by: George Shuffelton (Editor)
Item 34, The Stations of Jerusalem
Item 34, THE STATIONS OF JERUSALEM: FOOTNOTES1 Was the roast of the (Easter) lamb [on] that occasion
2 Lines 846–47: For the sake of your holy grace, God, / Grant that we may be mindful of thee
Item 34, THE STATIONS OF JERUSALEM: EXPLANATORY NOTESAbbreviations: GL: Jacobus de Voragine, Golden Legend; H: London, British Library MS Harley 3810; MED: Middle English Dictionary; OED: The Oxford English Dictionary; S: San Marino, CA, Huntington Library MS HM 144;
Title The Stasyons of Jerusalem. The title is written in a slightly larger version of Rate’s usual script. The text has been known by this title (or the modernized spelling used here) since the publication of Horstmann’s edition. In S, the text is preceded by an incipit: “Here bygynnyth the Pilgrymage and the wayes of Jerusalem.” The text begins one-third down the leaf of fol. 128r.
5 Venys toune. Venice was the most common departure point for northern European pilgrims to the Holy Land, in part because of its location but largely due to its importance as a naval and mercantile power. Venice dominated the trade networks of the eastern Mediterranean, including pilgrimage traffic; see Chambers, Imperial Age of Venice.
11 kyng. S reads “kynge been,” but omits the previous line.
15 For seyntys. S reads “Cor-sayntes” (i.e., “relics,” as in line 36), a more likely reading, since the text goes on to list more than four saints.
17 Seynt Marke and Seynt Nycholas. The relics of Saint Mark the Evangelist had been in Venice since the early ninth century and were housed in the basilica of St. Mark; he is the patron saint of the city. Saint Nicholas, the fourth-century bishop of Myra (in modern Turkey), was martyred in the Diocletian persecutions. His relics remained in Myra until the eleventh century, when the city was captured by Muslims, and the two Italian trading centers of Venice and Bari competed to acquire the relics. Bari ultimately won out as the primary site of the veneration of Nicholas, but Venice and the church of San Niccolò del Lido continued to press its claim; see Jones, Saint Nicholas of Myra, Bari, and Manhattan, p. 208.
19 Seynt Elyn that founde the cros. Though this seems to suggest that relics of Saint Helena were the objects of veneration in Venice, it is most likely a corruption of a reference to a piece of the True Cross, legendarily discovered by Saint Helena. Venice housed several fragments that purported to be pieces of the True Cross, some taken from Byzantium when Venetians led the Fourth Crusade to sack that city in 1204.
20 And Seynt Jeorge. Venice featured several relics of Saint George, including an arm taken from the town of Fiore de Calabria and housed in the Benedictine monastery of San Giorgio Maggiore; for the importance of the cult of St. George in Venice at this time, see Wills, Venice: Lion City, pp. 253–59.
23 Seynt Paule, the fyrst hermyte. Saint Paul the first hermit (an epithet used to distinguish him from other saints named Paul) lived in the Egyptian desert caves in the third and early fourth century; relics of his body were taken from Byzantium to Venice in the thirteenth century.
24 Seynt Symeon, Justus that hyght. This is Simeon, the “just and devout man,” who hails the Christ Child at the time of his presentation at the temple; see Luke 2:25. The 1498 edition of Information for Pilgrims locates these relics in Jarre, a city in Slovenia then under the rule of Venice (p. c.ii.v; see also The Itineraries of William Wey, p. 93).
25 the fader of Seynt John Baptyst. S: “Zachare, the fadre of John Baptiste.” Zachariah, the husband of Elizabeth and father of John the Baptist, was venerated at the Venetian church of San Zaccaria.
27 Seynt Lucy. Blinded by pagan torturers, Saint Lucy was one of the most popular of the virgin martyrs; see the introduction to Saint Margaret (item 38). Her relics were brought to the city from Byzantium and initially kept at San Giorgio Maggiore (see note to line 20). S also mentions Saint Barbara here, but its reading looks corrupt and introduces an unrhymed line: “Saynt Luce and Saynt Barbera / That holy were both olde and younge.”
31 Seynt Christofe. This line and the next are likely corrupt, as the sense is very strained. S’s reading does not clarify matters, as it too looks corrupt and omits lines 32–34 as well as line 36: “Saynt Cristofer lythe in the cyté / Twyes in the yere who so theder wyll come / He shall have playne Remyscioun / Al so wel as in the yere of grace.” Saint Christopher, an early Christian martyr, was widely venerated as the patron saint of travelers and sailors (as was Nicholas). His relics were housed on the Venetian island of St. Christopher at a monastery of the same name; see Fabri, Book of the Wanderings, 1:110.
40 Curfe, Modyn, and Candy. Corfu, Modon, and Crete were important outposts of the Venetian trading empire in the Adriatic and Mediterranean. The island of Corfu, off the northwestern coast of Greece at the southern end of the Adriatic, had been held by the city of Genoa and the dukes of Anjou before passing to Venice in the late fourteenth century. Modon (Metona), in the southwestern corner of Greece, was a port city held by Venice until 1501 when it was lost to the Ottomans. The Venetians ruled Crete (and its major harbor, Candia) from the thirteenth century until the seventeenth, when it too fell to the Ottoman Empire.
45 Ile of Rodys. Rhodes was at this time held by the Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Knights of Rhodes or Knights of St. John); it withstood several major attacks in the fifteenth century before falling to the Turks in 1522.
46 We founde relykes many one. Several of the relics mentioned in the following lines, including the thorn from the crown of thorns and the arm of St. Catherine, are mentioned in other accounts; see Nicholson, Knights Hospitaller, p. 97.
49–50 These lines are not in S and may be Rate’s own additions.
53 That blomys every Gode Frydey. William Wey describes this legendary thorn in greater detail and claims that it changes colors over the course of the day, as the hours of the Passion are read and sung. Wey also notes that Rhodes possesses another thorn that changes color but does not bloom, and attributes the difference to the fact that only one actually touched Christ’s head (Itineraries, p. 93).
55 Seynt Loy and Blasy. Saint Eligius (also known as St. Eloi or Loy) lived and died in northern France in the seventh century; his cult was widespread in England and France. Saint Blaise, a bishop martyred in fourth-century Armenia, was venerated in both the Eastern and Western Churches. Relics of these saints are not otherwise attested in Rhodes. William Wey mentions relics of Saint Blaise in Ragusa (on the Dalmatian coast) and Saint Leo (not Loi) in Axtin, south of Corfu; the reference here may be a confusion of these details (Itineraries, p. 93). Alternatively, since other documents attest to important relics of Saint Anthony held by the Knights Hospitaller in Rhodes, it seems possible that this line is a misrendering or revision of a reference to Saint Anthony; see Nicholson, Knights Hospitaller, p. 97.
56 Omitted in S.
57 Seynt Cateryn. Saint Catherine of Alexandria, a virgin martyr of the early fourth century, was enormously popular in the later Middle Ages. Her cult was centered in the Monastery of St. Catherine in the Sinai desert and was a major pilgrimage site for those who could afford the additional expense of traveling there from Jerusalem.
61 Sypres. Cyprus was ruled by the Lusignan dynasty until 1489, when the island passed to the Venetians.
62 one or two. S: “many moo.”
63 The cros of the gode thefe. A relic of the cross used to crucify “Dismas,” the thief who attested to Christ’s innocence (see Luke 23:40–43), was venerated in a monastery at Stavrovouni in Cyprus. According to some sources, this is a piece of the True Cross; see Seymour, Defective Version of Mandeville’s Travels, p. 17. Friar Felix Fabri also describes a visit to this monastery, which is (as line 65 claims) “onne a hylle” (Fabri, Book of the Wanderings, 1:193).
64 That cryed mersy and found gode preve. S: “That askyd mercy for his mysdeede.”
70 Wher Seynt Kateryn was born. Saint Catherine of Alexandria (see note to line 57). Various traditions associate Saint Catherine of Alexandria with the city of Famagusta on the east coast of Cyprus; for a fanciful claim that the city’s name derives from the name of Catherine’s father, see lines 494–511 of John Capgrave’s Life of Saint Katherine.
73 another place. Presumably Jaffa/Joppa; see Jonah 1:3.
84 Twenty hundreth myle and thre. This is most likely a corruption of the mileage between Venice and Jaffa/Joppa, given in the Middle English itinerary in William Wey’s manuscript as “iim myle and hundrys thre” (Itineraries, p. 8).
86 Ther Seynt John was quyke and dede. This is probably Sebastos (Samaria), where Saint John was buried, according to legend. S: “Where Seynt Gorge was quyke and dede.”
88 the grave of Samuelle. The tomb of the prophet Samuel was on Mount Joy, so called because pilgrims could first see Jerusalem from there. Line 91 has likely been created from a reference to Mount Joy in the source text.
90 Cleophas. See Luke 24:18.
98 the hospytall. This refers to the Hospital of St. John, described by Felix Fabri and others as the lodging for pilgrims who were not associated with one of the religious orders that maintained their own houses in Jerusalem. Fabri describes the hospital as large enough to house four hundred pilgrims at once (Book of the Wanderings, 1:285–86 and 395–97).
100 the temple. This refers to the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, not the temple of Solomon. The Guide-Book to Palestine mentions this stone (see line 101) as located in front of the church gates (J. Bernard, p. 10).
104 S inserts a couplet following this line, probably misplaced: “Also the plase there we see / Where Cryst made his Mawndye.” S also omits lines 105–18, perhaps a deliberate abridgment made by the scribe.
106 be a treyn. The MED does not attest this sense of traine, but see the OED, train (n. 1), 9, “a line.”
108 lokyd the dore with a keye. Muslim officials charged a fee for entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulcher and locked pilgrims in overnight (Book of the Wanderings, 1:429).
124 Ther Jhesu mette with Mary Maudeleyn. See John 20:17. This was located within the Church of the Holy Sepulcher; see J. Bernard, Guide-Book to Palestine, p. 6.
125 kyssed his fete. The rhymes of lines 125–28 are defective, and this may be a sign that Rate has revised these lines. S describes this episode in only one couplet: “To kys his fete was here thoughte / But he seyde Marye touche me not.”
134 mydys of the mundye. This is a partial translation of the Latin “media mundi” (middle of the world) and refers to a stone in the middle of the choir of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. The claim that this point marked the middle of the world was based on exegesis of Psalm 73:12 and Ezekiel 38:12. Lines 133–34 are omitted in S.
139 joddyd. The MED cites this as the only use of jodden and suggests “to pierce,” as a variant of jaggen. But it seems equally likely to be a variant of jobben or joppen, “to knock, to thrust.” S’s reading, “jottyd,” is otherwise unattested.
181 in a orytory. This legendary spot is mentioned in the Guide-Book to Palestine as being on the north side of the church (J. Bernard, p. 7). There, however, it is described as a window, suggesting that orytory may be a corruption of “oriel.”
189 Inde. Felix Fabri describes the austerity and fervor of the Indian Christians in vaguely similar terms (Book of the Wanderings, 1:436).
205 cyté of Grekys. This refers to the Greek Orthodox priests, and perhaps is meant to include those Churches (such as the Georgian and Syrian Christians) that followed most aspects of Eastern doctrine and liturgy.
258 Constantyn hyr sone. The first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine was responsible for building the Church of the Holy Sepulcher; it was dedicated in 336.
261 Seynt Sylvester. In legend, Pope Silvester I (d. 335) had close ties with Helena and Constantine.
267 The Jewys askyd Jhesu of ther wylle. The dialogue presented here seems loosely based on John 6:41–47. S’s reading of these lines makes clearer sense: “The Juge axed Jhesu where he was, / Then bad hym answere to this cace. / ‘In the myddys of the worlde, upon an hille, / The profecy for to fulfylle.’”
272 hyder wylle wende. Rate has transposed the lines of the following two couplets (cf. S): “He seyde ‘What man that is in charité / That thedyr comyth to seke me, / To joye and blisse his soule shall wende / And with me dwelle withoutyn ende.’”
293 the stronge theffe. See the note to line 63.
295 lenger delaye. Rate’s reading, “laughyng ley,” is unclear and has been emended on the basis of H.
299 And yit dyde he more to seyn. Rate may have omitted a couplet and/or altered the reading of his copy-text. Cf. S: “There suche a theffe, a latro [MS: alarom] than, / Was the fyrste that hevyn wanne. / And yet he dyd more wonder: / He foryaf hym that brokyn his bonys asondyr.” Rate may have deliberately avoided the unrecognized Latin word latro (robber).
303 Ther he betaught hys moder. See John 19:26–27.
316 Lama zabatamye. See Mark 15:34, “Eloi, Eloi, lamma sabacthani?” (“My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me?”).
332 As the pylican. The pelican was believed to feed its young with blood from its own breast, thus recalling Christ’s sacrifice. See the note to line 585 of Maidstone’s Seven Penitential Psalms (item 32).
377 Godfrey of Boleyn and Baudwyn. Godfrey and Baldwin (Baudwin) of Boulogne were among the leaders of the First Crusade who captured Jerusalem. Baldwin became the first king of Jerusalem after Godfrey’s death. Though both were revered as heroes, Godfrey was also lionized as one of the “Nine Worthies,” the greatest of chivalric heroes of history.
383 we toke all the nyght. A vigil at the Church of the Holy Sepulcher was a traditional part of the Holy Land pilgrimage, described in many other accounts.
389 Som at the Mounte of Calvarye. Rate has mistakenly inserted lines 401–02 here.
395 in forme of bred. See A Prayer at the Levation (item 17).
413 a cornere. On the via Dolorosa, at an intersection of several streets.
417 ther thei constreyned Symon. Simon of Cyrene is compelled to carry the cross in the Passion accounts of the synoptic gospels; see Matthew 27:32, Mark 15:21, Luke 23:26.
424 Wepe onne your selve. See Luke 23:28.
427 Ther sche brought forth hyr derlyng. This seems to refer to the chapel of St. Anne, to the northeast of the temple near Jehosephat Street.
429 sche was sette to scole. Felix Fabri describes this as a house adjoining the courtyard of the temple (Book of the Wanderings, 1:453). Depictions of St. Anne teaching the Virgin Mary were common in late medieval art; see, for examples, Sheingorn, “Wise Mother.”
431 the same lake. The “Sheep Pool”; see John 5:1–15.
445 Symon Leperus halle. For the visit to the house of Simon the Leper in Bethany, see Matthew 26:6 and Mark 14:3; see also John 11.
448 Dyves. Dives is Latin for “rich,” but was given as the name of the rich man in the parable of Lazarus the beggar; see Luke 16:19–31.
467 ther is a cave under the erth by. There was a chapel near Gethsemane marking this spot; see Luke 22:41–44.
480 Were Oure Lady lete hyre gyrdell falle. For an account of this girdle, see GL 2:82. This legendary event is located near Gethsemane, at the base of the Mount of Olives, by the anonymous Guide-Book to Palestine (J. Bernard, p. 17).
488 nobylle cité of Galilé. Rate’s reading, “Mounte of Calveryghe,” has been emended on the basis of S. Galilee, unlike Calvary, was the site of some of Christ’s encounters with the apostles after the Resurrection, and is north of Jerusalem.
520 trans torrentem Cedron. The same descriptive phrase from John 18:1 is used in Seymour, Defective Version of Mandeville’s Travels, p. 39.
526 Was Isay the prophet sawyn in two. The Old Testament prophet Isaiah was supposedly killed by Manasseh, according to the apocryphal Martyrdom of Isaiah and exegesis of Hebrews 11:37. S offers a different set of sites in lines 525–28: “Bysyde that a lytell ther fro / Is the Tombe of Isaac the profete. / And fast by lythe the stone of Bethan, / There God relevyd Lazar the ded man.”
527 a well alone. The Pool of Siloam, at the southeastern edge of Jerusalem; see John 9:1–12.
532 Was the roste of the holy lambe that stond. The line may be corrupt (and has been partially emended); its sense is certainly strained. S’s reading differs considerably and reads more smoothly: “Was the plotte of the holy grownde.” But Felix Fabri discusses the site in the Church of Mount Zion where the kitchen used for the roasting of the paschal lamb was supposed to have been (Book of the Wanderings, 1:308), and Rate’s reading may be closer to the original, though the object referred to is unclear.
539 Within a chyrch, at an auter. The altar of the Church of Mount Zion was supposedly located on the exact site of the Last Supper.
548 in the mynd of me. S adds another line here: “In hym dwellyth the Trinité.”
549 And what man that be fals in thought. These lines do not appear in any of the gospel accounts of the Last Supper. But many medieval exempla testify to the dangers of taking the host in a state of sin. See The Northern Passion (item 28), lines 228–31.
555 When Jhesu com throughe a walle. See John 20:24–29.
561 When Thomas had rowyd in his wonde. S presents a slightly different version of lines 561–64: “Thomas was ful sory of that caase / Whan he sawe his lorde in the face. / He lift up his hondis on hye / And with alle his herte cryed mercy.”
577 And sche toke John ther the palme tre. See GL 2:78.
592 Spyte no more. S’s reading is less inflammatory: “dispise no more.”
593 is Cayfas halle. The Chapel of St. Saviour on Mount Zion was believed to be built on the site of Caiaphas’s hall.
603 Ther is a ston. Several accounts mention this stone in the Chapel of St. Saviour, but this text may be unusual in attributing miraculous blood to it; see Poloner, John Poloner’s Description, p. 13, and J. Bernard, Guide-Book to Palestine, pp. 10–11. Though this text attributes its keeping to the Greeks, the chapel was administered by Armenian Christians.
612 That Davyd made the Sater upon. The tomb of King David is located on Mount Zion in all accounts, but this text concurs with the Guide-Book to Palestine in claiming this is also the site of David’s authorship of the Psalms (J. Bernard, p. 13).
615 the feld of blod. The Field of Blood, also known as the Potter’s Field, was a burial ground south of Mount Zion. This is not, however, where the site of Peter’s lamentations were venerated; see Poloner, John Poloner’s Description, p. 12, and Fabri, Book of the Wanderings, 1:314.
642 he seyd, “I saw ston.” S’s reading explains this cryptic scene: “he sayde in scorne, ‘I sawe stones.’”
646 Ther is the grave of Rachelle. The tomb of the Old Testament matriarch Rachel, the wife of Jacob, lies near Bethlehem. It was (and remains) a pilgrimage site for Muslims, Christians, and Jews.
654 a feyr chyrch. For descriptions of the Church of the Nativity, see Poloner, John Poloner’s Description, pp. 19–20, and Fabri, Book of the Wanderings, 1:584–604.
691 into a valey. Several accounts mention caves (not a valley) where the bodies of the Holy Innocents slaughtered by Herod at the time of Jesus’ birth were deposited; see Fabri, Book of the Wanderings, 1:565–67.
699 a grete valey. The valley of Hebron was one of the legendary locations of Adam’s tomb as well as the site of his creation; see Poloner, John Poloner’s Description, pp. 21–22, and The King and His Four Daughters (item 26), line 73 and note.
704 the hous of Zakary. Zechariah was the husband of Elizabeth and father of John the Baptist. For the story that follows, see Luke 1:5–56.
724 Magnificat. The first word of Mary’s prayer of thanks (also known as the Canticle of Mary) in Luke 1:46, “My soul doth magnify the Lord.” The Magnificat was one of the most important hymns of the medieval liturgy, used in various parts of the daily office. In S, this line is followed by Lydgate’s translation of the Magnificat, lines 981–1060 of his Life of Our Lady (pp. 380–85). After the last line of the Lydgate poem, S follows the Ashmole 61 text again at line 725.
732 Ther Lazar was reysed fro deth to lyve. See John 11, where Bethany is named as the place.
743 descryve. Horstmann’s suggested emendation for desyre has been adopted here, but the couplet’s rhyme remains defective. S omits lines 743–44.
745 In Betphage sate Our Lord upon a ston. This episode is described in the three synoptic gospels (Matthew 21:1, Mark 11:1, and Luke 19:29).
751 Standys the compas of the rote. This was located in the Georgian Church of St. Cross, described by Felix Fabri (Book of the Wanderings, 2:1). S omits lines 747–52.
756 We fond a hond of Seynt John. The Monastery of St. John, between the Jordan and the city of Jericho, seems to have claimed the left hand of John the Baptist as a relic. See J. Bernard, Guide-Book to Palestine, p. 29. Felix Fabri describes the monastery as largely ruined by 1480 (Book of the Wanderings, 2:35–36).
757 callyd the Grekys Law. This reference is unclear, and very likely garbled; S lacks lines 757–78. The line may refer to the fact that the Monastery of St. John and the chapel adjoining it belonged to Greek Orthodox monks.
759 Zaches, the lytell man. Zacchaeus, the tax collector (Luke 19:1–10).
764 Sodom and Gomour. For the story of Sodom and Gomorrah and the appearance of angels before Lot’s escape, see Genesis 19.
766 unkyndly synne. S includes three additional lines here, perhaps the work of S’s scribe: “Unkendly synne was cause of alle there cryme; / Foule delyte takynge there owne wylle / Made them deserve the paynes of helle.”
783 Ther growys nother corne ne haye. Felix Fabri discusses some of the many legendary properties of the Dead Sea, including those mentioned here (Book of the Wanderings, 2:154–74).
798 Quryntyne. This seems to have been located near Gilgal, outside of Jericho; see Poloner, John Poloner’s Description, pp. 38–39.
808 Als fer as men myght hym se. The slightly confusing syntax of this line may be the result of Rate’s attempt to make up for a skipped line. S’s version of this couplet makes better sense: “And theder with hym he flye / And set hym on a penakyll an hye.”
824 a garthyn of Abraham. This seems to have been a palm grove near Jericho; see A. Stewart, Anonymous Accounts, pp. 10, 19, and 25. S reads “grave of Abraham.”
827 Now have we told all that we have sene. S lacks lines 827–48 and uses a shorter conclusion:
Jhesu, that for us deyd uppon a Crosse,848a AMEN QUOD RATE. Rate has drawn a fish holding a stem of flowers in its teeth underneath this colophon, in the bottom margin of fol. 135v.
Let us never in synne falle,
And at oure dethe to have Thi mercy and Thi grace
That we in hevyn may have a place.
Amen, for charité;
I pray Crist Jhesu have mercy on me.
Item 34, THE STATIONS OF JERUSALEM: TEXTUAL NOTESAbbreviations: see Explanatory Notes
1 MS: Initial G is larger than usual.
4 pylgrymage. MS: pylgrymeage.
5 toke. MS: take.
28 That stedfast. MS: A that steadfast.
34 toth closyd. MS: toth s closyd (initial s is scratched out).
42 abowte. MS: abowte to sey.
53 Gode. MS: Godo.
90 Ther. MS: Theere.
122 MS: line missing.
128 And he seyd. MS: And seyd.
130 was bond. MS: was s bond (s is scratched out).
132 Ther Oure Lady stode and wepe. S: “Which I shal never foryete.”
134 Lines 133–34 are omitted in S.
135 Ther is wrote. MS: Ther he wrote.
173–76 Omitted in S.
178–80 Omitted in S.
220 tribul. MS: tribute.
243 saules that ther. MS: saules ther.
260 replyte. MS: replyed.
266 that schall I. MS: that I schall I.
291 Ther turnyd. MS: a letter has been scrached out between these words.
ther. MS: hys.
295 lenger delaye. MS: laughyng ley.
311 askyd. MS: d is added above the rest of the line.
324 lete it falle. MS: lete falle.
332 syttes. MS: sytte.
333 prykes. MS: pryked.
345 spere thyrled. MS: spere that thyrled.
349 mekyll. MS: meky.
361–64 Lines omitted in S.
365 contré. MS: conte.
366 endles. MS: enles.
370 of square. MS: of sqare square (sqare is marked for deletion).
382 bobbyd. MS: babbyd.
403–06 Lines omitted in S.
404 Ther. MS: That.
411 toke the wey. MS: to the wey.
413 Than. MS: That.
414 Ther Jhesu met hys. MS: The Jhesu and hys.
448 duelled. MS: duelle in.
rych man. MS: rych toune man (toune marked for deletion).
449 Whych bette. MS: Thych bette.
459 sepulkyr. MS: seplkyr.
460 creatore. MS: cratore.
465 entent. MS: etent.
466 Our Lady was beryed. MS: Our Lady beryed.
488 nobylle cité of Galilé. MS: Mounte of Calveryghe.
497 MS: And ther lyves the ston repeated as the next line but marked for deletion.
504–05 Lines omitted in S.
514 gode chere. MS: god chere.
518–19 Lines omitted in S.
520 Cedron. MS: Sedron.
526 Was Isay. MS: Was I saake I say (I saake is marked for deletion).
532 roste. MS: roste ost of.
537 Lord. MS: Lady.
548 He. MS: And.
566 culpa. MS: cupa.
574 compeney. MS: copeney.
578 brought. MS: brough.
579 MS mistakenly interpolates lines 593–626 here.
610 wyrschype. MS: wyschype.
613 ther he lyes. MS: ther lyes.
614 profetys. MS: prelatys.
617 he hade. MS: he he hade.
627 Fast be is a. MS: Fast be a.
629 Ther is a. MS: The is a.
638 telle. MS: tellel (the last l is scratched out).
641 on. MS: onys.
642 ston. MS: stonys.
645 next. MS: nex.
654 Ther is a. MS: There a.
670 Oure Lady beheld. MS: Oure beheld.
671 when. MS: whe.
675 seyd. MS: sey.
688–89 MS: repeats lines 673–74.
692 Ther. MS: The.
705 mette. MS: me.
723 knelyd. MS: knely.
732 Ther. MS: The.
738 kyssed his. MS: kyssed kyssed his.
739 them. MS: the.
743 descryve. MS: desyre.
745 In. MS: I.
752 MS has mistakenly interpolated lines 825–26 here.
758 Ther. MS: The.
764 Ther. MS: The.
775 wyfe of Loth. MS: wyfe Lothe.
789 It is. MS: It it.
795 resavyd. MS: resavy.
796–97 Lines omitted in S.
807 pynnacle. MS: pynncle.
808 hym. MS: hy.
811 schewyd. MS: schwyd.
814 And thou falle. MS: And falle.
820 than. MS: tha.
825–26 Lines omitted in S.
The Stasyons of Jerusalem
God that shupe both heven and helle,
To Thee, Lord, I make my mone,
And gyve me grace the sothe to telle
Of the pylgrymage that I have gone.
I toke my leve at Venys toune,
And bade felous for me praye
(For it is a cyté of grete renoune),
And to Jerusalem I toke the wey.
Bot of all cytés that I have seyne,
For to rekyn everychon,
Than may Venys be a kyng
That stondys in the Greke Se alone.
It is so rownd, ryche, and stoute,
Of enmys ther them not drede.
For seyntys lyes in the towne aboute:
(Whoso wyll seke them he schall have mede)
Seynt Marke and Seynt Nycholas,
Thes two seyntys ther lyne in syght.
Seynt Elyn that founde the cros,
And Seynt Jeorge, Our Lady knyght,
Among them berys grete voys,
And lyes in gold and sylver wele dyght.
Seynt Paule, the fyrst hermyte that was,
And Seynt Symeon, Justus that hyght,
And the fader of Seynt John Baptyst
Lyes thens a lytell therfro.
And Seynt Lucy, that vergyn blyste
That stedfast was in all here wo,
And a thousand innocentys men may se
Lyghet ther closyd in that towne.
Seynt Christofe lege and hys thé,
At ons I may not rekyn ne soune;
For ther is the whyrl-bon of hys kne
And his toth closyd in crystall to se.
Twyse in the yere who theder com
To vyset this cor-seyntys in that plas,
He schall have plene remyssyon,
Als wele as in the yere of grace.
Than passe into the iles of the se
Curfe, Modyn, and Candy.
Some of the iles, withouten doute,
Be sevene hundrede myle abowte,
And all langys to Venys towne;
That is a cyté of grete renowne.
In the Ile of Rodys as we gan gon,
We founde relykes many one:
A crosse made of the basyn suete
That Our Lord wessch in hys postyllus fete,
And ther the plater we se
Wherin he made hys mandé,
And a thorn of the crowne
That styked in hys hede aboven,
That blomys every Gode Frydey —
A feyr merakyll it is to sey.
And ther is Seynt Loy and Blasy,
And other mo than twenty.
Ther is the arme and hond of Seynt Cateryn,
That blyssyd holy vergyn,
And ever more who so theder com,
A thousand yeres of pardon.
And in Sypres as we schuld go,
We fond relykys one or two:
The cros of the gode thefe
That cryed mersy and found gode preve.
We saw a chapelle onne a hylle,
Bot we myght not com thertylle.
Beyond that, in a coste
A lytell besyde, is Famagoste.
We fond a chapell beforn,
Wher Seynt Kateryn was born;
Ther is many yeres of pardon
For every man that theder wyll com.
Than cam we to another place,
Ther that the whalle sualowyd Jonas
And bare hym into Ninyvé —
A feyr merakyll it ys to se.
Than com we to porte Jaffe.
I schall yow telle who that name gaffe:
Japhet that was Noeys sone
Was ther fyrst, or that was begone,
And when he leyd the fyrst stone,
He callyd it Jaffe after hys name.
This is the breyd of the Grekys Se:
Twenty hundreth myle and thre.
Than passyd we to that same stede
Ther Seynt John was quyke and dede.
The nexte thing after, as I yow telle,
Is the grave of Samuelle;
That is besyde the castell of Emaus,
Ther Jhesu spake to Cleophas.
Fyrst joy after that to us come
When we sey the wawle of Jerusalem.
And the fyrst fote that we sette therine,
We were deliverde of all our synne,
And reseyved indulgens a pena et culpa,
And at other many places mo also.
And after this, with gode intente,
To the hospytall sone we wente.
And onne the morne when it was dey,
To the temple we wente oure wey.
And ther lyes the same stone
That Our Lord restyd hym onne;
The Jues dyde hym so mekyll wo,
The manhed myght no ferther go.
And after this a Zarysen com,
And callyd us in be a treyn.
When he hade don, he went hys weye,
And lokyd the dore with a keye.
Now schall ye here the begynning
How we worschypped our heven kyng:
The warden reysed a crosse full hye,
And clerkys song the letany.
And lewd men than ther eyghen wepe,
That teres fell under ther fete,
And thankyd God with all ther myght
That gaffe them grace to se that syght.
Than askyd we a boune withall,
That we schuld never in synne falle.
And after that, with gode entent,
To the sepulcour forth we went.
When we had offerd and kyssed the stone,
All our feloys dyde the same.
Beyond that we fond a pleyn
Ther Jhesu mette with Mary Maudeleyn.
And ther sche wold have kyssed his fete,
When he bakwerd fro hyr yede.
And sche presyde onne hym so ofte,
And he seyd, “Mary, touche me nought.”
Behynd that is a pylere,
Wherto was bond hys body bare.
That stondys in a chapelle suete
Ther Oure Lady stode and wepe.
And thus we passyd bye
To the mydys of the mundye;
Ther is wrote, withouten doute,
The mydys of the werld ronde aboute.
Beyond that, as we schuld gone,
We fond the holys in the stone
Therin thei joddyd hym onne the gronde
And gafe hym many a blody wonde.
And ther thei spolyd hym of hys clothys,
And swore hys deth with grete othes.
And ther at the dyse thei gan pleye
Who schuld bere hys clothys aweye.
And when he sufferd all this scorn,
On hys hede thei sete a crone of thorne.
And after askyd hym of that thing,
If that he were Jues kyng.
Behynd that is a pyler also
Ther that he sufferd mekyll wo.
They bonde hys hondys and his fete
And rollyd hys body in the strete,
That erth and gravell onne the grounde
Hade fylled full ilke-a wounde.
And under an auter betwene the stones
They made hym crepe all at ones.
When he was so sore ibond,
With ther fete thei spurned as a hunde.
And he ley as a babe stylle
And sufferd them to do ther wylle.
All Crysten kyngys, with one assente,
For Godys luffe, gyffe this jugement:
What cursyde Jue cum to your ground,
Spurne ye his body as a hounde.
And bote he wylle mersy crye,
Honge hym up on galow tre.
For why thei dyde hym all this wo,
That schall I telle you or I go:
The crosse was not ordeynd mete
To nayle onne his body suete.
Than kepyd thei hym in prison stylle,
To the crosse was ordeynd at ther wylle.
That prison is hold a welle of grace
For all that comys in that place,
And it is callyd of old and yeng
The prison of our heven kynge.
Beyond that is a chapell sqware
Forty gresys depe and more.
Be hym that schope both heven and helle,
This tale is trew that I schall telle:
Ther is in a orytory
Noys of the peynes of purgatory.
And what man seys it is not so,
I schall fynd wytnes or that I go:
Of prestys that duellys ther nyght and dey,
They schall bere wytnes that I sey.
And ther syng prestys of cytés thre
In worschype of the Trinyté.
The fyrste prestys are of Inde,
That prevyd themselve gode and kynde,
For thei care for non other gode,
Bot worschipe God that dyed onne rode.
And thei synge nother more ne lesse
Bot the Pater Noster at ther Messe.
Because Our Lord bade them so pray,
They wyll non other messe sey.
Of bred and wyne, hys body dere,
They resayve it with myld chere.
Barefote thei gon and in febull aray,
And duell in the chyrch both nyght and dey.
Bred and water is most ther fode;
I hold them holy men and gode.
In the north syde of that mynster
They worschype God onne this maner.
The cyté of Grekys duelle fast by,
That synngys in the Mounte of Calvery.
Bot what thei synge or what thei seye,
Oure prestys wote not what thei praye.
And when thei reyse the oste onne hye,
The Grekys kastys up a loud crye.
And when thei breke the oste in thre,
Iche man is housyld as wele as he.
With a spon, withouten doute,
They fede the pepull all aboute,
And a party of that body dere
He reseyves on this manere.
Also the prestys hath no lyving
Bot what the pylgrymus to them bryng;
For faute of clothys ther sydys goth owte,
And lyves in tribul and in doute.
What lyvelode ther is to them leyd,
They gruch not, bote hold them payd.
And in that place with drery mode
They wepe for hym that dyghed onne rode,
And thei aske non other thing
Bot hevens blyss at ther endyng.
The thyrd cyté are prestys of owre,
That syngys messe at the sepulcour;
On the same grave that Our Lord in leye,
Prestys syng in Latyn every deye.
Of oure maner is ther songe,
Save ther berdys are wele longe.
That is the use of that contré:
That have long berdys are of degré.
The ordour of them are barefote frerys;
Of almus dedys thei have no perys,
For thei hold non other astate,
Bot worscype God arly and late,
Both with the new law and the olde.
They passe all cytés a thousend folde.
When thei make to God ther mone,
They pray for all as wele as one.
Thys holy saules that ther duelle
Schall wytnes that I you telle,
For thei have spokyn in ther orytory
With sallys that are in the peynes of purgatory.
Beyond ther is an auter under an hylle
That Seynt Elyn lovyd full wele,
And an hole in the grounde
Ther the holy crosse was fonde,
And the two crossys of the thevys allso
(The beter was betwen them two).
Ther is a pena et culpa in that place
For all men that comys theder for grace,
And beforn, as we schuld fare,
Many gode syghtys as wele as ther.
Seynt Elyn the emperyse
And Constantyn hyr sone so wyse
Ordeynd that place for grete delyte,
For ever more it schuld be replyte.
Seynt Sylvester, that holy pope,
Confermyd it under hys holy cope,
And what sche wold have thertylle,
The Pope was redy at hyr wylle.
And yit it is more stronge than so,
And that schall I preve or I go.
The Jewys askyd Jhesu of ther wylle,
And bade hym ansuer to that skylle.
He seyd in myddys of the werld with skylle,
Full hyghe brought upon an hylle,
And seyd, “Who so be in charyté
And for my love hyder wylle wende,
In joy and blysse he schall me se,
And with me duell withouten ende.”
Beyond that we may to a pylere go
Wher that he sufferd mekyll wo,
Bonde and betyn ther he stode
Tyll all hys body ranne onne blode.
So thyke thei spyte on hym by rawe
That no man myght hys vysage knowe.
Than turned we upone a grece in hye,
Onto the Mounte of Calverye.
Ther was fond a fote of grounde,
Ther is non sych in the werld rounde;
For it was plantyd with that tre
Ther Jhesu bought us and made us fre,
And it was halowyd with that blode
That oute of hys body yode.
And that was payd in ranson
For all the synnes that we hade done.
Ther turnyd all ther cruelté
To grete mersy, as we may se,
When he forgaffe the stronge theffe
That cryed mersy as he was leffe,
And pute hym in no lenger delaye,
Bot gaffe hym paradys that same dey.
Crysten man, if thou be wyse,
Hold thou this of mekyll price.
And yit dyde he more to seyn:
He forgave them that brast hys veyne,
And prayd hys Fader hyghe on lofte
Forgyve the soules that he had wrought.
Ther he betaught hys moder dere
To John, his cosyn, that stode hym nere.
And John betoke hys moder also,
And thei forth togeder gan go.
And ther he soferd grete poverté,
Never man so mekyll as he.
A fox hath hole, a byrd hath neste;
He had not wheronne hys hede to reste.
The drynke he askyd was grete amours,
Was mans saule and non other lycours.
Than askyd he folke of yche degré,
Who sufferd more peyn than he.
And he cast uppe a loud cryghe,
And seyd, “Lama zabatamye.”
Ther is the roche of ston that cleft in two
When he sufferd al this wo.
Everilke planet was so kynd;
They hade hym som dele in ther mynd.
For sothe, thei come of Kaymes kyne;
They sette it for no dedly synne
To reyse the crose betwene them all,
And in a mortas thei lete it falle.
And when it smote among the stones,
His wondys brast all at ones.
They turnyd hys fete donwerd to helle;
His blod on Adams hede gan felle.
He prayd unto hys Fader of blys
To save the pepull that wold be hys.
Hys one hond yede est, the other yede weste,
As the pylican syttes on her neste
When sche prykes hyr herte blod
To gyffe here byrdys for ther fode.
Thus was he strenyd on a tre,
That bought us all in this degré.
In every veyn thei sought hys blod;
Thus fulle dere he bought hys brode.
The croune of thorn went throught hys breyn —
Hys penans passe the pelycan.
A spere was pute thorow his rybbys,
And with hys blode he fede his brydys.
So fre he was to us ichone,
He held oute water when blod was gon.
The spere thyrled thorow his herte,
Yit God forgaffe hym all that smerte.
What erthly man in synne is bounde,
And he aske mersy in that grounde,
Have he don never so mekyll amysse,
He schall be salvyd of all synne that is.
Bot why I neven here no pardon,
That schall ye here or that I gon:
Because my wytte may not expond
To knaw the pardon of that grounde.
For ther is the crope and rote,
And ther began all our bote;
For all the pardon that is in Rome,
Ther is the well and thens it com.
Ther is more pardon, I telle thee,
Than is all the water in the se
Or gresse or gravell onne the ground,
Or sterrys be in the sky so rounde,
Or motys be in the sone
Sen the werld was fyrst begon.
For every contré here hath end of ryght,
And he is Lord of endles myght.
The pardon that he gaff to hys frend
Is the blysse withouten ende.
And all his grace and mekyll more
Was purchast in a fote of square;
It passyd not a fote in bred,
What man wyll mete it with a threde.
I have so mekyll more to telle;
On the mounte I may no lenger duelle.
Than fond we in Galgatha so,
Beryed worthyly ther lyggys two:
Godfrey of Boleyn and Baudwyn his brother.
Jhesu brynge thether sych two other;
Than durst I sey that blyssed lond
Schuld duell in Crystyn mennys hond.
Beyond ther is the same sted
Wher Jhesu wondys were bobbyd rede.
And thus we toke all the nyght,
Every man with a candyll lyght.
And when we had gon the serkyll aboute,
We prayd for them that were in doute.
And at the mydnyght, more and les,
Our prestys disposyd them to messe,
Som at the Mounte of Calvarye,
And som at other plasys therbye.
And at the sepulcour many one song
And housyld pepull ever among.
For ilke man ches hym a preste
And told hym that ley on hys breste,
And after resavyd hym in forme of bred
That ther for us was offerd quyke and dede.
On the mourne, at undren of the deye,
A Saryzen bad us gon our weye.
And than ranne we ferre and nere
As conys doth to ther covere,
Som to the Mounte of Calverye,
And som to other placys therbye,
And som knelyd yn that stede
Ther hys wondys were anoyntyd rede.
And sone a frere was to us sente,
And bade we schuld do hys commandment.
Than durst we no more sey,
Bot toke oure palmes and went awey.
And into the hospytall we went
And ete and dranke sych as God us sent.
When we had don, we toke the wey
To the veyle of Josphey.
Than passyd we be a cornere
Ther Jhesu met hys modere dere,
And thei fell in a swonyng also,
And the crosse betwen them two.
And ther thei constreyned Symon
To bere the crosse as he was won.
It was so hevy and so square,
His manhed myght it no ferther bere.
And the women of Jerusalem
Wepyd on Cryst when that he com,
And he ansuerd on this degre:
“Wepe onne your selve and not for me.”
Beyond that is a chapell smale,
Ther som tyme was sette an halle
Ther sche brought forth hyr derlyng,
The moder of our heven kyng.
Beyond that, sche was sette to scole
That ever was wyse and never no fole.
Beyond that is the same lake
That the angell styred for mens sake.
Som comme theder with gode entente
When the angell was fro thens wente;
Thoff he had never so mekyll care
He schuld be coverde of all hys sore.
Than passyd we to the duellyng
Of coursyd Herode, the fals kyng.
Ther Oure Lord was clothyd in whyte;
They bett hym sore with grete delyte.
Beyond that is another stede,
Ther Pylate dampned Our Lord to dede.
Besyde that ther is another place,
Ther Mary Maudeleyn had feyre grace;
Men callyd it Symon Leperus halle,
Ther Cryst forgave hyr synne alle.
Be another place we come,
Ther Dyves duelled, that rych man,
Whych bette the pore man with hys hond
And now lyes brynand in helle ground.
At the ende of the toune, as we schuld gon,
We fond the temple of Salamon.
Be the gyldyn gates, as we gon pas,
Ther Jhesu rode upon hys asse,
The Jues spred clothes under his fete
When thei mette hym in the strete.
Ther Seynt Anne mett with hyr fere
When sche conseyved Our Lady dere.
Withouten that gate is the sepulkyr
Of many cursyd creatore,
For Saryzyns of grete astate
Are beryed befor that gate.
Be that ther is anodor stede,
Ther Seynt Stevyn was stonyd to dede.
To the veyle of Josaphat with gode entent,
Ther Our Lady was beryed, we wente.
And ther is a cave under the erth by,
Werein was Cryst, sykerly,
When he suete blod and water
And prayd up to hys Fader.
“Fader,” he seyd, “if it may so be,
Late this deth passe fro me.
And if thou wyll not that it so be,
Fader do thy wyll with me.”
Ther is a place ther the apostyllus slepe
When Jhesu knelyd onne Olyvete,
And the Jues sought hym in fere;
Ther Malcus lost hys ryght ere.
And ther is a ston — we kyssyd it alle —
Were Oure Lady lete hyre gyrdell falle
When sche was borne up to hyr sone,
Ever in blys with hym to wone.
Beyond that, as we schuld go,
Our Lord wepyd upon the cyté allso.
And another place we sought
Ther the palme was to Our Lady brought.
Than passyd we to another styghe,
To the nobylle cité of Galilé.
Ther Jhesu and hys apostyllus dere,
Ther thei mete all in fere;
After the tyme that he was dede,
He schewyd them hys wondys rede.
Than turned we to that same strete
That goth to the Monte of Olyvete.
Ther Jhesu styghed up in ther syght
To hys Fader full of myght.
And ther lyes the stone yite
Wheron he wrote this holy bede,
The Pater Noster, as we calle;
The ston lyes muryd in the walle.
And ther the apostellus made the Crede
That help Crysten men at nede.
Furthe we went to a ston
Ther Oure Lady rest hyr upon.
Ther is a cave under a ston
Ther James wepyd and made hys mone.
Fro that tyme that hys lord was dede,
He thought never to ete brede.
Bot he had sene hym ryse ageyn,
With hungour hymselve he wold hym sleyn.
And ther Our Lord in that place
Aperyd to James when he uprase,
And seyd, “I ame resyn now here.
Ete thei mete and make gode chere.”
This was James the Mynour,
The apostyll of Our Savyoure.
And ther is the grave of Absolon,
Of Kyng Josaphat, and of Ysayon;
All, save the grave of Absolon,
Is trans torrentem Cedron.
And under that ley the same tre
That the crosse was made of, sykyrlye.
Ther is a welle a lytell thens
Ther Our Lady gan Our Lordys clothys clens.
Besyde that, a lytell ther fro,
Was Isay the prophet sawyn in two.
And ther stondys a well alone
Ther God relyvyd the blynd man.
Now have we bot a myle to gon
Unto the Mount of Syon.
The fyrst thing that we ther fond
Was the roste of the holy lambe that stond.1
And ther that the water stode to hete
That Our Lord wessch with his postyllus fete,
And ther lyghes yit twelve stons
That the apostyllus sate on all at ons,
And Our Lord among them alle,
Whyll Jhesu prechyd onne a walle.
Within a chyrch, at an auter,
He fede hys postyllus all in fere;
Of bred and wyn he made his fode,
And callyd it hys flessch and blode.
When thei were servyd with the lambe,
He bade them ete and drynke and make them strong:
“For this that I afore you ley
Is my flessch and blod, as I you sey.
What man so be in charyté,
He reseyve this in the mynd of me.
And what man that be fals in thought,
I wern hym resyve it nought.”
On the other syde he wessch ther fete
And dryghed them with a towelle suete.
Benethe ther is a hous of stone;
Ther the apostyllus were hyde everychon,
When Jhesu com throughe a walle
And bade, “Pesse be to you alle.”
And than he askyd Thomas of Ynde
What skyll he hade to be unkynd,
And schewyd hym hys wondys wyde
And bad hym pute his hond in his ryght syde.
When Thomas had rowyd in his wonde,
He wepe full sore and fell to grounde,
And lyft up hys hondys on hyght
And cryed mersy with all hys myght.
To any of these foure that ye gon
Is a pena et culpa everychon.
Withouten the dore a place we sey
Ther Our Lady duellyd many a dey
Fourtene yere after that Cryst was dede,
And prayd ther many a holy bede.
And ther Seynt John the Ewangelyste
Song Messe to hyr when sche lyste.
And ther was Seynt Mathey
Chosyn into the compeney.
Beyond that in the same coste
Our Lady dyghed and yeld the goste.
And sche toke John ther the palme tre
That was brought hyr in to Galylé.
And ther the apostylles all in fere
Bare Our Lady on a bere.
And when the Jues com in grete deray
And wold have drawyn the body awey,
And for thei wold have don her schame,
Som wex wode and som wex lame.
Than couth thei no more sey,
Bot cryed mersy and welowey.
Than Peter held stylle the bere
And ansuerd them on this maner:
“He that askys mersy with herte and thought,
He schall have forgyffnes that he has wroght.
In Godys name, all in fere,
Spyte no more on Jhesu moder dere.”
On the other syde is Cayfas halle,
And theder wente we pylgryms alle.
And ther we fond a pyler pyght
That Jhesu was bound to in the nyght.
And ther thei sette hym on a stole
And blyndfeld hym as a fole.
And when thei boffyd hym faste,
They askyd hym who smote hym laste.
Than Cayfas seyd in hys jugement,
“Bot he be dede, the pepull is schente.”
Ther is a ston both long and brode,
Mekyll more than a carte lode,
That on the sepulcour of Our Lord ley
When Cryst rose and went hys wey.
And onne that ston was blode rede
That Cryst bled onne sen he was dede.
That ston the Grekys hath in kepyng
In wyrschype of our heven kyng.
On the other syde we fond a ston
That Davyd made the Sater upon,
And ther he lyes beryd also,
And other profetys many mo.
Than went we to the feld of blod
Ther Peter to hys penans yode.
Because he hade hys God forsake,
He toke on hys body mekyll wrake;
He wrong hys hondys and drew hys here,
And cryed, “Mersy, Lord, thyn ore!”
And ever when he askyd grace
The water ran doune by hys face.
Than went we forth onne our weye
To the well that Our Lord dronke of every deye.
Two herymetys that ther duelle
Calle it Oure Lordys Welle.
Fast be is a tempulle feyre and fre
Ther mete Jhesu with meydens thre;
Ther is a crosse made in a stone
Ther pylgrymes knelys and kys ichone.
Beyond that is another stede,
Ther Seynt Jame was quyke and dede.
Ther is the serkyll of the tounne aboute
Sex myle, withouten doute.
And sex myle we wente on the morn
To Bethlem, wher Our Lord was born.
Bot therof we muste a whyll dwelle,
If I schall of the wey telle.
As Jhesus by the wey yede,
He fond a Jew sawyng hys sede.
He askyd, “What sawys thou on?”
And he seyd, “I saw ston.”
And Crist seyd, “Stone mot thei be.”
And truly ther lyes grete plenté.
The next thing after that, I cane you telle,
Ther is the grave of Rachelle.
And other prophetys graves one or two
Ther lyghet in the wey as we schuld go.
Of Bedlem I wyll not lyghe,
Bot that I saw ther with myn eye.
For ther that the asse and the ox stode
Is now a feyre chyrch and gode.
And ther Owre Lady in childbede ley
Ther is a feyr chyrch, I dere wele sey.
Beyond that is the same stone
That Oure Lord was cyrcumsyd upon,
And ther he blede hys fyrst blode
That ever he bled for mannys fode.
Bot why he layd hym in the stalle,
That schall I tell among you alle:
For ther was nothing so redy
That schuld long to sych a lady,
Feyre clothys and werme fyre
That women in travell schuld desyr.
Than chese thei the wermyst place of all,
And leyd hym in an asse stalle.
The ox and the asse dyde curtasy
And gave hym place onne to ly.
And ever more with eyn gray
Oure Lady beheld how he ley.
And when the bed was dyght aboute,
Sche prayd that sche myght gyff hym souke.
And now ye schall here the metyng
Betwyx Our Lady and hyr derlyng:
Sche seyd, “Welcom heven kyng,
Welcum maker of all thyng,
Welcom prince in Trinyté,
That is and was and ever schall be.
Welcum both God and man,
Welcum my lord, welcum my sone,
Welcum my joy, welcum my blys,
With all my hert that I may thee kys.
In heven blyssed be thi name,
That wold chese me to be thi dame,
So rych a emperour and a kyng
To be born of so unworthy a thing.”
And than sche praysyd hym all aboute
And with hyr pappys gave hym sowke.
At iche of this ther pylgrym be
Ther is a pena et a culpa at all thre.
Then passyd we into a valey
Ther hundred and fourty foure thousende ley
Of chylder that dyghed for Godys sake,
When cursyd Herod of hem tok wrake.
And in that place, withouten doute,
Seynt Jerom wrote the Bybull aboute.
Then wente we arly onne the morn
Ther Seynt John Baptyst was borne.
Than went we into a grete valey
Ther Adam duellyd many a dey,
And he is beryd a lytell ther fro,
Bot no Crystyn man may come therto.
And ther is mekyll of the story
Of the hous of Zakary.
Ther mette two ladys feyr and bryght —
Truly it was a wele feyr syght!
The onne was past chyld byrth be kynd,
The other was vergyn feyre and hend
And never dyde synne in boure ne in halle,
And bore that chyld that schall save us alle.
When Elyzabeth of Mary hade syght,
Sche prophesyd anon ryght,
And askyd, “What may this mervylle be,
That Godys moder comys to me?
The chyld that is in my wome so yong
Rejoset, Mary, at your comyng!
All that I have is at your wylle,
And I your servant, loud and stylle.”
When Mary herd this wordys dere,
Sche ansuerd on this manere:
All hyr herte to God sche hyght,
And thankyd God of all hys myght.
Sche knelyd after onne a stone,
Magnificat sche made anon.
And when Elyzabeth with hyr eyen graye
Had sene the wysdom of that maye
And the feyrnes of hyr face,
Anon sche callyd hyr Quene of Grace.
Doune sone on hyr kneys sche felle
And prayd that sche myght with hyr duelle.
Than sought we forth, bothe man and wyfe,
Ther Lazar was reysed fro deth to lyve,
And had lyghe stynkyng in the grond
A hundreht parte wers than a hunde.
Besyde ther, in a feyr pleyn,
Is Martha halle and Mary Madeleyn.
Ther Jhesu at the soper sate,
When Mary Maudeleyn kyssed his fete
And Martha prayd amonge them alle
That sche myght ryse and serve in halle.
Than seyd Our Lord for Marye
That sche hade chosyn the better partye.
All is befelle that I descryve
In Betany and in Betphage.
In Betphage sate Our Lord upon a ston
And bode hys asse to it were come.
Ther be the stepys of the asse fete
Ther Jhesu onne hys asse lepe.
Befor the wey, as we com
Fro Seynt John into Jerusalem,
Standys the compas of the rote
Whereon grew the tre of owre bote.
And at the mourne, when it was dey,
To flom Jordeyn we toke the wey.
At Jeryco, as we schuld gon,
We fond a hond of Seynt John,
And that is callyd the Grekys Law;
Ther we offerd when we it saw.
And ther Zaches, the lytell man,
Abod Our Lord tylle that he came,
And clame into the tre on hyght
That he myght wysly se that syght.
And ther we saw the same stonke
Ther Sodom and Gomour for synne sonke;
Fyve cytys, as I wene,
Sanke to hell for unkyndly synne.
Ther passyd non awey with lyffe
Bot Loth and hys childer and wyfe.
An angell com to Loth halle
And told of the sorow that schuld falle.
He bade hym take hys folke and go,
“For ye schall here of mykell wo.
Spede you fast with all your mayn,
And for no thing ye turne ageyn.”
The wyfe of Loth was freyll of thought
And sette the angell word at nought,
And sche brake hys comandment.
Here now, therfore, how sche was schent:
Hyr husbond bade hyr forth to gone,
And sche turnyd into a salte stone.
And whoso comys to Galilé,
Wher that stondys ye may se.
Ther growys nother corne ne haye,
Bot that the water berys awaye.
What fysch or foule comys therine,
He schall never fle ne swyme
Bot synkys done as a plombe of lede;
Tharfor, it is callyd the See of Dede.
It is fourty myle long and large of brede.
Ther dare no man touche it for drede,
For Zarysins that ther duelle
Seys that it is the pytte of helle.
Than com we to flome Jordan,
Ther Jon baptyst both god and man.
Ther we resavyd a pena et culpa
And wesch us in the water also.
And after, we toke a soppe in wyne
And turnyd up to Quryntyne,
Ther Jhesu fastyd fourty deys
When he began oure new lawys.
And ther lyes the stones rede
That the devyll bade Cryst turne in to brede.
And when he wold not wyrke hys wylle,
Another thing betwen them felle.
He bare Oure Lord in hys armys two
Fro Jerusalem to Jerico
And he sette hym on a pynnacle hye
Als fer as men myght hym se,
And schewyd hym ther haulys and bourys,
Riche castellus and many toures.
When he had schewyd hym the werld aboute,
He spake wordys that were in doute:
He seyd, “All this I schall gyfe thee,
And thou falle doune and wyrschyp me.”
Of all that he seyd beforn,
Oure Lord toke it to lytell scorn,
And ansuerd hym wyth a word:
“Go forth, theff, and tempe not thi Lord.”
Than roulyd that thefe upon a hepe
More than a thousend fathom depe,
For it was twenti oures and mo
Or of that mountan he myght go.
Doune at the fote of that mountayn
We founde a garthyn of Abraham.
Thys wey is to come and go
Sexty myle and ten and mo.
Now have we told all that we have sene,
So God me save fro sorow and tene.
And all the cause that I can seye
Is to teche a man the weye.
What pylgrym that thether wylle go,
I praye God save hym to and fro,
And gyfe them grace so to do
That hevens blys thei may com to.
Now Lord God Allmyghtye,
Thou grante us grace that it so be,
That we be redy to come to thee
When that our saulys schall partyd be.
Jhesu, that for us dyghed on the rode tre,
Save us all for thi pyté.
Be the vertu of thi holy crosse,
Latte us never in synne falle,
So that we be redy thorow thi grace
To come to thi joys eternalle.
When we schall out of this werld wend,
God, grante us for thi holy grace
Of thee, Lord, to have in mynd,2
For to behold thi blyssyd face.
AMEN QUOD RATE
Venice; (see note); (t-note)
consider every one
Greek Sea (Mediterranean)
Four saints; (see note)
lie in sight (on display)
Our Lady’s; (see note)
i.e., bears great respect
who was called Just; (see note)
blessed; (see note)
Christopher’s leg and thigh; (see note)
As much as in a Jubilee year
Corfu, Modon, and Crete; (see note)
Rhodes; (see note)
platter; (see note)
his Last Supper
Cyprus; (see note)
a good end; (see note)
before that was built
alive and dead (i.e., where he died); (see note)
Cleopas; (see note); (t-note)
[The] first joy we came to after that
[Was] when; walls
from punishment and guilt
hospice; (see note)
Saracen (Muslim) came
in a line; (see note)
unlearned (lay); eyes wept
middle of the world; (see note);(t-note)
written (inscribed); (t-note)
knocked; (see note)
kicked [him] like a dog
Until the cross
considered a source; (t-note)
chapel; (see note)
cities (groups, nations)
India; (see note)
do not understand
raise the host (the Eucharist)
no benefice (financial support)
i.e., there are holes in their clothes
consider themselves rewarded
of our [faith]
barefoot friars (Franciscans)
exceed; thousand times
The better (i.e., Christ)
[pardon] from pain and guilt
well supplied; (t-note)
i.e., in his office
to that argument
will come here; (see note)
spit; in crowds
as he desired
(see note); (t-note)
entrusted; (see note)
Every; natural (sympathetic)
i.e., gave witness in some way
they (i.e., the Jews); Cain’s race
mortise (fitted slot); (t-note)
began to fall
pelican; (see note); (t-note)
dearly (at great price); brood
went beyond [that of] the pelican
i.e., No matter how much amiss; (t-note)
before I go
source and root
from there it comes
[May] Jesus bring there
wounds were beaten [until] red; (t-note)
gave the Eucharist among them all
i.e., in the host; (see note)
in the morning hours
valley of Jehoshaphat
(see note); (t-note)
the cross [fell] between
compelled; (see note)
accustomed (i.e., able)
sent to school; (see note)
gone from there
Dives; (see note); (t-note)
wept for the city
Had he not seen
James the Less
across the Kidron brook; (see note); (t-note)
sawn; (see note); (t-note)
(see note); (t-note)
altar; (see note)
in God’s good grace
(see note); (t-note)
poked; (see note)
Outside the door
Sang Mass; desired
Because they wanted
after he was dead
Psalter (Psalms); (see note)
pulled out his hair
(see note); (t-note)
(see note); (t-note)
belong (be fitting for)
might suckle him
Zechariah; (see note)
loud and soft (i.e., in all ways)
(see note); (t-note)
hundred times worse
Martha and Mary Magdalene’s hall
(see note); (t-note)
(see note); (t-note)
commanded his ass to come to it
hoofprints of the ass
i.e., From St. John’s house
area of the roots; (see note)
our redemption; (t-note)
the river Jordan
(see note); (t-note)
unnatural; (see note)
i.e., no one survived
all your might
grain nor hay; (see note)
after [that]; sop of bread
Mount Quarantena; (see note)
(see note); (t-note)
halls and bowers (courts)
took as an insult
fell; in a heap
garden; (see note)
Go To Item 35a, The Sinner’s Lament, text