He can well dyghe after Godys wyll.
He that makys hym to God redy
And lyvys welle can nought dyghe ille.
Bot no man to dyghe can be herdy
Bot he that lyves wele throughe skylle.

All our lyve that we here lyve
Is nought bot a ded lyvand.
And deth is not els to drede
Bot passing of this lyve feyland.
Fro the begynnying of our chyldhed
Ever we be deth dredand;
Than is this lyve feyland at nede,
For whyll we lyve we be dyghand.

Many deyes that lyve cane nought,
And many dyghes that dare not dyghe.
Bot of deth hath he not dred in thought
That can wele lyve and is redy.
Thourght bodyly deth the gode are brought
To joy, and the ivell grete peyn to dre
After the werkys that thei have wrought —
Thus seyt the boke that can not lyghe.

Deth is of endles lyve begynning,
And of dethly lyve the last endyng
To them that be of gode lyving.
When thei out of this werld schall wend,
Than may deth be to them lykyng
That in this werld makys God ther frend.
Bot it is entré of ther lyving
In hell to them that serve the fend.

Wherfor, man, if thou wyll lere
To lyve wele and ryghtfully,
And of gode and evyll hafe knawynge clere,
And luf and drede consayve therby,
Weynd out every dey of thi lyve here
Throught thought, and forgete thi bodye,
And behold thre places sere
In the other werld of dyverse partye.

Ther schall thou se, yf thou loke evyn,
Som in joy and som in peynes sted,
And here and knaw by ther stevyn
What lyve thei have in erth lede.
Tho thre placys I wyll nevyn,
As I have herd in bokys rede:
One is helle, another is heven,
And purgatory, that is the thyrd.

Tho thre resatys, as we trow,
In the other werld be full serteyn.
Tyll one of thys thre wend schall thou
When deth hath here thi body sleyn.
When thou schall wend thou wote not how,
And thou schall never come ageyn;
Therfor, or thou wend ches thee now
Whether thou wyll wend to joy or peyn.

Fyrst at helle late thi thought be,
To se how synne is vengyd there.
In purgatory than may thou se
How synne is clensyd with peynes sere.
In heven thou schall se grete plentye
Of blys that schall last ever more,
For them that here throughe hert fre
Fro gode werkys wold them not spare.

Than after behold the werld law,
How full it is of vanyté.
And sethyn thi thought ageyn thou draw
Unto thiselve and thiselve se,
And what thou hast done and what thou aw,
What God hath done and doth for thee.
And so may thou gode and evyll knaw,
And, if thou wyll, lyve ryghtfully.

Fyrst, if thou wyll knaw to lyve ryght,
Thou schall thi thought send unto helle
Ons on the dey or of the nyght
Whyll thou here lyves, the fendys to felle.
Ther schall thou se thorow gostly syght
More sorow and peyn than tong can telle,
For synfull men ever redy dyght,
That for ther synne ever more schall duelle.

All that herte hatys and wold fle
Thou schall se ther within helle gate,
And of all that peyn is grete plenté,
And that peyn schall never abate.
Fyre that never quenchyd schall be
Is ther with brymston brynning hote.
If all the water in the see,
If it throght ran, myght not it abate.

For as fyre is hotter everywher
Than is the fyre that is peyntyd on a wowe,
Right so the fyre is hotter ther
Than is the fyre that we here know.
Yite is ther sych colde ever more,
With stormys and wynd that ever schall blow,
That if an hylle all brynand were
It schuld all turne to ise and snow.

Ther is ever smoke and stynke imonge
And derknes more than ever was here.
Ther is hungour, thyrst, and throng,
And ugly fendys of grete powere.
Ther is wepyng and dolefull song,
Gnastyng of tethe and grysly chere,
And other turmentys herd and strong —
Mo than herte can think, ferre or nere.

Ther is no hope of helpe ne rede
To them that duellys in that peyn,
Ne of no reles thorow gode dede,
For it is endles deth sovereyn.
Ther is deth withouten deth,
And lyve withouten lyve, serteyn.
They dyghe ever lyvand in that stede,
And ever more dyghand lyve ageyn.

Of all other peynes yit have thei,
And grete sorow both dey and nyght:
Of the syght of blys that lastys aye
That other have in heven so bryght.
Fro that syght thei are pute aweye,
For that they lyved not here aryght.
And that schall thei have to Domes Deye,
Bot fro that dey thei schall want that syght.

That syght of blysse them comforth nought,
Bot echys ther sorow that they have tayne
Throught envy that they have in thought;
For thei have joy and thei have none.
The lest peyn that to them is wrought
In helle is more (that never schall wone)
Than all the peyn in erth out sought,
If thei were all togeder in one.

Therfor, the lest peyn in helle,
Clerkys seyn, a hundryght parte is more
Then all the peynes scherpe and felle
Of this werld that grevys sore.
For all the peynes here were we duelle,
If that they twyse so many were,
Solas and joy men myght them telle
To regard of the lest peyn ther.

When thou hast sene that hydows place
And the sorow that ther is withine,
Than schall thou have dred, if thou have grace,
To do here any dedly synne.
For who so folowys the devellus trace
And of his wykydnes wyll not blynne,
Bot he amend whyll he have space,
The pyne of helle he may hym wynne.

De penis purgatorii
Yit send thi thought ferthermore
To purgatory, where thou may se
Saules in fyre bryning all bare
For synne unclensyd, and may not fle.
In that fire thei schall duell there
Tyll that they of synne clensyd be
And made als clene as thei fyrst were
When thei were baptyst and made fre.

That peyn of fyre wher thei duelle
Is so mekyll to clens synnes sere,
That all the tourmentys scherpe and felle
That all the martres sufferd here,
And the peynes that women sufyr when thei yelle
In chyldberyng when deth is nere,
As to that peyne are nought to telle
Bot as a bath of water clere.

That fyre is hotter and more myghty
Than the fyre is here and more brynand,
As is here the fyre erthly
Hotter than the son bryght schynand.
In that fyre brynnes saules many,
And schall ther be ever duelland
To thei be fined clen therby
Als is the gold in fyre meltand.

Bot thei have ever gode hope in thought
Oute of that peyn to wynne aweye,
For thei wote wele that they are nought
In helle wher peyn is lastyng aye.
Bot som tyme thei have unsought
So herd peyn both nyght and dey,
That thei are oute of mynd brought
And can not thinke were are they.

Than have thei dowble peyn dyght:
One is the felyng of ther peyn,
Another is wantyng of that syght
Of God that is all joy soverayn.
That wante thei both dey and nyght,
For that may thei not have serteyn
Tyll thei be made both clere and bryght
Of all that thei dyde here in veyne.

Thus may thou ther, thorow gostly eye,
So herd peynes se on dyvers maner
That the lest peyn is more to dre
Than the most peyn of this werld here.
Therfor, clens thee here or thou dyghe
Through penans of all thi synnes sere,
And els thou schall — withoutyn lyghe —
In purgatory them by full dere.

De gaudiis celi
Afterwerd thi thought up lede
And thi herte holy unto heven.
Ther schall thou se, if thou take hede,
More joy than erthly man can neven.
All the clerkys that bokys can rede,
And maystyrs of all the scyens seven,
Joy that ther is and the mede
Couth not rekyn, ne schew by steven.

Ther is ever grete fulnes of lyght,
Largenes of rowme withouten prese,
Myrth that passyth all manys myght,
And perfyte lufe that never schall sesse.
Ther is soveren sykernes dyght,
And sykernes, pessabulnes, and pese,
Pesabull joy with lykand syght,
Joyfull sykernes with full grete ese.

Ther is syker and endles beying
And endles joy is in that place,
Blessyd surans of lastand duellyng,
And endles syght of Godys face.
Ther is lovely chere and laughyng,
Synging and lyking of diverse solas,
And loutyng and endles lovyng,
And thankyng of mersy and of grace.

Ther is all maner of welthes endles,
And of all delytes grete plenté.
Ther is flowyng of more ryches
Than ever myght eye in this werld se.
Ther is all thing that gode is,
And no maner thing that ivell may be.
Ther is more worschype and heyghnes
Than ever was here in any degré.

Ther is medys of halowys sere,
So mykell that non them mesore may,
And so many that no man here
Can them rekyn by nyght nor dey.
They are so presyous and so dere,
And of so mekyll nobeleye,
And so plentyfull on diverse maner,
That no man can them gesse ne seye.

Withouten deth, ther is lyve dyght,
And lyfe that ever is lastand.
Ther is youth withouten elde ryght,
And rest withouten suynke folowand.
Ther is withouten derknes lyght,
And joy withowten sorow duelland.
Ther is ever dey and never nyght,
And pes withouten stryffe holdand.

Ther is lyght and bryghtnes more
Than ever hade son when it bryght schon.
Ther is grete myrthe as I seyd are,
And melody that never schall wone.
So mekyll joys are ther,
The whych thei have that thedere is gone,
That all the clerkys that be of lore
Couth not telle a poynte of one.

For all the melodys of manys stevyn
And all delytes both ferre and nere
Were nought bot sorow, to telle evyn,
Unto the lest joy of heven clere.
For the lest joy that is in hevyn,
Of all the joys that ther are sere,
Is a hundred fold more to nevyn
Than all the joys of this werld here.

Therfor, when thou hast heven sene
Thorow syght of thi hert fre,
At thi synne sore schuld thou tene,
That pute thee fro that feyre cyté.
For all if hell schuld never have ben,
And synne schuld never avengyd be,
Yit schuld thou desyre to kepe thee clene,
That joy to have and God to se.

What man schuld lese that joy and blys,
(If he of hymselve wold rew)
That God hath hyght to all hys
That serve hym here with herte trew?
For sykerly I dere sey this:
And if a man that joy ryght knew,
He hade lever, or he schuld it mysse,
Every dey to be sleyn new.

When thou thorow syght of thi herte fre
Hast sene that joy, thou schall loke don
And behold this werld and se
That werldly men to serve are bowne,
The whych is full of vanyté,
Of wrechydnes and courrupcyon.
Than schall it seme not els to thee
Bot as a depe and derke dongeon.

De miseria mundi
For it schall seme unto thi syght
Bot derke and lothe, and lytell and lawe,
Unto the regard of heven so bryght
That thou so merkyd and feyre sawe.
It schall seme voyd of all gode ryght
That mans herte myght to lykyng draw,
To the rygard of the plenty dyght
Of godys that are in heven to knaw.

All werldly ryches both more and les
Thow schall thinke fowle and muke stynkand,
To the rygard of hevenly ryches
That is so reyre and never feyland.
And also the joy and the gladnes
Of this werld sorow schall be semand,
To regard of the joy that is
In heven withouten ende lastand.

Al the wytte of this werld to lere
Thou schuld thinke than opyn foly,
To regard of wysdom clere
In heven ther God is almyghty.
All delytes of this werld here
Thou schall thynke wrechydnes therby,
To regard of delices sere
That are in heven with melody.

All the worschyppe of this werld waste
Scham and schenschipe schall seme to thee,
To regard of the worshipe moste
In heven that we so feyne wold se.
All that the werld desyres in haste
Thou schall thinke vayne and vanyté,
To regard of thynge for to tayste
That fallys to hevyn were we wold be.

If thou wylle behold on this wyse,
When thou thes joyes have fully sene,
The werldys joys are bot fantyse,
And ever desavable yit hath ben.
That syght schall styre thee to dysplese
And forsake the werld bedene,
And to God entend and his servyse,
And fro synne here to kepe thee clene.

When thou hast sen thus heven and helle,
And purgatory, and joy and peyne,
And the febull werld were we duell,
That som men loveth and serve in veyn,
Behold thiselve than, flessche and felle,
And this wrechyd werld unserteyne.
When thou hast done as I thee telle,
Thou turne unto thiselve ageyne.

And bethynke thee than what arte thou,
And fro when thou com in herte thou caste.
And thinke also what arte thou now,
And wher thou arte, with herte stedfast,
What thou schall bethinke on and trow,
And whyder thou schall wynd at the laste.
For thi lyve here, I dare avow,
It is bot as a wyndys blast.

Quid fecisti
Fyrst schall thou thinke and know in thought
What thou was fyrst or thou come here.
Some tyme was that thou were nought
To fele ne se ferre ne nere.
And sethyn were thou conseyved and wrought
Of a porsyon of fowle matere,
And within thi moder brought
Ryght on a foule, lothsom maner.

Unde venisti
Whethyn thou com thinke also:
Thow com fro thi moder wombe ryght,
Out of a lothsom, stynking wro
That derke was, withouten lyght.
Than were thou weyke and myght not go,
Naked and pore withouten myght,
And brought nothing with thee therfro
Bot a skyne all blody dyght.

Quid es
Thinke what thou arte now and se:
Thou arte bot stynkand slyme withine,
And a sake full of fylthe pryvye
That over is coveryd with a skyne.
Fowler fylth may here non be
Than comes of thee, both thyke and thine.
Ther comes non other fruyt of thee
Bot only fylth, stynke, and synne.

For if thou wyll se on every partye
What comes fro thy mouth and nose,
And fro other partys of thi body
When thou lyst here thi body es,
A fouler donge hyll of thi body
Saw thou never in lond of pese
Than thou arte here within namly;
Therfor, begyne thi pride to sese.

Ubi es
Thinke wher thou arte and know in hast:
Thou arte here in a exile sene —
That is the werld that thou lovyst most,
That fykyll is and ever hath bene.
Thou arte in a dale of sorow to tayst,
Full of travell, tarye, and tene.
Thow arte in a wyldernes weyst,
Full of lyons and lyberdys kene.

Thou arte as in a forest duelland
Full of robers and of theves.
Thou arte as in a se flowand
Full of wawys and stormys that grevys.
Thou arte as in a ovyn brynand
Full of fyre of synne that grevys.
Thou arte as in a uncouth lond
Full of angres and of myschevys.

Thou arte as in a feld of batayle
Were thou must with thi enmys fyght.
Bot thes thre wylle thee most aseylle:
Thy flessch, the fend, and the werld ryght.
They wyll not lette for no traveyle
To asayle thee both dey and nyght.
And thou fyght fast thou schall not feyle
To overcom them thorow Godys myght.

Quid eris
Thynke also what thou schall be
When thou schall wend of this werld awey:
Thou schall be wormys mete to se,
And rotyn erth and stynkyng cley,
And deth schall com to aseyle thee.
Than schall thou be the Dethis pray,
Yit schall thou have no sertenté
Of his comyng be nyght ne dey.

Quo ibis
Wheder thou schall go, bethinke thee tyte,
And for thi wending thou ordeyn.
Out of this werld than thou schall flyte,
And never more to com ageyn.
Thy body schall be leyd in a pyte;
Of thi saule thou arte nought serteyn.
Whyder thou schall wend thou may not wyte,
Whether thou schall to joy or peyn.

Thus all thi lyfe and thi lyving
Is full of synne and wrechydnes sere.
How may thou laughe, danse, or synge
In syche a lyve, or make gode chere?
Me thinke thou aught to have no lyking,
Ne make no joy whyle thou arte here,
Bot lyve in drede and have desyring
To endles blys that most is clere.

After that, bethinke thee ryght
What God hath done and do for thee,
And what he doth for thee dey and nyght
One diverse manerse as thou may se,
And what he schall do to thee thorow his myght,
And mercy ther thy hope schuld be.
Than may thou knaw thorow thi insyght
How myghty and how gode is he.

Quid fecit tibi deus
Thow schall thinke fyrst in thi thought
What for thee that God hath done.
Fyrst, heven and erth for thee he wrought;
Water and eyre, and sone and mone,
Bestys and treys that frute forth brought
For thi prophyte he ordeynyd ryght.
And thy selve he made of nought —
Bot on thes werkys thinkys thou full lyght.

Thinke how thou were dampnyd unto helle
For synne, how he thee bought ageyn.
For thee he com in erth to duelle
Wher he sufferd passyon and peyne.
For thee hade he sore wondys and felle,
For thee his body was rente and fleyn.
And if thou wyll his wondys telle,
Here may thou knaw the nombyr serteyn:

Fyve thousand, as I wene,
And four hundreth and fully sexty,
For thee he sufferd, and fyfften,
In handys and fete, hede and body.
Fro his crowne nought hole was sene
To the sole of his fote, bot all blody,
And dyghed at the last, els had thou bene
Dampned to helle withoutyn mersy.

Thinke what God doyt to thee aye,
And for thee doyht on diverse maner:
He savyth thee here both nyght and deye
Fro all myschevys and perels sere.
He sendys thee grace were-throught thou maye
Do wele and susteyn thee here,
And in all that thou schall do or sey
He gyffes thee strenth and wyte clere.

When thou schall anything begyne,
Withouten God thou may not spede.
Thou may nother go ne rynne,
Bot he uphold thee and thee lede,
Nor yit styre hond ne lyppe ne chynne,
Ne lymbe withouten hym in nede.
For what thou doyst withouten synne,
Thou may call it only Godys dede.

Every dey for thee and for thi mete
He multyplies of his godnes
Foules and fyssches small and grete,
Both bestys, treys, frute and gresse.
For thee he sendys both dryghe and wete,
Some tyme more and some tyme lesse,
Some tyme cold and som tyme hete
That most to thee sesonabull es.

Quid tibi faciet in fine
Thinke what he schall at the last do to thee
When thou arte went henne aweye.
If thou love hym with thi herte fre
And serve hym treuly to paye,
He schall thee bryng to that contré
Ther never is nyght bot ever is dey,
Wher thou more joy and blysse schall se
Than hert may thinke or tong can sey.

That contré is his awne kyngdom,
Wereof he schall thee his eygher make
If thou the fend here overcom
Thorow gode lyve, and synne forsake.
Bot if thou to God be unbuxome,
And wykyd use and synne to thee take,
Thou schall wend, for that custome,
To hell ther peyn schall never slake.

Quid deo fecisti anime et proximo tuo1
Thinke than after and forgete nought
What synne thou hast don and folye.
Fyrst, what unkyndnes thou hast wrought
And despyte to God allmyghtye,
And what schendschipe thou hast sought
To thyne awne soule and vylonye,
What herme, what wrong, that thou hast wrought
To thi neyghbour that duelyd thee bye.

Thinke what unkyndnes, if thou may mene,
Thou hast to God don and dyspyte.
Fyrst, how unbuxom thou hast bene
To hys byding, bethinke thee tyte.
How thi love to hym is not sene,
And hath not servyd hym with delyte,
Bot grevyd hym with werkys unclen —
Of that unkyndnes thou arte to wyte.

Quid anime tue fecisti
Also what schame and vylonye
Thou doyst thi soull, bethinke thee swythe:
How foule thou makyst it and uglye
Thorow syn that thou doyst here oft sythe,
How pore, how nakyd and how nedye
Of all gode that schuld make it blythe,
How thrall thou makys it to thi bodye,
That to thi sawle schuld serve swythe.

Quid proximo fecisti
Thynke what wronge thou hast don and scathe
To hym that is thi neyghbour kyde,
In body or in catell bothe,
In sclander of soule, if it betyde,
Or in other wyse has made hym wrothe.
Make amendys if thou thus dyde,
Or els thi saule is in grete wathe;
For nothing may fro God be hyde.

Quid facit peccatum ante et post mortem
Yit behoveth thee know and se,
And have in mynd in every stede
What synne befor doyt to thee
Whyles thou lyvand on erthe may trede,
And what herme synne may to thee be
Sone folowyng after thy dethe.
So schuld thou synne both hate and fle —
Thys were to thee a syker rede.

Fyrst, knaw and se what doyth synne
Befor thi deth whyle thou here lyves.
Synne wondys thi soule withoute and ine,
And drawys it to peyn that grevys.
Synne makys thi saule withine
Blake as any pych that clevys.
Synne makys God and thee to twyne,
And putys thee to grete myschevys.

Synne makys thee folow the fendys trace,
And all thi gode werkys makys frutles.
Synne drawys thee fro gostly solas
And vertues that passyth all ryches.
Synne wastys all godys of grace,
And levys thee voyd of all godnes.
Synne makys thee here helle to purches,
To have at the last, were peyn ever es.

Quid facit peccatum in morte
Thinke also, and thou may lere,
What synne do thee at the dethes stoure.
Synne depriveth thee of this lyve here,
Of all welth, myght and honour.
For solas and joy in no maner
Getys thou never after, ne favour,
Bot endles peyn with sorowys sere,
Bot thou amend thee of all errowre.

Synne privys thi soule than allso
Of thi body with mekyll care.
Yif all thei efte togeder go,
Thy body so feyre schall never be more,
For at the metyng of them two,
Thy soule schall se it so ugly fare,
That syche a body as it went fro
It wolde have that it roten were.

Thynke also and understond ryght
What synne schall do thee after dede.
Synne schall draw thee fro that syght,
Fro God and fro all hys Godhed.
Synne schall reve thi soule hys myght,
And make it weyke and hevy as lede.
Synne schall pute thee fro rest and lyght,
Fro mersy and helpe and rede.

Synne schall thee to endles peyn lede
In helle that hydous is and dyrke.
Synne putte thee fro all mede
And fro all the helpe of holy kyrke.
Synne schall weyst all thi gode dede
That thou ever wrought or ever wold wyrke.
Synne thus schall do, bot if thou Gode drede
And forsake synne and with it yrke.

Quid gratia dei facit et vertus et bonum opus2
Afterwerd, thinke in thi thought
What grace may do that schall not feyle,
And vertues doth throw grace wroght,
And what god werke may thee aveyle.
When thou hast thus in thi mynd sought,
With them thi saule thou schall vytayle.
And of all the synnes that ever thou wrought,
Make amendys be gode conseyle.

Fyrst, thou schall thinke and understond,
With stedfast thought and hert stabull,
What grace may do thee here lyvand
If thou to grace wyll make thee abull.
Grace settys thee wele in god lastand
And makys thee to God acceptabull.
Grace may make thi herte holdand
To that thing that is most prophetabull.

Grace may make the bondys of synne to slake
And fully lyght thi hert withine.
Grace may make thee fore Godys sake
To suffure angres, hys love to wyn.
Grace may thi werkys medfull make
And wynne agene that thou lost for synne.
Grace may thee make the ryght wey take
To hevyn ther blysse schall never blyn.

Thinke also, when that thou may,
What vertu doyt and what it spedys.
Vertu puttys fonding awey
And multyplys all gode dedys.
Vertu makys thee nyght and dey
To delyte in God that thy soule fedys.
Vertu aventys God and thiselve aye,
And to thi neyghbour that thi lyve ryght ledys.

Vertu kepys thee fro foule bryning
And fro the foull desyring of pride,
And fro the water of lust and lyking,
That thou not in them long abyde.
Vertu thee kepys fro foule desyring
And fro the cley of lechery for to se,
And fro the thornes in diverse thingys
Of covetys that they not ryve thee.

Quid facit bonum opus
Thinke also bothe dey and nyght
What gode werke doyth were it is wrought.
Gode werke stabullus vertue ryght,
Encresys thi med and stablys thi thought.
God werke putys oute thorow myght
And fordoyt syn that thou arte in brought.
God werke strenth thee to fyght
With the fend, that he overcom thee nought.

Gode werkys wrought in charyté
Is hold medfull and serteyn,
And that be thingys thre:
One is the endles lyve sovereyn,
Another the encresyng of grace so fre,
The thyrd of forgyffnes of peyn.
Thus may gode werkys aveyle thee
If thou with charyté it ordeyn.

Bot gode werkys, thou schall understond,
Withouten charyté may nought aveyle
As to the lyve that is ever lastand.
Bot tylle one of thes foure it schall not feyle:
Or it schall soner breke thi synne bonde,
Other les the sorow that thee schuld ale,
Other make thi welth here more flowand,
Other more lete the fend thee to aseyle.

Over that, thinke how mekyll it is,
The godnes of Godys mersy
And the reddoure of his ryghtfulnes,
How mekyll it is on every party.
So schuld that make thee to love the lesse,
And werldly welth late passe lyghtly,
And les to desyre honour and ryches,
And more to love and dred God allmyghty.

Quanta est opera misercordie dei
Fyrst, thou schall thinke how mekyll is sene
The godnes of Godys mercy fre.
His mercy is mor than any can deme,
And passyth all synne that ever may be;
For if thy synne were more to mene
Than ever was done in any contré,
God wyll forgyff it all bedene
Thorow mersy, if thou wyll repente thee.

Mercy profers of hys offyce
To gylty forgyvenys of synne sere.
Mercy schewys dyverse benyfyce
That man resavys of God here.
Mersy here hetys hevynly delytes
To all that to God are leffe and dere.
Mercy delyvers men of vyces
And savys them fro perels that be nere.

Of mersy God us here abydys
Soverandly when we do wronge.
Of mersy vengeans fro us he hydys
And gyffys us frely grace amonge.
Of mersy he multyplyes on all sydys
That he us gyves, wereso we gonge.
Of mersy he kepys us, what so betydys
That he hath multyplyd to last long.

Of mersy God wyll ageyn calle
Them that turnes fro hym with ylle.
Of mercy God wyll reseyve them alle
That turne ageyn unto hys wylle.
Of mersy he makys oure hertys smalle
And mekly penance to fullfylle.
Of mersy this tyll hym schuld falle:
To forgyve wreth, that we not spylle.

Of mersy God sendys angers sere,
For synne schuld be clensyd therby.
Of mersy he gyfys welthys here
To make us to love hym of curtasy.
Of mersy he gyves us, withouten were,
Sacramentys to make us worthy.
Of mersy he wyll that we lere
His comandmentys for mede gostly.

Of mersy God them ledys ageyn
That wrong goth by dey or nyght.
Of his mersy that is serteyn
He ledys them evyn that hath no lyght.
Of mersy to helpe us uppe he is feyn
When we are falne and wanten myght.
Of mersy that wylle he nought leyn
He them upholdys that stondys upryght.

Also thinke with herte stedfast,
When thou wote what Godys mersy es,
How mekyll schall be, if thou can cast,
The reddoure of his ryghtfulnes
To them that schall be at the laste
On Domys Dey dampned more and les,
After the dredfull bemys blaste,
As wytneses the gospell in the messe.

Than schall God hys mersy hyde
Fro synfull men that are gylty;
His ryghtwysnes thei schall abyde
And demyd be as thei are worthy.
Than schall thei stond on his left syde
Withouten hope of his mersy,
And helle schall than opyn wyde
And suelew that synfull compeny.

For thei wold nought unto the pore
That for myscheve nyghe gon spylle
Nother to non other neyghbor
Mersy do here with gode wylle,
They schall be dampned thorow reddour
Of ryghtwysnesse to fullfylle,
And have endles peyn withouten mesure,
Withoute mersy — and that is skylle.

Ryghtwysnes with mersy is aye
In all gode werkys, as schewys he.
Bot some tyme the one is by some wey
Opyn when the other is privey,
And som tyme both se men may,
And some nother may men se.
Bot ryghtwysnes schall at the last dey
Be scheweyd, and mersy schall hyde be.

Item Thomas Alquinus dicit quod misericordia est aperta
et justicia occulta in justificacione impii et
justicia est aperta et misericordia occulta in dampnacione et
punicione parvulorum sine baptismo decedencium.3
Mersy is schewyd ryght, as I wene,
And ryghtwysnes is privy and stylle,
When a wyked man of synne is clene
And made ryghtwys thorow Godys wylle.
Bot ryghtwysnes is opynly sene
And mersy is hyde, for serteyn skylle,
When childer uncrystend dampned bene
To helle forever, that never dyde ylle.

Utraque est occulta ut in tribulatione justorum
et innocentium, sicut fuit in tribulacione Job et
innocentium et in infirmitatibus parvulorum; utraque
est aperta ut in remuneracionem justorum et
in dampnacione impiorum. Nam Deus remunerat
justos super meritum malos autem punit citra
condignum quod est misericordie quod est in celo et in terra
et in inferno et ubique et cetera.4
Ryghtwysnes and mersy tyte
Are bothe hyde and holdyn doune
When innocentes and men perfyte
Sufer here persecusyoun.
Bot both are schewyd in a plyght,
Thofe thei have dyverse condecyon,
When God to gode ther mede schall quite
And to evyll peyn and dampnacyon.

For God to gode grantys more mede
In hevyn than thei servyd fully,
And to evyll, for ther mysdede,
Les peyn in helle than thei are worthy.
Thys is grete godnes of God to rede
That thus doth therof his mersy.
Thus schall mersy, tho it here sprede,
In heven and helle beth ay myghty.

Si autem deus justis et malis probuit servis
merita sua videlicet, bonis bona et malis
mala, hoc esset justicie et non misercordie dei.5
Bot if God schall yeld every man
After the werkys that he hath wrought,
Gode for gode as he welle cane,
And evylle for evylle fully sought,
Fro that tyme that his lyve begane
Of alkyns werke fully sought,
The ryghtwysnes of God were thane
Only schewyd, and mersy nought.

Now have ye herd a gode lesson
Of diverse maters that ye schuld lere;
With gode wylle and devosyon
Both dey and nyght, on this maner,
Makyth it your medytacyon.
Hold it in mynde whyll ye are here,
And fle fro veyn ocupacyon;
Than may ye make your lyvyng clere.

Do now as ye have herd me seye,
And for the love of our Lord Jhesu,
For hym specyally that ye wyll praye,
That this tretys in Inglyssche drew,
That he hym yeld, that on Gode Frydey,
The Jues nalyd on the rode and slew,
And graunte hym lyve that lastys aye,
In heven wher joy is ever more new.

(see note)

greatest might
sins (follies)

give up the ghost (die); (see note); (t-note)

(see note)

Except; knowledge

living death

failing (feeble) life

We are always dreading death
failing in times of need

die who know not how to live; (see note)

(see note)
to suffer
According to the deeds

the beginning of endless life

shall go
pleasing to them
fiend (devil)

(see note)

love; experience
Depart [in your mind]; (see note)

look steadily

hear; voice


Those three places; trust


before you go choose

avenged (repaid)


those who on earth with generosity,
Did not spare themselves from




Once a day or at night
[in order to] overcome the fiends; (see note)

forever readily condemned
dwell [there]

the heart hates
hell’s gate

burning hot

quench it; (t-note)

(see note)
wall; (t-note)

(see note)

were burning

therein; (see note)
(see note); (t-note)
misery; (see note)
(see note)

Gnashing; grim countenance

counsel; (see note)


(see note)

living; place

Yet of all other pains [that] they have
And [a] great sorrow
forever; (see note)

are cut off
Because they lived
Judgment Day
shall lack

increases; obtained

they [in heaven] have joy
least; (see note)

(see note); (t-note)
Learned men say is a hundred times greater
sharp and fierce

where; (t-note)

Pleasure; consider
In comparison to


cease; (t-note)
Unless; time

Of the pains of purgatory; (t-note)


[who] may not

cleanse (expiate) diverse sins
(see note); (t-note)

(see note)

(see note)

sun brightly shining

Until; refined
(see note)

to escape

unexpected; (see note)

(see note)

prepared [for them]

That [sight]

endure; (see note)

individual (many)

buy them dearly (pay dearly for them);

Of the joys of heaven; (t-note)

name; (see note)

seven sciences
explain by voice

room; press (crowding)



(see note)

assurance (certainty)

rejoicing; enjoyments; (t-note)
bowing (kneeling) [in reverence]

(see note)


many hallowed fields

magnificence (splendor)


labor following

as I said before

they who have gone there have
who are learned
a small part; (see note)

man’s voice

tell truly


be sorely angry


He would rather, lest he miss it

are ready to serve
That which

On the mercy of the world; (t-note)

loathsome; low (wretched)
In comparison to
thus observed and clearly saw; (t-note)

might attract man’s heart
In comparison to the prepared bounty; (t-note)

stinking muck

rare; failing

shall seem sorrow


knowledge; to learn
open folly

many delights

Shame and disgrace


That belongs to; where we wish to be

(see note)
deceptive (unreliable)
stir (cause) you to be displeased


flesh and skin (i.e., the body)



where you shall go

What were you made of; (t-note)

before you; (t-note)
(see note)
[Able] to feel nor see
(see note)
portion of foul matter

From whence you came
From where; (t-note)

cramped place

(see note)

skin made all bloody

What you are; (t-note)

(see note)
sack; hidden filth;

(see note)

part (aspect)

When you wish to ease your body here

namely (truly)
begin to limit your pride

Where you are; (t-note)
haste (readily)
seen; (see note)

labor, struggle, and anguish
desolate; (see note)

(see note)

surging sea; (see note)

agonies and afflictions

(see note)

(see note)

cease for any consideration

But if you fight; (t-note)

What you will be

Death’s prey
(see note)

Where you are going; (t-note)
plan for your departure

you may not know
will [go]

great wretchedness


have desire


In diverse ways

What God has done for you; (t-note)

profit (use); (see note); (t-note)

wounds sore and fierce
torn and flayed; (t-note)
wounds count

I believe; (see note)

nothing whole (without wound)

or else (lest)

does to you always

misfortunes and perils diverse
through which you may

neither; run

stir (move)

whatever you do; (see note)


(see note)
trees; grass


What he will do to you in the end; (t-note)

gone hence

to repay him



disobedient; (see note); (t-note)
wicked habits; (t-note)

where; cease



remember (consider); (see note)

not seen (i.e., not made visible)


What you have done to your soul; (t-note)

quickly (readily)

often times

readily; (see note)
What you have done to your neighbor; (t-note)

your known neighbor
in property


What sin does before and after death; (t-note)
[More] yet; (see note)
circumstance (situation)
living; tread

reliable counsel; (t-note)

wounds; inside and out


fiend’s path

spiritual comfort

goods (qualities)

What sin does in death; (t-note)
if you might learn
throes of death


diverse (many)


they again came together

turn so ugly; (t-note)

would have [preferred]

(see note)
rob; its


hideous and dark
spiritual reward
holy church
destroy (squander)

be disgusted with it


virtues do through grace performed
good work may benefit you


here while you live
lasting good

holding (following)





praises; always; (see note)
guides your life rightly

(see note)
spring (watering place); pleasure; (see note)

(see note)

greed; rob

What good works do; (t-note)

where it is performed; (t-note)
your reward


counted worthy and secure
by three things
noble; (t-note)


In regard to the life
(i.e., it will still perform one of these)
Either; sin’s bond; (t-note)
Or lessen; affliction
flowing (multiplying)
prevent the fiend

rigor; righteousness
in every degree

How great the work of God’s mercy is; (t-note)




provides by its authority
diverse sins
reveals diverse benefit
loved and dear; (t-note)

Excellently (In noble fashion)
[Because] of mercy he hides vengeance
continually (everywhere)

What he gives us, wherever we go
whatever happens; (t-note)
That he has extended to be long lasting

(i.e., humble)

to him belongs
wrath; perish

great troubles
So that sin

without doubt

spiritual reward

go wrong

even those who have no light (are blind)
fallen; (t-note)
lay aside

you know
rigor; righteousness

Judgment Day
gospel testifies; (t-note)

judged as they deserve


Because; (see note)
misfortune; nearly died

To satisfy justice

that is reasonable


Visible; hidden; (see note)
men may see both
sometimes neither
be hidden

(see note)

as I believe
hidden and quiet

for certain reason
children unbaptized


in agreement (indeed)
to [the] good their reward shall pay



forever supreme; (see note)

give (judge)
According to the works he has done

fully considered

Of every kind of work; (see note)

(see note)

(see note)


(see note)
[For he who] translated this treatise
he requite him, [he] who
nailed on the cross; (t-note)

(see note); (t-note)

Go To Item 34, The Stations of Jerusalem, introduction
Go To Item 34, The Stations of Jerusalem, text