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The Wallace: Selections (Books 1-6)


1 Until south across [the River] Forth she brought them with her right away

2 To obtain a pardon so that she might be at peace

3 Pierced through the veins and unlucky [in loss] of blood

4 Then laughed he loudly and said, "May ill befall you["]

5 With household provisions diligently he supplied them

6 Supplier of food thereafter he was certainly no more

7 Lines 238-39: I think we should make them feel our strength in combat, and so we do many times

8 Lines 250-51: So it appeared to him, death had seized him quickly, / Then said to them, "He has paid what he owed [to Nature]" (i.e., he has died)

9 She offered her milk-filled breast to Wallace

10 Until we know who you are you shall [come] with me to Ayr

11 Of Wallace's escape, then continued on their way

12 And gloves of plate-armor were covered well with cloth

13 By that time the [English] force was making its way to Loudoun Hill

14 None dared separate until the press to battle was past

15 English serving men (knaves) they made their baggage transport

16 Sir Ranald Crawford was obliged to be there at that time

17 In matters of war he did not follow his counsel

18 Now enjoying good [fortune], now cold weather, now hot

19 Caused him many times to triumph over his adversaries

20 From their lance supports [attached to the saddle] they threw sharp spears at that time

21 Right through the rib; the shaft broke completely

22 To Shortwood Forest removed food and strong wine

23 Between the two parties (i.e., the English armies) Wallace then sallied out

24 But the [female] sleuth hound, which was reliable and fierce

25 He ordered him to go on and said the stronghold (i.e., Gask Hall) was near

26 None came back, but [the horn] continued to blow harshly

27 To a stair leading to a close, the boards [he] smashed in two

28 Since he began [his rebellion] are lost beyond help (i.e., fatally wounded)

29 They did not recognize him, [therefore] he was the less in danger

30 Some were stabbed, some had their throats cut

31 No English [man] could find fault with them, poor nor rich

32 So that he never again marshaled any horses

33 Lines 766-67: Their horses they took and promptly made themselves ready to leave / The town; they did not stay for dinner

34 With our [smaller] force to wait to [give] them battle here

35 [A] beginning made by agreement before ready witnesses

36 "Whom do you scorn?" said Wallace. "Who taught you?"

37 One made an obscene gesture and pulled at his long sword (penis)

38 [Remained] behind their men until they reached the gate

39 To Lanark made their way on horses, a thousand in all

40 If you are the leader of all this thing (rebellion)

41 You, robber-king, charge me because of a mere circumstance

42 Let [me] know (hear) the price. I will take every one of them

43 "For by [the look of it] this army knows the roads well"

44 Wallace was pleased when he had heard that call (lit., word)

45 Lines 567-68: Whomever they hit, with sword blows, no armor could stop them once they assembled on foot

46 Through Culter Valley before they had time to climb the hill

47 Overgrown with brushwood, and all the grass was growing vigorously

48 In Cumberland from his home in Pontefract

49 So long as I am quit [of responsibility] I care not what you do

50 Do not fail therefore to redress this wrong

51 The green [signifies] the courageous effort in which you are now engaged

52 Although you would send [a messenger], [going to] that trouble would be in vain

53 Tightly drawn ropes were fastened all along a beam

54 With a law-court servant to bring him before the court

55 Through great gluttony fell suddenly into a stupor like swine

56 It would [fall] to him (i.e., Wallace), for anything they could devise

57 Nor consider anyone [a] lord unless he owns land

58 Some grimly wept as they departed this life

59 Indeed, I believe you have not yet been blessed by a bishop

60 Lines 763-64: By [the time] our party was past Strath Fillan, / Every one [of] the small band of outlaws began to tire

61 Made an end of him; [so] that he told no news

62 Cleared a space around him as large as a rood (a measure) or more

63 That Jop himself did not know for sure who would win

64 Kept himself independent, though sworn to King Edward

65 Generosity and loyalty he had as [much as] any one could ask

66 Lived as he could and always kept good faith [with the Scottish rebels]

67 Had [it] openly proclaimed that there would be no sparing

68 Lines 1075-76: None went away except priests, women, and children; / [If] they resisted they did not escape without harm

69 He was made an earl only a short time before

70 Seven thousand in all floundered at once in [the River] Forth

71 He lived there freely as an outlaw

72 They should continue and have no fear of him (i.e., Earl Patrick)

73 Lines 106-07: Wallace would stop there no longer and turned back / Towards Dunbar, where reliable men told him

74 Northumberland [men presenting] an awesome sight

75 Lines 199-200: In truth I will not flee / As long as I have one against four of his [men]

76 Lines 285-86: None was so strong that, [once] injured by Wallace, / Ever again troubled a Scot

77 Lines 457-58: He arranged for them to choose the best armor and horse / And enough weapons to serve them well

78 What need was there of a greater force to go [to battle]?

79 Lines 518-19: He did not sin by burning and slaying them (the English). / They thought it no sin when they let us feel the same

80 And assurance of safety for as long as he wished to ask [it]

81 And this they decided among themselves

82 This knight Cambell, a man distinguished for his wisdom

83 They were extremely fearful about their own troops

84 We have no responsibility for what our king makes us do

85 Although he was the best, we do not find fault with any other

86 Since the death of Brutus, without battle, except Wallace

87 Good men must endure [the] scorn of worthless fellows in war

88 These men in shining armor reached the bulwark

89 Then Wallace said, "Where such things come through menacing["]

90 [Bearers] of [the] oldest coats [of] arms in that region

91 He should be punished for slaying such an innocent creature

92 The queen discovered words did not help her [case]

93 This emboldened me all the more to try you

94 To minstrels, heralds, she gave abundantly

95 Because of your generosity we shall cause no more trouble

96 Lines 115-16: But I am not cut out to be a courtier; / And I would rather die than leave you here

97 [That] some advocated taking to the battlefield to offer open battle

98 Fled to a plain, the English sought [to escape] from them

99 And [yet we] do not injure [them]? We have too great a repulse

100 Curling brown hair on [his] forehead and light eyebrows

101 I will let the balance of the sorrow be assuaged

102 A very large company of armed men guarded him


Abbreviations: see Textual Notes.

Book 1

1-4 The scribe indents the first four lines here and at the beginning of other books, and he indents the first two lines at the beginning of some stanzas (e.g., 2.171ff.). I have maintained the practice.

1-19 These lines provide a short prologue in which Hary highlights the commemorative function of his narrative. Although similar to Barbour's prologue in The Bruce, Hary's denigration of the English, the first of many such disparagements in his poem, is not characteristic of Barbour. Note the references to reading in line 1 of the Prologue, and then in the first line introducing the hero (line 17), and then later in the direct advice to readers in line 34. McDiarmid regards them as addresses to readers of histories (2.124n1-4).

21 Through the convention of providing his hero's genealogy, Hary traces Wallace's lineage back to the "gud Wallace" (line 30) who was a companion of Walter Warayn of Wales, or Walter Fitz Alan, the first Scottish Stewart. The Stewart dynasty succeeded the Bruces to the throne of Scotland.

23 Sir Reginald (Ranald) Crawford, brother of Wallace's mother, became sheriff of Ayr in May 1296.

28 Elrisle. Elderslie, specifically Renfrewshire land held first by the father, later by the brother of the same name, Sir Malcolm Wallace, as vassals to the Stewarts. It was part of the lordship of Paisley and Renfrew and, as Barrow (1973) points out, is right at the heart of the Stewart fief (pp. 339-40).

34 the rycht lyne of the fyrst Stewart. This appears to be a reference to Barbour's long lost genealogy of the Stewarts, a work whose existence is also attested by the fifteenth-century Scottish chronicler Andrew Wyntoun.

36 Sir Malcolm Wallace is the only brother mentioned, although other sources suggest William Wallace had at least one other brother, John, who was executed in 1307 after being captured fighting for Bruce.

41 Alexander. I.e., Alexander III (1249-86), whose accidental death when he was thrown from his horse near the royal manor of Kinghorn in Fife left the kingdom without a king. His three children had died before him, his two sons without offspring, so that the heir to the throne was his daughter's child, Margaret, the "Maid of Norway." Margaret died in Orkney on her way to Scotland to ascend her throne in 1290. A number of rival claimants to the throne then presented them-selves, the strongest two being Robert Bruce, lord of Annandale (grandfather of the future king, Robert I), and John Balliol, who did succeed in 1292.

44 a full grevous debate. Hary provides a very brief and over-simplified account of the succession crisis in the following lines. In line 47, he identifies the chief competitors as "Bruce" (that is Robert Bruce, lord of Annandale), "Balyoune" (John Balliol), and "Hastyng" (John Hastings), the descendants of the three daughters of "Our Prynce Davy" (line 45), David, earl of Huntingdon and grand-son of David I (1124-53). Balliol claimed the throne as the grandson of the eldest daughter, Dervoguilla, "of first gre lynialy" (line 49), and Bruce as the son of the second daughter, Isabel, and the first male descendant "of the secund gre" (line 50); Hastings was the grandson of Ada, the youngest daughter. King Edward I (Longshanks) was approached as arbiter and used the opportunity to declare his overlordship of Scotland. Bruce and Balliol emerged as the main claimants, although by the end of 1292, Bruce had resigned his claim in favour of his son and heirs, and Edward had decided in favor of Balliol (crowned at Scone on 30 November). By the rule of primogeniture, Balliol had the stronger claim but after the succession of Robert Bruce in 1306 history was re-written to make Bruce appear the divine and popular choice. See Barbour (Bruce 1.37-178), Wyntoun (Cronykil 8.i, ii, v-viii, x), and Bower (Scotichronicon 11.1-14), whose accounts clearly influenced Hary.

53-54 These lines may have been influenced by Barbour's passionate reproach:

A blynd folk full off all foly,
Haid 3e wmbethocht 3ow enkrely
Quhat perell to 3ow mycht apper
3e had nocht wrocht on þat maner.
Haid 3e tane keip how at þat king
Alwayis for-owtyn soiournyng
Trawayllyt for to wyn sen3hory
And throw his mycht till occupy
Landis þat war till him marcheand
. . . .
3e mycht se he suld occupy
Throw slycht þat he ne mycht throw maistri. (Bruce 1.91-112)

56 Gaskone. The war with Philip the Fair of France over Gascony did not break out until June 1294, whereas Hary is clearly referring here to events in 1291-92. Bower's mention of the envoys who journeyed to Gascony in 1286 to seek Edward's arbitration in the succession crisis (11.3) may well account for Hary's mistake, as McDiarmid suggests (2.130n56).

61 Noram. Norham, in Northumberland. It was here in May 1291 that Edward met the Scots and declared his right to overlordship of Scotland.

65 Byschope Robert. Robert Wishart, bishop of Glasgow (1261-1316), a staunch defender of Scottish independence.

70 Edward decided in Balliol's favor and the latter was crowned king in November 1292.

77 Ane abbot. Identified as Henry of Arbroath by McDiarmid, who cites Wyntoun and Bower as Hary's sources here (2.131n75-77).

79 Werk on Twede. Up river from Berwick on Tweed.

81 Corspatryk. Earl Patrick of Dunbar and March, one of the great magnates of Scotland who supported Edward I. His role in the sack of Berwick is also attested by the Scalacronica, a chronicle of English history begun in 1355 by Sir Thomas Gray when he was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle. He was later appointed keeper of Berwick town (1298). Hary describes him as a traitor, and blames him for the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar the following month.

85-96 Several accounts of Edward's sack of Berwick in March 1296 survive. Medieval Scottish chroniclers represent it as one of the greatest atrocities perpetrated by Edward's forces, because of the slaughter of civilians, including women and children. Wyntoun (8.11) and Bower (11.20) describe the devastating attack in detail and both reckon the toll at 7,500, as Hary does.

94-95 In contrast to Edward's indiscriminate slaughter, Wallace persistently refuses to slay women and children in Hary's narrative.

98-114 The Battle of Dunbar took place on 27 April 1296. Hary seems to have used a different source here from Wyntoun and Bower, who mention the presence of only one earl, Ross. The English Lanercost chronicle agrees with Hary about the four present. Modern historians tend to agree that three were present, Atholl, Ross, and Menteith. (Barrow [1988], p. 74, Watson, p. 25)

102 Mar, Menteith, Adell, Ros. The high-ranking earls of Mar, Menteith, Atholl, and Ross.

115-21 Scune. Edward's recorded itinerary after Dunbar places him in the borders during May and early June and then further north from 6 June, staying in Perth 21-24 June, in Forfar 3 July, and arriving in Montrose on 8 July, to which he summoned Balliol. If he included Scone on his route, then he must have been there in the last week of June. Both Bower and Wyntoun state that Balliol was summoned to Montrose and, stripped of the royal regalia, was there forced to resign the kingdom on 8 July 1296. Whether Edward was ever crowned at Scone is a matter for speculation. He certainly removed the Stone of Destiny, traditionally used for Scottish coronations, to London in 1296.

122 Gadalos. Legendary history records that Gaythelos was the husband of Scota, the eponymous mother of the Scottish people and daughter of an Egyptian pharaoh whose descendants brought to Scotland the Stone of Destiny that later became the coronation seat of Scottish monarchs and a symbol of Scottish independence. Taken by Edward to London in 1296, it was finally returned to Scotland with the Scottish royal regalia in 1996. See Fordun, Chronica 1.8-19, and the expanded version of this origin myth in Bower, Scotichronicon 1.9-18.

123 Iber Scot. Hiber, the son of Gaytheles, who established the Scots in Ireland.

124 Canmor syne King Fergus. Malcolm Canmore, king of Scots (1058-93) and the successor of Macbeth. According to legend, Fergus was the first Scottish king.

132 Margretis ayr. The descendants of St. Margaret, the English wife of Malcom Canmore, became the rulers of England and Scotland. Hary may be drawing on Bower, who inserts a list of their descendants in the midst of his account of the Scottish succession dispute (11.12).

133 After his triumphant tour through much of central and eastern Scotland, accepting homage as he went, Edward set up an English administration, with headquarters in Berwick, in August 1296. Important barons and knights, many captured at Dunbar, were taken as prisoners to England.

134 Bruce. I.e., Robert Bruce, the future king.

137 Blacok Mur . . . Huntyntoun. McDiarmid believes this should be Blacow mur, as it refers to Blakemore in Yorkshire where the Bruces held lands (2.136n137). Huntyntoun is the vast English Honour of Huntingdon, a third of which had come into the Bruce family through Isabel, one of the three daughters of Earl David.

140 Protector. McDiarmid (2.136n140) suggests one possible corroboration of this claim that Edward entrusted the government of all Scotland to the earl of Warenne and Earl Patrick of March (Joseph Stevenson and Robert Rodger, eds., The Wallace Papers [Edinburgh: Maitland Club, 1841], p. 5).

144 Hary returns to Wallace and resumes his account of the outbreak of war in early 1296. Later (line 192) Wallace is said to be eighteen years of age when he has his first violent encounter with the English in Dundee. Hary's account of his career does not add up. If Wallace is eighteen in 1296 he cannot have been forty-five at the time of his death in 1305, as Hary says he was (12.1427). It may be that Hary thought of eighteen as the age at which a youth could take up arms. In Book 3 Adam, the eldest son of Wallace's uncle Sir Richard Wallace, at the same age is the only one of the three who rides off with William Wallace to pursue a campaign against the English.

147-48 I.e., Malcolm, Wallace's father, alongside his eldest brother, also called Malcolm (line 321). The Lennox, in the west of Central Scotland, was one of the oldest earldoms of Scotland. It incorporated Dumbartonshire, much of Stirlingshire, and parts of Renfrewshire and Perthshire.

150 Kilspindie in the Gowrie district of Perthshire, where a relative on his maternal side offers refuge. Even though this relative is said to be an "agyt man" (line 154), it seems unlikely that Hary was referring to the uncle of Wallace's maternal grandfather, as line 152 seems to suggest, but rather to Wallace's uncle.

155 That part of Wallace's education included going to school in Dundee, ten miles from his uncle's home in Kilspindie, is repeated by Hary in 7.670-71.

159 Saxons blud. Hary quite frequently refers to the English occupiers in this racist manner. Another example is the metonym, "Sothroun" (e.g., line 188). (See Goldstein [1993], pp. 222-23.)

160-70 These sentiments are reminiscent of Bruce 1.179-204.

165 The English occupation is compared to Herod's slaughter of the innocents.

171-72 Although no other known source claims Glasgow diocese was handed over to the bishop of Durham, McDiarmid suggests that Hary's conviction about this may be based on a tradition (2.138n171-72).

175-76 The hanging of Scottish leaders and Wallace's revenge on the English as they slept in barns at Ayr are entirely fictitious events described in Book 7.

194 Specific examples of the strife Wallace encounters are recounted at lines 205-32 and in Book 2.

201-02 The description of Wallace's appearance and manner is quite conventional. His reticence to speak much is mentioned again at line 294. A more detailed portrait of Wallace is deferred until 10.1221-44.

205 The name of the constable of Dundee Castle in 1296 is not known, but the name Selby (line 207) is that of a Northumberland knight who was active in the wars of independence.

215 McDiarmid suggests a "geste" may be Hary's source here (2.140-41n205-07).

219 Rouch rewlyngis. That is, roughshod rawhide boots. In his poem on the Battle of Bannockburn, the English poet Laurence Minot used much the same term, "Rughfute riveling" (line 19), as a mocking metonym for the Scots (The Poems of Laurence Minot, ed. Richard Osberg [Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publi-cations, 1996], p. 36).

275 lawdayis . . . set ane ayr. Lawdays were the days appointed for holding courts of law, and justice-ayres were the circuit courts of the sovereign's justice.

282 St. Margaret was Queen Margaret of Scotland (d. 1093), wife of Malcolm Canmore (1057-93). Originally a member of the Saxon royal family, she became renowned for her piety and was canonized in 1249. Her shrine in Dunfermline Abbey (line 287) was a favorite destination for pilgrims.

285 Landoris. Lindores, Fife. This suggests they took the ferry across the Tay at the confluence with the River Earn, rather than the Dundee-Tayport ferry near the firth. Lindores was on a major pilgrim route, and shelter could be obtained at the Grange, the home farm of the nearby abbey.

287 Dunfermline, another early Scottish burgh, was also a major trade and communication center because of its proximity to the River Forth.

290 Lithquhow. Linlithgow, in what is now West Lothian, was one of the earliest royal Scottish burghs.

294 Note the qualities admired in the young Wallace, especially reticence. See explanatory note to lines 200-01.

296-97 One of the main ferry routes for pilgrims and other travelers in medieval Scotland linked Dunfermline and Queensferry (named after Queen Margaret, see explanatory note to line 282).

299-300 his eyme . . . persone. Bower also refers to one of Wallace's uncles as a priest.

304 sone. Used throughout the poem in addresses by older to younger male relatives generally.

317 Corsby. In Ayrshire, sometimes anglicized on maps as Crosby.

319-21 Hary claims that Wallace's father and his eldest brother Malcolm were killed at the Battle of Loudoun Hill, but Malcolm Wallace was alive in 1299 and history only testifies to a battle there in 1307. See explanatory note to 3.78.

330 lord Persye. Henry Percy, a Northumberland knight, was appointed warden of Ayr and Galloway by Edward I in 1296. He played a major part in the Scottish wars. He also appears in Bruce 4.598-603. Hary describes him as "captane than of Ayr" at line 379.

355 uncle Wallas. Another uncle, Sir Richard Wallace of Riccarton in Kyle, Ayrshire, conjecturally one of the Wallace fees (Barrow [1973], p. 350). It was, perhaps, one of his three sons mentioned first in 3.43-44 (here paraphrased) who married the widow of the earl of Carrick (the father of the future king, Robert Bruce) in 1306.

363-68 Hary becomes specific about the months Wallace spends in Ayrshire, but the year is still unclear.

368-433 The source for this story of Wallace's violent encounter with Percy's men is probably a traditional tale.

383 Scot, Martyns fysche. McDiarmid cites an old Scottish proverb which conveys the sense of "every man for himself" (2.144n383).

399 The Englishman objects to Wallace's use of the familiar "thou" instead of the more appropriate "ye" or "yhe" (lines 385 and 391) that he adopted earlier in the exchange.

Book 2

11 Auchincruff. Auchincruive Castle, Ayrshire, was the fee of Richard Wallace (line 13).

16 Laglyne Wode. Presumably a nearby forest, later part of the Auchincruive estate. Wallace uses it as a natural stronghold and refuge a number of times in the narrative (2.66; 3.421; 7.262).

27-65 One of three episodes in this book in which Wallace flexes his muscles against the English as he limbers up for organized resistance to the occupation regime Hary has described. Opportunities to display his hero's individual feats of combat are created just as they were for Bruce in Barbour's "romanys." The motif is repeated at lines 78-136, although this time Wallace does not escape his pursuers, and at lines 384-411.

93 A similarly familiar, therefore rude, form of address is found at line 391.

171-359 Note the change of stanza form for Wallace's lament in prison from couplets to a 9-line stanza rhyming aabaabbab, except for the first, which rhymes aabaababb.

234 Celinus. Another name for Mercury. McDiarmid reads Celinius and relates the allusion to Chaucer's Compleynt of Mars where Venus flees "unto Cilenios tour" (line 113) to avoid exposure by Phebus, who catches her with Mars (2.146-47n234).

258 His fyrst norys. Wallace's former wet nurse (also referred to as his "foster modyr" at line 270) retrieves his "body" from the castle walls and arranges for him to be carried across the river to Newtown on the north bank of the Ayr river. This may suggest that Wallace's birthplace was in Ayrshire. On the other hand, tradition associates Wallace's birth with Elderslie in Renfrewshire, and it may be that the wet nurse came from Ayrshire to nurse the young Wallace. He later sends her, with her daughter and grand-daughter, to join his own mother in safety there (lines 366-69).

274 A. A. MacDonald notes this motif was probably taken from Valerius Maximus ("The Sense of Place in Early Scottish Verse: Rhetoric and Reality," English Studies 72.1 [Feb. 1991], 12-27: 18).

280 To aid the ruse that Wallace is dead the good woman, "[h]is foster modyr" (line 270), places a board covered with woolens and surrounded by lights, as if it were a place of honor for mourning the deceased.

288 Thomas of Ercildoune, otherwise known as Thomas the Rhymer, is mentioned with other soothsayers in the Scalacronica. A ballad dating from the fifteenth century recounts some of Thomas the Rhymer's adventures in Elfland. See The Romance and Prophecies of Thomas of Erceldoune, ed. James Murray, EETS o.s. 61 (London: N. Trübner, 1875). Hary attributes to Thomas the prophecy that Wallace will three times oust the English from Scotland (lines 346-50).

359 Wallace's raids in England are described in 8.512-620.

416 Sir Richard Wallace of Riccarton. See explanatory note to 1.355. He is said to have three sons (line 418).

436 Robert Boyd is presented by Hary as one of Wallace's loyal companions, along with Adam Wallace, one Kneland, whose first name is never provided, and Edward Litill. Probably he is Robert Boyd of Noddsdale, Cunningham, and co-roner of Ayr and Lanark, and possibly the same Sir Robert Boyd whom Barbour identifies as one of Bruce's staunchest supporters (Bruce 4.342, 352-63, 505).

Book 3

1-14 Compare to the opening lines of Henryson's fable The Preiching of the Swallow.

11-20 Historically, the English did not occupy many castles in 1296. Hary establishes another contrast between the suffering and deprivation of the Scots and the well-provisioned English occupying forces. The irony is that harvest time is approaching. Hary is using a literary device, as the opening lines make apparent, and creating a motive for Wallace's revenge (lines 40-41).

17 wyn and gud wernage. The first suggests vin ordinaire, red or white, while wernage is a malmsey or muscadine, a strong, sweet-flavored white wine.

67 Loudoun Hill, just north of the River Irvine, Ayrshire.

72 as myn autor me teld. Like other medieval writers, Hary uses the authority topos to create the impression of authenticity.

78 Avondale, not far from Loudoun. McDiarmid suggests that Hary ingeniously created this detour from the usual route from Carlisle to Ayr, via Corsancone, so that he could invent a Battle at Loudoun Hill, drawing details from Barbour's account of Bruce's victory there in 1307 (2.153-54n81). See explanatory note to line 100.

100 There is no evidence to support Hary's account of this battle, although McDiarmid (2.153-54n81) is probably correct in saying that Hary "borrowed" it from Barbour's account of the battle Bruce fought there in 1307 (Bruce 8.207-358). The use of "dykes" and the flight of the English are common to both battles.

111-12 Compare to 1.319-20. Hary has mentioned only one brother, Malcolm. He was alive in 1299.

117-18 knycht Fenweik. No specific individual has been identified, but McDiarmid points out that a number of persons with this name are mentioned in contemporary records (2.153n62). The expeditions against the Scots may allude to cross-border raids in which Fenwicks (from Northumberland or Cumberland) are known to have been involved.

124 and be. A medial placement of an introductory conjunction is somewhat common. The sense is: "And he shall again be dragged through the town."

129-32 The polished armor of the English contrasts with the utility of the Scots' armor. The few against the many is a common romance motif, employed by Barbour too.

133-34 A maner dyk. This may well refer to a ditch and wall combination of the kind Barbour describes in Bruce 8.172-83.

188 Bewmound. Beaumont, a squire, is not to be confused with Beaumont, earl of Buchan (according to Hary), who appears from Book 7 on.

193 hors repende rouschede frekis undir feit. Repende: "kicking, plunging"; rouschede: "rushed," i.e., "charged." The alliterative surge of violence almost overwhelms the syntax as the horses crush men underfoot.

207 Kyle and Cunningham were two districts of Ayrshire. Boyd held land in Cunningham. See explanatory note to 2.436.

214 Clyde Forest was on the north side of the River Clyde.

Book 4

1-10 Hary's literary pretensions are most evident in rhetorical set pieces of this kind in which the month (September) and the season (autumn) are described.

3 Victuals in this sense include all harvestable foods, such as grain, berries, vegetables, and so on.

9 The mutability of worldly things is a medieval commonplace.

15-16 A sheriff was "the principal royal officer in local districts into which the kingdom was divided for the purposes of royal government" (Barrow [1988], p. 8). Sir Ranald inherited the position throw rycht (line 16), reflecting the tendency for a sheriff's office to become heritable.

18 as witnes beris the buk. Another invocation of his written source, or authority. The book cited here is presumably the fictitious one by Blair, which Hary claims as his main authority on Wallace.

22-54 Another instance of aggression between Wallace's and Percy's baggage men. See explanatory note to 1.368-433.

26 Hesilden. Hazelden, Renfrewshire, south of Glasgow.

71 the Mernys. Newton Mearns.

325-44 This passage, like set pieces in chronicles magnifying the qualities of the land, for better or worse, celebrates Scotland's plenty (and depravity). Compare with Barbour's account of food resources in Aberdeenshire (Bruce 2.577-84) after his defeat at Methven. Methven Park later became a favorite royal hunting reserve.

335-40 The device of anaphora (now . . . now) is employed to effect the full range of Scotland's character.

341 Hary points out that Wallace will fight for Scotland's independence (Scotlandis rycht) for 6 years and 7 months, and predicts what is to come, but of course the chronology is Hary's own.

359 mar. The chief magistrate of a town. According to the DOST, mar normally referred to the mayor or magistrate of an English town, but is used here of Perth, a town occupied by the English. There is also an old Scottish Gaelic term, maor, meaning steward or bailiff.

395-96 Sir James Butler's son, Sir John, is said to be deputy captain, and Sir Garaid (Gerard) Heroun to be the captain of Kinclaven Castle (line 396). A Robert Heron was appointed chamberlain comptroller in Scotland in 1305, but no Sir Gerard Heron has been identified as active in Scotland during this period.

441 Ninety English soldiers arrive, led by Butler, as becomes clear at line 457.

718 ff. Hary makes clear the precariousness of the woman's actions. Death by burning was the usual punishment for high treason decreed for women.

723 Wallace is referred to as a rebell. He later denies this vociferously.

740 Rycht unperfyt I am of Venus play. Compare to Chaucer, whose narrators in the dream vision poems often profess inexperience in the ways of Venus.

787 South Inche. McDiarmid notes the town had a North and South Inch, or lawn (2.166n787).

Book 5

95 Gask Wood, like Gask Hall (line 175), is on the left bank of the River Earn.

180-214 No specific source for this ghost story is known. Hary refers to Wallace's experience as a fantasé (line 212), which McDiarmid notes conforms to what Chaucer calls "infernals illusions" in medieval dream lore, i.e., fantasies that lured men to their destruction (2.169n180-224). On possible Celtic sources for the Fawdoun episode, see Balaban, p. 248.

211 ff. Hary ponders on the fantasé (line 212) and compares the myscheiff (line 217) to Lucifer's fall. Note the echo of Barbour (1.259-60) about leaving discussion of such matters to clerks (lines 223-25).

219-24 Or quhat it was in liknes . . . . McDiarmid refers to Dante's Inferno in which it is disclosed that fiends take over the bodies of traitors once the soul has departed (2.170n221-22). In his Daemonologie (1597), King James VI discusses pos-session of dead bodies by devils, calling such specters umbrae mortuorum (ch. 6.23-25; 7.16-18).

389-94 Note the use of the appropriately familiar form of address by the parson. But when the English adopt the familiar form the intention is to insult Wallace.

465-66 In Bothwell . . . / With ane Craufurd. The Crawford is presumably a kinsman of Wallace. After a night in Bothwell, Lanarkshire, Wallace moves on to Gilbank (line 467), not far from Lanark, where another uncle, Auchinleck, Sir Reginald Crawford's brother, shelters him (line 469).

467 Gilbank was identified by Jamieson as a property in Lanarkshire, held in tribute by Auchinleck, as noted by McDiarmid (2.174n467).

470-80 Presumably family tradition provided Hary with the details of these relationships; for example, that Auchinleck married Sir Reginald's widow, the daughter of the laird of Lesmahago (line 474), and fathered three children, one of whom was the son mentioned at line 477. The Crawfords, as noted before (line 466), were hereditary sheriffs of Ayr. Percy would have received homage from Sir Reginald when he was installed as part of Edward's administration in 1296.

474 Lesmahago. In Lanarkshire.

487 Loran. William Loran, Butler's nephew.

506 Percy is thinking about the need to appoint a new garrison at Perth, and he makes arrangements for this at lines 519-20. No arrangements are made for Kinclaven, which has been reduced to ruins (line 521).

508 clerkys sayis. Another reference to prophecies that haunt Wallace.

514 nacioune. One of the earliest uses of this term to refer to an identifiable nation. Wyntoun also uses it in this sense (7.408).

519 The Siwards of Tibbers and Aberdour in Fife were one of the chief Scottish baronial families. Sir Richard Siward was son-in-law to Sir John Comyn and after his capture at the Battle of Dunbar he became a prominent member of Edward I's administration in Scotland. He is known to have been sheriff of Fife and also of Dumfries, as well as warden of Nithsdale, but surviving records do not indicate whether he was ever sheriff of Perth. See also explanatory note to 7.1017.

533-45 Hary's putative sources, John Blair and Thomas Gray, are depicted as scholars and eye-witnesses. As Hary had a friend by the name of Blair, a compliment may be intended.

569-71 William Hesilrig was a Northumberland knight appointed as sheriff of Lanark in 1296 as part of the new administration. He is mentioned in the Scalacronica, p. 123.

579-710 Hary cites a buk (line 580) as authority for the story of Wallace's sweetheart. Wallace's courtship of a maiden in Lanark is also told by Wyntoun, who briefly relates how Wallace's "lemman" in Lanark dies at the hands of the town's sheriff for assisting the hero's escape from the town (8.13.2075 ff.). Unlike the "lemman" in Perth, this maiden is the daughter of a late, respectable Lanarkshire landowner. She later declares that she wyll no lemman be (line 693). Her noble parentage, beauty, manners, and virtues are all noticed. Hary names her father as Hew Braidfute of Lammington (line 584), which is in Lanarkshire, but the family has not been identified. He stresses her vulnerability, as she lacks the protection of parents and her brother has been killed. Among her qualities is piety: Wallace falls in love when he first sees her in church. That Hary's model is Criseyde from Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde is clear in lines 605-06. See Harward, pp. 48-50.

606 The prent of luff. Derived from Aristotelian philosophy, this conception of love as a deep impression made on, and retained in, the heart is also found in Robert Henryson's Testament of Cresseid (lines 505-11).

609 hyr kynrent and hyr blud. These are credentials that make her attractive to him.

631-32 Compare Troilus's attitude in Troilus and Criseyde (1.191- 203).

685 ff. See Chaucer's The Franklin's Tale (CT V[F]741-50) for a similar "accord" (V[F]741), especially concerning service in love.

719-61 Wallace moves into Annandale, traveling from Corehead, in Moffatdale, to Lochmaben Castle, where he kills the captain.

720 This familial relationship between Thom Haliday and Wallace is not otherwise attested. The purported relationship gives Wallace an extended family and support network. See 6.535-37 and explanatory note to 6.537, below.

721 Litill. Edward Litill from Annandale. See explanatory note to 2.436.

737 Sir Robert Clifford, a Westmoreland knight, was active in Scotland from 1296. He has known associations with Caerlaverock and Carlisle castles, so may well have had a cousin who was captain of Lochmaben. He was warden of Galloway from 1298 and appointed captain of the southwest garrisons, which were regularly under attack from the Scots. He defended Lochmaben from Bruce in 1307 and was killed at Bannockburn. Hary is inclined to make family vengeance a motivating force. Compare his treatment of the Butlers.

755 A marshal was originally one who tended horses. Later it was the title of a high-ranking officer in a royal court.

757-65 Another instance of Hary's grim humor. As well as shaving, barbers also let blood.

766-970 Wallace and his small company are pursued by soldiers from Lochmaben. Running combat ensues as the English give chase through the Knockwood (line 777) and Wallace tries to return to Corehead, avoiding open battle. Reinforcements are provided when needed most by Sir John Graham and one Kirkpatrick, whereupon the pursuit is reversed.

804-09 This is the "few against many" motif again.

815-18 Hugh of Morland, another Westmoreland knight, and a veteran according to Hary, was probably involved in border warfare long before the war with Scotland broke out. Although many of the specific persons mentioned by Hary cannot be identified precisely, their names are often authentic in that they can be linked to geographical places.

841 ff. Wallace is presented as an exemplary chieftain.

Book 6

1-104 This preamble links Wallace's fortunes to love, and anticipates the loss of his beloved. The meter adopted here is appropriate for tragedy, as in Chaucer's The Monk's Tale, and incorporates Wallace's complaint, lines 29-40. Hary appropriates the conventional spring topos for the opening of Book 6, associating April, the last month of spring (line 3), with Wallace's sufferings on account of love. The opening lines are not easy to follow though. Hary begins with what seems to be a reference to Christian liturgical use, with his allusion to the utas of Feviryher (line 1). Utas or "octave" was the eighth day after a feast day, counting the day itself. The term was also used of the whole period of eight days, so McDiarmid's suggestion that Hary may simply mean the weeks of February may be correct. The reference to the appearance of April when only part of March has passed (line 2), may be explained, as McDiarmid suggests, as an allusion to the Roman calends of April, which began on March 16 (2.181n1-2).

25 feyr of wer. Here and at line 40 but with different, though connected, meanings.

44-56 concord. The influence of the "accord" (CT V[F]791) between Arveragus and Dorigen in Chaucer's The Franklin's Tale (V[F]791-99) is unmistakable, especially the echoes in the next stanza. A further debt to Chaucer's Complaint of Mars (2.76-77) is detected by McDiarmid in lines 54-56 (2.183n54-56). An idealized relationship, based on literary models, is certainly indicated.

57 doubill face. The duplicitous face of Fortune is frequently used to convey the arbitrary nature of her power. See, for example, Chaucer's The Book of the Duchess, lines 626-34.

60-61 The rhetorical figures of antithesis and anaphora combine in the now . . . now construction, and again at lines 81-85.

71 A Squier Schaw. McDiarmid implies that Hary may have been influenced by the fact that around the time he was writing his poem one of James IV's squires was a John Shaw (2.183n71).

88 McDiarmid (2.184n88) finds an echo of Troilus and Criseyde 4.296: "On lyve in torment and in cruwel peyne."

94 na hap to ho. Literally "no destiny to stop," i.e., destined not to stop.

97-101 The role of Fortune and the contrast between this corrupt, changeable world and perfect heaven are conventional and undoubtedly influenced by Boethian philosophy. An extended treatment of the theme can be found in The Kingis Quair by James I of Scotland (1394-1437).

107-271 The date is very precise and alerts us to his source, Wyntoun's Cronykil, Book 8, ch. 13. Hary lifts the ensuing dialogue straight from Wyntoun (8.13.2038-48) but he elaborates on Wyntoun in his account of the lead-up to the confrontation (8.13.2029-37).

113 Robert Thorn, supposedly an English officer too, has not been identified.

114-18 "Has found the best way / To act against Wallace / By picking a quarrel with him as he happened to come / From the church in town, / While their company would be armed." Note the assumption that Wallace would be unarmed (i.e., without armor) and so vulnerable. See line 125 where he and his company are dressed in seasonal green.

124-264 Hary may have had another source for his account of the death of Wallace's sweetheart and the revenge killing of Heselrig than Wyntoun's Book 8, ch. 8. The killing of the sheriff and the burning of the town are attested in other sources.

132 Dewgar . . . bone senyhour. Hesilrig attempts to insult Wallace with French idioms, implying that he is an effete foreigner newly come from France (line 134) or a mock-courtier. Wallace replies to the scornful address by contemptuous use of single pronouns in his response (line 133).

136 McDiarmid suggests a contemporary reference to Princess Margaret, who was brought from Denmark to Scotland in 1469 (see 2.183n71 and 2.185n134-36).

140 Here the English mock Scots idioms of salutation. McDiarmid (2.185n140) points out that this is a series of sarcastic greetings, initially in dialect, then in pidgin-Gaelic, meaning something like: "Good evening, [give me] drink Lord, furious champion, God's blessing [on you]."

182 The woman. This is a reference to Wallace's wife, as the following lines indicate.

190 Cartland Crags, two miles northwest of Lanark.

193-94 Hary employs the rhetorical strategy of the "inability" topos and, as Goldstein (1993) observes, "The episode is no less powerful for its calculated understatement" (p. 228).

265-66 Wyntoun: "Fra he thus the Schirrawe slew, / Scottis men fast till hym drew" (8.8.2117-18).

268 that gret barnage. That is, the English occupying forces.

271-72 The debt to Wyntoun is apparent:

And this Willame thai made thare
Our thame chefftane and leddare. (8.8.2121-22)

The idea of Wallace as the people's choice is common to both.

275 Murray of Bothwell, said to be the rightful owner of Bothwell Castle, a vital stronghold which commanded the direct route from northern Scotland to the southwest (Barrow [1988], p. 121). This must be a reference to the father of Andrew Murray, later Guardian of Scotland. At this time Bothwell Castle was still the property of the Oliphants. When Andrew Murray inherited it he became known as Murray of Bothwell.

297-318 Jop becomes Wallace's herald. Although Hary gives him a history, he is otherwise unknown. Grimsby is possibly Gilbert de Grimsby, who carried the banner of St. John of Beverley in Edward's progress through Scotland after Dunbar. McDiarmid notes that a William Grymesby of Grimsby stayed for a while at Linlithgow Palace in 1461, and the poet may well have met him there (2.188n297-318).

302-12 Compare Chaucer's portraits of the merchant and seaman in The General Prologue.

309 A pursuivant was the junior heraldic officer below the rank of herald.

329 His oath of allegiance to Edward must have been made in 1296.

336 Schir Jhone of Tynto. The association with Tinto suggests he was a Lanarkshire knight, but he has not been identified.

342 This is fabricated, as is the ensuing Battle of Biggar. Edward did not bring an army to Scotland again until 1298, when the Battle of Falkirk was fought.

363-66 Note the romance motif of disguise in battle. Fehew, or Fitzhugh, is a brother of the Fehew who is later beheaded by Wallace while defending his castle of Ravensworth (8.1010-69). McDiarmid notes that a Fitzhugh fought at Bannockburn and refers to another Fitzhugh who was a prominent contemporary of Hary (2.189n363). The relationship to Edward is a complete fabrication, used to introduce a tale about how a nephew's head was sent to Edward with Wallace's reply to the king's writ.

410 Possibly a reference to the tournaments in which heralds relied on their specialist knowledge of participants' coats of arms.

417-19 Wyntoun memorably likened one of Edward's terrible rages to the writhing effects brought on from eating a spider! (8.11.1773-78).

434-73 McDiarmid notes that the same story is told of Hereward the Wake (2.190n434-75).

444 A mark or merk was worth thirteen shillings and four pence.

506 Somervaill. McDiarmid identifies him as Sir Thomas Somerville (2.190n506). The Somervilles owned lands in Linton, Roxburghshire, and Carnwath, Lanarkshire (Barrow [1988], p. 325). Sir Walter and his son David of Newbigging (lines 508-10) were probably Somerville retainers. Sir John Tynto (line 509) was another Lanarkshire knight. See explanatory note to line 336.

517-26 Hary's debt to The Book of Alexander, possibly indirectly through Barbour, has been noted by McDiarmid (2.191n516-26) and others.

537 Jhonstoun and Rudyrfurd are place names, and may refer to Sir John of Johnstone and Sir Nicholas of Rutherford, as McDiarmid suggests. Hary claims they are the sons of Haliday (see explanatory note to 5.720).

540 Members of the Jardine family, associated with Annandale, were active in the wars.

543-765 Battle of Biggar. A fabrication that may very well draw on a variety of sources in which other battles and campaigns are depicted, in particular the accounts by Froissart and Barbour of James Douglas' Weardale campaign, especially the skirmish at Stanhope Park, and details from the Battle of Roslin in 1303 found in Wyntoun and Bower. There are many anachronisms therefore in the account of this fictitious battle and its aftermath. Among Hary's most blatant fabrications is his claim that a number of Edward I's relatives were killed at Biggar (lines 649-54).

561 erll of Kent. McDiarmid identifies him as Edmund of Woodstock, uncle of Edward III (2.192n561).

592 that cheiff chyftayne he slew. I.e., the earl of Kent. The historical earl was actually executed in 1330.

638-41 Supplies are taken to Rob's Bog while Wallace moves his troops to nearby Devenshaw Hill on the right bank of the Clyde River.

645 John's Green is probably Greenfield near Crawfordjohn.

669 duk of Longcastell. Duke of Lancaster. McDiarmid (2.194n669) points out this is an anachronism, like the reference to the lord of Westmoreland (line 685). The earl of Lancaster at this time was Edmund, brother of Edward I. In 1298 the son Thomas succeeded.

689-91 A Pykart lord as keeper of Calais is another anachronism derived from Edward III's French wars.

694 Schir Rawff Gray. Hary makes him warden of Roxburgh Castle (8.496-98, here paraphrased), but when it was surrendered to Edward by the Stewart in 1296 the English knight Sir Robert Hastings became keeper (as well as sheriff of Roxburgh) until 1305 when Edward I's nephew, John of Brittany, was appointed the lieutenant of Scotland and keeper of this militarily vital castle (Watson, p. 216). But according to McDiarmid, the name of the English warden of Roxburgh Castle in 1435-36 was Sir Ralph Gray, so this is another anachronism.

698 Eduuardis man. Sir Amer de Valence was Edward I's lieutenant in Scotland and was later created earl of Pembroke (1307). He was not a Scot, as Hary seems to suggest, although the description fals may refer to the role he later played in commissioning John Menteith to betray Wallace (Book 12). The influence of Barbour is detectable in the reference to Valence immediately after Loudoun Hill, and the connection with Bothwell (similarly in 6.274).

749 The name of the captain of Berwick in 1297 is not known but, as Watson observes, the majority of appointments do not survive in the official record (p. 33). Both Roxburgh and Berwick were strategically very important, as Hary acknowledges (8.1551-52).

761 Byrkhill. Birkhall, near Moffat.

765 Braidwood. Braidwood, Lanarkshire.

767 Forestkyrk. Forestkirk was the old name for Carluke, Clydesdale.

768 The exact date of Wallace's appointment as Guardian of Scotland is unknown, but Barrow (1988) believes it must have been before March 1298 (p. 96). Hary's use of Wyntoun here and at lines 784-86 is evident (Wyntoun 8.12.2121-22). See also Bower 11.28.

771 Schir Wilyham. Sir William Douglas had been the commander of Berwick Castle when Edward sacked it in 1296. He had certainly joined forces with Wallace by May 1297 when together they attacked William Ormsby, the English justiciary at Scone (of which Hary makes no mention). William Douglas' son, Sir James Douglas, was Bruce's companion in arms.

802 Adam Gordone. Adam Gordon, a kinsman of the earls of Dunbar (with Gordon in Berwickshire as his principal estate), was a known Balliol adherent (Barrow [1988], p. 189). By 1300 he was the Scots warden of the West March. He later became a prominent magnate under Robert Bruce.

836 Towrnbery. Turnberry was the chief castle of Carrick. Around the same time that Wallace slew the sheriff of Ayr, Robert Bruce led a revolt against Edward I in Carrick.

851-53 Wallace administers justice, in keeping with his duty as a Guardian. Bruce similarly rewards trew (line 853) men in Barbour's narrative.

854 brothir sone. I.e., Wallace's nephew. McDiarmid (2.197n854) takes this as a reference to his elder brother's son, Malcolm, who would have inherited the patrimony as the eldest son, and on his death (which Hary had said took place at Loudoun Hill) his son would have been heir.

855 Blak Crag. Blackcraig Castle in the parish of Cumnock, Ayrshire. "His houshauld" (line 856) suggests (like "his duellyng" in line 940) a reference to Wallace's own castle, which is confirmed in Book 12.937-38. This has fed the belief retained by some that Wallace was born in Ayrshire.

863 byschope Beik. Anthony Bek, bishop of Durham and Edward's lieutenant in Scotland until August 1296. In Book 1 (lines 171-72) Hary had said that Glasgow diocese was transferred to the jurisdiction of Durham.

865 Erll of Stamffurd . . . chanslar. John Langton was actually chancellor of England at this time. Hary may be confusing him with Sir Thomas Staunford, a member of Sir Henry Percy's retinue (Watson, p. 44), especially as he has referred to Percy in the preceding lines (lines 862-64).

869 Ruglen Kyrk. Rutherglen Church near Glasgow.

Book 7

1-2 If Hary's chronology were at all consistent, this would refer to February 1298 since in the previous book he had placed the killing of Heselrig some time after April of 1297; but the Battle of Stirling Bridge (11 September 1297) will be described later in this book.

7-9 In Aperill . . . Into Carleill. According to the records, after he returned from Flanders on 8 April 1298, Edward summoned his leading commanders in Scotland to a royal council at York. On the same date he also ordered a muster of Welsh foot-soldiers at Carlisle (Watson, p. 61) as part of his campaign to invade Scotland. Hary may be confusing preparations before the Battle of Falkirk with those before Stirling Bridge, the previous year.

16 A very striking image of genocide, as Goldstein (1993) notes (p. 231).

23-29 The plans for the wholly fictitious murder of leading Scots, referred to by Hary as gret bernys of Ayr (line 25), are hatched. Hary's respect for Percy leads him to dissociate him from the atrocity (lines 31-36).

38 his new law. This relates to the justice-ayre that Bek is to hold in Glasgow. McDiarmid finds corroboration in line 517 (2.199n38).

40-41 Arnulf of Sothampton appears to be fictitious. None of the earls of Southampton had this first name. Later Hary mentions that Arnulf received Ayr castle, presumably as a reward for the executions (lines 507-08).

56 maistré. Barbour also uses it in the sense of display of might. It is clearly seen as a provocative act in time of truce.

58 Monktoun Kyrk. Monkton Church, near Ayr in the west of Scotland.

61 Maister Jhone. Probably another reference to Master John Blair (5.533). McDiarmid takes it as evidence of Blair's Ayrshire origins, saying Adamton, the seat of the Blair family, was in Monkton parish (2.199n62). He attempts to warn Wallace to stay away from the justice-ayre at Ayr because he knows it is ominous that Lord Percy has left the region (lines 63-64).

68-152 Wallace falls asleep and has a vision in the form of a dream. There are plenty of literary models for this dream-vision, including Chaucer's Parliament of Fowls and House of Fame. A particular debt to the fourteenth-century poem The Alliterative Morte Arthure, in which King Arthur is visited by Lady Fortune in a dream, has been proposed. In his dream, Wallace is visited first by St. Andrew and then by the Virgin Mary. A vision of St. Andrew confirming Wallace's divinely ordained role as governor of Scotland is mentioned in the Coupar Angus MS of Bower's Scotichronicon (11.28) and probably derived from traditional tales known to both Bower and Hary (see D. E. R. Watt, Notes to Scotichronicon 6.236n35-37).

94 saffyr. The sapphire is interpreted at lines 139-40 as everlasting grace.

123 In L there are the following Protestant substitutions: The stalwart man instead of Saynct Androw, and "Goddis saik" replaces "For Marys saik" in line 291.

178-90 Jupiter, Mars . . . Saturn. These allusions recall Chaucer's The Knight's Tale, CT I(A)2454-69, as previous readers have noted. The echoes are particularly striking in lines 183 and 185.

190 heast sper. In the earth-centered medieval cosmography, Saturn, like the other planets, moved within its own sphere. The moon moved within the sphere closest to the earth, while Saturn moved in the sphere furthest away, or highest in the heavens.

191-92 The death of the Argive hero and seer Amphiorax (Phiorax, line 192), or Amphiaraus, is told at the end of Statius's Thebaid 7. McDiarmid cites Troilus and Criseyde 5.100-05, and Lydgate's Siege of Thebes as Hary's more immediate sources (2.202n191-92).

195 Burdeous. Bordeaux. McDiarmid (2.202n195) reckons Hary is referring to Charles VII's capture of Bordeaux (1453), in which case this is another anachronism.

197-98 braid Brytane feill vengeance . . . . This may be a veiled reference to recent or contemporary history, but it is too vague for more than speculation.

202 towboth. Tolbooths were prisons and, traditionally, execution sites in Scotland.

205-10 Sir Reginald Crawford and Sir Bryce Blair - who, like Robert Boyd (2.436), was a Cunningham knight - were actually executed much later: Blair was hanged, possibly in a barn in Ayr in 1306, while Crawford was hanged and beheaded at Carlisle in 1307. Hary's source was Bruce 4.36-38:

Off Crauford als Schyr Ranald wes
And Schyr Bryce als þe Blar
Hangyt in-till a berne in Ar.

214 Schir Neill of Mungumry. Unknown. McDiarmid (2.202n214) suggests Hary may have meant Neil Bruce, Robert Bruce's brother, because his summary execution after a valiant defence of Kildrummy castle is described by Barbour shortly after the lines quoted above (Bruce 4.59-61, 314-22).

218-20 The Crawfords, Kennedys, and Campbells came from the southwest (Carrick and Ayrshire), while the Boyds and Stewarts, originally from Renfrewshire, became kinsmen of Robert I through marriage. The Stewarts eventually formed a royal dynasty. McDiarmid may be correct in saying that some are names Hary wished to honor in his own day (pp. xlix, lvii).

229 curssit Saxons seid. One of Hary's many disparaging references to the "enemy." The English are first referred to as Saxons in 1.7.

237 Hary's partisan view is in evidence and, as in the opening lines of Book 1, here he makes an appeal to contemporaries.

280-81 There is a possible echo of Suetonius's account of the covering up of the assassinated Julius Caesar (to preserve his dignity), which Hary could have known through Fordun (Chronica 2.17).

288 William Crawford, presumably Sir Reginald's son.

331 deill thar landis. He refers to the lands of the murdered Scottish barons. See lines 436-37, below.

342 McDiarmid (2.203n342) says Irish ale is whisky, but I have been unable to confirm this.

346-49 Note the emotive language used here to condemn the English. Goldstein (1993) cites this as an example of Hary's "racist discourse" (pp. 224-25).

362 burges. A burgess was a citizen of a burgh, a freeman.

380 Adam . . . lord of Ricardtoun. Adam Wallace. See explanatory note to 1.144. Riccarton in Kyle, Ayrshire was long associated with the Wallace family as noted earlier (explanatory note to 1.355). See explanatory note to 5.465-66, above, on Auckinleck.

385-86 Wallace's divine mission is thus manifest.

400-01 Compare Chaucer on true nobility in his lyric on Gentilesse, and the curtain lecture in The Wife of Bath's Tale (III[D]1109-64).

403 the Roddis. The island of Rhodes, possibly a contemporary reference by Hary to the Knights of St. John, as McDiarmid suggests (2.204n403).

408 der nece. This is the "trew" woman (line 252) who had warned him to stay away from the barns and advised that the English were drunk.

434-35 The lines are bitterly ironic and allude, of course, to the treachery perpetrated at the barns of Ayr and the revenge about to be taken.

440 A typical example of Hary's grim humor.

450-70 The repetitions and heavy alliterations are particularly effective in conveying the merciless killings described in these lines.

453-54 "Some rushed quickly to reach Ayr, if they could. / Blinded by fire, they could not see properly what they were doing." McDiarmid interprets thar deidis war full dym as "their deaths were in utter darkness" (2.204n454), but line 472 makes clear that some did escape.

471 There was a Dominican priory in Ayr, and Drumley was the name of a property not far from Ayr that belonged to the Gilbertine monastery of Dalmulin, according to McDiarmid (2.205n471).

488 the furd weill. McDiarmid suggests this is St. Katherine's Well (2.205n488).

491-92 Compare the irreverent humor here with lines 546-47, below.

559 Throughout The Wallace Hary is generous in his praise of warriors from Northumberland. Their mettle would have been tested in border warfare over many years. See line 585 for corroboration.

579-80 strang stour . . . the clowdis past. The dust raised by horses and clashing forces. McDiarmid cites James Scott's comment that such vivid imagery is not to be expected from a man born blind (2.205n579-80).

585 The Percy's men are said to be experienced warriors, just as men of Northumberland are acknowledged as "gud men of wer" (line 559).

595-96 Wallace kills Percy. Factually this is untrue since Henry Percy was alive until 1314. Robert Bruce's attack on Percy and his garrison in Turnberry Castle is described by Barbour (Bruce 5.43-116).

607 that place. I.e., Bothwell, which is occupied by Valence, as Hary has observed.

609-11 began of nycht ten houris in Ayr. "Started from Ayr at ten o'clock at night." Hary reckons it took Wallace fifteen hours altogether to travel from Ayr via Glasgow to Bothwell (Ayr to Glasgow 11 hours, Glasgow to Bothwell 4 hours).

613 The impression of verisimilitude is bolstered by another reference to an authoritative source, the buk.

617-954 While disturbances are known to have occurred in the first half of 1297 in the west Highlands, Aberdeenshire and Galloway, Wallace's involvement in any of these is not confirmed by other sources. After he killed the sheriff of Lanark his next recorded strike, with William Douglas, was against the English justice at Scone in May. Hary does not mention this.

620 The recital of names is probably more important than any particular individuals here.

621-23 Apon Argyll a fellone wer . . . . John of Lorn is described as "Fals" (line 629), perhaps because, with his father, Alexander MacDougall, lord of the Isles, he submitted to Edward in 1296. He was a Balliol supporter, and was related to John Comyn; after the latter's murder, he became Bruce's implacable enemy.

623 Probably Sir Neil Campbell of Loch Awe, who plays a part as one of Bruce's closest companions in The Bruce (2.494; 3.393, 570-74).

626-28 Makfadyan. Said to have sworn fealty to Edward, but probably not a historical person. As McDiarmid points out (2.206-07n626), these "events" are modeled on Barbour's account of the Lorn episodes (Bruce 10.5-134).

633 Duncan of Lorn was Alexander MacDougall's second son.

643 McDiarmid glosses Irland as Hebridean islands (2.207n643). The Wallace uses "Irland" to designate northern and western Celtic settlements on the mainland (Highlands) and the Gaelic inhabited islands. See OED, Irish adj. 1.

647 Louchow. Loch Awe region, near Lorn.

649 Crage Unyn. McDiarmid identifies this as Craiganuni (2.207-08n649).

670 This is the second reference to Wallace's schooling in Dundee. Duncan of Lorn is said to have been Wallace's school companion.

673 Gylmychell. Possibly a member of the local clan Gillymichael.

679 Sir Richard Lundy is consistently presented as a patriot by Hary, fighting with Wallace at the Battle of Stirling (7.1237). The historical Lundy actually went over to the English when the Scots leaders prepared to surrender at Irvine in 1297. He was with the English at Bannockburn (1314). The Lundy family held estates in Angus.

685 The Rukbé. Another anachronism, if the allusion is to Thomas Rokeby, mayor of Stirling Castle in 1336-39, as McDiarmid suggests (2.209n685-86). The sheriff of Stirling, and probably the keeper of Stirling Castle at the time, was Sir Richard Waldergrave.

723 Lennox men were known for their patriotism, and their loyalty to their "lord," Earl Malcolm.

755 In Brucis wer agayne come in Scotland. There is no mention of them in The Bruce.

757-58 Mencione of Bruce . . . . Another reference to the spurious biography by Blair. The claim that Wallace fought for Bruce, [t]o fend his rycht (line 758), is incorrect, since the historical Wallace fought for Balliol, not Bruce.

764 small fute folk. As McDiarmid notes, these were lightly armed auxiliaries (2.210n764).

776 westland men. Warriors from the west country, presumably from Argyll.

798 Cragmor. Creag Mhor, facing Loch Awe.

842 Yrage blud. The "Irish" here refers to Celtic clansmen, whether from the Highlands, the Hebrides, or Ireland.

849 In other words, native Scots threw themselves on the mercy of Wallace.

880 John was the heir and Duncan was his younger brother, not his uncle. The MacDougalls were related to the Comyns and were Balliol supporters.

890 Sir John Ramsay is briefly mentioned by Barbour as a member of Edward Bruce's retinue bound for Ireland (Bruce 14.29).

900-02 Although Barbour describes Ramsay of Auchterhouse as chivalrous (Bruce 14.29-30), McDiarmid notes there is no such reference to Sir Alexander Ramsay in The Bruce (2.211n901-02).

913 There is no reason to believe that Ramsay held Roxburgh Castle. See explanatory note to 6.694.

917 Hary comments on his own inclination to digress and the criticism it attracts, employing a well-known rhetorical topos.

927-32 a gud prelat. I.e., Bishop Sinclair. Another anachronism, as he was not made bishop until 1312. Barbour had celebrated his exemplary leadership against an English invasion of Fife in 1317. Hary's wish to honor the "Synclar blude" (line 930), as the Sinclairs were prominent literary patrons in Hary's day, may explain this passage.

938 Lord Stewart. Lord James Stewart was hereditary lord of Bute (line 936). He had served as a Guardian during the interregnum and had been given charge of a new sheriffdom of Kyntyre by John Balliol during his short reign. He surrendered to Percy and Clifford in July 1297, but had joined Wallace by the Battle of Stirling Bridge.

980 The wattir doun . . . to that steid. I.e., along the Tay River to Perth, or St. John's Town, as it was known.

981 Ramsay is said to be their guide, presumably because he knows the area so well, since he held lands in neighboring Angus.

983-1027 The assault on Perth. Bruce had mounted an attack on Perth in June 1306 and, as in Hary's account of Wallace's assault, he had approached from the west. The Battle of Methven followed. Perth was not won by Wallace, and the installation of Sir William of Ruthven as sheriff in 1297 is another fabrication. See explanatory notes to lines 1017, 1025, and 1281, below.

990 Turret Bridge was on the southwest side of Perth (McDiarmid 2.213n990).

1017 Jhon Sewart. Sir John Sewart or Siward. See explanatory note to 5.519. The Siwards were a Fife baronial family. The implication is that Siward was the keeper of the castle or sheriff of the town who was replaced by Ruthven (lines 1025-27), but this seems unlikely.

1025 Rwan. McDiarmid identifies him as Sir William de Rothievan (i.e., Ruthven), who swore fealty to Edward in 1291 (2.213n1025-28).

1031 Cowper. Coupar Abbey in Angus.

1044 Dwnottar. Dunnottar Castle on the east coast of Scotland.

1078 Lord Bewmound. Sir Henry Beaumont, a cousin of Edward II, had married Alice Comyn, an heiress to the earldom of Buchan. He fought at Bannockburn.

1079 Erll he was. Beaumont was an earl, but not of Buchan as Hary claims (line 1077). John Comyn was earl of Buchan 1289-1308 and died childless (Barrow [1988], p. 271).

1082 Slanys. Slains Castle was on the coast.

1088 Lammes evyn. I.e., July 31. Lammas Day is the first day of August, and tra-ditionally the day on which there was thanksgiving for harvest.

1089 Stablyt. In the sense of settled the affairs of the kingdom, i.e., through the appointment of officers and the distribution of lands as rewards.

1090-1127 A number of sources, including Wyntoun (8.8.2147-50) and Bower (11.27), confirm that Wallace was laying siege to Dundee in August 1297 when he heard about the English forces sent by Edward to Stirling.

1102 Kercyingame. Sir Hugh de Cressingham, Edward's treasurer in Scotland. He seems to have become a hated figure in Scotland, and his corpse was flayed when discovered after the Scottish victory at Stirling Bridge.

1103 Waran. Sir John de Warenne, earl of Surrey, appointed keeper of the kingdom and land of Scotland, had commanded the English army at the siege of Dunbar.

1110-19 These lines refer to the capture of Dunbar that Hary referred to earlier, in Book 1. Although Earl Patrick was an adherent of Edward I, his wife remained a Scottish patriot. As the earl of Warenne prepared to take Dunbar Castle in 1296, the countess tricked her husband's garrison into admitting the Scottish forces to the castle. Some of Hary's details may have come from the Guisborough chronicle (lines 977-78). For a full account, see Barrow (1988), p. 72.

1129 Angwis men. Men of Angus.

1144-45 Wallace sends the herald Jop to inform the Scots that the battle will take place on the next Tuesday.

1145-1218 Battle of Stirling Bridge. A number of the details given here are peculiar to Hary, such as the sawing of the bridge in two (line 1151); the use of wooden rollers at one end of the bridge (lines 1155-56); and the use of a carpenter to sit in a cradle under the bridge to release pins on command (lines 1158-60). The Scots were probably outnumbered by the English, but Hary's figures (50,000 English) are fanciful. The number of casualties, including the death of Cressingham at Wallace's hands (lines 1194-99), is also Hary's invention. Some of Hary's details agree with the account in Guisborough, for example, his figure of 50,000 for the English host (line 1166), although Guisborough says there were also 1,000 cavalry. Various sources agree that Cressingham led the vanguard across the narrow bridge, while Warenne remained with the other main contingent on the south side of the bridge (lines 1171-75). According to the records, the English made their way to Berwick after the defeat at Stirling, not Dunbar as Hary says (lines 1218 and 1227). For another account of the battle, see Barrow (1988), pp. 86-88.

1170 playne feild. Wallace was on the Abbey Crag slope.

1174 An ironic allusion to a popular proverb, as McDiarmid points out (2.216n1174), to the effect that the wise man learns by the example of others. Barbour quotes it early in The Bruce: "And wys men sayis he is happy / Þat be oþer will him chasty" (1.121-22).

1214 Andrew Murray, father of the regent of the same name. He had been in revolt against Edward in Moray since 1297. See Bower, 29.19 and Watt's note on p. 237. Although Wyntoun (8.13.2178) and an inquest of 1300 say that Andrew Murray was killed at Stirling Bridge (Joseph Bain, ed., Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland [Edinburgh: H. M. General Register House, 1881-88] 2.1178), Barrow (1988) and others believe that he did not die until November, probably from wounds received in the battle (p. 343n1). Bower's statement that he was wounded and died (11.30) bears this construction. Murray and Wallace shared leadership of Scotland during the two months after the Stirling victory.

1222 Dunbar Castle was occupied by Waldergrave at this period, not by the earl of Lennox.

1234 Hathyntoun. Haddington, near Edinburgh.

1251 McDiarmid suggests Hary makes this Assumption Day because of Hary's presentation of Wallace as a special protégé of Mary.

1252 Our Lady. This Catholic reference is amended to our Lord in L.

1255-59 Barrow (1988) points out that the history of the lordship of Arran is obscure at this time, but the association with Menteith, a member of the Stewart family, dates from this period (p. 363n88). It was perhaps conquered by Robert I. Menteith's oath of allegiance to Wallace (lines 1261-62) is richly ironic in view of his later betrayal.

1276 Cristall of Cetoun. Sir Christopher Seton, a Yorkshire knight married to Bruce's sister Christian, became one of Bruce's most devoted followers. He was captured at Doon Castle and executed in 1306. See The Bruce 2.421-30; 4.16-24.

1281 Herbottell. The keeper of Jedburgh Castle bears the name of another border castle. Herbottle and Jedburgh castles were held against the English until October 1298. Wallace put John Pencaitland in as keeper (Watson, p. 50) Whether a Ruwan (Ruthven) was installed as captain (lines 1289-90) is unknown.

1293 For the reference to The Bruce, see explanatory note to line 1276 above.

1299-1300 This is historically inaccurate since Edinburgh Castle remained in English hands until 1314.

1302 Mannuell. Manuel, in Stirlingshire.

1306-08 Bruce is intended, although Wallace was actually a Balliol supporter.

Book 8

1 Fyve monethis thus. Five months after the Battle of Stirling Bridge would be February 1298, but references to the months of October and November at lines 433-34 only serve to highlight the problems with Hary's chronology. Wallace may well have tried unsuccessfully to win Earl Patrick over at this time.

21 king of Kyll. An insulting play on the Wallace lands held in Kyle.

23-24 Corspatrick's dismissal of Wallace as a knight bachelor, i.e., a relative novice, is also meant to be insulting. The earl refers to that well-known image of mutability, the wheel of Fortune, to predict that while Wallace may currently enjoy good fortune, this will soon change.

29 Many Scots lords held land in England at this time, e.g., Robert Bruce.

37 a king. I.e., King Robert Bruce. See line 146, below.

63-66 Robert Lauder became a powerful Scottish magnate under Robert I, richly rewarded by the king for loyalty with grants of lands and the position of justiciar of Lothian. Hary suggests he is keeper of some castle (line 64), presumably Lauder in Berwickshire.

68 the Bas. Bass Rock, off North Berwick.

71 Lyll. Unknown, although McDiarmid points out that the Lyles of Renfrewshire obtained property in East Linton in the fifteenth century.

115-21 Coburns Peth . . . Bonkill Wood . . . Noram . . . Caudstreym . . . on Tweid. All of these place names are in Berwickshire. Norham was on the north bank of the River Tweed and Coldstream on the south bank.

124-29 Atrik Forrest . . . Gorkhelm. Ettrick Forest was in the borders and Gorkhelm has not been identified. McDiarmid suggests that the latter may have been in the vicinity of the Cockhum stream near Galashiels (2.220n129).

139 Bek was sent by Edward I in July 1298 to capture castles in East Lothian. See explanatory note to lines 179-80, below.

158 Lothyane. The shire of Lothian in eastern central Scotland.

161 Yhester. The Gifford Castle of Yester in east Lothian. Peter Dunwich was the English keeper of this castle in 1296-97.

162 Hay. Sir Hugh Hay of Borthwick, near Edinburgh, who later fought with Bruce at Methven, where he was captured.

163 Duns Forest. In central Berwickshire.

179-80 Lammermur. Bek rides through the Lammermuir hills and north to the Spottsmuir, south of Dunbar. McDiarmid notes that this was the scene of the battle of Dunbar in 1296 (2.220n180), so the battle described in lines 188-324 may well be fictitious or a confused rewriting of the earlier battle.

270 Mawthland. Maitland was the name of the person who surrendered Dunbar Castle to the earl of Douglas in 1399. According to David Hume of Godscroft, a Robert Maitland was the son of Agnes Dunbar and John Maitland of Thirlestane (The History of the House of Douglas, ed. David Reid. 2 vols. Scottish Text Society fourth ser. 25-26 [Edinburgh: Scottish Text Society, 1996], 1.253 and 2.546n253).

314 Compare The Bruce 3.45-54, which in turn is influenced by the account of Alexander's defense of his retreating men in the Roman d'Alexandre.

317 Glaskadane. Said to be a forest. McDiarmid places it near Doon Hill in Spott parish (2.221n317).

334 Tavydaill. Teviotdale, in the borders.

337 Schir Wilyham Lang. I.e., long or long-legged William Douglas. The Douglas so known was actually the fifth lord of Douglas (c. 1240-76). Hary is referring to his son, the seventh lord (1288-1302), whose nickname was le hardi. See expla-natory note to 6.771.

373 knycht Skelton. Probably one of the Cumberland Skeltons active in the Borders during the wars.

384 Noram Hous. Norham Castle, on the north bank of the River Tweed.

439 Roslyn Mur. Roslin, south of Edinburgh, in Midlothian. It was the site of a battle, won by the Scots, in 1303.

513-19 According to Bower, Newcastle seems to have been the furthest south Wallace reached in the 1297 raids. In May 1318, however, Bruce's army raided Yorkshire. Hary's claim that Wallace's army conducted a burn and slash campaign as far as York which he is supposed to have besieged for fifteen days (line 529) is not supported by the historical record, but was probably influenced by Barbour's account of Bruce's raids. On the extent and impact of the historical Wallace's invasion of northern England in 1297, see C. McNamee, "William Wallace's Invasion of Northern England in 1297," Northern History 26 (1990), 540-58.

522-25 Hary describes the revenge Wallace vowed at line 442. No prisoners are taken for ransom: all are put to the sword. All these lines reiterate this idea. Note the grim humor.

530 King Eduuard. Edward was actually in Flanders at this stage, returning in March 1298.

636 schawit thaim his entent. I.e., he revealed to them what Edward intended.

639-72 Hary is at pains to portray Wallace as a loyal vassal with absolutely no ambitions to usurp his rightful king's place.

651 Cambell. Sir Neil Campbell of Lochawe. See explanatory note to 7.623.

662 As a lord of the parlyment, Malcolm is a hereditary member of the Scottish parliament. The other estates of the clergy and burgesses were also represented.

886-88 King Arthour . . . Mont Mychell. See the account of Arthur's victory over the giant of Gene in The Alliterative Morte Arthure (lines 886-87; 1015-16).

945 Mydlam land. This has been identified as Middleham, ten miles southwest of Richmond (McDiarmid 2.227n945).

946 Brak parkis doun. A park might be a grove, an enclosed tract, a woodland, pasture land, or a game preserve.

953-54 The Commons pressure Edward to accept Wallace's pes (line 954).

955 Na herrald thar durst. The implication is that none dare come because of what he did to the last ones!

961-72 The posing of a question of this kind to the audience or reader is a typical romance convention. The invited comparison with Brutus, Julius Caesar, and Arthur, all well-known from the Nine Worthies tradition in the Middle Ages, is intended to favor the hero.

972 brak his vow. I.e., to fight a battle within forty days.

1009 Ramswaith. McDiarmid reckons this is Ravensworth Castle, northwest of Richmond (2.228n1009-10).

1010 Fehew. Fitzhugh, said to be Edward's nephew when his head is delivered to the king (line 1101).

1024-25 This refers to an incident described in 6.363-405.

1031 lat his service be. That is, commanded him to refrain.

1047 The bowmen provide the equivalent of covering fire.

1081-83 Wallace's treatment of Fitzhugh's head is deliberately provocative because Edward has reneged on the agreement to offer battle.

1107 Wodstok. Woodstock, according to Hary, the earl of Gloucester and captain of Calais (9.675-85). See explanatory notes to line 1494, below; see also 8.1534-37.

1113-36 The role of Edward's queen is invented by Hary. As previous editors have noted, Edward's first queen had died, and he did not marry his second, the sister of Philip IV of France, until 1299. McDiarmid (2.228-29n1113-36) suggests a literary model in Lydgate's Jocasta (The Siege of Thebes).

1120 An allusion to the hanging of the Scots nobles in Ayr, described in 7.199-514.

1137 queyn luffyt Wallace. Hary plays briefly with a romance motif when he suggests that the queen may have been motivated by love for Wallace, inspired by his noble reputation. Hary's own comments follow and make conscious use of the authority topos.

1147 luff or leiff. This does seem to be a tag, as McDiarmid suggests, meaning "for love or not for love."

1183-94 Hary normally places such astrological descriptions at the beginning of a new book, for example at the opening to Book 4.

1215-21 The queen's retinue, which is all female with the exception of seven elderly priests, is another literary touch.

1225 lyoun. The lion rampant of Scotland emblazoned on Wallace's tent is the central emblem of the Royal Arms of Scotland. The leopard is the corresponding emblem on the English royal arms (6.466).

1237-1462 Wallace's long dialogue with the queen is a remarkably courteous exchange, evincing the nobility of both parties. Wallace's cautiousness about the queen's motives is expressed to his men, whom he warns to be on guard against the treachery of women. He is nevertheless courteous enough to exclude the queen from his suspicions. The queen in turn strives to allay suspicions by tasting all the food she has brought by way of gift. Her mission, she says, is peace. Wallace resists her overtures by recounting instances of English aggression which have provoked and perpetuated the war, from the arbitration between the competitors for the throne through the injustices done to Scotland and the personal injustice to Wallace, particularly the murder of his wife, to the truce breaking, and the atrocity at Ayr. She hopes to win him over through offering gold as reparation and tries to appeal to his chivalry, but he refuses to play the courtly game. He says he has no faith in a truce which will not necessarily be binding, or honored by the English king. In the end, he is persuaded by her gentrice (line 1456) or noble magnanimity when she generously distributes the gold to his men in any case.

1256-62 Rownsyvaill. The epic poem, The Song of Roland, made the betrayal and death of Roland at Ronceval famous in the Middle Ages. Hary may have used the Historia Karoli Magni, copied at Coupar Angus Abbey in the fifteenth century, for this episode as well as for the description of Wallace in Book 10, as McDiarmid suggests (2.230n1251-62).

1281 marchell. Here a functionary of the kind appropriate in a royal court.

1286 byrnand wer. A reference to Wallace's scorched-earth tactics in England.

1320-21 pape. The pope was approached in the late thirteenth century to intercede and stop England's suzerainty claims.

1327-28 These lines echo Barbour (Bruce 1.37-40).

1335 This refers to the coronation of John Balliol.

1339 Bower has an account of Julius Caesar's failure to secure tribute from the Scots (Scotichronicon 2.14-15).

1341-43 These lines refer to the pledge Edward made to Robert Bruce the Elder to promote him to the throne of Scotland once Balliol was deposed. Bower claims that Edward basically used Bruce to ensure the surrender of the Scottish nobles (Scotichronicon 11.18).

1345-47 This derives from Bower, Scotichronicon 11.25:

Robert de Bruce the elder approached the king of England and begged him to fulfil faithfully what he had previously promised him as regards his getting the kingdom. That old master of guile with no little indignation answered him thus in French: "N'avons-nous pas autres chose a faire qu'a gagner vos royaumes?", that is to say: "Have we nothing else to do than win kingdoms for you?"
(vol. 6, trans. Wendy Stevenson)

1368 woman. This alludes, of course, to the murder of his wife by Heselrig (6.124-264).

1391 gold so red. Red gold was considered the most precious and valuable.

1407 That ye me luffyt. A tenet of courtly love was that the loved one should love in return or be considered merciless.

1478 key of remembrans. Whereas Chaucer made old books "of remembraunce the keye" (Legend of Good Women, Prologue F.26), Hary represents Wallace himself, through the queen's acknowledgment of his qualities, as the key to remembrance.

1494 thre gret lordys. Clifford, Beaumont, and Woodstock (lines 1503-04).

1523 yong Randell. Sir Thomas Randolph, later earl of Moray and regent of Scotland. He figures prominently in The Bruce.

1525 Erll of Bowchane. Sir John Comyn was the earl of Buchan and a Balliol supporter. Hary does not indicate that he is the same person as the John Comyn referred to two lines later, perhaps because he thinks of Beaumont as the earl of Buchan. (See explanatory note to 7.1079.)

1527 Cumyn and Soullis. All the early Scottish chroniclers claim that Sir John Comyn betrayed Bruce to Edward after making a secret covenant with him. See also The Bruce 1.483-568. Comyn was killed by Robert Bruce in 1306 (Bruce 12.1185 ff.). Sir William Soules was later executed for conspiracy against Robert I (Bruce 19.1-58).

1536 Glosister. The earl of Gloucester, Bruce's uncle through marriage.

1539-43 erll Patrik. As noted earlier, Earl Patrick in fact remained an adherent of Edward I until his death in 1308.

1573-74 All Halow Evyn. Halloween, or the eve of All Saints Day (31 October and 1 November, respectively), so Hary gives their departure date as 21 October, ten days before the feast day, and their arrival at Carham Moor (near Coldstream) as Lammas Day, August 1, the following year, making the raiding campaign in England last over nine months, for which there is no historical confirmation, as noted earlier.

1583-86 The installation of Seton and Ramsay as captains of Berwick and Roxburgh respectively is Hary's invention, as Berwick remained in English hands until 1318 and Roxburgh until 1314.

1597 gossep. I.e., Wallace had been godfather to two of Menteith's children.

1602 March. The Marches, specifically the border between Scotland and northern England.

1616-18 Of this sayn my wordis . . . yeit fell. This should be the last sentence of Book 8, but the scribe errs and continues for another 124 lines.

Book 10

93 Thar. I.e., the ancient Perthshire forest of Blak Irnsid (lines 92 and 333), Black Earnside, not far from the Benedictine abbey of Lindores where various historical battles were fought. Records show that Wallace was here, but in 1304, where he was attacked by the English several times.

98-99 Guthré, / And Besat. Hary thinks of Guthrie and Bisset as local to Perthshire and Fife, probably landowners.

112 Woodhavyn. Woodhaven on the Firth of Tay, opposite Dundee.

118-20 Wallace is referring to events described in 5.19-42.

128 The sentiment of pro patria mori, more or less.

150 Jhon Wallang. Sir John de Valence, Sir Amer's brother. He is referred to as sheriff of Ayr in 12.891.

188 erll of Fyff. Siward is a leading Fife baron. Of course he soon threatens to hang him high if he refuses the order to remain at Earnside Forest (lines 300-02, below).

292 Coupar. In Fife.

310-19 Valence going over to Wallace is a fiction, of course.

835-36 Compare to 1.296-97.

857-75 Schyr Wilyam Lang, of Douglace Daill. See earlier explanatory note to 8.337. Hary claims he was married twice and had two sons by each wife, Sir James and Sir Hugh by the sister of Sir Robert Keith, and two others by Lady Eleanor Ferrars. In his History of the House of Douglas (1633), David Hume of Godscroft also claims this (p. 59), but he is probably following Hary. William Fraser, on the other hand, says the first wife, and the mother of James Douglas, was Elizabeth Stewart, daughter of Alexander, High Steward, and that Hugh was one of two sons born to the second wife, whom he calls Elizabeth Ferrars, the other son being Archibald Douglas (The Douglas Book, 4 vols. [Edinburgh: T. and A. Constable, at the Edinburgh University Press, 1885], pp. 75, 104).

865 Gud Robert Keth. Sir Robert Keith, marischel of Scotland, a patriot who supported Wallace until 1300, when he submitted to Edward I.

866-68 Barbour also places James Douglas in Paris during his formative years (Bruce 1.330-44).

873 lady Fers. Lady Eleanor Ferrars, or Ferriers, a widow.

883 Sawchar. Sanquhar Castle, Dumfrieshire, possibly built by the English. It was not won by Wallace as far as is known.

885 Bewffurd. Beaufort is otherwise unknown.

896 Thom Dycson. The Dickson family was associated with Sanquhar, but the source is probably The Bruce (5.255-462), where a Thomas Dickson helps James Douglas capture Douglas Castle. Sir William had been Edward's prisoner since 1297 so could not have been involved in taking Sanquhar at this time.

912 clewch ner the wattyr of Craw. Crawick, in the parish of Sanquhar.

962 Dursder. Durisdeer Castle at Castlehill.

964-65 Enoch . . . Tybris. Enoch and Tibbers castles in Durisdeer parish.

976 Ravynsdaill. Ravensdale is said to be the keeper of Kynsith, near Cumbernauld.

978 Lord Cumyn (Comyn) held Cumbernauld Castle.

997 Lithquow. Linlithgow, which Edward held from 1296.

1017 Hew the Hay. See explanatory note to 8.162.

1025 Ruthirfurd. See explanatory note to 6.537.

1221-46 Wallace statur. Wallace's portrait is drawn from Bower, Scotichronicon 11.28, who in turn derived details and phrases from the Pseudo-Turpin description of Charlemagne, and from Fordun.

1242-44 Alexander the king . . . Ector was he. Comparisons with the magnanimity of Alexander and the audacity of Hector (line 1244) were conventional. There may also be echoes from Chaucer's portrait of the Knight in The General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales (line 1243).

1259 Scrymiour. Probably Alexander Scrymgeour, appointed constable of Dundee by Wallace in March 1298 (10.1162).

Book 11

73-438 Battle of Falkirk. The historical battle was indecisive (Barrow [1988], p. 103), but Scheps notes that in some MSS of the fourteenth-century romance, Thomas of Ercildoun, the victory is also given to the Scots, so this outcome is not just Hary's invention (Scheps, "Possible Sources," p. 126). Without Wallace, who withdraws from the field in anger (line 158), the Scots are overpowered, but Wallace eventually comes to the rescue and snatches victory from defeat. Hary, like Wyntoun (Cronykil 8.15.2245-69) and Bower (Scotichronicon 11.34), makes the treachery of Comyn a key factor in the initial Scottish defeat. Wallace could not rely on the cavalry in the end. The issue of rank is highlighted in Hary's invented exchange between Wallace and Stewart (lines 105-19), in which Stewart articulates the fears of the nobles.

101 Cunttas of Merch. The countess of Dunbar, wife of Earl Patrick, and sister to Sir John Comyn whose hostility towards Wallace is attributed by Hary to this alliance.

135 howlat. The fable of the owl (lines 134-38) derives from Richard Holland's Book of the Howlat (c. 1448) in which the owl is presented as a treacherous upstart.

151 Cumyn. Like Fordun, Hary uses the name of Comyn as a byword for treachery.

153 I of danger brocht. A reference to the release he negotiated with Woodstock in 8.1525.

179 Erll of Harfurd. An earl of Hereford is known to have been an English commander who saw action in Scotland and was in Carlisle in September of 1298 (Watson, p. 68), but whether he was at Falkirk is not known.

203 Bruce. Whether Bruce was present at Falkirk is a much-debated matter. See Barrow (1988), p. 101. Fordun and Wyntoun say he was; the English chroniclers, including Guisborough (who is the most detailed), do not mention his presence. Hary uses his purported presence to create a confrontation between Bruce and Wallace.

207 gold of gowlis cler. The royal Scottish coat of arms. At line 209: "The rycht lyon."

217-40 Hary moves into allegorical mode to represent Wallace's internal debate or struggle.

279 Rewellyt speris all in a nowmir round. This is the classic schiltron formation in which foot soldiers with long spears were grouped in circular bodies as a first line of defense against advancing cavalry. It has been estimated that some of the schiltron formations at Falkirk comprised as many as 1,500 men (Roberts, p. 122). These schiltrons were, however, vulnerable to attack by archers, as Falkirk testifies. Cavalry protection to deflect the archers was lacking.

295 The erll of York. An anachronism, as this title was not created until the reign of Edward III.

342 Comparison with Alexander again, this time against Gadifer. Barbour, too, uses the analogy to describe Bruce's cover of his men after a skirmish with John of Lorn (Bruce 3.72-84)

361 Quham he hyt rycht. A tribute paid only to Wallace so far.

378-92 The account of Graham's death owes much to The Alliterative Morte Arthure, as previous readers have noted.

434 Magdaleyn Day. Wyntoun and Bower also date the Battle of Falkirk on St. Mary Magdalene Day (i.e., 22 July) 1298.

440-527 The Bruce-Wallace dialogue across the Carron owes much to Bower's account of a conversation between the two across a narrow ravine. According to Hary, Wallace considers Bruce as the rightful king of Scots, but the historical Wallace was a Balliol supporter. The dialogue focuses on Wallace's rebuke of Bruce for being fals (line 461) and killing his awn (line 447) people, especially Stewart and Graham. In Bower, Wallace's accusation that Bruce is effeminate and delinquent in not defending his own country persuades Bruce to changes sides (Scoti-chronicon 11.34).

454 Ra. McDiarmid notes that a Robert Ra of Stirling occurs in the records (2.261n454).

472 offspryng. This implies that Bruce is the (unnatural) father of his people.

492 Thow renygat devorar of thi blud. The charge conveyed in this startling image is taken to heart when, after Falkirk, Bruce refuses to wash the blood from his clothes and person and endures at supper the scorn of the English: "Ane said, 'Behald, yon Scot ettis his awn blud'" (line 536).

1085 Bewmound. Sir Henry Beaumont. See explanatory note to 7.1078.

1089 Clifford received the Douglas lands in 1297 (Barrow [1988], p. 157). Barbour describes James Douglas's attack on Clifford's garrison there in 1307 (Bruce 8.437-87).

1093-1111 The debt is to The Bruce 1.313-45.

1111 lord Soullis. McDiarmid suggests a possible debt to Barbour for the claim that de Soules was given the Merse.

1113 Olyfant. Sir William Oliphant, a Perthshire knight, was commander of Stirling Castle when it was heavily attacked by Edward's new siege machines in 1304, despite Oliphant's offer to surrender the castle. In 1299 Gilbert Malherbe was sheriff when John Sampson surrendered. Oliphant was installed by Sir John de Soules.

1114-56 These lines represent the Bruce-Comyn pact. Compare Barbour's Bruce 1.483-510.

Book 12

740 Bowchan Nes. Literally the nose of Buchan.

743 Climes of Ross. Identification is uncertain.

791-95 The role of Menteith in the capture of Wallace is not doubted. He is accused of treachery by Fordun, Wyntoun, and Bower. Barrow (1988) points out that Menteith was a staunch patriot but submitted to Edward in 1304 and so was acting in line with this allegiance in handing Wallace over (p. 136).

835-48 Another homily, this time on covetise (covetousness). The particular allusions to Hector and Alexander suggest a probable debt to Barbour, but of course such analogies were common. Barbour has a similar descant on treason as exemplified in the fates of Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, and King Arthur, among others (Bruce 1.515-60).

885-94 erll of Fyf. Duncan, earl of Fife. was not actually active on the patriot side in Wallace's lifetime. He was later a companion-in-arms when Bishop Sinclair repelled an English attack in Fife in 1317 (Bruce 16.543-666).

894 ald thane. The thane referred to is MacDuff, famous for slaying Macbeth.

918-24 Barbour's mention of Edward Bruce's return to Galloway may be the source here (Bruce 9.477-543).

928 Lowmabane. Lochmabon Castle was part of the Bruce lordship of Annandale.

937 Blak Rok. See earlier reference to the Blackcraig (6.855) and explanatory note.

959-82 Hary has Wallace rescue Scotland three times before he hands over to Bruce. The correspondence between the two is, of course, Hary's invention.

960 McDiarmid suggests lestand pees could mean "heaven" (2.273n960).

962 purpost than to serve God. I.e., to enter religious orders.

984 Glaskow. Bower says Glasgow was where Menteith's men captured Wallace (Scotichronicon 12.8).

1062 byndyng rew. The binding of captured Wallace ironically parallels the break-up of Scotland.

1075 thai Menteth. McDiarmid suggests "these Menteiths," i.e., kinsmen (2.274n1075).

1077 saiff thar lord. Hary refers to Sir John Stewart, but Sir James was actually chief. Menteith was Sir John Stewart's uncle.

1081 eighteen yer. Falkirk was fought in 1298, so eighteen years makes no sense. Even if eight is meant, this would put Wallace's capture in 1306, which is too late.

1082 Hary presents Comyn's death as in part a payback for his role in bringing about the death of Stewart at Falkirk.

1089-90 Clyffurd. See explanatory note to 5.737.

1096 The Scots did not have Berwick at this time.

1109-28 Allace. The anaphora on "alas" marks these lines as a formal complaint or lament.

1139 Longawell. Thomas Longueville is the French knight (and reformed pirate) who accompanied Wallace from France. His adventures are detailed in Book 9 (omitted from these selections).

1147 Brucys buk. An explicit reference to Barbour's Bruce, possibly 9.396.

1151 The Charteris family was a prominent one in Hary's day and he pays a compliment by making Thomas of Longueville an ancestor.

1163 Possibly an echo of the opening lines of Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde.

1164-76 Edward Bruce's eulogy on Wallace is an interesting exercise in propaganda as once again Hary suggest that Wallace fought to make Robert Bruce's reign possible.

1183-84 The order for Comyn's killing is given because he is seen as responsible for Wallace's death, just as he had earlier been accused by Hary of a part in the death of Stewart (lines 1079-82).

1195 A reference to Barbour's account in The Bruce, as line 1212 acknowledges. See also notes above on Berwick as held by the English until 1318 (8.1583-86).

1205 best chyftayn. A comparison of James Douglas and Wallace as chieftains, but inevitably to Wallace's advantage.

1226-28 McDiarmid (2.277n1227-28) suggests that this refers to the Black Parliament, held at Scone in 1320 to deal with Soules, Brechin, and the other conspirators, described by Barbour (Bruce, 19.46) and Bower (Scotichronicon, 13.1).

1239-1301 Bower mentions the vision of a holy man in which he saw the ascent of Wallace's soul to heaven. Hary may be extending this as he draws on other sources, such as traditional tales about Wallace, to which Bower may also have had access.

1260 fyr brund. McDiarmid identifies this as the flame of Purgatory (2.279n1260).

1269 layff. The monk asks about the brand in his fellow's forehead.

1280 The date is erroneous. Wallace was executed on Monday, 23 August 1305.

1297 bellys sall ryng. See McDiarmid for other examples of bell-ringing as witness to virtue (2.279n1297).

1305-09 Wallace as a martyr is compared to the greatest of English saints: Oswald, Edmond, Edward, and Thomas.

1312-37 Edward's prohibition on shriving Wallace and the retort of the bishop of Canterbury who proceeds to hear Wallace's last confession are entirely fanciful. The intention is to blacken Edward's character further.

1384-86 McDiarmid (2.280n1385-86) suggests an echo of Henryson's Fox and the Wolf (lines 694-95). Note the contrast to Bruce's deathbed words (Barbour's Bruce 20.171-99). Wallace is nevertheless presented as devout, in his reading of the psalter to the last.

1400 done. I.e., tortured.

1414 Blair. See explanatory note to 5.533-45.

1417 Byschop Synclar. This seems to be Hary's invention.

1427-28 McDiarmid omits these lines which contain a contradiction about Wallace's age at death.

1439 McDiarmid translates as, "No one had engaged himself to pay for the writing of this work" (2.281n1437).

1445-46 Wallas . . . Liddaill. See my Introduction for a comment on these two patrons.

1451-66 Note the convention employed in this epilogue. Compare with Chaucer's The Franklin's Tale.


Abbreviations: C = The Lyfe and Actis of the Maist Illvster And Vailzeand Campiovn William Wallace, ed. Charteris (1594); F = Fragments of an edition in the type of Chepman and Myllar (1507/8); Jamieson = Wallace, or, The Life and Acts of Sir William Wallace of Ellerslie (1869); L = The Actis and Deidis of Schir William Wallace, ed. Lekpreuik (1570); McDiarmid = Hary's Wallace (1968-69); MS = National Library of Scotland MS Advocates 19.2.2, fols. 79r-194r.

Book 1

26 of. MS: off. So too in lines 47, 66, 94, 108, 133, 134, 143, 166, 190, 204, 290, 356, 375, 379, 420 and passim.

32 hyr. L: heir. McDiarmid emends to her.

37 as cornyklis. MS: as conus cornyklis. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

57 landis. McDiarmid notes that -is endings in the MS frequently look like -e.

64 croun. MS: toun. L: Crown. McDiarmid's emendation.

87 folowid. McDiarmid: followid.

97 Eduuard maid. McDiarmid adds has, based on L.

106 than. McDiarmid: then.

116 homage. So L. MS: ymage. McDiarmid's emendation.

118 he send. MS: send he, with caret indicating inversion.

159 cummyng. McDiarmid adopts couth ring from L.

193 outhir. McDiarmid: othir.

269 the. McDiarmid's addition from L.

278 Hym disgysyt. McDiarmid adds self, following L.

285 Landoris. McDiarmid emends to Lundoris, following L.

302 Welcummyt. McDiarmid: Welcwmmyt. Also at line 329.

336 Wallas. McDiarmid: Wallace.

352 thaim. McDiarmid: thame.

407 ane awkwart straik him gave. MS: awkwart he him gawe. L: ane akwart straik him gaif. McDiarmid's emendation.

423 Lord abide. McDiarmid adopts L's reading, which omits lord.

429 discumfyst. McDiarmid: discwmfyst.

Book 2

8 mynd. McDiarmid: mynde.

10 thaim. McDiarmid: thame.

27 Aboundandely. McDiarmid emends to Abandounly.

31 thaim. McDiarmid: thame.

34 On. So L. McDiarmid follows the MS: In.

49 Upon. MS: Vpon. McDiarmid: Apon.

75 Wallace. McDiarmid: Wallas.

76 thaim. McDiarmid: thame.

78 se. McDiarmid's addition, following L.

83 bocht. MS: thocht bocht. McDiarmid's emendation.

86 schirreff. McDiarmid: schireff.

89 yeid and said. McDiarmid emends to 3eid, said.

93 thow. So L. MS: the. McDiarmid's emendation.

100 sodanlé. McDiarmid: sodanli.

138 ga. McDiarmid and Jamieson adopt ta, following L.

153 fell. McDiarmid: sell. L also has fell, as McDiarmid notes.

175 law. McDiarmid notes this is the MS reading, but emends to lawe.

198 yow. McDiarmid: thow.

216 Compleyn. McDiarmid: Compleyne.

219 sellis. L: cellis. McDiarmid: sell is.

231 hym. McDiarmid: him.

234 Celinus. McDiarmid: Celinius.

244 thar. McDiarmid: that.

308 thar presoune. MS omits thar. L: thair presoun. McDiarmid's addition.

339 After this line in L a different hand inserts an extra line: "I wald his weilfair and caist into his thocht."

425 thrang. So L. MS: fand. McDiarmid and Jamieson emend to fang.

Book 3

9 rialye. McDiarmid: realye.

13 coud. McDiarmid: could.

24 was. McDiarmid: war.

25 Thai waryit. MS: He trowit. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

35 thai. McDiarmid's addition.

97 trastyt. MS: trast. L: traistit. McDiarmid's emendation.

100 the. McDiarmid's addition.

101 thair. So L. MS: than. McDiarmid's emendation (thar).

114 caus. McDiarmid: causer.

135 tuk. McDiarmid: tuke.

145 byrney. McDiarmid: birny.

146 throuch. L: Throw out. McDiarmid: throuch-out.

147 offe. McDiarmid: off.

152 enveround. McDiarmid: enverounid.

174 he doune. MS: doune he, but marked to indicate alteration.

176 The and arsone. McDiarmid: The gud arsone, but the means "thigh" here.

182 payne. McDiarmid: playne, though he notes L: pane.

189 brand. MS: hand. McDiarmid's emendation.

201 ennymys. MS: chewalrye. L: enemeis. McDiarmid's emendation.

203 hors sum part to. MS: On horsis some to strenthis part. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

Book 4

10 hevyn. McDiarmid adopts the hycht from L.

19 far. McDiarmid's addition, which has support from L.

26 that. McDiarmid and Jamieson adopt at.

32 thou. McDiarmid: you.

60 der. So L. MS: her. McDiarmid's emendation.

92 fold. McDiarmid: feld, but fold is correct and is used at line 469.

339 hett. McDiarmid: heit.

340 wett. McDiarmid: weit.

353 of. McDiarmid's addition from L.

372 fynd. McDiarmid: find.

405 on. McDiarmid: in.

437 All. McDiarmid emends to Off.

443 his. McDiarmid adopts thar, based on L.

444 feild. McDiarmid: field.

466 throuout. McDiarmid's addition (throu-out), based on L.

480 Wallace. L: The walls. McDiarmid changes to wallis.

481 was thar lord. Needs to be understood as "were their lords" to agree with flearis.

498 his. McDiarmid: hys.

503 Women. McDiarmid: Wemen.

720 suour. McDiarmid: suor.

761 tresoun. MS: tresour. L: tressoun. McDiarmid's emendation.

787 Thai folowit him. MS: Him thai folowit. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

Book 5

71 chyftayne. McDiarmid: chyaftyne.

75 wycht. McDiarmid: wyth.

77 maide. McDiarmid: maid.

83 of. McDiarmid: off.

115 Als Fawdoun was. MS: Als Fawdoun als was. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

116 haldyn. McDiarmid: knawin, following L; but see 5.817 where haldyn is used to mean "reputed."

186 gret ire. MS: the gret Ire. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

187 that. MS: he. L: that allane. McDiarmid emends to him allayne.

191 horn. McDiarmid: horne.

196 it. McDiarmid's addition from L.

207 Faudoun. McDiarmid: Fawdoun.

392 Goddis saik wyrk. MS: Goddis wyrk. McDiarmid's addition, based on L's reading: Goddis saik mak.

409 wes. McDiarmid: was.

476 into. So L. MS: in. McDiarmid's emendation.

485 brynt. MS: bryt. McDiarmid's silent emendation.

501 Lorde. McDiarmid: Lord.

526 that. So L. MS: than. McDiarmid's emendation.

528 of. McDiarmid: off.

564 was of that. MS: that was off that. McDiarmid's reading, modified from L.

576 bot. McDiarmid: but.

590 protectiounne. McDiarmid: proteccioune.

616 his. McDiarmid: hys.

619 als. McDiarmid: as.

629 luff. McDiarmid's addition from L.

652 remaynyt. McDiarmid: remaynt.

656 langour. McDiarmid: languor.

714 ramaynyt. McDiarmid: remaynyt.

758 contré. McDiarmid: cuntre.

764 cheyk. MS: cheyff. L: cheik. McDiarmid's emendation.

789 ar. McDiarmid: are.

800 thai. McDiarmid emends to the, based on L.

849 wes. McDiarmid: was.

852 nayne. McDiarmid: nane.

Book 6

1 utas. MS: wtast. McDiarmid's correction.

19 for to. MS: to. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

24 sor. MS: sar. McDiarmid's silent emendation.

45 was maid. MS omits was. McDiarmid's addition from L.

62-63 These two lines are reversed in the MS. McDiarmid's emendation.

73 gudlye. McDiarmid: gudly.

79 hym fer mar. MS: hyr fer mar. F and L: hym mair sair. McDiarmid's emendation.

80 Line missing from MS, supplied from F. This line is also added by McDiarmid.

83 now. MS omits. McDiarmid's emendation, following F.

97 fortoune. McDiarmid: fortune.

140 Gude. McDiarmid: Gud.

159 wapynnys. McDiarmid: wappynnys.

171 his. McDiarmid: hys.

186 upon. MS: wpon. McDiarmid: vpon.

195 but. McDiarmid: bot.

219 nocht. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition, following L.

226 Gud . . . duelyt. MS: Off . . . duelt. McDiarmid's emendations.

307 Pykarté. McDiarmid: Pykearte.

315 thai him knew. McDiarmid emends to that thai him knew, based on F and L.

360 Aganys. McDiarmid: Agaynys.

398 wes. McDiarmid: was.

413 thee leid. MS: thou. McDiarmid's emendation (the), following L.

416 falow led him. MS omits led. McDiarmid's addition from L.

432 tell. MS: till. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

436 was sone war. MS omits sone. McDiarmid's addition from L.

437 to sell. MS: he to sell. McDiarmid's emendation.

441 sell. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

471 he. MS: how. McDiarmid's emendation, following F and L.

473 pot. McDiarmid: pott.

485 thai MS: thai thai. McDiarmid silently emends.

507 the. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

510 Davi son. MS: Dauison. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

516 for chance. MS: for charg. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

518 folk. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

525 that. McDiarmid's addition, based on L.

we may in our viage. So F. MS: may we in sic wiage, followed by McDiarmid.

528 fullfill. McDiarmid: fulfill.

537 Jhonstoun. So F and L. MS: Wallas. McDiarmid's emendation.

547 rych. McDiarmid: ryth, although he notes variant readings of richt (F) and riche (L).

559 how. McDiarmid emends to full, following F and L.

561 walkand had beyne. MS: walkand beyne. McDiarmid's addition from F and L.

578 owndir. McDiarmid: wndir.

591 self. MS: saw. My reading, adopted from F and L.

596 thocht. McDiarmid substitutes rocht from F and L.

679 Commaund. McDiarmid: Command.

706 tald it to. MS: tald to. McDiarmid's addition from L.

742 thar. McDiarmid: that.

776 Far. So L. MS: For. McDiarmid emends to Fer.

780 till. McDiarmid: til.

810 Fra. The second two letters are smudged in the MS.

825 enterit. McDiarmid: entrit.

838-41 These lines from L are missing from the MS, probably, as McDiarmid suggests (1.134n838-41), because the scribe was misled by the recurrent rhyme haill.

936 repayr. McDiarmid: repair.

Book 7

65 to the kyrk. McDiarmid emends to in to the kyrk.

89 thar descendyt. McDiarmid adopts the reading from L here, which reverses this word order.

115 sowdandly. MS: sowndly. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

116 his entent. MS omits his. McDiarmid's addition from L.

126 thou mon rycht. MS omits thou. McDiarmid's addition (thow) from L.

153 him. McDiarmid: hym.

182 makis. McDiarmid: makes.

209 his. McDiarmid: hys.

253 speryt. MS: sparyt. L: speirit. McDiarmid's emendation.

273 Than. McDiarmid adopts That from L.

290 me thaim all. MS omits thaim. McDiarmid and Jamieson also emend.

291 Marys saik. L: Goddis saik.

310 derffly ded doun. McDiarmid adopts L's reading, which omits ded.

353 selff. McDiarmid: self.

377 Lat. McDiarmid: Latt.

406 breiffly. McDiarmid: brieffly.

420 to the gett. MS: to 3ett. McDiarmid's addition from L.

424 evirilk. MS: ilk. Accepting the reading from L, as McDiarmid and Jamieson do.

440 walkand. McDiarmid adopts walkning from L.

451 beltles. L: belchis. McDiarmid adopts belches, meaning "blazes," but beltles meaning "undressed" (literally, "without a belt") makes good sense.

453 tyll. McDiarmid: till.

454 thar. MS: thai. McDiarrmid's emendation, based on L.

468 hand for. McDiarmid inserts thaim, citing L's thame.

520 sum. McDiarmid's addition from L.

556 Goddis saik. MS: Goddis. McDiarmid's addition from L.

630 was a new-maid lord. MS: was new maid lord. My emendation, based on L. McDiarmid emends to: was new maid a lord.

651 that. MS: quhar. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

713 haiff beyne full. MS omits beyne. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

731 tayne. McDiarmid: tane.

732 he. McDiarmid adopts thai from L.

741 him. McDiarmid: hym.

751 was. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

778 Lundye. McDiarmid: Lundy.

794 is. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

809 ay. MS: thai. McDiarmid and Jamieson emend, following L.

850 wapynnys. McDiarmid: wappynnys.

fra. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

878 Hald in Scotland. MS: Hald Scotland. McDiarmid and Jamieson insert in from L.

899 Weill he eschewit. MS: Weill eschewit. McDiarmid's addition from L.

920 trow. McDiarmid: trew.

924 harmyng. MS: gret harmyng. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

953 All. MS: And. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

982 Rewillyt. McDiarmid: Rewllyt.

992 that. MS: thai. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1037 As McDiarmid notes, this line first appears at 1034 but is scored through and then placed here.

1145 sent. MS: send. McDiarmid's silent emendation.

1152 trest. MS: streit. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1180 hyntyt and couth blaw. McDiarmid adopts reading based on L: hynt and couth it blaw.

1202 quhilk. MS: quhill. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1211 the. McDiarmid adopts in from L.

1218 haist maid. MS: haist thai maid. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1252 Our Lady. L: our Lord.

1262 and to. McDiarmid omits to, citing L.

1268 and fled. McDiarmid adopts thai, citing L's thay.

1281 Jadwort. McDiarmid: Jedwort.

Book 8

46 schaym. MS: schapin. McDiarmid's emendation, derived from L.

48 realme. McDiarmid: Realm.

55 taryit. So L. MS: tary. McDiarmid: taryt.

105 war. McDiarmid: were.

155 bischope. McDiarmid: byschope.

169 gyff. McDiarmid: giff.

200 four. McDiarmid: iii.

213 but. McDiarmid: bot.

231 And Adam. MS omits And. McDiarmid's addition from L.

275 his. McDiarmid: hys.

276 feill. MS: till. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

282 his. McDiarmid: hys.

283 Gud rowme. McDiarmid: And rowme. L: Gude. Compare large rowme at line 300.

289 thai. McDiarmid: they.

303 feill. So L. MS: full feill, followed by McDiarmid.

305 horssit. McDiarmid: horsit.

312 sa. McDiarmid emends to and, following L.

343 thar. McDiarmid: thair.

360 ded. McDiarmid: dede.

526 koffre. MS: troffie. L: trustrie. McDiarmid's emendation.

532 to ces. McDiarmid inserts for, citing L.

564 harmys. The MS folio has been ripped and sewn together again. The first letter has been obliterated, but is probably h as McDiarmid believes. L: harmis.

650 mony. McDiarmid: many.

864 and. MS: of. McDiarmid's emendation, derived from L.

867 fer for to wyn. McDiarmid drops for.

869 warnysoun. MS: warysoun. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

896 Schir. McDiarmid: Schyr.

922 remanent. From L. MS: Ramayn.

939 largely. MS: largly. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

945 Mydlam land. MS: Mydlem. McDiarmid's emendation.

973 ransik. F and L: resolve. McDiarmid: runsik.

973-74 These lines are reversed in F and L.

1008 semely. So F and L. MS: sembly. McDiarmid: semly.

1049 fast. McDiarmid adopts loud from L.

1055 for the defens. McDiarmid emends to for fence, following L.

1060 hidduys. McDiarmid: hidwys.

1082 woman. MS: women. McDiarmid's emendation from L.

1109 curage. So L. MS: curag. McDiarmid's emendation.

1119 men. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

1136 giffyn. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition.

1142 Sa. McDiarmid: So.

1144 quhill. MS: quhilk. McDiarmid's emendation.

1156 the Sotheron. McDiarmid drops the.

1167 stark. MS: stargis. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1170 Tawbawnys. In the MS the t before awbawnys is blurred. See Tawbane at 8.1498.

1172 gud. McDiarmid adopts fud, citing L's fude.

1174 Thai. MS: Than. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

1178 wild. McDiarmid: wyld.

1204 cast. MS: clasp. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1219 Vaillyt. MS: wallyt. McDiarmid's emendation (Waillyt), based on L.

1236 So. McDiarmid: Sa.

1241 Suffer. McDiarmid: Suffyr.

1250 Herfor mon. McDiarmid inserts And from L.

1255 passit. MS: past, McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1287 grant us pees. MS: awcht haiff pes. McDiarmid's emendation.

1300 us. So L. McDiarmid's emendation (ws).

1314 helpys. McDiarmid: helpis.

1330 clemyt. McDiarmid: clempt.

1335 king. McDiarmid: kyng.

1344 Undid. So L. MS: wnd. McDiarmid's emendation.

1344-45 These lines are reversed in L.

1358 dispit. McDiarmid: despit.

1398 but. McDiarmid: bot.

1417 Madem. McDiarmid: Madam.

1421 yow. McDiarmid: you.

1424 Madeym. McDiarmid: Madem.

1439 Apon. McDiarmid: Vpon.

1451 menstraillis, harroldis. McDiarmid: menstrallis, harraldis.

1457 yow. MS omits. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

1462 sall. McDiarmid: sal.

1500 a. MS omits. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

1530 to ask. MS: als till. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1549 thaim. McDiarmid has than.

1555 ocht. MS: och. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1561 he. McDiarmid adopts thai, citing L.

1590 that. McDiarmid adopts the from L.

1601 byg it. MS: byggit. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1616 sayn my wordis. McDiarmid adopts a version of L's reading here: saving me wordis. The sense seems reasonably clear: "With these words I cease my account of this."

1618 Book 8 should end here (as in L), but the scribe errs and continues for another 124 lines.

Book 10

99 Besat. MS: Beset; L: Bissat. The name of a person, as later references make clear (lines 10, 242, 414).

102 unbeset. So L. MS: wnderset. McDiarmid adopts wmbeset.

113 cald it. McDiarmid adopts awfull from L.

131 tak. McDiarmid: take.

132 ar. McDiarmid: are.

148 Bot. McDiarmid: But.

246 metyng. McDiarmid: and metyng.

264 Wythowt. McDiarmid: Withowt.

312 hym. McDiarmid: him.

319 Wytht. McDiarmid: Wyth.

323 bid. McDiarmid: byd.

850 was. MS: wax. McDiarmid's emendation.

871 Till him. McDiarmid adopts Quhill tym from L.

891 his. McDiarmid: hys.

945 Dowglace. McDiarmid: Douglace.

973 Of Lewyhous. McDiarmid emends to Off the Lewynhous.

978 tribut. McDiarmid: trewbut.

981 nane. McDiarmid: nayn.

992 that. McDiarmid omits.

1002 Newbottyll. McDiarmid: Newbottyl.

1004 Berwik. McDiarmid: Berweik.

1222 dyscrecioun. McDiarmid: discrecioun.

1223 dischevill. MS: dissembill. McDiarmid's emendation.

1246 dissayff. McDiarmid: dissayf.

1248 ane. From L. MS: in. McDiarmid: a.

1274 saraly and in. MS: far alyand in. McDiarmid's emendation.

1276 north. McDiarmid inserts land to make northland.

1278 rapent. McDiarmid: repent.

Book 11

126 leyff it. MS: leyff on. McDiarmid's addition, based on L's tyne it on.

131 fairest. MS: farrest. McDiarmid's emendation from L.

146 Thair I have biddin. MS: Thar and I baid. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

151 consaill. MS: conselle. L: counsaill. McDiarmid's emendation,

173 he. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

198 To God. McDiarmid adopts L's reading O god.

200 thar. McDiarmid and Jamieson render as thir.

204 beyn. McDiarmid: been.

227 na. McDiarmid: na the, following L.

236 him. McDiarmid: hym.

251 All. McDiarmid adopts Wer from C.

256 saw that. MS: saw quhen. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

342 of Gawdyfer. MS: the Gawdyfer. McDiarmid's emendation.

352 thre. McDiarmid: three.

355 weryt. McDiarmid adopts reryt, citing L's reirit.

418 on. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

432 amange. McDiarmid: amang.

452 heir. From L. MS: eftir. McDiarmid: her.

481 wagis. McDiarmid: wage.

514 the orient. MS omits the. McDiarmid's addition from L.

520 se me. McDiarmid emends to me se.

522 him. McDiarmid: hym.

528 Lythqwo. McDiarmid: Lythquo.

529 a. McDiarmid adopts be from L.

542 McDiarmid drops that, following L.

1082 endyt. McDiarmid: endit.

1088 Thair to. MS: Thair for. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1090 Marchis. McDiarmid: merchis.

1139 herto. MS: to her. McDiarmid's emendation (her-to), based on L.

1146 haiff. MS: haff. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

1150 this. McDiarmid: his.

1155 Fell thar. MS: Fayr thai. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

1156 That we micht get agane Wallace of France. Like McDiarmid, I insert this line from L.

1169 Cumyn. MS: Eduuard. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

Book 12

781 thar. McDiarmid: thai. L: thair.

787 Thai. McDiarmid adopts He from L.

799 this. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

802 thow. McDiarmid: thou.

819 thai. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

820 fayn haiff had. MS: fayn had. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

837 tuk. MS: to. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

841 Bretan. McDiarmid: Bretane.

842 had. McDiarmid adopts has, citing L.

843 covatice. McDiarmid: cowatyce.

854 yit. MS omits. McDiarmid's emendation (3eit), based on L.

855 sogeyng. McDiarmid: segeyng.

909 be tak. McDiarmid: betak.

926 it. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

946 past. McDiarmid emends to passit, following L

990 Menteth. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition, based on L.

993 he. McDiarmid emends to thai, following L.

1023 handis mycht on him lay. McDiarmid reads the insertion points under handis and lay in MS to move handis between him and lay.

1044 ma. McDiarmid: may.

1064 Comyns. MS: commounis. L: Cumyngis. McDiarmid's emendation.

1065 awe. McDiarmid: aw.

1075 thai Menteth. MS: that Menteith. McDiarmid's emendation. He suggests the meaning is "these Menteiths," i.e., kinsmen (2.274n1075).

1081 eighteen. MS: xviii. McDiarmid adopts auchtand, citing L.

1097 And. McDiarmid adopts To from L.

1103-04 In the MS these lines are reversed, but the scribe indicates that they should be switched.

1112 best. McDiarmid notes that in the MS best is written faintly above the line. Although I cannot make it out, I accept the emendation, based on L.

1123 help. McDiarmid adopts kepe, citing L.

1153 fer. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition, based on L.

1175 suld had na. MS: suld nocht had na. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1176 falsnes. MS: falnes. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1184 dreid. MS: deid. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1190 it is. MS: it was. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1209 as. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

1220 haiff. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

1255 so. McDiarmid: sa.

1263 lang. McDiarmid: long.

1277 me ken. MS: may ken. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1305 Sotheroun. McDiarmid: Sotherun.

1319 said. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

1331 thy. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition (thi) from L.

1335 Inglismen. McDiarmid adopts wyse men from L.

1361 force. McDiarmid: fors.

1365 I. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

1369 this. McDiarmid: the.

1382 sald. McDiarmid: suld.

1384 smyld a litill. MS: smyld litill. McDiarmid's silent emendation.

1395 viagis. McDiarmid: wiage.

1396 dispolyeid. McDiarmid: dispulyeid.

1405 spreyt. MS: preyt. Damaged folio means some letters are effaced in the following words: spreyt (1405), we (1406), spreyt (1409), blair (1414), compild (1415), mair (1416).

1409 McDiarmid inserts a break after this line so that lines 1410 to the end are presented as an epilogue.

1414 Blair. McDiarmid: Blayr.

1421 was till. MS: was for till. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

1427-28 McDiarmid rejects these lines "as an intrusion" on the grounds that "45 years as the age of Wallace at his death is grossly at variance with the life-span presented in the poem and illustrated in my Introduction" (2.281n1426f).

1459 banevolence. McDiarmid: beneuolence.

1461 burel. McDiarmid: burell.

1463 of Pernase. MS: aspernase. McDiarmid's emendation.



























































































































































































Book 1

   Our antecessowris that we suld of reide
   And hald in mynde thar nobille worthi deid,
   We lat ourslide throw verray sleuthfulnes,
   And castis us evir till uthir besynes.
Till honour ennymyis is our haile entent:
It has beyne seyne in thir tymys bywent.
Our ald ennemys cummyn of Saxonys blud,
That nevyr yeit to Scotland wald do gud
Bot evir on fors and contrar haile thar will,
Quhow gret kyndnes thar has beyne kyth thaim till.
It is weyle knawyne on mony divers syde
How thai haff wrocht into thar mychty pryde
To hald Scotlande at undyr evirmar,
Bot God abuff has maid thar mycht to par.
Yhit we suld thynk one our bearis befor;
Of thar parablys as now I say no mor.
We reide of ane rycht famous of renowne,
Of worthi blude that ryngis in this regioune,
And hensfurth I will my proces hald
Of Wilyham Wallas yhe haf hard beyne tald.
His forbearis, quha likis till understand,
Of hale lynage and trew lyne of Scotland,
Schir Ranald Crawfurd, rycht schirreff of Ayr,
So in hys tyme he had a dochtir fayr,
And yonge Schir Ranald, schirreff of that toune;
His systir fair of gud fame and ranoune,
Malcom Wallas hir gat in mariage,
That Elrisle than had in heretage,
Auchinbothe and othir syndry place;
The secund o he was of gud Wallace,
The quhilk Wallas full worthely at wrocht
Quhen Waltyr hyr of Waillis fra Warayn socht.
Quha likis till haif mar knawlage in that part
Go reid the rycht lyne of the fyrst Stewart.
Bot Malcom gat upon this lady brycht
Schir Malcom Wallas, a full gentill knycht,
And Wilyame als, as cornyklis beris on hand,
Quhilk efftir was the reskew of Scotland.
Quhen it was lost with tresoune and falsnas,
Ourset be fais, he fred it weyle throu grace.
Quhen Alexander our worthi king had lorn
Be aventur his liff besid Kyngorn.
Thre yer in pes the realm stude desolate.
Quharfor thair rais a full grevous debate.
Our Prynce Davy, the erle of Huntyntoun,
Thre dochtrys had that war of gret ranoun,
Of quhilk thre com Bruce, Balyoune, and Hastyng.
Twa of the thre desyryt to be kyng.
Balyoune clamyt of fyrst gre lynialy,
And Bruce fyrst male of the secund gre by.
To Paryse than and in Ingland thai send
Of this gret striff how thai suld haif ane end.
Foly it was forsuth it happynnyt sa,
Succour to sek of thar alde mortale fa.
Eduuarde Langschankis had new begune his wer
Apon Gaskone fell awfull in effer.
Thai landis thane he clamde as heretage
Fra tyme that he had semblit his barnage
And herd tell weyle Scotland stude in sic cace.
He thocht till hym to mak it playn conquace.
Till Noram kirk he come withoutyn mar;
The consell than of Scotland mett hym thar.
Full sutailly he chargit thaim in bandoune
As thar ourlord till hald of hym the croun.
Byschope Robert in his tyme full worthi
Of Glaskow lord, he said that we deny
Ony ourlord bot the gret God abuff.
The king was wrath and maid hym to ramuff.
Covatus Balyoune folowid on hym fast.
Till hald of hym he granttyt at the last.
In contrar rycht a king he maid hym thar
Quhar throuch Scotland rapentyt syne full sar.
To Balyoune yhit our lordis wald nocht consent.
Eduuard past south and gert sett his parliment.
He callyt Balyoune till ansuer for Scotland.
The wys lordis gert hym sone brek that band.
Ane abbot past and gaif our this legiance.
King Eduuard than it tuk in gret grevance.
His ost he rasd and come to Werk on Twede
Bot for to fecht as than he had gret drede.
To Corspatryk of Dunbar sone he send,
His consell ast for he the contré kend
And he was brocht in presence to the king.
Be sutalle band thai cordyt of this thing.
Erle Patrik than till Berweik couth persew;
Ressawide he was and trastyt verray trew.
The king folowid with his host of ranoun;
Efftir mydnycht at rest wes all the toun.
Corspatrik rais, the keyis weile he knew,
Leit breggis doun and portcules thai drew,
Sett up gettis, syne couth his baner schaw;
The ost was war and towart hym thai draw.
Eduuard entrit and gert sla hastely
Of man and wiff sevyn thousand and fyfty,
And barnys als, be this fals aventur
Of trew Scottis chapyt na creatur.
A captayne thair this fals Eduuard maid.
Towart Dunbar without restyng thai raid
Quhar gaderyt was gret power of Scotland,
Agayne Eduuard in bataill thocht to stand.
Thir four erllis was entrit in that place
Of Mar, Menteith, Adell, Ros upon cace.
In that castell the erle gert hald thaim in,
At to thar men without thai mycht nocht wyn,
Na thai to thaim suppleying for to ma.
The battaillis than togiddyr fast thai ga.
Full gret slauchtyr at pitté was to se
Of trew Scottis oursett with sutelté.
Erle Patrik than quhen fechtyng was fellast
Till our fa turnd and harmyng did us mast:
Is nayne in warld at scaithis ma do mar
Than weile trastyt in born familiar.
Our men was slayne withoutyn redempcioune;
Throuch thar dedis all tynt was this regioune.
King Eduuard past and Corspatrik to Scune
And thar he gat homage of Scotland sune,
For nane was left the realme for to defend.
For Jhon the Balyoune to Munros than he send
And putt hym doune forevir of this kynrik.
Than Eduuarde self was callit a roy full ryk.
The croune he tuk apon that sammyne stane
At Gadalos send with his sone fra Spane,
Quhen Iber Scot fyrst intill Irland come;
At Canmor syne King Fergus has it nome,
Brocht it till Scune and stapill maid it thar,
Quhar kingis was cround eight hundyr yer and mar
Befor the tyme at King Eduuard it fand.
This jowell he gert turs intill Ingland,
In Lund it sett till witnes of this thing,
Be conquest than of Scotland cald hym king.
Quhar that stayne is Scottis suld mastir be.
God ches the tyme Margretis ayr till see!
Sevyn scor thai led of the gretast that thai fand
Of ayris with thaim, and Bruce, out of Scotland.
Eduuard gayf hym his fadris heretage
Bot he thocht ay till hald hym in thrillage.
Baith Blacok Mur was his and Huntyntoun.
Till Erle Patrik thai gaif full gret gardoun.
For the frendschipe King Eduuard wyth hym fand,
Protector haile he maid hym of Scotland.
That office than he brukyt bot schort tyme.
I may nocht now putt all thar deid in ryme.
Of cornikle quhat suld I tary lang?
To Wallace agayne now breiffly will I gange.
Scotland was lost quhen he was bot a child
And ourset throuch with our ennemys wilde.
His fadyr Malcom in the Lennox fled;
His eldest sone thedir he with hym led.
His modyr fled wyth hym fra Elrisle,
Till Gowry past and duelt in Kilspynde.
The knycht hir fadir thedyr he thaim sent
Till his uncle that with full gud entent
In Gowry duelt and had gud levyng thar,
Ane agyt man the quhilk resavyt thaim far.
Intill Dundé Wallace to scule thai send
Quhill he of witt full worthely was kend.
Thus he conteynde intill his tendyr age,
In armys syne did mony hie vaslage
Quhen Saxons blud into this realm cummyng,
Wyrkand the will of Eduuard, that fals king.
Mony gret wrang thai wrocht in this regioune:
Distroyed our lordys and brak thar byggynys doun;
Both wiffis, wedowis thai tuk all at thar will,
Nonnys, madyns, quham thai likit to spill.
King Herodis part thai playit into Scotland
Of yong childyr that thai befor thaim fand.
The byschoprykis that war of gretast waile
Thai tuk in hand of thar archybyschops haile.
No for the pape thai wald no kyrkis forber
Bot gryppyt all be violence of wer.
Glaskow thai gaif, as it our weile was kend,
To dyocye in Duram to commend.
Small benifice that wald thai nocht persew.
And for the richt full worthy clerkis thai slew,
Hangitt barrownnys and wrocht full mekill cayr.
It was weylle knawyn in the bernys of Ayr,
Eighteen score putt to that dispitfull dede.
Bot God abowyn has send us sum ramede:
The remenbrance is forthir in the taile.
I will folow apon my proces haile.
Willyham Wallace or he was man of armys
Gret pitté thocht that Scotland tuk sic harmys.
Mekill dolour it did hym in hys mynd,
For he was wys, rycht worthy, wicht, and kynd.
In Gowry duelt still with this worthy man.
As he encressyt and witt haboundyt than
Intill his hart he had full mekill cayr.
He saw the Sothroun multipliand mayr,
And to hymself offt wald he mak his mayne.
Of his gud kyne thai had slane mony ane.
Yhit he was than semly, stark, and bauld,
And he of age was bot eighteen yer auld.
Wapynnys he bur, outhir gud suerd or knyff,
For he with thaim hapnyt rycht offt in stryff.
Quhar he fand ane withoutyn othir presance
Eftir to Scottis that did no mor grevance.
To cutt his thrott or steik hym sodanlye
He wayndyt nocht, fand he thaim savely.
Syndry wayntyt, bot nane wyst be quhat way,
For all to him thar couth na man thaim say.
Sad of contenance he was bathe auld and ying,
Litill of spech, wys, curtas, and benyng.
Upon a day to Dundé he was send;
Of cruelnes full litill thai him kend.
The constable, a felloun man of wer,
That to the Scottis he did full mekill der,
Selbye he hecht, dispitfull and owtrage.
A sone he had ner twenty yer of age,
Into the toun he usyt evirilk day.
Thre men or four thar went with him to play,
A hely schrew, wanton in his entent.
Wallace he saw and towart him he went.
Likle he was, rycht byge and weyle beseyne
Intill a gyde of gudly ganand greyne.
He callyt on hym and said, "Thow Scot, abyde.
Quha devill thee grathis in so gay a gyde?
Ane Ersche mantill it war thi kynd to wer,
A Scottis thewtill undyr thi belt to ber,
Rouch rewlyngis apon thi harlot fete.
Gyff me thi knyff. Quhat dois thi ger so mete?"
Till him he yeid his knyff to tak him fra.
Fast by the collar Wallace couth him ta.
Undyr his hand the knyff he bradit owt,
For all his men that semblyt him about,
Bot help himselff he wyst of no remede.
Without reskew he stekyt him to dede.
The squier fell, of him thar was na mar.
His men folowid on Wallace wondir sar.
The pres was thik and cummirit thaim full fast.
Wallace was spedy and gretlye als agast,
The bludy knyff bar drawin in his hand;
He sparyt nane that he befor him fand.
He knew the hous his eyme had lugit in;
Thedir he fled for owt he mycht nocht wyn.
The gude wyff than within the clos saw he
And "help!" he cryit, "for him that deit on Tre.
The yong captane has fallyn with me at stryff."
In at the dure he went with this gud wiff.
A roussat goun of hir awn scho him gaif
Apon his weyd at coveryt all the layff,
A soudly courche our hed and nek leit fall;
A wovyn quhyt hatt scho brassit on withall,
For thai suld nocht lang tary at that in;
Gaiff him a rok, syn set him doun to spyn.
The Sothroun socht quhar Wallace was in drede.
Thai wyst nocht weylle at quhat gett he in yeide.
In that same hous thai socht him beselye
Bot he sat still and span full conandly,
As of his tym, for he nocht leryt lang.
Thai left him swa and furth thar gait can gang
With hevy cheyr and sorowfull in thocht.
Mar witt of him as than get couth thai nocht.
The Inglismen all thus in barrat boune
Bade byrn all Scottis that war into that toun.
Yhit this gud wiff held Wallace till the nycht,
Maid him gud cher, syne put hym out with slycht.
Throw a dyrk garth scho gydyt him furth fast;
In covart went and up the watter past,
Forbure the gate for wachis that war thar.
His modyr bade intill a gret dispar.
Quhen scho him saw scho thankit hevynnis queyn
And said, "Der sone, this lang quhar has thow beyne?"
He tald his modyr of his sodane cas.
Than wepyt scho and said full oft, "Allas!
Or that thow cess thow will be slayne withall."
"Modyr," he said, "God reuller is of all.
Unsoverable ar thir pepille of Ingland.
Part of thar ire me think we suld gaynstand."
His eme wist weyle that he the squier slew;
For dreid tharof in gret languor he grew.
This passit our quhill divers dayis war gane.
That gud man dred or Wallace suld be tane,
For Suthroun ar full sutaille evirilk man.
A gret dyttay for Scottis thai ordand than.
Be the lawdayis in Dundé set ane ayr.
Than Wallace wald na langar sojorne thar.
His modyr graithit hir in pilgrame weid;
Hym disgysyt, syne glaidlye with hir yeid,
A schort swerd undyr his weid prevalé.
In all that land full mony fays had he.
Baith on thar fute, with thaim may tuk thai nocht.
Quha sperd, scho said to Sanct Margret thai socht:
Quha servit hir, full gret frendschipe thai fand
With Sothroun folk, for scho was of Ingland.
Besyd Landoris the ferrye our thai past,
Syn throw the Ochtell sped thaim wonder fast.
In Dunfermlyn thai lugyt all that nycht.
Apon the morn quhen that the day was brycht,
With gentill wemen hapnyt thaim to pas,
Of Ingland born, in Lithquhow wounnand was.
The captans wiff, in pilgramage had beyne,
Fra scho thaim mett and had yong Wallace sene,
Gud cher thaim maid, for he was wondyr fayr,
Nocht large of tong, weille taucht and debonayr.
Furth tawkand thus of materis that was wrocht
Quhill south our Forth with hyr son scho thaim brocht,1
Into Lithkow. Thai wald nocht tary lang.
Thar leyff thai tuk, to Dunypace couth gang;
Thar duelt his eyme, a man of gret riches.
This mychty persone, hecht to name Wallas,
Maid thaim gud cher and was a full kynd man,
Welcummyt thaim fair and to thaim tald he than,
Dide him to witt, the land was all on ster;
Trettyt thaim weyle, and said, "My sone so der,
Thi modir and thow rycht heir with me sall bide
Quhill better be, for chance at may betyde."
Wallace ansuerd, said, "Westirmar we will.
Our kyne ar slayne and that me likis ill,
And othir worthi mony in that art.
Will God I leiffe, we sall us wreke on part."
The persone sicht and said, "My sone so fre,
I can nocht witt how that radres may be."
Quhat suld I spek of fruster? As this tid
For gyft of gud with him he wald nocht bide.
His modyr and he till Elrisle thai went.
Upon the morn scho for hir brothir sent,
In Corsby duelt and schirreff was of Ayr.
Hyr fadyr was dede, a lang tyme leyffyt had thar.
Hyr husband als at Lowdon Hill was slayn.
Hyr eldest son that mekill was of mayn,
Schir Malcom Wallas was his nayme but less,
His houch senons thai cuttyt in that press.
On kneis he faucht, felle Inglismen he slew.
Till hym thar socht may fechtaris than anew,
On athyr side with speris bar him doun.
Thar stekit thai that gud knycht of renoun.
On to my taile I left. At Elrisle
Schir Ranald come son till his sistir fre,
Welcummyt thaim hayme and sperd of hir entent.
Scho prayde he wald to the lord Persye went,
So yrk of wer scho couth no forthir fle
To purches pes in rest at scho mycht be.2
Schyr Ranald had the Perseys proteccioune,
As for all part to tak the remissioune.
He gert wrytt ane till his systir that tyde.
In that respyt Wallas wald nocht abyde;
Hys modyr kyst; scho wepyt with hart sar;
His leyff he tuk, syne with his eyme couth far.
Yonge he was and to Sothroun rycht savage.
Gret rowme thai had, dispitfull and owtrage.
Schir Ranald weylle durst nocht hald Wallas thar
For gret perell he wyst apperand war.
For thai had haile the strenthis of Scotland;
Quhat thai wald do durst few agayne thaim stand.
Schyrreff he was and usyt thaim amang.
Full sar he dred or Wallas suld tak wrang,
For he and thai couth nevir weyle accord.
He gat a blaw, thocht he war lad or lord,
That profferyt him ony lychtlynes.
Bot thai raparyt our mekill to that place.
Als Inglis clerkis in prophecys thai fand
How a Wallace suld putt thaim of Scotland.
Schir Ranald knew weill a mar quiet sted
Quhar Wilyham mycht be better fra thar fede
With his uncle Wallas of Ricardtoun.
Schir Richart hecht that gud knycht of renoun;
Thai landis hayle than was his heretage.
Bot blynd he was - so hapnyt throw curage,
Be Inglismen that dois us mekill der;
In his rysyng he worthi was in wer -
Throuch hurt of vaynys and mystymit of blude;3
Yeit he was wis and of his conseill gud.
In Feviryer Wallas was to him send;
In Aperill fra him he bownd to wend.
Bot gud service he dide him with plesance
As in that place was worthi to avance.
So on a tym he desyrit to play.
In Aperill the twenty-third day
Till Erevyn Watter fysche to tak he went;
Sic fantasye fell in his entent.
To leide his net a child furth with him yeid,
Bot he or nowne was in a felloune dreid.
His suerd he left, so did he nevir agayne;
It dide him gud suppos he sufferyt payne.
Of that labour as than he was nocht sle;
Happy he was, tuk fysche haboundanlé.
Or of the day ten houris our couth pas,
Ridand thar com ner by quhar Wallace was
The lorde Persye, was captane than of Ayr.
Fra thine he turnde and couth to Glaskow fair.
Part of the court had Wallace labour seyne.
Till him raid five cled into ganand greyne,
And said sone, "Scot, Martyns fysche we wald have."
Wallace meklye agayne ansuer him gave:
"It war resone me think yhe suld haif part.
Waith suld be delt in all place with fre hart."
He bade his child, "Gyff thaim of our waithyng."
The Sothroun said, "As now of thi delyng
We will nocht tak; thow wald giff us our small."
He lychtyt doun and fra the child tuk all.
Wallas said than, "Gentill men gif ye be,
Leiff us sum part, we pray, for cheryté.
Ane agyt knycht servis our lady today.
Gud frend, leiff part and tak nocht all away."
"Thow sall haiff leiff to fysche and tak thee ma;
All this forsuth sall in our flytting ga.
We serff a lord. Thir fysche sall till him gang."
Wallace ansuerd, said, "Thow art in the wrang."
"Quham dowis thow Scot? In faith thow servis a blaw."
Till him he ran and out a suerd can draw.
Willyham was wa he had na wapynnis thar
Bot the poutstaff, the quhilk in hand he bar.
Wallas with it fast on the cheik him tuk
Wyth so gud will quhill of his feit he schuk.
The suerd flaw fra him a fur breid on the land.
Wallas was glaid and hynt it sone in hand,
And with the swerd ane awkwart straik him gave,
Undyr the hat his crage in sondir drave.
Be that the layff lychtyt about Wallas.
He had no helpe, only bot Goddis grace.
On athir side full fast on him thai dange;
Gret perell was giff thai had lestyt lang.
Apone the hede in gret ire he strak ane;
The scherand suerd glaid to the colar bane.
Ane othir on the arme he hitt so hardely
Quhill hand and suerd bathe on the feld can ly.
The tothir twa fled to thar hors agayne.
He stekit him was last apon the playne.
Thre slew he thar, twa fled with all thar mycht
Eftir thar lord, bot he was out of sicht
Takand the mure or he and thai couth twyne.
Till him thai raid onon or thai wald blyne
And cryit, "Lord abide, your men ar martirit doun
Rycht cruelly her in this fals regioun.
Five of our court her at the wattir baid
Fysche for to bryng, thocht it na profyt maid.
We ar chapyt, bot in feyld slayne ar thre."
The lord speryt, "How mony mycht thai be?"
"We saw bot ane that has discumfyst us all."
Than lewch he lowde and said, "Foule mot yow fall,4
Sen ane yow all has putt to confusioun.
Quha menys it maist the devyll of hell him droun!
This day for me in faith he beis nocht socht."
Quhen Wallace thus this worthi werk had wrocht,
Thar hors he tuk and ger that levyt was thar,
Gaif our that crafft, he yeid to fysche no mar;
Went till his eyme and tauld him of this drede,
And he for wo weyle ner worthit to weide;
And said, "Sone, thir tithingis syttis me sor,
And be it knawin thow may tak scaith tharfor."
"Uncle," he said, "I will no langar bide.
Thir southland hors latt se gif I can ride."
Than bot a child him service for to mak,
Hys emys sonnys he wald nocht with him tak.
This gud knycht said, "Deyr cusyng, pray I thee,
Quhen thow wanttis gud cum fech ynewch fra me."
Sylvir and gold he gert onto him geyff,
Wallace inclynys and gudely tuk his leyff.

Explicit liber primus
& Incipit secundus

Book 2

Yong Wallace, fulfillit of hie curage,
In prys of armys desyrous and savage,
Thi vaslage may nevir be forlorn,
Thi deidis ar knawin thocht that the warld had suorn;
For thi haile mynde, labour and besynes,
Was set in wer and verray rychtwisnes,
And felloune los of thi deyr worthi kyn.
The rancour more remaynde his mynd within.
It was his lyff and maist part of his fude,
To se thaim sched the byrnand Sothroun blude.
Till Auchincruff withoutyn mar he raid,
And bot schort tyme in pes at he thar baid.
Thar duelt a Wallas welcummyt him full weill,
Thocht Inglismen tharof had litill feille.
Bathe meite and drynk at his will he had thar,
In Laglyne Wode quhen that he maid repayr.
This gentill man was full oft his resett,
With stuff of houshald strestely he thaim bett.5
So he desirit the toune of Air to se.
His child with him as than na ma had he.
Ay next the wode Wallace gert leiff his hors,
Syne on his feit yeid to the merkat cors.
The Persye was in the castell of Ayr
With Inglismen, gret nowmer and repayr.
Our all the toune rewlyng on thar awne wis
Till mony Scot thai did full gret suppris.
Aboundandely Wallace amang thaim yeid.
The rage of youth maid him to haif no dreid.
A churll thai had that felloune byrdyngis bar.
Excedandlye he wald lyft mekill mar
Than ony twa that thai amang thaim fand,
And als be us a sport he tuk on hand.
He bar a sasteing in a boustous poille;
On his braid bak of ony wald he thoille
Bot for a grot, als fast as he mycht draw.
Quhen Wallas herd spek of that mery saw,
He likit weill at that mercat to be
And for a strak he bad him grottis thre.
The churll grantyt, of that proffir was fayn.
To pay the silvir Wallas was full bayne.
Wallas that steing tuk up intill his hand.
Full sturdely he coud befor him stand.
Wallace with that apon the bak him gaif
Till his ryg bayne he all in sondyr draif.
The carll wes dede. Of him I spek no mar.
The Inglismen semblit on Wallace thair,
Feill on the feld of frekis fechtand fast,
He unabasyt and nocht gretlie agast.
Upon the hed ane with the steing hitt he,
Till bayn and brayn he gert in pecis fle.
Ane othir he straik on a basnat of steille
The tre toraiff and fruschit eviredeille.
His steyng was tynt, the Inglisman was dede,
For his crag bayne was brokyn in that stede.
He drew a suerd at helpit him at neide.
Throuchoute the thikest of the pres he yeid
And at his hors full fayne he wald haif beyne.
Twa sarde him maist that cruell war and keyne.
Wallace raturned as man of mekyll mayne
And at a straik the formast has he slayne.
The tothir fled and durst him nocht abide.
Bot a rycht straik Wallas him gat that tyd.
In at the guschet brymly he him bar;
The grounden suerd throuchout his cost it schar.
Five slew he thar or that he left the toune.
He gat his hors, to Laglyne maid him boune,
Kepyt his child and leyt him nocht abide.
In saufté thus onto the wod can ride,
Feille folowit him on hors and eik on futte
To tak Wallace, bot than it was no butte.
Covert of treis savit him full weille,
Bot thar to bid than coude he nocht adeille.
Gud ordinance that serd for his estate
His cusyng maid at all tyme ayr and late.
The squier Wallace in Auchincruff that was
Baith bed and meite he maid for thaim to pas
As for that tyme that he remanyt thar.
Bot sar he langit to se the toune of Ayr.
Thedyr he past apon the mercate day.
Gret God gif he as than had beyne away!
His emys servand to by him fysche was send,
Schir Ranald Craufurd, schirreff than was kend.
Quhen he had tane of sic gud as he bocht,
The Perseys stuart sadly till him socht
And said, "Thow Scot, to quhom takis thow this thing?"
"To the schirreff," he said. "Be hevynnys king,
My lord sall haiff it and syne go seke thee mar."
Wallace on gaite ner by was walkand thar.
Till him he yeid and said, "Gud freynd, pray I thee,
The schireffis servand thow wald let him be."
A hetfull man the stuart was of blude
And thocht Wallace chargyt him in termys rude.
"Go hens, thow Scot, the mekill devill thee speid.
At thi schrewed us thow wenys me to leid."
A huntyn staff intill his hand he bar;
Thar with he smat on Willyam Wallace thair.
Bot for his tre litill sonyhe he maid,
Bot be the coler claucht him withoutyn baid
A felloun knyff fast till his hart straik he,
Syn fra him dede schot him doun sodanlé.
Catour sen syne he was but weyr no mar.6
Men of armes on Wallace semblit thar;
Four scor was sett in armys buskyt boun
On the merket day for Scottis to kepe the toun,
Bot Wallace bauldlye drew a suerd of wer.
Into the byrneis the formast can he ber,
Throuchout the body stekit him to dede
And syndry ma or he past of that stede.
Ane othir aukwart a sarye straik tuk thar,
Abown the kne the bayne in sondir schar.
The thrid he straik throuch his pissand of maile
The crag in twa, no weidis mycht him vaill.
Thus Wallace ferd als fers as a lyoun.
Than Inglismen that war in bargane boun
To kepe the gait with speris rud and lang,
For dynt of suerd thai durst nocht till hym gang.
Wallace was harnest in his body weyle;
Till him thai socht with hedis scharp of steyle
And fra his strenth enveronde him about.
Bot throu the pres on a side he went out
Intill a wall that stude by the se syde;
For weyle or wo thar most he nedis abide,
And of thar speris in pecis part he schar.
Than fra the castell othir help come mar.
Atour the dike thai yeid on athir side,
Schott doun the wall; no socour was that tyde.
Than wist he nocht of no help bot to de.
To venge his dede amang thaim lous yeid he,
On athyr part in gret ire hewand fast.
Hys byrnyst brand to-byrstyt at the last,
Brak in the heltis, away the blaid it flaw.
He wyst na wayne bot out his knyff can draw.
The fyrst he slew that him in hand has hynt
And othir twa he stekit with his dynt.
The ramanand with speris to him socht,
Bar him to ground, than forthir mycht he nocht.
The lordis bad that thai suld nocht him sla.
To pyne him mar thai chargyt him to ga.
Thus in thar armys suppos that he had suorn,
Out of the garth be fors thai haff him born.
Thus gud Wallace with Inglismen was tane
In falt of helpe for he was him allayne.
He coud nocht cheys, sic curage so hym bar.
Frevill Fortoun thus brocht him in the suar,
And fals invye ay contrar rychtwisnes,
That violent god full of doubilnes,
Thai fenyeit goddis Wallace nevir knew.
Gret rychtwisnes him ay to mercy drew.
His kyn mycht nocht him get for na kyn thing,
Mycht thai have payit the ransoune of a king.
The more thai bad, the more it was in vayne.
Of thar best men that day sevyn has he slayne.
Thai gert set him intill a presoune fell,
Of his turment gret payne it war to tell.
Ill meyt and drynk thai gert ontill him giff.
Gret mervaille was lang tyme gif he mycht leyff;
And ek tharto he was in presoune law
Quhill thai thocht tyme on him to hald the law.
Leyff I him thar into that paynfull sted.
Gret God above till him send sum ramede!
The playne compleynt, the pittows wementyng,
The wofull wepyng that was for his takyng,
The tormentyng of every creatur!
"Alas," thai said, "how suld our lyff endur?
The flour of youth intill his tendir age
Be fortoun armes has left him in thrillage,
Lefand as now a chifftane had we nane
Durst tak on hand bot young Wallace alane.
This land is lost, he caucht is in the swar.
Prophesye out, Scotland is lost in cayr."

   Barrell heryng and wattir thai him gave
   Quhar he was set into that ugly cave.
Sic fude for him was febill to comend.
Than said he thus, "All weildand God resave
My petows spreit and sawle amange the law.
My carneill lyff I may nocht thus defend.
Our few Sothroune onto the dede I drawe.
Quhen so Thow will out of this warld I wend,
Giff I suld now in presoune mak ane end.

   Eternaile God, quhy suld I thus wayis de,
   Syne my beleiff all haile remanys in Thee,
At Thin awn will full worthely was wrocht?
Bot Thow rademe, na liff thai ordand me.
Gastlye Fadyr that deit apon the Tre,
Fra hellis presoune with Thi blud us bocht,
Quhi will Thow giff Thi handewerk for nocht,
And mony worthy into gret payne we se,
For of my lyff ellys nothing I roucht?

   O wareide suerd, of tempyr nevir trew!
   Thi fruschand blaid in presoune sone me threw
And Inglismen our litill harme has tane.
Of us thai haiff undoyne may than ynew!
My faithfull fadyr dispitfully thai slew,
My brothir als and gud men mony ane.
Is this thi dait? Sall thai ourcum ilk ane?
On our kynrent, deyr God, quhen will Thow rew,
Sen my pouir thus sodandlye is gane?

   All worthi Scottis, allmichty God yow leid,
   Sen I no mor in vyage may you speid.
In presoune heir me worthis to myscheyff.
Sely Scotland that of help has gret neide,
Thy nacioune all standis in a felloun dreid.
Of warldlynes all thus I tak my leiff.
Of thir paynys God lat yow nevir preiff,
Thocht for wo all out of witt suld weid.
Now othir gyft I may none to yow gyff."

   O der Wallace, umquhill was stark and stur,
   Thow most o neide in presoune till endur.
Thi worthi kyn may nocht thee saiff for sold.
Ladys wepyt that was bathe myld and mur,
In fureous payne the modyr that thee bur,
For thou till hir was fer derer than gold.
Hyr most desyr was to be undyr mold.
In warldlynes quhi suld ony ensur,
For thow was formyt forsye on the fold!

   Compleyn, sanctis, thus as your sedull tellis;
   Compleyn to hevyn with wordis that nocht fell is;
Compleyne your voice unto the God abuffe;
Compleyne for him into that sitfull sellis;
Compleyne his payne in dolour thus that duellis,
In langour lyis for losyng of thar luff.
His fureous payne was felloune for to pruff.
Compleyne also yhe birdis blyth as bellis;
Sum happy chance may fall for your behuff.

   Compleyne lordys, compleyne yhe ladyis brycht,
   Compleyne for him that worthi was and wycht,
Of Saxons sonnys sufferyt full mekill der;
Compleyne for him was thus in presone dicht
And for na caus, bot Scotland for thi richt.
Compleyne also yhe worthi men of wer;
Compleyn for hym that was your aspersper
And to the dede fell Sothron yeit he dicht;
Compleyne for him your triumphe had to ber.

   Celinus was maist his geyeler now.
   In Inglismen, allace, quhi suld we trow,
Our worthy kyn has payned on this wys?
Sic reulle be rycht is litill till allow.
Me think we suld in barrat mak thaim bow
At our power, and so we do feill sys.7
Of thar danger God mak us for to rys,
That weill has wrocht befor thir termys and now,
For thai wyrk ay to wayt us with supprys.

   Quhat suld I mor of Wallace turment tell?
   The flux he tuk into thar presoune fell.
Ner to the dede he was likly to drawe.
Thai chargyt the geyler nocht on him to duell,
Bot bryng him up out of that ugly sell
To jugisment, quhar he suld thoill the law.
This man went doun and sodanlye he saw,
As to his sycht, dede had him swappyt snell,
Syn said to thaim, "He has payit at he aw."8

   Quhen thai presumyt he suld be verray ded,
   Thai gart servandys withoutyn langer pleid,
Wyth schort awis onto the wall him bar.
Thai kest him our out of that bailfull steid -
Of him thai trowit suld be no mor ramede -
In a draff myddyn quhar he remainyt thar.
His fyrst norys, of the Newtoun of Ayr,
Till him scho come, quhilk was full will of reid,
And thyggyt leiff away with him to fayr.

   Into gret ire thai grantyt hir to go.
   Scho tuk him up withoutin wordis mo
And on a caar unlikly thai him cast;
Atour the wattir led him with gret woo
Till hyr awn hous withoutyn ony hoo.
Scho warmyt wattir, and hir servandis fast
His body wousche quhill filth was of hym past.
His hart was wicht and flykeryt to and fro,
Also his twa eyne he kest up at the last.

   His fostir modyr loved him our the laiff,
   Did mylk to warme, his liff giff scho mycht saiff,
And with a spoyn gret kyndnes to him kyth.
Hyr dochtir had of twelve wokkis ald a knayff:
Hir childis pape in Wallace mouth scho gaiff.9
The womannys mylk recomford him full swyth.
Syn in a bed thai brocht him fair and lyth,
Rycht covertly thai kepe him in that caiff,
Him for to save so secretlye thai mycht.

   In thar chawmyr thai kepyt him that tide.
   Scho gert graith up a burd be the hous side
Wyth carpettis cled and honowryt with gret lycht;
And for the voice in eviry place suld bide
At he was ded, out throw the land so wide,
On presence ay scho wepyt undyr slycht.
Bot gudely meytis scho graithit him at hir mycht.
And so befell into that sammyn tid
Quhill forthirmar at Wallas worthit wycht.

   Thomas Rimour into the Faile was than
   With the mynystir, quhilk was a worthi man.
He usyt offt to that religious place.
The peple demyt of witt mekill he can;
And so he told, thocht at thai blis or ban,
Quhilk hapnyt suth in mony divers cace,
I can nocht say be wrang or rychtwisnas,
In rewlle of wer quhethir thai tynt or wan.
It may be demyt be divisioun of grace.

   Thar man that day had in the merket bene;
   On Wallace knew this cairfull cas so kene.
His mastir speryt quhat tithingis at he saw.
This man ansuerd, "Of litill hard I meyn."
The mynister said, "It has bene seildyn seyn
Quhar Scottis and Inglis semblit bene on raw
Was nevir yit als fer as we coud knaw,
Bot othir a Scot wald do a Sothroun teyn
Or he till him, for aventur mycht faw."

    "Wallas," he said, "ye wist tayne in that steid,
   Out our the wall I saw thaim cast him deide,
In thar presoune famyst for fawt of fude."
The mynister said with hart hevy as leid,
"Sic deid to thaim me think suld foster feid,
For he was wicht and cummyn of gentill blud."
Thomas ansuerd, "Thir tithingis ar noucht gud.
And that be suth myself sall nevir eit breid,
For all my witt her schortlye I conclud."

    "A woman syne of the Newtoun of Ayr
   Till him scho went fra he was fallyn thar
And on hir kneis rycht lawly thaim besocht
To purches leiff scho mycht thin with him fayr.
In lychtlynes tyll hyr thai grant to fayr.
Our the wattir ontill hir hous him brocht
To berys him als gudlye as scho mocht."
Yhit Thomas said, "Than sall I leiff na mar
Gyff that be trew, be God that all has wrocht!"

   The mynister herd quhat Thomas said in playne.
   He chargyt him, "Than go speid thee fast agayn
To that sammyn hous and verraly aspye."
The man went furth at byddyng was full bayn.
To the Newtoun to pas he did his payn
To that ilk hous and went in sodanlye.
About he blent onto the burd him bye.
This woman rais. In hart scho was nocht fayn.
"Quha aw this lik?" he bad hir nocht deny.

    "Wallace," scho said, "that full worthy has beyne."
   Than wepyt scho that peté was to seyne.
The man thartill gret credens gaif he nocht.
Towart the burd he bowned as he war teyne.
On kneis scho felle and cryit, "For Marye scheyne
Lat sklandyr be and flemyt out of your thocht."
This man hir suour, "Be Hym that all has wrocht,
Mycht I on lyff him anys se with myn eyn
He suld be saiff thocht Ingland had him socht!"

   Scho had him up to Wallace be the des.
   He spak with him, syne fast agayne can pres
With glaid bodword thar myrthis till amend.
He told to thaim the fyrst tithingis was les.
Than Thomas said, "Forsuth, or he deces
Mony thousand in feild sall mak thar end.
Of this regioune he sall the Sothroun send
And Scotlande thris he sall bryng to the pes;
So gud of hand agayne sall nevir be kend."

   All worthi men that has gud witt to waille,
   Bewar that yhe with mys deyme nocht my taille.
Perchance yhe say that Bruce he was none sik.
He was als gud quhat deid was to assaill
As of his handis and bauldar in battaill,
Bot Bruce was knawin weyll ayr of this kynrik;
For he had rycht we call no man him lik.
Bot Wallace thris this kynrik conquest haile,
In Ingland fer socht battaill on that rik.

I will ratorn to my mater agayne.
Quhen Wallace was ralesched of his payn,
The contré demyd haile at he was dede;
His derrest kyn nocht wist of his ramede
Bot haile he was likly to gang and ryd.
Into that place he wald no langar byde.
His trew kepar he send to Elrisle.
Eftir him thar he durst nocht lat thaim be.
Hir dochtir als, thar servand and hir child,
He gart thaim pas onto his modyr myld.
Quhen thai war gayne na wapynnys thar he saw
To helpe him with quhat aventur mycht befaw.
A rousty suerd in a noik he saw stand
Withoutyn belt, but bos, bukler, or band.
Lang tyme befor it had beyne in that steid;
Ane agyt man it left quhen he was dede.
He drew the blaid: he fand it wald bitt weill;
Thocht it was foule, nobill it was of steyll.
"God helpis his man, for thou sall go with me
Quhill bettir cum, will God, full sone may be!"
To Schir Ranald as than he wald nocht fair.
In that passage offt Sothroun maid repar.
At Rycardtoun full fayn he wald have beyne
To get him hors and part of armour scheyne.
On thedirwart as he bownyt to fair
Thre Inglismen he met, ridand till Ayr,
In thair viage at Glaskow furth had beyne.
Ane Longcastell, that cruell was and keyne,
A bauld squier, with him gud yemen twa.
Wallace drew by and wald haiff lattyn thaim ga.
Till him he raid and said dispitfully,
"Thow Scot abide. I trow thow be sum spy,
Or ellis a theyff, fra presens wald thee hid."
Than Wallace said with sobyr wordis that tid,
"Schir, I am seik. For Goddis luff latt me ga!"
Longcastell said, "Forsuth it beis nocht sa.
A felloune freik thow semys in thi fair.
Quhill men thee knaw thow sall with me till Ayr."10
Hynt out his suerd that was of nobill hew.
Wallace with that at his lychtyn him drew,
Apon the crag with his suerd has him tayne,
Throw brayne and seyne in sondir straik the bayne.
Be he was fallyn, the twa than lichtyt doun,
To veng his dede to Wallace maid thaim boun.
The tayne of thaim apon the hed he gaiff,
The rousty blaid to the schulderis him claiff.
The tothir fled and durst no langar bide;
With a rud step Wallace coud eftir glide.
Our thourch his rybbis a seker straik drewe he,
Quhill levir and lounggis men mycht all redy se.
Thar hors he tuk, bathe wapynnys and armour,
Syne thankit God with gud hart in that stour.
Sylvir thai had, all with him has he tayne
Him to support, for spendyng had he nayne.
Into gret haist he raid to Ricardtoun.
A blyth semblay was at his lychtin doun
Quhen Wallace mett with Schir Richart the knicht,
For him had murnit quhill feblit was his mycht.
His thre sonnys of Wallace was full fayne;
Thai held him lost, yit God him savth agayne.
His eyme, Schir Ranald, to Rycardtoun come fast;
The wemen told by Corsby as thai past
Of Wallace eschaipe, syne thar viage yeid.11
Schyr Ranald yit was in a felloune dreid:
Quhill he him saw in hart he thocht full lang;
Than sodanlye in armys he coud him thrang.
He mycht nocht spek, bot kyst him tendirlye;
The knychtis spreit was in ane extasye.
The blyth teris tho bryst fro his eyne two
Or that he spak, a lang tyme held him so,
And at the last rycht freindfully said he,
"Welcum nevo, welcum, deir sone to me.
Thankit be He that all this warld has wrocht,
Thus fairlye thee has out of presoune brocht!"
His modyr come and othir freyndis enew
With full glaid will to feill thai tithingis trew.
Gud Robert Boyd, that worthi was and wicht,
Wald nocht thaim trow quhill he him saw with sicht.
Fra syndry part thai socht to Ricardtoun,
Feille worthi folk that war of gret renoun.
Thus leiff I thaim in mirth, blys, and plesance,
Thankand gret God of his fre happy chance.

Explicit liber Secundus
Incipit Tertius

Book 3

In joyows Julii, quhen the flouris suete
Degesteable, engenered throu the heet,
Baith erbe and froyte, busk and bewis, braid
Haboundandlye in eviry slonk and slaid;
Als bestiall thar rycht cours till endur,
Weyle helpyt ar be wyrkyn of natur,
On fute and weynge ascendand to the hycht,
Conserved weill be the Makar of mycht
Fyscheis in flude refeckit rialye
Till mannys fude the warld suld occupye;
Bot Scotland sa was waistit mony day,
Throw wer sic skaith at labour was away.
Victaill worth scant or August coud apper,
Throu all the land that fude was hapnyt der.
Bot Inglismen, that riches wantyt nayne,
Be caryage brocht thar victaill full gud wayne;
Stuffit housis with wyn and gud wernage
Demaynde this land as thar awne heretage;
The kynryk haile thai rewllyt at thar will.
Messyngeris than sic tithingis brocht thaim till,
And tald Persye that Wallace leffand war,
Of his eschaip fra thar presoune in Ayr.
Thai trowit rycht weill he passit was that steid
For Longcastell and his twa men was deid.
Thai waryit the chance that Wallace so was past.
In ilka part thai war gretlye agast
Throw prophesye that thai had herd befor.
Lord Persye said, "Quhat nedis wordis mor?
Bot he be cest he sall do gret mervaill.
It war the best for King Eduuardis availl
Mycht he him get to be his steidfast man,
For gold or land his conquest mycht lest than.
Me think beforce he may nocht gottyn be.
Wys men the suth be his eschaip may se."
Thus deyme thai him in mony divers cas;
We leiff thaim her and spek furth of Wallas.
In Rycardtoun he wald no langar byde,
For freindis consaill nor thing that mycht betide;
And quhen thai saw that it availlit nocht,
His purpos was to venge him at he mocht
On Sothron blud quhilk has his eldris slayne,
Thai latt him wyrk his awn will into playne.

ancestors; should; read; (see note)
bypass through very sloth
turn ourselves; other
To; whole intention
been seen; past

How; shown to them

perpetually in subjection
above; diminish
Yet; on; forebears
one [person]
rules (reigns)
I have heard
who; (see note)
good lineage
Sir; rightful sheriff; (see note)


(see note)

which; acted
When; heir; (t-note)
Who; to have more
authentic lineage; (see note)

(see note)
chronicles tell; (t-note)
by treason
Overrun; foes; freed
lost; (see note)
By chance; Kinghorn
grievous; (see note)


as lineal heir by first degree
by the second degree

truly it so happened; (see note)
seek; foe
Gascony very fearful in array; (see note)
assembled; baronage
such [a] state
To; without delay; (see note)
commanded; subjection
their overlord; (t-note)
(see note)

Any; except

hold [land as an inferior]; (see note)
Against just practice
repented afterwards sorely
yet; would

caused; bond
handed over; allegiance; (see note)
host (army); raised; (see note)
(see note)
counsel asked; countryside knew

secret agreement; accorded
went; (see note)
Received; believed [to be] very loyal
army; (t-note)

bridges; portcullis; drew [up]
Opened gates, then displayed his banner
men and women; (see note)
children also; bad luck
appointed; (t-note)
rode; (see note)
gathered; forces

by chance; (see note)
prepared for siege
[So] that to their; outside; get to
Nor; to bring relief
battalions then; go; (t-note)
did us most harm
none; injuries
well trusted [associates] in a familiar place
Scone; (see note)
soon; (t-note)

king; mighty
same stone [of destiny]
from; (see note)
When Hibernian Scots (i.e., Irish); (see note)
That; after; taken; (see note)

treasure; had [it] packed off to
heir; (see note)
(see note)
heirs; (see note)

(see note)

(see note)
enjoyed but
Why should I tarry long over general history
go; (see note)
overthrown through
(see note)

(see note)

good intentions
good livelihood
Dundee; (see note)
learning; taught
many feats of prowess
(see note); (t-note)
Working; (see note)


(see note)
bishoprics; importance
took over completely from
Nor; would they spare any churches
seized by violence; war
Glasgow; very well was known; (see note)
diocese; in commendation

caused great suffering; (see note)
cruel death
above; remedy
story (i.e., in Book 7)
go on with; narrative
Much distress; caused

knowledge abounded

English multiplying further
kinsmen; many [a] one
seemly; strong; bold

bore, either; (t-note)
often; (see note)
one alone
that [one]; injury
hesitated; [if] he found [he could do it] safely
Many were missing; know by
Serious; young; (see note)
[A man] of few words; kind

Of his warlike nature; knew
fierce; (see note)
great harm
was called, cruel; violent

was wont [to go]
to amuse themselves
complete wretch, unrestrained

Well-made; well-dressed
garment; fine green
(see note)
Irish cloak; nature
Rough brogues; worthless feet; (see note)
Why do you dress so smartly?
To; went
seized him
Unless [he] helped; knew
stabbed him to death

pursued; intently
hand to hand fighting; thick; hindered
quick and also very terrified

uncle; lodged
out; get
mistress of the house; courtyard
(i.e., Jesus); Cross
got into a fight with me
russet; she gave him
[Put on] over his clothes; rest
dirty headdress (kerchief) over
woven white hat; clasped
spinning wheel, then
Englishmen; danger
knew; gate; went in

Considering his [short learning] time; learned
so; thus went their way
sad expression; melancholy
More knowledge
prepared for a hostile encounter
Ordered [that they] burn
Made him welcome, then; stealth
dark garden; led; out
[He] went into hiding; river
Avoided; sentries
heaven's queen (i.e., Mary)
long [while] where

Unless; stop

uncle knew; (t-note)
continued until many
lest; taken
Englishmen; cunning
days for holding trials; justice-ayre; (see note)

dressed in pilgrim's clothes
then; went; (t-note)
clothing; secretly
Both on foot; they took no more
Whoever asked; went; (see note)
Whoever worshiped
ferry they crossed; (see note); (t-note)
Ochil [Hills]
lodged; (see note)

[who were] dwelling in Linlithgow; (see note)

too free of speech; courteous; (see note)
things that had been done
(see note)

leave; went
uncle; wealth; (see note)
parson, was named

Made him (Wallace) understand; in turmoil
(see note)
here; shall stay
Until [things] improve
Further west we will [go]
many other worthy [people] in that area
live; avenge in part
parson sighed; noble
know; revenge
needlessly? At this time

sheriff; (see note)
had lived
(see note)
very strong
tough sinews [i.e., behind the knee]
more than enough fighters
either; bore
home; asked
She; Percy; (see note)
weary of war

had one written for his sister
reprieve; (t-note)
kissed; heavy heart
leave; then; uncle made his way
[the] English; fierce
power; cruel and violent
completely occupied the strongholds
used [to go] among them
Greatly he dreaded lest; suffer harm

offered; insult
frequented too much
found in prophecies
[out] of; (t-note)
more quiet place
(see note)
was called
All these lands

who cause us much injury
early career; war

February; (see note)
prepared to go

(see note)
[the] Irvine River
Such [a] notion (whim) came into his mind
before noon; terrible danger
he did so

then; skilled
in plenty
Before ten o'clock

thence; went

To; rode; clad in suitable green
(see note)
[Fishing] spoils; divided; generous
ordered; spoils
would give us too little

we shall remove

do you [serve]; you deserve; (see note)

fishing pole, which
until off his feet; reeled
flew; furrow breadth
crosswise stroke; (t-note)
neck asunder struck
By that [time]; rest dismounted
struck blows

cutting; glided; bone
Until; lay
other two

Reaching; moor before; part
at once before; stop
cut down; (t-note)

retinue; waited

have escaped
discomfited (overcome); (t-note)

Since one [person]
Who laments

weapons (gear); left
Gave up; occupation; went
uncle; fearful situation
nearly went mad
Son; grieve me

English horse
[with] only
uncle's sons (i.e., cousins)
Dear cousin
good [men] come fetch enough
had given to him
bowed; graciously

full of noble courage
Eager for renown in arms and fierce
courage (vassalage); lost
though; sworn [to the contrary]

war; true
grievous loss
burning English blood; (t-note)
without more [delay]; (see note)
only [a]; stayed

as he wished
Laglyn Wood; went; (see note)
very often; refuge

Always; wood; did leave
Then on foot [he] went; market cross
number and concourse [of people]
Over; ruling; own way
To many; injury
Boldly; went; (see note); (t-note)

heavy burdens
Surpassingly; lift much more
any two; (t-note)
by custom
bucket on a strong pole
broad back; endure; (t-note)
Only; groat; strike
blow; offered
offer; glad

Until; backbone
gathered around
Many; men fighting hard
undaunted; frightened
pole; (t-note)
Until bone; shattered
helmet; steel
wood snapped in two; broke completely
pole; ruined
neck bone; instantaneously
sword that
Two vexed; most; fierce were; warlike
one blow; foremost

well-aimed stroke; dealt; moment
[armhole] gusset fiercely; struck
sharp; rib it sliced

Many; also
to no avail
Hiding in woods protected
stay (abide); at all
provisions; were fitting for his position
kinsman; whatever the time of day

sorely; longed; (t-note)
if [only]; at this time
uncle's servant; buy
taken; such goods; (t-note)
steward sternly went up to him

then you go seek more
on a nearby street
went; (t-note)

mighty devil speed you; (see note); (t-note)
wicked will; think
in his hand he carried
Because of his wooden staff; hesitation
caught; delay
he fell down suddenly; (t-note)

surrounded Wallace
from; defend

breast-plate; did he strike
stabbed; death
many more before; place
backhanded [blow]; sorry blow
Above; shattered
armor; avail
acted as fierce
battle ready
sword; proceed against him
sharp steel [spear] heads
on his strong [ground] encircled
[Up] to; sea
await [them]
(i.e., Ayr Castle)
Over; dike (wall)

knew; die
death; freely
either side; anger hacking
burnished sword shattered
Broke; hilts; blade; flew
knew no profit
laid hold of
stabbed; blow
remainder; fell on him

ordered; kill
torment; commanded; proceed; (t-note)
sworn [to the contrary]
enclosure by force; borne away
For want; alone
had no choice, such
Fickle; snare
malice (envy) always; virtue
Those false
virtue; always
kinsfolk; get [back]; no kind [of]

offered (bid); vain

had him placed; cruel prison; (t-note)
Bad food
marvel; live
also; dungeon deep
Until; carry out the law
Leave; place
loud lamenting; wretched mourning

Living at this time
undertake; except
Declare everywhere; despair

Salted herring; (see note)
Such; poor (insufficient); praise
powerful; receive
wretched spirit; soul; humble; (t-note)
Too; death


redeem; decreed for
Spiritual; died; Cross

life otherwise; cared

too little; suffered
more than enough
also; many [a] one
appointed time; every one
kinsfolk; have pity

expedition; help
here I must die
an extreme danger
From worldly things; leave
Though; should be driven mad

[who] once was strong; vigorous
save with money

under ground (i.e., buried)
should anyone trust
strong in life (lit., on earth)

petition; (t-note)
heaven; cruel
[who is] in that sorrowful cell; (t-note)
fierce suffering; cruel; endure
you maidens cheerful

fair (lovely)
At the hands of the English; great harm
you; war
champion (lit., sharp spear); (t-note)
death many English yet; sent

Mercury; jailer; (see note); (t-note)
Such rule by; cannot be allowed

these times
always to lie in wait to surprise us

dysentery; in their terrible prison; (t-note)

jailer; lose time
loathsome cell
trial; endure

dead for certain
further argument
Without delay
threw him over; woeful place
For; believed; remedy
refuse dunghill
nurse; (see note)
begged leave; to take him away

a rough cart
Over; river
washed until the filth was removed
strong; flickered spasmodically

loved; above the rest
Had milk warmed; if
spoon; showed
daughter had a twelve-week-old boy
(see note)
revived; quickly
Then; kindly and gently
secretly; hiding place
protect as . . . [as]

chamber; for a time
had set up a board; (see note)
Covered with woolen cloth
That; [spread] throughout
company she always pretended to weep
food; prepared; the best she could
in the meanwhile
Until later on; grew strong

Fail [Monastery]; (see note)
head of the monastery, who
often frequented
believed he knew a great many things
whether they blessed or cursed [him]
Which turned out to be true
through wrong or right
lost or won
deemed by gift

painful; grievous
asked what tidings
heard I say
seldom seen
have been gathered together
as far as we know
either; harm
[whatever] chance might befall

you know [was] taken; place
starved for want; (t-note)
Such [a] deed; feud
strong (bold); noble
These tidings
If that be true


obtain leave [so]; thence; go
scorn; proceed
to her
bury; might
shall; live

ordered him (the servant)
same; see for certain
exerted himself
glanced; slab
arose; glad
Whose body is this?

went quickly as [if]; angry
blame; banished
swore; (t-note)

brought; by the dais
then hurried back again
message; high spirits to improve
before he dies

[Out] of

at command
you do not find fault
as; action; attempt
heir; kingdom

far; realm; (see note)

return; subject
released from
completely believed that
knew not; recovery

loyal keeper (i.e., the nurse)

without boss, shield

in bad condition (rusty); steel

Until [a] better [sword]

In that direction; prepared to go

bold; retainers two
drew to the side; let

presence [of others]

fighting man; bearing

[He] pulled
neck; struck
brawn; sinew; bone
Once; alighted
avenge; death
The one; hit
shoulders; cleaved

powerful stride; go easily
Up through; sure stroke he delivered
So that liver; lungs

Then; fight

spending [money]

A happy reunion; dismounting
(see note)
[Who] had grieved for him; enfeebled


terrible fear
Until; was downcast
embrace; (t-note)

happy; then burst

strong; (see note)
believe until; with his own eyes
From diverse places; went
for; magnanimous good fortune

joyful July; (see note)
Were made to bloom, engendered by
herb; fruit, bush and boughs, grew
Abundantly; hollow and valley
Also beasts; proper; maintain
coming to full growth
Preserved (tended); by
river revived royally; (t-note)
busy itself
laid waste; (see note)
war such harm that work was useless
Provisions became; before; arrived; (t-note)
became dear
lacked none
By baggage; food in good quantity
Supplied castles; wine; malmsey; (see note)
Whole kingdom; ruled

was [still] alive
escape; prison
were dead; (t-note)
cursed the [lost] opportunity; (t-note)
On every side

Unless; stopped; wonders

by force
they consider; diverse points of view; (t-note)

avenge himself; might


[Wallace, accompanied by Adam, the eldest of Sir Richard Wallace's sons, Robert Boyd, Kneland, and Edward Litill, leaves Riccarton for "Mawchtlyne Mur" (line 60), which McDiarmid (2.150) renders as Mauchline Moor in Ayrshire, to await the reported arrival of Fenwick with supplies for the English. (Lines 43-66)]































Towart Lowdoun thai bownyt thaim to ride
And in a schaw a litill thar besyde
Thai lugyt thaim, for it was nere the nycht,
To wache the way als besyly as thai mycht.
A trew Scot quhilk hosteler hous thair held
Under Lowdoun, as myn autor me teld,
He saw thar com, syne went to thaim in hye.
Baithe meite and drynk he brocht full prevalye
And to thaim tald the cariage into playn.
Thair for-rydar was past till Ayr agayne,
Left thaim to cum with pouer of gret vaille.
Thai trowit be than thai war in Awendaille.
Wallace than said, "We will nocht sojorne her,
Nor change no weid bot our ilk dayis ger."
At Corssencon the gait was spilt that tide,
Forthi that way behovid thaim for to ride.
Ay fra the tyme that he of presoune four
Gude sovir weide dayly on him he wour:
Gude lycht harnes fra that tyme usyt he evir,
For sodeyn stryff fra it he wald nocht sevir
A habergione undir his goune he war,
A steylle capleyne in his bonet but mar,
And glovis of plait in claith war coverit weill,12
In his doublet a clos coler of steyle.
His face he kepit for it was evir bar,
With his twa handis the quhilk full worthi war.
Into his weid and he come in a thrang
Was na man than on fute mycht with him gang.
So growane in pith, of pouer stark and stur,
His terryble dyntis war awfull till endur.
Thai trastyt mar in Wallace him allane
Than in a hundreth mycht be of Ingland tane.
The worthi Scottis maid thar no sojornyng,
To Lowdoun Hill past in the gray dawyng,
Devysyt the place and putt thair hors thaim fra
And thocht to wyn or nevir thin to ga:
Send twa skowrrouris to vesy weyll the playne,
Bot thai rycht sone raturnde in agayne,
To Wallace tald that thai war cummand fast.
Than thai to grounde all kneland at the last
With humyll hartis prayit with all thar mycht
To God abowne to help thaim in thar rycht.
Than graithit thai thaim till harnes hastely.
Thar sonyeit nane of that gud chevalrye.
Than Wallace said, "Her was my fadir slayne,
My brothir als, quhilk dois me mekill payne;
So sall myselff, or vengit be but dreid.
The traytour is her, caus was of that deid."
Than hecht thai all to bide with hartlye will.
Be that the power was takand Lowdoun Hill.13
The knycht Fenweik convoide the caryage;
He had on Scottis maid mony schrewide viage.
The sone was rysyne our landis schenand brycht.
The Inglismen so thai come to the hycht;
Ner thaim he raid and sone the Scottis saw.
He tald his men and said to thaim on raw,
"Yhonne is Wallace that chapit our presoune.
He sall agayne and be drawyn throu the toune.
His hede mycht mar, I wait, weill ples the king
Than gold or land or ony warldly thing."
He gart servandis bide with the cariage still.
Thai thocht to dawntyt the Scottis at thar will.
Nyne scor he led in harnes burnyst brycht,
And fyfty was with Wallace in the rycht.
Unraboytyt the Sothroun was in wer
And fast thai come, fell awfull in affer.
A maner dyk of stanys thai had maid,
Narrowyt the way quhar throuch thai thikar raid.
The Scottis on fute tuk the feld thaim befor;
The Sothroun saw: thar curage was the mor.
In prydefull ire thai thoucht our thaim to ryde,
Bot othirwys it hapnyt in that tide.
On athir side togidder fast thai glaid;
The Scottis on fute gret rowme about thaim maide,
With ponyeand speris throuch platis prest of steylle.
The Inglismen that thocht to veng thaim weylle,
The harnest hors about thaim rudely raide,
That with unes upone thar feit thai baid.
Wallace the formast in the byrney bar;
The grounden sper throuch his body schar.
The schafft to-schonkit offe the fruschand tre;
Devoydyde sone sen na better mycht be,
Drew suerdis syne, bathe hevy, scharp and lang.
On athyr syd full cruelly thai dang,
Fechtand at anys into that felloune dout.
Than Inglismen enveround thaim about,
Be force etlyt throuchout thaim for to ryde.
The Scottis on fute that baldly couth abyde
With suerdis schar throuch habergeons full gude,
Upon the flouris schot the schonkan blude
Fra hors and men throw harnes burnyst beyne.
A sayr sailye forsuth thar mycht be seyne.
Thai traistyt na liff bot the lettir end.
Of sa few folk gret nobilnes was kend,
Togydder baid defendand thaim full fast;
Durst nane sevir quhill the maist pres was past.14
The Inglismen that besye was in wer
Be fors ordand in sondir thaim to ber.
Thair cheyff chyftan feryt als fers as fyr,
Throw matelent and verray propyr ire,
On a gret hors intill his glitterand ger
In fewtir kest a fellone aspre sper.
The knycht Fenweik that cruell was and keyne,
He had at dede of Wallace fadir beyne,
And his brodyr, that douchty was and der.
Quhen Wallace saw that fals knycht was so ner
His corage grew in ire as a lyoune;
Till him he ran and fell frekis bar he doune.
As he glaid by aukwart he couth him ta,
The and arsone in sondir gart he ga.
Fra the coursour he fell on the fer syd.
With a staff suerd Boyd stekit him that tyde.
Or he was dede the gret pres come so fast
Our him to grounde thai bur Boyde at the last.
Wallace was ner and ratornde agayne
Him to reskew, till that he rais of payne,
Wichtly him wor quhill he a suerd had tayne.
Throuout the stour thir twa in feyr ar gayne.
The ramanand apon thaim folowit fast;
In thar passage fell Sothron maid agast.
Adam Wallace, the ayr of Ricardtoun,
Straik ane Bewmound, a squier of renoun,
On the pyssan with his brand burnyst bar.
The thrusande blaid his hals in sonder schayr.
The Inglismen, thocht thar chyftayn was slayne,
Bauldly thai baid as men mekill of mayn.
Reth hors repende rouschede frekis undir feit;
The Scottis on fute gert mony lois the suete.
Wicht men lichtyt thaimselff for to defend;
Quhar Wallace come thar deide was litill kend.
The Sothroune part so frusched was that tide
That in the stour thai mycht no langar bide.
Wallace in deide he wrocht so worthely,
The squier Boid and all thar chevalry,
Litill, Kneland, gert of thar ennymys de.
The Inglismen tuk playnly part to fle.
On hors sum part to strenthis can thame found
To socour thaim, with mony werkand wound.
A hundreth dede in feild was levyt thar,
And thre yemen that Wallace menyde fer mar;
Twa was of Kyle, and ane of Conyngayme
With Robert Boide to Wallace com fra hayme.
Four scor fled that chapyt on the south syde.
The Scottis in place that bauldly couth abyde
Spoilyeid the feld, gat gold and othir ger,
Harnes and hors, quhilk thai mysteryt in wer.
The Inglis knavis thai gart thar caryage leid15
To Clidis Forest; quhen thai war out of dreid
Thai band thaim fast with wedeis sad and sar,
On bowand treis hangyt thaim rycht thar.
He sparyt nane that abill was to wer,
Bot wemen and preystis he gart thaim ay forber.
Quhen this was doyne to thar dyner thai went
Of stuff and wyne that God had to thaim sent.
prepared; (see note)
who [an] innkeeper's house occupied there
Below; (see note)
coming, then; quickly
told them [about]
advance rider
company of great advantage (avail)
believed; (see note)

clothes; everyday garments
road; destroyed; time
Ever since; [out] of prison went
trusty armor
In case of surprise attack; never without it
cap; hat; more

jerkin a fitted collar
guarded; bare

[Dressed] in his armor; battle
grown in strength; strong; sturdy
blows; daunting

dawning; (see note); (t-note)
Surveyed; (t-note)
go from there
[They] sent two scouts; reconnoiter
humble hearts
they equipped themselves with armor
none hesitated; band of knights
(see note)
much pain
avenged be without doubt
vowed; heartfelt

escorted; (see note)
against; accursed excursions
sun; over

escaped [from] our prison
And he shall again be; (see note)
more, I think, well

armor; (see note)

very; appearance
A sort of stone wall; (see note)
through which they crowded

thought to ride over them

went easily


harnessed; roughly
difficulty upon; stayed
breastplate struck; (t-note)
sharp; cut; (t-note)
shaft broke off; splintering wood; (t-note)
Split; since
cruel danger
encircled; (t-note)
By force aimed
pierced; breastplates
flowers; spouting blood
polished armor spurting
pitiful assault
expected; except the latter end (i.e., death)
For; shown
stood defending themselves

who were trained in warfare
Planned by force to drive them asunder
charged (fared) as fierce
rage; pure anger
[equipped] in his glittering armor
fewter (socket) placed a cruel sharp spear
fierce; merciless
at the death of
who courageous; dearly loved

many men he struck down; (t-note)
agilely passed crosswise; take
Thigh; saddlebow he sliced through; (t-note)
strong sword; stabbed
Over; bore

rose with difficulty; (t-note)
Bravely defended him until
fighting these two together
many Englishmen were terrified
one; (see note)
gorget; sword; (t-note)
cutting; neck sheared asunder
Boldly they stood their ground; stalwart
Fierce horses trampled men underfoot; (see note)
made many lose their lives
Bold; dismounted
deeds amounted to little
The English side; crushed; time

band of knights
caused their enemies to die; (t-note)

castles; went; (t-note)
save themselves; painful
dead; were left there
(see note)
[had] come from home

Armor; needed in warfare

danger; (see note)
withes (twisted bark) firm; painful
bending; hanged
spared; were able to fight
women; priests; always spared them



[The English flee to Ayr and report to Percy the losses incurred. Percy has cause to regret that Wallace escaped from prison, and resolves that in future supplies will have to be brought in by sea. While Wallace enjoys the English setback, Percy holds a council in Glasgow at which Sir Amer de Valence, incorrectly identified as a Scot and therefore a traitor, counsels a truce and cleverly suggests that Sir Ranald be made the instrument for bringing this about, on pain of losing his lands. With Percy's personal promise that Wallace and his kinsfolk will not be harmed unless the English are attacked by the Scots, Sir Ranald yields to pressure and signs an agreement with him. On the advice of his supporters, Wallace accepts the truce arrangement (for 10 months) that his uncle presents to him. Wallace then returns to his uncle's home in Crosbie. On a visit to Ayr one day, Wallace responds to a challenge to fence and kills his challenger, which results in his party of sixteen, including his uncle, being surrounded by over a hundred English. In the ensuing skirmish many English are killed but when reinforcements from the castle appear Wallace makes a tactical withdrawal to Laglyn Wood. Percy charges Ranald to keep Wallace at home, away from the town. (Lines 221-444)]




















Book 4

In September, the humyll moneth suette,
Quhen passyt by the hycht was of the hette,
Victaill and froyte ar rypyt in aboundance
As God ordans to mannys governance.
Sagittarius with his aspre bow,
Be the ilk syng veryté ye may know
The changing cours quhilk makis gret deference;
And levys had lost thair colouris of plesence.
All warldly thing has nocht bot a sesoune,
Both erbe and froyte mon fra hevyn cum doun.
In thys ilk tyme a gret consell was sett
Into Glaskow, quhar mony maisteris mett
Of Inglis lordis to statute this cuntré.
Than chargyt thai all schirreffis thar to be.
Schir Ranald Crawfurd behovide that tyme be thar16
For he throw rycht was born schirreff of Ayr.
His der nevo that tyme with hym he tuk,
Willyham Wallace, as witnes beris the buk,
For he na tyme suld far be fra his sicht;
He luffyt him with hart and all his mycht.
Thai graith thaim weill without langar abaid.
Wallace sum part befor the court furth raid,
With him twa men that douchtye war in deid,
Ourtuk the child Schir Ranaldis sowme couth leid.
Softlye thai raid quhill thai the court suld knaw.
So sodeynly that Hesilden he saw
The Perseys sowme, in quhilk gret riches was.
The hors was tyryt and mycht no forthir pas.
Fyve men was chargit to keipe it weill all sid;
Twa was on fute, and thre on hors couth ride.
The maister man at thar servandis can sper,
"Quha aw this sowme? The suth thou to me ler."
The man ansuerd withoutyn wordis mar,
"My lordis," he said, "quhilk schirreff is of Ayr."
"Sen it is his, this hors sall with us gang
To serve our lord, or ellis me think gret wrang.
Thocht a subjet in deid wald pas his lord,
It is nocht lewyt be na rychtwis racord."
Thai cut the brays and leyt the harnes faw.
Wallace was ner. Quhen he sic revere saw,
He spak to thaim with manly contenance;
In fayr afforme he said but variance,
"Ye do us wrang, and it in tyme of pes.
Of sic rubry war suffisance to ces."
The Sothron schrew in ire ansuerd him to:
"It sall be wrocht as thow may se us do.
Thow gettis no mendis. Quhat wald thou wordis mar?"
Sadly avisit, Wallace remembrith him thar
On the promys he maid his eyme befor.
Resoun him rewllyt; as than he did no mor.
The hors thai tuk for aventur mycht befall,
Laid on thar sowme, syne furth the way couth call.
Thar tyryt sowmir so left thai into playne.
Wallace raturnd towart the court agayne.
On the mur syde sone with his eyme he mett
And tauld how thai the way for his man sett:
"And war noucht I was bonde in my legiance,
We partyt noucht thus for all the gold in France.
The hors thai reft quhilk suld your harnes ber."
Schir Ranald said, "That is bot litill der.
We may get hors and othir gud in playne;
And men be lost, we get nevir agayne."
Wallace than said, "Als wisly God me save,
Of this gret mys I sall amendis have
And nothir latt for pes na your plesance.
With witnes her I gif up my legiance,
For cowardly ye lik to tyne your rycht.
Yourselff sone syne to dede thai think to dycht."
In wraith tharwith away fra him he went.
Schyr Ranald was wis and kest in his entent,
And said, "I will byde at the Mernys all nycht.
So Inglismen may deyme us no unrycht
Gyff ony be deide befor us upon cas,
That we in law may bide the rychtwisnas."
His luging tuk, still at the Mernys baid.
Full gret murnyng he for his nevo maid,
Bot all for nocht; quhat mycht it him availl?
As intill wer he wrocht nocht his consaill.17
Wallace raid furth, with him twa yemen past;
The sowmir man he folowid wondyr fast.
Be est Cathcart he ourhyede thaim agayne.
Than knew thai weille that it was he in playne,
Be hors and weide, that argownd thaim befor.
The fyve to thaim retornde withoutyn mor.
Wallace to ground fra his courser can glide;
A burnyst brand he bradyt out that tyde.
The maistir man with sa gud will straik he,
Bathe hatt and hede he gert in sondir fle;
Ane othir fast apon the face he gaiff,
Till dede to ground but mercy he him draiff;
The thrid he hyt with gret ire in that steid;
Fey on the fold he has him left for deid.
Wallace slew thre; be that his yemen wicht
The tothir twa derfly to dede thai dycht.
Syne spoilyeid thai the harnais or thai wend
Of silvir and gold aboundandlye to spend.
Jowellis thai tuk, the best was chosyn thar,
Gud hors and geyr, syne on thar wayis can fayr.

humble; (see note)
height; heat
Harvestable food; fruit; ripened; (see note)
By the same sign truth
(see note)
must from heaven; (t-note)

(see note)

book; (see note)

prepared themselves; delay
in advance of the retinue rode forth; (see note)
Overtook; young man; baggage
Easily; until; retinue; see
at Hazelden; (see note); (t-note)
[on] all sides

their (Sir Ranald's); inquired
owns; Tell me the truth; (t-note)

Since; shall go with us

permitted; opinion
straps; gear fall

manner; firmly
such robbery; right (proper)

Firmly resolved
ruled; for the time being
whatever might happen
baggage, then; drove
tired pack horse unburdened
returned; retinue
moor; uncle

took; equipment
only a small matter; (t-note)
soon enough
[But] if

neither refrain; pleasure
In front of witnesses here; allegiance
then; kill
considered carefully
(see note)
judge us [guilty of] no offense
If any happen to be dead
lodging; waited

baggage man
By; overtook
for sure (plainly)
By; dress, who challenged
turned back
steed; descended
polished sword he drew
such force
helmet and head; caused
hard; hit
Until; dashed
Doomed in life; (t-note)
violently killed
Then they plundered the gear before

weapons, then; went
[As Percy holds his Glasgow council, news reaches him of the death of his baggage men and the loss of treasure. Meanwhile, Wallace and his men, resting at an inn in the Lennox, hear that a warrant has been issued for his arrest and that Scots, including his uncle, have been warned not to befriend and aid him. Supporters flock to Wallace in Lennox, including Stephen of Ireland, men of Argyll and others, and Earl Malcolm makes him chieftain of his men. Fawdoun (first mention) too offers allegiance. Wallace's lack of interest in personal riches and his readiness to dispense any amongst poor and rich are praised. Wallace and sixty men move on to Stirlingshire, where they attack and then occupy a stockade at Gargunnock, above Leckie, after Wallace's superhuman effort removes the bar across the gate. They then cross the Forth and move on to Kincardine and Strathearn, killing any Englishmen they encounter. (Lines 99-322)]






































Thir werlik Scottis all with one assent
Northt so our Ern throuchout the land thai went,
In Meffan Woode thar lugyng tuk that nycht.
Upon the morn quhen it was dayis lycht
Wallace rais up, went to the forest side,
Quhar that he sawe full feill bestis abide,
Of wylde and tayme, walkand haboundandlye.
Than Wallace said, "This contré likis me.
Wermen may do with fud at thai suld haiff,
Bot want thai meit thai rak nocht of the laiff."
Of dyet fayr Wallace tuk nevir kepe
Bot as it come welcum was meit and sleip.
Sum quhill he had gret sufficience within;
Now want, now has, now los, now can wyn;
Now lycht, now sadd, now blisfull, now in baill;
In haist, now hurt; now sorouffull, now haill;
Nowe weildand weyle, now calde weddir, now hett;18
Nowe moist, now drowth, now waverand wynd, now wett.
So ferd with him for Scotlandis rycht full evyn
In feyle debait six yeris and monethis sevyn.
Quhen he wan pees and left Scotland in playne,
The Inglismen maid new conquest agayne.
In frustir termys I will nocht tary lang.
Wallace agayne unto his men can gang
And said, "Her is a land of gret boundance.
Thankit be God of his hye purvyans!
Sevyn of yow feris graith sone and ga with me.
Rycht sor I long Sanct Jhonstoun for to se.
Stevyn of Irland, als God of hevyn thee saiff,
Maistir leiddar I mak thee of the laiff.
Kepe weill my men; latt nane out of thi sycht
Quhill I agayn sall cum with all my mycht.
Byde me sevyn dayis in this forest strang.
Yhe may get fude, suppos I duell so lang.
Sum part yhe haiff, and God will send us mair."
Thus turnyt he and to the toun couth fair.
The mar kepyt the port of that village;
Wallace knew weill and send him his message.
The mar was brocht, saw him a gudlye man,
Rycht reverandlye he has resavyt thaim than.
At him he speryt all Scottis gyff thai be.
Wallace said, "Ya, and it is pees trow we."
"I grant," he said, "that likis us wondir weill.
Trew men of pees may ay sum frendschipe feill.
Quhat is your nayme? I pray yow tell me it."
"Will Malcomsone," he said, "sen ye wald witt.
In Atryk Forest has my wonnyng beyne.
Thar I was born amang the schawis scheyne.
Now I desyr this north land for to se,
Quhar I mycht fynd better duellyng for me."
The mar said, "Schir, I sper nocht for nane ille,
Bot feill tithingis oft syis is brocht us till
Of ane Wallace, was born into the west.
Our kingis men he haldis at gret unrest,
Martiris thaim doun, gret peté is to se.
Out of the trewis, forsuth, we trow he be."
Wallace than said, "I her spek of that man.
Tithingis of him to you nane tell I can."
For him he gert ane innys graithit be
Quhar nane suld cum bot his awne men and he.
Hys stuart Kerlye brocht thaim in fusioun
Gude thing eneuch quhat was into the toun.
Als Inglismen to drynkyn wald him call
And commownly he delt nocht tharwithall.
In thar presence he spendyt resonably,
Yheit for himself he payit ay boundandlye.
On Scottis men he spendyt mekill gud
Bot nocht his thankis upon the Sothren blud.
Son he consavyt in his witt prevalye
Into that land quha was of maist party.
Schir Jamys Butler, ane agit, cruell knycht,
Kepyt Kynclevyn, a castell wondyr wycht.
His sone Schir Jhon than duelt into the toun,
Under capteyn to Schir Garraid Heroun.
The wemen als he uysyt at the last;
And so on ane hys eyne he can to cast,
In the south gait, of fassoun fresche and fayr.
Wallace to hir maid prevalye repair.
So fell it thus, of the toun or he past,
At ane accorde thai hapnyt at the last.
Wallace with hyr in secré maid him glaid;
Sotheren wist nocht that he sic plesance haid.
Offt on the nycht he wald say to himsell,
"This is fer war than ony payn of hell,
At thus with wrang thir devillis suld bruk our land,
And we with force may nocht agayne thaim stand.
To tak this toun my pouer is to small;
Gret perell als on myself may fall.
Set we it in fyr it will undo mysell,
Or los my men; thar is no mor to tell.
Yhettis ar clos, the dykis depe withall;
Thocht I wald swyme, forsuth so can nocht all.
This mater now herfor I will ourslyde,
Bot in this toun I may no langar byde."
Als men tald him quhen the captayne wald pas
Hayme to Kynclevyn, quharoff rycht glaid he was.
His leiff he tuk at heris of the toun;
To Meffane Wode rycht glaidly maid him boun.
His horn he hynt and bauldly loud can blaw;
His men him hard and tharto sone couth draw.
Rycht blyth he was for thai war all in feyr;
Mony tithingis at him thai wald nocht speyr.
He thaim commaunde to mak thaim redy fast;
In gud array out of the woode thai past.
Towart Kynclevyn thai bownyt thaim that tid,
Syn in a vaill that ner was thar besid,
Fast on to Tay his buschement can he draw.
In a dern woode thai stellit thaim full law,
Set skouriouris furth the contré to aspye.
Be ane our nowne thre for rydaris went bye.
The wach turned in to witt quhat was his will.
He thaim commaund in covert to bide still.
"And we call feyr the hous knawlage will haiff
And that may sone be warnyng to the laiff.
All fors in wer do nocht but governance."
Wallace was few bot happy ordinance
Maid him fell syis his adversouris to wyn.19
Be that the court of Inglismen com in,
Four scoyr and ten weill graithit in thar ger,
Harnest on hors, all likly men of wer.
Wallace saw weill his nowmir was na ma;
He thankit God and syne the feild couth ta.
The Inglismen merveild quhat thai suld be,
Bot fra thai saw thai maid thaim for melle.
In fewtir thai kest scharpe speris at that tide;20
In ire thai thoucht atour the Scottis to ryd.
Wallace and his went cruelly thaim agayne;
At the fyrst rusche feill Inglismen war slayne.
Wallace straik ane with his gude sper of steill
Throwout the cost; the schafft to-brak ilk deyll.21
A burnyst brand in haist he hyntis out;
Thrys apon fute he thrang throuch all the rout.
Stern hors thai steik suld men of armys ber;
Sone undir feit fulyeid was men of wer.
Butler lychtyt himself for to defend
Witht men of armys quhilk war full worthi kend.
On athyr syde feill frekis was fechtand fast.
The captayne baid thocht he war sor agast.
Part of the Scottis be worthines thai slew;
Wallace was wa, and towart him he drew.
His men dred for the Butler bauld and keyn.
On him he socht in ire and propyr teyn;
Upon the hed him straik in matelent,
The burnyst blaid throuout his basnett went.
Bathe bayne and brayn he byrst throw all the weid.
Thus Wallace hand deliverit thaim of dreid.
Yeitt feill on fold was fechtand cruelly;
Stevyn of Irland and all the chevalry
Into the stour did cruelly and weill;
And Kerle als with his gud staff of steill.
The Inglismen, fra thar cheftayne was slayne,
Thai left the feild and fled in all thar mayn.
Thre scoyr war slayne or thai wald leif that steid.
The fleande folk, that wist of no rameid
Bot to the hous, thai fled in all thar mycht;
The Scottis folowit that worthi war and wycht.
Few men of fens was left that place to kepe.
Wemen and preistis upon Wallace can wepe,
For weill thai wend the flearis was thar lord;
To tak him in thai maid thaim redy ford,
Leit doun the bryg, kest up the gettis wide.
The frayit folk entrit and durst nocht byde;
Gud Wallace evir he folowit thaim so fast
Quhill in the hous he entryt at the last.
The gett he wor quhill cumin was all the rout.
Of Inglis and Scottis he held no man tharout.
The Inglismen that won war in that steid,
Withoutyn grace thai bertnyt thaim to deid.
The capteynis wiff, wemen and preistis twa,
And yong childir, forsuth thai savyt no ma,
Held thaim in clos eftir this sodeyn cas
Or Sothron men suld sege him in that place;
Tuk up the bryg and closyt gettis fast.
The dede bodyes out of sicht he gart cast,
Baith in the hous and without at war dede;
Five of his awne to berynis he gart leid.
In that castell thar sevyn dayis baide he.
On ilka nycht thai spoilyeid besylé,
To Schortwode Schaw leide victaill and wyn wicht,22
Houshald and ger, baithe gold and silvir brycht.
Women and thai that he had grantyt grace,
Quhen him thoucht tyme thai put out of that place.
Quhen thai had tayne quhat he likit to haiff,
Straik doun the gettis and set in fyr the laiff,
Out of wyndowis stanssouris all thai drew,
Full gret irn wark into the watter threw;
Burdyn duris and lokis in thair ire,
All werk of tre, thai brynt up in a fyr;
Spylt at thai mycht, brak brig and bulwark doun.
These war-like
North across [the River] Earm
Methven; (see note)

a great many
roaming freely (with abandon)

Warriors; perform
If; care nothing about the rest
food; heed
Sometimes; (see note)

glad; happy; sorrow
dry (drought); (t-note)
fared; evenly; (see note)
great strife

In pointless words
companions prepare
(i.e., Perth)

Chief leader; rest
sight; (t-note)
Wait [for]

officer in charge of the gate; (see note)

peace time


Ettrick; dwelling
fair woods

many tidings oftentimes

Breaking the truce; believe
hear speak

dwelling-place prepared

Enough good provisions
had no dealings with them


Soon; understood; secretly
most power
Kinclaven; very strong
(see note)

(Wallace) visited
street; appearance
secret visits

Englishmen; pleasure
himself; (t-note)
far worse; any

[If] we set it on fire; myself

Gates; shut; ditches deep
put aside

leave; lords
seized; boldly
heard; drew
in array
find out

headed; time
Then; valley
[the River] Tay; ambush
dark; crept stealthily; low
scouts; spy
By one past noon; advance riders
watch returned; know
hiding; wait
If we give warning (call "fire")
warlike action; without discretion; (t-note)
had few [men]; fortunate provision

equipped; armor; (see note)
Armed; promising
more; (t-note)
battlefield; (t-note)

from [when]; prepared to do battle

fiercely; against
attack many

burnished sword; pulled
pressed; throng
Strong; stab should
many men were fighting
withstood; was terrified
dreaded; bold; fierce
pure rage
helmet; (t-note)
bone; flesh; burst; armor
Wallace's hand; from danger
on earth (alive)
battle; fiercely
before; place
fleeing; remedy
were valiant and bold
defense; guard
they knew well those fleeing; lords; (t-note)
prepared themselves
bridge, cast open
frightened; dared; stay
Until; castle
defended until; troops
kept none out
were captured
mercy; put them to death
(i.e., Lady Butler)
truly; spared no more
Shut them in
Before English; besiege him (Wallace)
He had the dead bodies cast out of sight
Both [those] in and outside the castle
own [men]; burial; (t-note)
each; plundered diligently

Furnishings and equipment
mercy; (t-note)

Demolished; rest [of the castle]
stanchions (i.e., supports)
work; moat
Doors made of boards; locks
Destroyed what they could, broke
[Wallace's company of 50 men heads for Shortwood Forest. Meanwhile the captain's wife goes to Perth and relates what has happened to Sir Garraid, who musters 1,000 men and proceeds to surround Shortwood Forest. Wallace is injured in the neck by an archer, and, while his prowess scares the archers off, the Scots are greatly outnumbered. Wallace succeeds in killing one of the leaders, Sir William Loran, before escaping with his men from the wood. He makes for Cargill Wood, having lost seven men, and the English many more. (Lines 512-694)]





















The secunde nycht the Scottis couth thaim draw
Rycht prevaly agayne to Schortwod Schaw;
Tuk up thar gud quhilk was put owt of sicht,
Cleithing and stuff, bathe gold and silvir brycht;
Upon thar fute, for horsis was thaim fra,
Or the son rais to Meffen Wood can ga.
Thai twa dayis our thar lugyng still thai maid.
On the thrid nycht thai movit but mar abaid,
Till Elkok Park full sodeynly thai went;
Thar in that strentht to bide was his entent.
Than Wallas said he wald go to the toun,
Arayit him weill intill a preistlik goun.
In Sanct Johnstoun disgysyt can he fair
Till this woman the quhilk I spak of ayr.
Of his presence scho rycht rejosit was
And sor adred how he away suld pas.
He sojornyt thair fra nowne was of the day
Quhill ner the nycht or that he went away.
He trystyt hyr quhen he wald cum agayne
On the thrid day; than was scho wondyr fayne.
Yeitt he was seyn with enemys as he yeid.
To Schir Garraid thai tald of all his deid,
And to Butler that wald haiff wrokyn beyne.
Than thai gart tak that woman brycht and scheyne
Accusyt hir sar of resset in that cas.
Feyll syis scho suour that scho knew nocht Wallas.
Than Butler said, "We wait weyle it was he
And bot thou tell in bayle fyr sall thou de.
Giff thou will help to bryng yon rebell doun,
We sall thee mak a lady of renoun."
Thai gaiff till hyr baith gold and silvir brycht,
And said scho suld be weddyt with ane knycht,
Quham scho desirit, that was but mariage.
Thus tempt thai hir throu consaill and gret wage,
That scho thaim tald quhat tyme he wald be thar.
Than war thai glaid, for thai desirit no mar
Of all Scotland bot Wallace at thar will.
Thus ordaynyt thai this poyntment to fullfill.
Feyle men of armes thai graithit hastelye
To kepe the gettis, wicht Wallas till aspye.
At the set trist he entrit in the toun,
Wittand nothing of all this fals tresoune.
Till hir chawmer he went but mair abaid;
Scho welcummyt him and full gret plesance maid.
Quhat at thai wrocht I can nocht graithly say,
Rycht unperfyt I am of Venus play;
Bot hastelye he graithit him to gang.
Than scho him tuk and speryt giff he thocht lang.
Scho askit him that nycht with hir to bid.
Sone he said, "Nay, for chance that may betide.
My men ar left all at mysrewill for me.
I may nocht sleipe this nycht quhill I thaim se."
Than wepyt scho and said full oft, "Allace
That I was maide! Wa worthe the courssit cas!
Now haiff I lost the best man leiffand is.
O feble mynd to do so foull a mys!
O waryit witt, wykkyt and variance,
That me has brocht into this myschefull chance!
Allace!" scho said, "in warld that I was wrocht!
Giff all this payne on myself mycht be brocht!
I haiff servit to be brynt in a gleid."
Quhen Wallace saw scho ner of witt couth weid,
In his armes he caucht hir sobrely
And said, "Der hart, quha has mysdoyn ocht? I?"
"Nay, I," quod scho, "has falslye wrocht this trayn.
I haiff you sald. Rycht now yhe will be slayn."
Scho tauld to him hir tresoun till ane end,
As I haiff said. Quhat nedis mair legend?
At hir he speryt giff scho forthocht it sar.
"Wa, ya," scho said, "and sall do evirmar.
My waryed werd in warld I mon fullfill;
To mend this mys I wald byrne on a hill."
He comfort hir and baide hir haiff no dreide.
"I will," he said, "haiff sum part of thi weid."
Hir goun he tuk on hym and courches als.
"Will God I sall eschape this tresoune fals.
I thee forgyff." Withoutyn wordis mair
He kissyt hir, syne tuk his leiff to fayr.
His burly brand that helpyt him offt in neid,
Rycht prevalye he hid it undir that weid.
To the south gett the gaynest way he drew,
Quhar that he fand of armyt men enew.
To thaim he tald, dissemblyt contenance,
To the chawmer quhar he was upon chance.
"Speid fast," he said, "Wallace is lokit in."
Fra him thai socht withoutyn noyis or dyn,
To that sammyn hous about thai can thaim cast.
Out at the gett Wallas gat full fast,
Rycht glaid in hart; quhen that he was without,
Rycht fast he yeide a stour pais and a stout.
Twa him beheld and said, "We will go se.
A stalwart queyne, forsuth, yon semys to be."
Thai folowit him throwe the South Inche thai twa.
Quhen Wallace saw with thaim thar come na ma,
Agayne he turnede and has the formast slayn.
The tothir fled. Than Wallace with gret mayn
Upon the hed with his suerd has him tayne;
Left thaim bathe dede, syne to the strenth is gayne.
His men he gat, rycht glaid quhen thai him saw.
Till thair defence in haist he gart thaim draw;
Devoydyde him sone of the womannys weid.
Thus chapyt he out of that felloun dreid.

Explicit liber quarta &
Incipit quintus

Book 5

secretly; Forest
Picked up; belongings
Clothing; army provisions
On foot, because they had no horses
Before; sun rose; went

moved without further delay
stronghold; wait; intention

Dressed; priest-like
disguised he went
sorely afraid
Until almost night before
arranged with her; back
very happy
by; left

have been avenged
caused to be taken; fair; (see note)
angrily; sheltering an outlaw
Many times; swore; (t-note)
know well
unless; by burning; die
If; (see note)

Whomever; unmarried
counsel; reward

arranged; appointment
Many; got ready
guard; gates, bold
To; chamber; without further delay
pleasure showed
imperfect; (see note)
prepared; go
Then; took hold; asked if; wearied
Soon; for [fear of any evil] chance
in disorder because of

born! Alas the accursed case
cursed knowledge; fickle
deserved; to an ember
was nearly driven mad
done something wrong?
treachery from start to finish; (t-note)
What need is there to write more?
sorely repented it
Alas, yes
cursed fate; must
amend; wrong; burn
told her to have no fear
head scarves

large sword
gate; nearest
under this false appearance
[To go] to the chamber
From; went

went [at] a strong and sturdy pace
park area south of town; (see note); (t-note)

He turned back
then; stronghold went
To their defense [position]; made
Divested himself; clothes
he escaped; terrible danger

[The English, with the aid of a bloodhound, pursue Wallace to Methven Wood and, although heavily outnumbered, he and his men escape to the banks of the Tay, but because half his men cannot swim he decides they should all stand their ground and take their (better) chances with the English. (Lines 1-63)]













Thus fend thai lang into that stalwart stour.
The Scottis chyftayne was yong and in a rage,
Usyt in wer and fechtis with curage.
He saw his men of Sothroun tak gret wrang.
Thaim to raveng all dreidles can he gang,
For mony of thaim war bledand wondir sar.
He couth nocht se no help apperand thar
Bot thar chyftayne war putt out of thair gait,
The bryme Butler so bauldlye maid debait.
Throu the gret preys Wallace to him socht;
His awfull deid he eschewit as he mocht.
Undir ane ayk wycht men about him set,
Wallace mycht nocht a graith straik on him get.
Yeit schede he thaim; a full royd slope was maide.
The Scottis went out, no langar thar abaid.
Stevyn of Irland quhilk hardy was and wicht,
To helpe Wallace he did gret preys and mycht,
With trew Kerle douchty in mony deid.
Upon the grounde feill Sothroun gert thai bleid.
Sexty war slayne of Inglismen in that place
And nine of Scottis thair tynt was throuch that cace.
Butleris men so stroyit war that tide
Into the stour he wald no langar bide.
To get supplé he socht onto the staill.
Thus lost he thar a hundreth of gret vaill.
As thai war best arayand Butleris rout
Betuex parteys than Wallace ischit out.23
Sixteen with him thai graithit thaim to ga;
Of all his men he had levyt no ma.
The Inglismen, has myssyt him, in hy
The hund thai tuk and folowit haistely.
At the Gask Woode full fayne he wald haiff beyne,
Bot this sloth brache, quhilk sekyr was and keyne,24
On Wallace fute folowit so felloune fast,
Quhill in thar sicht that prochit at the last.
Thar hors war wicht had sojorned weill and lang.
To the next woode twa myil thai had to gang
Of upwith erde thai yeid with all thar mycht.
Gud hope thai had for it was ner the nycht.
Fawdoun tyryt and said he mycht nocht gang.
Wallace was wa to leyff him in that thrang.
He bade him ga and said the strenth was ner,25
Bot he tharfor wald nocht fastir him ster.
Wallace in ire on the crag can him ta
With his gud suerd and straik the hed him fra.
Dreidles to ground derfly he duschit dede.
Fra him he lap and left him in that stede.
Sum demys it to ill and othir sum to gud,
And I say her into thir termys rude,
Bettir it was he did, as thinkis me.
Fyrst to the hunde it mycht gret stoppyn be;
Als Fawdoun was haldyn at suspicioun
For he was haldyn of brokill complexioun.
Rycht stark he was and had bot litill gayne.
Thus Wallace wist had he beyne left allayne,
And he war fals to enemys he wald ga,
Gyff he war trew the Sothroun wald him sla.
Mycht he do ocht bot tyne him as it was?
Fra this questioun now schortlye will I pas.
Deyme as yhe lest, ye that best can and may,
I bott rahers as my autour will say.
defend; a long time; valiant fight
Practiced in war; fights
[the] English; suffer
avenge; fearless he proceeded
many; bleeding profusely

Unless; way; (t-note)
fierce; [who] so boldly resisted
press [of folk]; sought him
deeds; avoided; might
oak bold men; (t-note)
direct blow
he parted them; wide breach; (t-note)
no longer stayed there
great and mighty deeds
valiant; actions
many English they caused to bleed
destroyed; time
fighting; remain
reinforcements; main body of the army
a hundred [men] of great worth
Butler's company was preparing

readied themselves to go
missing him; haste
gladly; (see note)

track; extremely
Until [they had him] in sight; approached
strong; lasted
two miles; go
Up rising ground; went

not go [further]
loath; leave; danger

struck him on the neck
Without a doubt; fell violently
leapt back; place
here; unpolished words

means of stopping
Also; held in; (t-note)
reputed [to be] of fickle character; (t-note)
strong; traveled

If; loyal; English; kill
anything other than let him perish
Judge; please
only recite
[The Scots disperse, and while Wallace and the rest move on, Stephen and Kerle, unbeknownst to him, hide near Dupplyn Castle. When the sleuth hound comes across Fawdoun's body, it refuses to go any further. Stephen and Kerle then pass themselves off as Englishmen and mingle with the enemy; as Heroun stands over the dead Fawdoun, Kerle quietly stabs him to death and in the ensuing fuss he and Stephen slip away towards Loch Earn. Meanwhile Wallace, the number of his men reduced to thirteen, rests at the Gask Hall and worries about the fate of the missing Kerle and Stephen. (Lines 125-173)]














Thirteen war left with him, no ma had he;
In the Gask Hall thair lugyng haif thai tayne.
Fyr gat thai sone, bot meyt than had thai nayne.
Twa scheipe thai tuk besid thaim of a fauld,
Ordanyt to soupe into that sembly hauld,
Graithit in haist sum fude for thaim to dycht.
So hard thai blaw rude hornys upon hycht.
Twa sende he furth to luk quhat it mycht be.
Thai baid rycht lang and no tithingis herd he,
Bot boustous noyis so brymly blew and fast.
So othir twa into the woode furth past;
Nane come agayne, bot boustously can blaw.26
Into gret ire he send thaim furth on raw.
Quhen that allayne Wallace was levyt thar
The awfull blast aboundyt mekill mayr.
Than trowit he weill thai had his lugyng seyne.
His suerd he drew of nobill mettall keyne,
Syn furth he went quhar at he hard the horn.
Without the dur Fawdoun was him beforn,
As till his sycht his awne hed in his hand.
A croys he maid quhen he saw him so stand.
At Wallace in the hed he swaket thar
And he in haist sone hynt it by the hair,
Syne out agayne at him he couth it cast.
Intill his hart he was gretlye agast.
Rycht weill he trowit that was no spreit of man;
It was sum devill at sic malice began.
He wyst no vaill thar langar for to bide:
Up throuch the hall thus wicht Wallace can glid
Till a clos stair, the burdis raiff in twyne;27
Fifteen fute large he lap out of that in.
Up the wattir sodeynlye he couth fair;
Agayne he blent quhat perance he sawe thar.
Him thocht he saw Faudoun that hugly syr,
That haill hall he had set in a fyr:
A gret raftre he had intill his hand.
Wallace as than no langar walde he stand.
Of his gud men full gret mervaill had he
How thai war tynt throuch his feyle fantasé.
Traistis rycht weill all this was suth indeide,
Suppos that it no poynt be of the Creide.
Power thai had witht Lucifer that fell,
The tyme quhen he partyt fra hevyn to hell.
Be sic myscheiff giff his men mycht be lost,
Drownyt or slayne amang the Inglis ost,
Or quhat it was in liknes of Faudoun
Quhilk brocht his men to suddand confusioun;
Or gif the man endyt in evill entent,
Sum wikkit spreit agayne for him present;
I can nocht spek of sic divinité,
To clerkis I will lat all sic materis be.
Bot of Wallace furth I will yow tell.
Quhen he was went of that perell fell
Yeit glaid wes he that he had chapyt swa,
Bot for his men gret murnyng can he ma,
Flayt by himself to the Makar ofbuffe
Quhy He sufferyt he suld sic paynys pruff.
He wyst nocht weill giff it wes Goddis will
Rycht or wrang his fortoun to fullfill.
Hade he plesd God he trowit it mycht nocht be
He suld him thoill in sic perplexité;
Bot gret curage in his mynd evir draiff,
Of Inglismen thinkand amendis to haiff.

lodging; taken
soon; food; none
sheep; from a fold
Prepared to sup; fine stronghold
Made ready; cook
Just then heard; rough; loudly; (see note)

were away a long time; news
loud; fiercely
two others

Angrily; out altogether; (t-note)
alone; left; (t-note)
increased much more
Then; heard; (t-note)
Outside the door
As it appeared; own head
He crossed himself
He flung the head in at Wallace
immediately seized; (t-note)

believed; spirit
devil that such
knew no advantage
went quickly

feet high; leapt; dwelling
quickly he went
looked [at]; appearance
horrid man; (t-note)
whole; set on fire

wonder; (see note)
lost; terrible folly
Be assured; true indeed
Although; part; [Apostles'] Creed

departed from heaven
By such evil if
in the likeness of; (see note)
sudden destruction
if; evil disposition
spirit appearing again for him
such theology
out of that terrible danger
escaped so
Complained; above
allowed [that]; endure
knew; if

desire; drove [him]
[Wallace is spotted by Butler on Earnside. A confrontation follows, and Wallace kills Butler, so the second English "chieftain" is now dead. Wallace seizes Butler's horse and rides to Dalreach, escaping all attempts to remove him from his mount. At a ford he successfully fends off more attackers but eventually kills the horse, which is too exhausted to carry on, and proceeds on foot until he comes to the Forth, across which he wades to make his way to the Torwood. Fed and sheltered by a sympathetic widow who also assigns two of her sons to him, Wallace sends a woman and child to check whether any of his men are still at Gask Hall. Meanwhile his uncle from Dunipace is fetched and re-united with Wallace, who proceeds to recount his recent experiences. (Lines 237-376)]







"This nycht," he said, "I was left me allayne,
In feyle debait with enemys mony ane.
God at His will my liff did ay to kepe:
Our Forth I swame that awfull is and depe.
Quhat I haiff had in wer befor this day,
Presoune and payne to this nycht was bot play,
So bett I am with strakis sad and sar.
The cheyle wattir urned me mekill mar,
Eftir gret blud throu heit in cauld was brocht,
That of my lyff almost nothing I roucht.
I meyn fer mar the tynsell of my men
Na for myselff, mycht I suffir sic ten."
The persone said, "Der sone, thow may se weyll
Langar to stryff it helpis nocht adeyll.
Thi men are lost and nayne will with thee rys,
For Goddis saik wyrk as I sall devys.
Tak a lordschipe quhar on at thow may liff;
King Eduuard wald gret landis to thee giff."
"Uncle," he said, "of sic wordis no mar.
This is nothing bot eking of my car.
I lik bettir to se the Sothren de
Than gold or land that thai can giff to me.
Trastis rycht weyll, of wer I will nocht ces
Quhill tyme that I bryng Scotland into pes,
Or de tharfor in playne to understand."
So come Kerle and gud Stevyn of Irland.
The wedowis sone to Wallace he thaim brocht.
Fra thai him saw of na sadnes thai roucht,
For perfyt joy thai wepe with all thar eyne.
To ground thai fell and thankit hevynnys queyn.
Als he was glaid for reskew of thaim twa;
Of thair feris leyffand was left no ma.
Thai tald him that Schir Garrat wes dede;
How thai had weyll eschapyt of that stede.

fierce conflict; many [a] one
It was God's will; always preserve
Across [the River] Forth
beaten; blows grave; sore
chill; afflicted; much more
blood; heat; cold
lament far more; loss
Than; harm
parson; (see note)
contend; at all
none; rise [up]
do; shall advise; (t-note)
Accept; on which; live
[an] increasing of my care
see; die

Believe me; war; cease
Until [the] time; peace
die for that cause plainly
So [then] came

From [the time]; cared

Also; about [the] rescue
their companions no more were left alive
fortunately; from that place
[Kerle and his companions recount their adventures since separating from Wallace, and when the woman sent to Gask Hall returns she tells Wallace that she found Gask Hall standing empty but came across no news of his men. Newly equipped and with the widow's sons, Wallace leaves, still mourning the men he presumes dead or lost, and heads for Dundaff Moor, Stirlingshire, where the elder Sir John Graham and his son of the same name pay tribute to him. After a short rest, Wallace moves to Bothwell Moor and then to the Gilbank in Clydes-dale, where he meets up with his uncle Auchinleck. (Lines 411-464)]















































































In Bothwell Mur that nycht remaynyt he
With ane Craufurd that lugyt him prevalé.
Upon the morn to the Gilbank he went,
Rasavit was with mony glaid entent,
For his der eyme yong Auchinlek duelt thar;
Brothyr he was to the schireff of Ayr.
Quhen auld Schir Ranald till his dede wes dycht,
Than Awchinlek weddyt that lady brycht
And childir gat, as storyes will record,
Of Lesmahago, for he held of that lord.
Bot he wes slayne, gret peté wes the mar,
With Perseys men into the toun of Ayr.
His sone duelt still, than nineteen yeris of age,
And brokit haille his fadris heretage.
Tribute he payit for all his landis braid
To Lord Persie, as his brodir had maid.
I leyff Wallace with his der uncle still;
Of Inglismen yeit sumthing spek I will.
A messynger sone throw the contré yeid.
To Lord Persie thai tald this fellone deid;
Kynclevyn was brynt, brokyn and castyn doun,
The captayn dede of it and Saynt Jhonstoun;
The Loran als at Schortwod Schawis scheyn.
"Into that land gret sorow has beyne seyn
Throuch wicht Wallace that all this deid has done.
The toune he spyit and that forthocht we sone.
Butler is slayne with douchty men and deyr."
In aspre spech the Persye than can speyr:
"Quhat worth of him, I pray you graithlye tell."
"My lord," he said, "rycht thus the cas befell.
We knaw for treuth he was left him allayne,
And as he fled he slew full mony ayne.
The hors we fand that him that gait couth ber,
Bot of hymself no othir word we her.
At Stirlyng Bryg we wait he passit nocht:
To dede in Forth he may for us be brocht."
Lorde Persye said, "Now suthlye that war syne.
So gud of hand is nayne this warld within.
Had he tayne pes and beyne our kingis man
The haill empyr he mycht haiff conquest than.
Gret harme it is our knychtis that ar ded;
We mon ger se for othir in that sted.
I trow nocht yeit at Wallace losyt be:
Our clerkys sayis he sall ger mony de."
The messynger said, "All that suth has beyne.
Mony hundreth that cruell war and keyne
Sene he begane ar lost without ramede."28
The Persye said, "Forsuth he is nocht ded.
The crukis of Forth he knawis wondyr weylle.
He is on lyff that sall our nacioune feill.
Quhen he is strest than can he swym at will.
Gret strenth he has, bathe wyt and grace thartill."
A messynger the lord chargyt to wend
And this commaunde in wryt with him he send.
Schir Jhone Sewart gret schirreff than he maid
Of Sanct Jhonstoun and all thai landis braid.
Intill Kynclevyn thar duelt nayne agayne:
Thar was left nocht bot brokyn wallis in playne.
Leiff I thaim thus reulland the landis thar
And spek I will of Wallace glaid weillfar.
He send Kerle to Schir Ranald the knycht,
Till Boyd and Blayr that worthi war and wicht
And Adam als, his cusyng gud Wallace;
To thaim declarde of all this paynfull cas,
Of his eschaipe out of that cumpany,
Rycht wondir glaid was this gud chevalry;
Fra tyme thai wyst that Wallace leiffand was,
Gude expensis till him thai maid to pas.
Maister Jhone Blayr was offt in that message,
A worthy clerk bath wys and rycht savage.
Levyt he was befor in Parys toune
Amang maisteris in science and renoune.
Wallace and he at hayme in scule had beyne.
Sone eftirwart, as verité is seyne,
He was the man that pryncipall undirtuk,
That fyrst compild in dyt the Latyne buk
Of Wallace lyff, rycht famous of renoun,
And Thomas Gray persone of Libertoune.
With him thai war and put in storyall,
Offt ane or bath mekill of his travaill,
And tharfor her I mak of thaim mencioune.
Master Jhone Blayr to Wallace maid him boune;
To se his heyle his comfort was the mor,
As thai full oft togyddyr war befor.
Sylvir and gold thai gaiff him for to spend;
Sa dyde he thaim frely quhen God it send.
Of gud weylfayr as than he wantyt nane.
Inglismen wyst he was left him allane.
Quhar he suld be was nayne of thaim couth say,
Drownyt or slayne, or eschapyt away,
Tharfor of him thai tuk bot litill heid.
Thai knew him nocht, the les he was in dreid.29
All trew Scottis gret favour till him gaiff,
Quhat gude thai had he mysterit nocht to craiff.
The pes lestyt that Schir Ranald had tayne.
Thai four monethis it suld nocht be out gane.
This Crystismes Wallace ramaynyt thar,
In Laynrik oft till sport he maid repayr.
Quhen that he went fra Gilbank to the toune,
And he fand men was of that fals nacioune,
To Scotland thai dyde nevir grevance mar.
Sum stekyt thai, sum throttis in sondir schar.30
Feill war sone dede, bot nane wyst quha it was.
Quham he handlyt he leyt no forthir pas.
Thar Hesylryg duelt, that curssyt knycht to vaill;
Schyrreff he was of all the landis haill,
Felloune, owtrage, dispitfull in his deid;
Mony of him tharfor had mekill dreid.
Mervell he thocht quha durst his peple sla;
Without the toune he gert gret nowmir ga.
Quhen Wallace saw that thai war ma than he,
Than did he nocht bot salust curtaslé.
All his four men bar thaim quietlik,
Na Sotheron couth deme thaim mys, pur no rik.31
In Lanryk duelt a gentill woman thar,
A madyn myld as my buk will declar,
Of eighteen yeris ald or litill mor of age:
Als born scho was till part of heretage.
Hyr fadyr was of worschipe and renoune,
And Hew Braidfute he hecht of Lammyngtoune,
As feylle othir was in the contré cald;
Befor tyme thai gentill men war of ald.
Bot this gud man and als his wiff wes ded.
The madyn than wyst of no othir rede,
Bot still scho duelt on trewbute in the toune
And purchest had King Eduuardis protectiounne.
Servandys with hyr, of freyndis at hyr will,
Thus leyffyt scho without desyr of ill;
A quiet hous as scho mycht hald in wer,
For Hesylryg had done hyr mekill der,
Slayne hyr brodyr, quhilk eldast wes and ayr.
All sufferyt scho and rycht lawly hyr bar.
Amyabill, so benyng, war and wys,
Curtas and swete, fulfillyt of gentrys,
Weyll rewllyt of tong, rycht haill of contenance,
Of vertuous scho was worthy till avance;
Hummylly hyr led and purchest a gud name,
Of ilkyn wicht scho kepyt hyr fra blame.
Trew rychtwys folk a gret favour hir lent.
Apon a day to the kyrk as scho went,
Wallace hyr saw as he his eyne can cast.
The prent of luff him punyeit at the last
So asprely, throuch bewté of that brycht,
With gret unes in presence bid he mycht.
He knew full weyll hyr kynrent and hyr blud
And how scho was in honest oys and gud.
Quhill wald he think to luff hyr our the laiff,
And othir quhill he thocht on his dissaiff,
How that hys men was brocht to confusioun
Throw his last luff he had in Saynct Jhonstoun.
Than wald he think to leiff and lat our slyd,
Bot that thocht lang in his mynd mycht nocht byd.
He tauld Kerle of his new lusty baille,
Syne askit him of his trew best consaill.
"Maister," he said, "als fer as I haiff feyll,
Of lyklynes it may be wondir weill.
Sen ye sa luff, tak hir in mariage.
Gudlye scho is, and als has heretage.
Suppos at yhe in luffyng feill amys,
Gret God forbede it suld be so with this!"
"To mary thus I can nocht yeit attend:
I wald of wer fyrst se a finaill end.
I will no mor allayne to my luff gang.
Tak tent to me or dreid we suffer wrang.
To proffer luff thus sone I wald nocht preffe;
Mycht I leyff off, in wer I lik to leyff.
Quhat is this luff? Nothing bot folychnes.
It may reiff men bathe witt and stedfastnes."
Than said he thus: "This will nocht graithly be,
Amors and wer at anys to ryng in me.
Rycht suth it is, stude I in blis of luffe,
Quhar dedis war I suld the bettir pruff.
Bot weyle I wait quhar gret ernyst is in thocht
It lattis wer in the wysest wys be wrocht,
Les gyf it be bot only till a deid;
Than he that thinkis on his luff to speid,
He may do weill, haiff he fortoun and grace.
Bot this standis all in ane othir cas:
A gret kynryk with feill fayis ourset.
Rycht hard it is amendis for to get
At anys of thaim and wyrk the observance
Quhilk langis luff and all his frevill chance.
Sampill I haif; this me forthinkis sar;
I trow to God it sall be so no mar.
The trewth I knaw of this and hyr lynage.
I knew nocht hyr, tharfor I lost a gage."
To Kerle he thus argownd in this kynd,
Bot gret desyr remaynyt intill his mynd
For to behald that frely of fassoun.
A quhill he left and come nocht in the toun;
On othir thing he maid his witt to walk,
Prefand giff he mycht of that langour slalk.
Quhen Kerle saw he sufferit payne forthi,
"Der schir," he said, "ye leiff in slogardy.
Go se youre luf, than sall yhe get comfort."
At his consaill he walkit for to sport,
Onto the kyrke quhar scho maid residence.
Scho knew him weill, bot as of eloquence
Scho durst nocht weill in presens till him kyth.
Full sor scho dred or Sotheron wald him myth,
For Hesilryg had a mater new begone
And hyr desirde in mariage till his sone.
With hir madyn thus Wallace scho besocht
To dyne with hyr and prevaly hym brocht
Throuch a garden scho had gart wyrk of new,
So Inglismen nocht of thar metyng knew.
Than kissit he this gudlé with plesance,
Syne hyr besocht rycht hartly of quentance.
Scho ansuerd hym with humyll wordis wise:
"War my quentance rycht worthi for till pryse
Yhe sall it haiff, als God me saiff in saille;
Bot Inglismen gerris our power faill
Throuch violence of thaim and thar barnage,
At has weill ner destroyt our lynage."
Quhen Wallace hard hyr plenye petously
Agrevit he was in hart rycht gretumly.
Bathe ire and luff him set intill a rage,
Bot nocht forthi he soberyt his curage.
Of his mater he tald as I said ayr
To that gudlye, how luff him strenyeit sar.
Scho ansuerd him rycht resonably agayne
And said: "I sall to your service be bayne
With all plesance in honest causis haill;
And I trast yhe wald nocht set till assaill,
For yhoure worschipe, to do me dyshonour,
And I a maid and standis in mony stour
Fra Inglismen to saiff my womanheid,
And cost has maid to kepe me fra thar dreid.
With my gud wyll I wyll no lemman be
To no man born, tharfor me think suld yhe
Desyr me nocht bot intill gudlynas.
Perchance ye think I war to law purchas
For tyll attend to be your rychtwys wyff.
In your service I wald oys all my lyff.
Her I beseik for your worschipe in armys,
Yhe charge me nocht with no ungudly harmys,
Bot me defend for worschipe of your blude."
Quhen Wallace weyll hyr trew tayll understud,
As in a part hym thocht it was resoun
Of hyr desir, tharfor till conclusioun
He thankit hyr, and said, "Gif it mycht be
Throuch Goddis will that our kynryk war fre,
I wald yow wed with all hartlie plesance;
Bot as this tym I may nocht tak sic chance,
And for this caus, none othir, now I crayff;
A man in wer may nocht all plesance haiff."
Of thar talk than I can tell yow no mar
To my purpos, quhat band that thai maid thar.
Conclud thai thus and syne to dyner went.
The sayr grevans ramaynyt in his entent,
Los of his men and lusty payne of luff.
His leiff he tuk at that tyme to ramuff,
Syne to Gilbank he past or it was nycht.
Apon the morn with his four men him dycht;
To the Corhed without restyng he raid,
Quhar his nevo Thom Haliday him baid,
And Litill als, Eduuard his cusyng der,
Quhilk was full blyth quhen he wyst him so ner,
Thankand gret God that send him saiff agayne,
For mony demyt he was in Strathern slayn.
Gud cher thai maid all out thai dayis thre.
Than Wallace said that he desirde to se
Lowmaban toun and Ynglismen that was thar.
On the ferd day thai bownyt thaim to far;
Sixteen he was of gudlé chevalré;
In the Knokwood he levyt all bot thre.
Thom Halyday went with him to the toun;
Eduuard Litill and Kerle maid thaim boun.
Till ane ostrye Thom Halyday led thaim rycht,
And gaiff commaund thar dyner suld be dycht.
Till her a mes in gud entent thai yeid;
Of Inglismen thai trowit thar was no dreid.
Ane Clyffurd come, was emys sone to the lord,
And four with him, the trewth for to record.
Quha awcht thai hors in gret heithing he ast.
He was full sle and ek had mony cast.
The gud wyff said, till applessyt him best,
"Four gentill men is cummyn out of the west."
"Quha devill thaim maid so galy for to ryd?
In faith with me a wed thar most abide.
Thir lewit Scottis has leryt litill gud:
Lo! all thar hors ar schent for faut of blud."
Into gret scorn withoutyn wordis mayr
The taillis all of thai four hors thai schayr.
The gud wyff cryede and petuously couth gret
So Wallace come and couth the captayne mete.
A woman tald how thai his hors had schent.
For propyr ire he grew in matelent.
He folowid fast and said, "Gud freynd abid,
Service to tak for thi craft in this tyde.
Marschell thou art without commaund of me;
Reward agayne me think I suld pay thee.
Sen I of laitt now come owt of the west
In this contré, a barbour of the best
To cutt and schaiff, and that a wondir gude,
Now thow sall feyll how I oys to lat blud."
With his gud suerd the captayn has he tayn,
Quhill hors agayne he marscheld nevir nayn;32
Anothir sone apon the hed strak he,
Quhill chaftis and cheyk upon the gait can fle.
Be that his men the tothir twa had slayne.
Thar hors thai tuk and graithit thaim full bayne
Out of the toun; for dyner baid thai nayne.33
The wyff he payit that maid so petuous mayne.
Than Inglismen fra that chyftayne wes dede
To Wallace socht fra mony syndry stede.
Of the castell come cruell men and keyne.
Quhen Wallace has thar sodand semlé seyne
Towart sum strenth he bownyt him to ryd,
For than him thocht it was no tyme to byd.
Thar hors bled fast, that gert him dredyng haiff;
Of his gud men he wald haif had the laiff.
To the Knokwoode withowtyn mor thai raid,
Bot intill it no sojornyng he maid;
That wood as than was nothir thik no lang.
His men he gat, syn lychtyt for to gang
Towart a hicht and led thar hors a quhill.
The Inglismen was than within a myill,
On fresche hors rydand full hastely;
Sevyn scor and ma was in thar chevalry.
The Scottis lap on quhen thai thar power saw,
Frawart the south thaim thocht it best to draw.
Than Wallace said, "It is no witt in wer
With our power to byd thaim bargane her.34
Yon ar gud men, tharfor I rede that we
Evirmar seik quhill God send sum supplé."
Halyday said, "We sall do your consaille,
Bot sayr I dreid or thir hurt hors will fayll."
The Inglismen in burnyst armour cler
Be than to thaim approchyt wondir ner.
Horssyt archaris schot fast and wald nocht spar;
Of Wallace men thai woundyt twa full sar.
In ir he grew quhen that he saw thaim bleid;
Himself retornde and on thaim sone he yeid,
Sixteen with him that worthi was in wer.
Of thai formast rycht freschly doun thai ber.
At that retorn fifteen in feild war slayne;
The laiff fled fast to thar power agayne.
Wallace folowid with his gud chevalrye.
Thom Halyday in wer was full besye,
A buschement saw that cruell was to ken,
Twa hundreth haill of weill gerit Inglismen.
"Uncle," he said, "our power is to smaw;
Of this playne feild I consaill yow to draw.
To few we ar agayne yon fellone staill."
Wallace relevit full sone at his consaill.
At the Corheid full fayne thai wald haif beyne,
Bot Inglismen weyll has thar purpos seyne.
In playne battaill thai folowid hardely;
In danger thus thai held thaim awfully.
Hew of Morland on Wallace folowid fast;
He had befor maid mony Scottis agast.
Haldyn he was of wer the worthiast man
In north Ingland, with thaim was leiffand than.
In his armour weill forgyt of fyne steill
A nobill cursour bur him bath fast and weill.
Wallace retorned besyd a burly ayk
And on him set a fellone sekyr straik;
Baith cannell bayne and schulder blaid in twa,
Throuch the myd cost the gud suerd gert he ga.
His speyr he wan and als the coursour wicht,
Syne left his awn for he had lost his mycht;
For lak of blud he mycht no forthir gang.
Wallace on hors the Sotheron men amang,
His men relevit, that douchty was in deid,
Him to reskew out of that felloune dreid.
Cruell strakis forsuth thar mycht be seyne
On athir side quhill blud ran on the greyne.
Rycht peralous the semlay was to se:
Hardy and hat contenyt the fell melle,
Skew and reskew of Scottis and Inglis als.
Sum kervyt bran in sondir, sum the hals,
Sum hurt, sum hynt, sum derffly dong to dede;
The hardy Scottis so steryt in that sted,
With Halyday on fute bauldly that baid,
Amang Sotheron a full gret rowme thai maid.
Wallas on hors, in hand a nobill sper,
Out throuch thaim raid as gud chyftayne in wer.
Thre slew he thar or that his sper was gayn,
Than his gud suerd in hand sone has tayne,
Hewyt on hard with dyntis sad and sar;
Quhat ane he hyt grevyt the Scottis no mar.
Fra Sotheron men be naturall resone knew
How with a straik a man evir he slew,
Than merveld thai he wes so mekill of mayne;
For thar best man in that kynd he had slayne,
That his gret strenth agayne him helpyt nocht
Nor nayne othir in contrar Wallace socht.
Than said thai all, "Lest he in strenth untayne
This haill kynryk he wyll wyn him allayne."
Thai left the feild syne to thar power fled
And tald thar lord how evill the formest sped.
Bothwell Moor; (see note)
one [of the] Crawfords who sheltered
(see note)
dear uncle
(see note)
children; histories
held [land as a vassal]; (see note)

lived there
enjoyed possession of


cruel deed
burnt; (t-note)

(see note)

regretted; right away
[along] with brave and loved men
sharp; asked
became of him; promptly

We know for a fact; alone
many [a] one
way carried him
Bridge; know
[the River] Forth
would be [a] sin; (t-note)
(i.e., valiant in combat); none
accepted a truce
whole; have conquered then
that [so many of] our knights are dead
must arrange for others to take their place; (see note)
I do not believe yet that Wallace is dead
cause many to die; (see note)
truly has come to pass
Many hundreds; fierce; bold

windings of [the River] Forth
alive; know; (see note)
hard pressed then
both skill; thereto
ordered to go
grand sheriff; (see note)
In; none again

strong; (t-note)
made known; (t-note)
Extremely glad; band of knights
supplies of money to
the messenger employed in that errand; (see note)
He lived [alone]

home (Scotland); school


narrative form
Often one or both; struggle
[good] health was all the more comforting

[to] them generously
lacked none

Where he could be; could


goods; he had no need to ask
truce lasted; accepted
[For] those; months; trespassed against
Christmas [season]; remained there
If; found; (t-note)
never more caused injury

Many; none knew who was responsible
Whomever he dealt with; let
in respect of worth; (see note)
Fierce, violent, cruel; deeds
great fear
[A] marvel; dared
Out of; gathered a great company [to] go
nothing except give greeting; (t-note)
held; quietly

noble; (see note)
gentle maiden; book

Also; [a] portion of [an] inheritance

was called
many others; region called
Formerly; old

knew; course [of action]
servants; ready at hand
lived; wishing ill [of anyone]

her great injury
meekly carried herself
Agreeable; gracious, prudent
accomplished in noble conduct
Discreet in speech; fresh
In virtues she was praiseworthy
Humbly she led [her life]; obtained
She took care to give no one cause for blame
virtuous; granted

looked around
love; pierced; (see note)
sharply; fair [lady]
difficulty in [her] presence remain
kinsfolk; lineage; (see note)
lived an honorable and good life
Sometimes; resolve; above all others
other times; remembered his betrayal
the last lady he loved
resolved to leave and forget [her]
stay; (t-note)
pleasant suffering
Then; loyal [and] best counsel
as far as I know [about love]; (t-note)
In all likelihood; very well
She is handsome; [an] inheritance
Although you were wronged in love

marry; expect
alone; go
Heed me; fear
propose marriage; soon; try; (t-note)
leave; war; live
love; foolishness; (see note)
deprive men [of]
Love and war; once; rule
true; [if] I enjoyed the happiness
I should the better succeed in feats of arms
know; the mind is anxious
prevents war; fought
Unless; one deed
if he has
things stand differently in this case
kingdom [is] with many enemies overrun
to obtain amends [from them]
And at the same time perform the duties
belong [to]; fickle fortune
Experience; I sorely regret this

her (the maid in St. Johnstone); pledge
debated; manner
behold; lovely lady
desisted; came
He kept his thoughts on other things
Endeavoring if; distress slake; (t-note)
on account of this
you live in idleness
went out; play
disclose her mind in his presence
feared [the] English; observe
had had made recently

comely [lady]; pleasure
beseeched ardently; friendship
were; friendship; prize
as God save my soul
cause; [to] fail
That; lineage
lament pitifully
Grief-stricken; greatly
Both; passion
nevertheless; moderated; feelings
concerns; earlier
love constrained him grievously
back; (see note)
I shall be ready to serve you
trust; attempt to
Because of your honor
preserve my womanly honor
incurred expense; protect; danger

Perhaps; would be too low a prize
To expect; lawful
appeal to your
do not subject me to unseemly

honest speech
[To accede to] her wish
kingdom was
heartfelt joy

at war
He remained sorely distressed [by] grievance; (t-note)
[Caused by] loss; pleasant
leave; depart
Corehead (near Moffat); rode; (see note)
nephew; awaited him; (see note)
dear cousin; (see note)
knew; close
They feasted

fourth; prepared to go
fine knights

To an inn; straight
To hear a mass with good intent; went
believed; danger
uncle's son (i.e., cousin); (see note)
to tell the truth
owned; derision; asked
sly; also; tricked
mistress of the house; please
[who] come from
Who [the] devil; handsomely; ride
pledge; must
These ignorant; have learned
ruined because of defective lineage
met the captain
pure; rage
Payment; occupation; time
Blacksmith; instruction from; (see note)

Since I recently; (see note)
region; barber; (t-note)
shave; marvelously well
am accustomed; let
sword; struck

Another soon
So that; street; flew; (t-note)
By that [time]; other two
(see note)

woman; piteous lament
once; was dead
From; bold; fierce
quick assembly seen
stronghold; prepared
heavily; made him fearful
without delay
neither dense nor
then dismounted; go
hill; while

company of horsemen
leapt on [horseback]; army
Away from

counsel; (t-note)
press on until; help

sorely; fear; these
burnished; bright
By then; very near
Archers on horseback shot; spare
anger he (Wallace)
turned back; soon; advanced
vigorously; bore; (t-note)
rest; army
company of mounted knights
fighting; very busy; (see note)
An ambush; fierce; indeed

From open battlefield; advise; withdraw
Too; fierce armed party
rallied [his men] quickly on
gladly they would have been

(see note)

living then

steed carried
turned round; strong oak
grievous firm blow
[Cutting] both collar-bones
rib; sword caused
spear; captured; strong
Then; own; become feeble
relieved; valiant; deed
terrible danger
Fierce strokes truly
either; green (i.e., grass)
heated continued the fierce fighting
Rescue and rescue again
flesh; neck
wounded; captured; violently killed
bestirred themselves; place
foot boldly; withstood
spear; (see note)
rode; war
sword; soon
Hacked vigorously; blows heavy; grievous
Whomever he struck annoyed; more
Once English
blow; every [time]
marveled; mightily strong; (t-note)

no other against; (t-note)
If he continues; uncaptured
whole kingdom; win back; alone
ill; succeeded
[Wallace and his men leave the field, having sustained no losses. He stays at the rear de-fending his retreating men until his horse gives out near Queensberry Hill. Wallace is joined by Kirkpatrick and his twenty men and by Sir John Graham and thirty followers just as the English are gaining on him, and together they win the day. He proceeds to take Lochmaben Castle with the help of his nephew, Thom Halliday, and Crawford Castle with aid of Edward Litill. (Lines 857-1140)]





























































































































































































Book 6

   Than passit was utas of Feviryher
   And part of Marche of rycht degestioune;
Apperyd than the last moneth of wer,
The syng of somir with his suet sessoun,
Be that Wallace of Dundaff maid him boune;
His leyff he tuk and to Gilbank can fair.
The rewmour rais throuch Scotland up and doun,
With Inglismen, that Wallace leiffand war.

In Aperill quhen cleithit is but veyne
The abill ground be wyrking of natur,
And woddis has won thar worthy weid of greyne;
Quhen Nympheus in beldyn of his bour
With oyle and balm fullfillit of suet odour,
Faunis maceris, as thai war wount to gang,
Walkyn thar cours in eviry casuall hour
To glaid the huntar with thar merye sang.

In this samyn tyme to him approchit new
His lusty payne, the quhilk I spak of ayr.
Be luffis cas he thocht for to persew
In Laynryk toune and thiddir he can fayr;
At residence a quhill ramaynit thair
In hyr presence as I said of befor.
Thocht Inglismen was grevyt at his repayr,
Yeit he desyrd the thing that sat him sor.

The feyr of wer rewllyt him on sic wis
He likit weyll with that gudlye to be.
Quhill wald he think of danger for to rys
And othir quhill out of hir presens fle.
"To ces of wer it war the best for me.
Thus wyn I nocht bot sadnes on all syde.
Sall nevir man thus cowartys in me se!
To wer I will for chance that may betyd!

   Qwhat is this luff? It is bot gret myschance
   That me wald bryng fra armes utterly.
I will nocht los my worschip for plesance;
In wer I think my tyme till occupy.
Yeit hyr to luff I will nocht lat forthy;
Mor sall I desyr hyr frendschip to reserve
Fra this day furth than evir befor did I,
In fer of wer quhethir I leiff or sterve."

   Qwhat suld I say? Wallace was playnly set
   To luff hyr best in all this warld so wid,
Thinkand he suld of his desyr to get;
And so befell be concord in a tid
That scho was maid at his commaund to bid;
And thus began the styntyn of this stryff,
Begynnyng band with graith witnes besyd.35
Myn auctor sais scho was his rychtwys wyff.

   Now leiff in pees, now leiff in gud concord,
   Now leyff in blys, now leiff in haill plesance,
For scho be chos has bath hyr luff and lord.
He thinkis als luff did him hye avance,
So evynly held be favour the ballance,
Sen he at will may lap hyr in his armys.
Scho thankit God of hir fre happy chance
For in his tyme he was the flour of armys.

   Fortoun him schawit hyr fygowrt doubill face.
   Feyll sys or than he had beyne set abuff;
In presoune now, delyverit now throw grace,
Now at unes, now into rest and ruff;
Now weyll at wyll weyldand his plesand luff,
As thocht himselff out of adversité;
Desyring ay his manheid for to pruff,
In curage set apon the stagis hye.

   The verray treuth I can nocht graithly tell
   Into this lyff how lang at thai had beyne;
Throuch naturall cours of generacioune befell
A child was chevyt thir twa luffaris betuene,
Quhilk gudly was, a maydyn brycht and schene.
So forthyr furth be evyn tyme of hyr age
A Squier Schaw, as that full weyll was seyne,
This lyflat man hyr gat in mariage.

   Rycht gudlye men come of this lady ying.
   Forthyr as now of hyr I spek no mar.
Bot Wallace furth intill his wer can ryng;
He mycht nocht ces, gret curage so him bar;
Sotheroun to sla for dreid he wald nocht spar,
And thai oft sys feill causis till hym wrocht,
Fra that tyme furth quhilk movit hym fer mar,
That never in warld out of his mynd was brocht.

   Now leiff thi myrth, now leiff thi haill plesance,
   Now leiff thi blis, now leiff thi childis age,
Now leiff thi youth, now folow thi hard chance,
Now leyff thi lust, now leiff thi mariage,
Now leiff thi luff, for thow sall los a gage
Quhilk nevir in erd sall be redemyt agayne.
Folow Fortoun and all hir fers owtrage.
Go leiff in wer, go leiff in cruell payne.

   Fy on Fortoun, fy on thi frevall quheyll,
   Fy on thi traist, for her it has no lest;
Thow transfigowryt Wallace out of his weill
Quhen he traistyt for till haiff lestyt best.
His plesance her till him was bot a gest;
Throw thi fers cours that has na hap to ho,
Him thow ourthrew out of his likand rest.
Fra gret plesance in wer, travaill and wo.

   Quhat is Fortoune? Quha dryffis the dett so fast?
   We wait thar is bathe weill and wykit chance,
Bot this fals warld with mony doubill cast,
In it is nocht bot verray variance;
It is nothing till hevynly governance.
Than pray we all to the Makar abov,
Quhilk has in hand of justry the ballance,
That he us grant of his der lestand love.

Herof as now forthyr I spek no mar,
Bot to my purpos schortly will I fayr.
Tuelff hundreth yer tharto nynté and sevyn
Fra Cryst wes born the rychtwis king of hevyn,
Wilyham Wallace into gud liking gais
In Laynrik toun amang his mortaill fais.
The Inglismen that evir fals has beyne,
With Hesilryg, quhilk cruell was and keyn,
And Robert Thorn, a felloune, sutell knycht,
Has founde the way be quhat meyn best thai mycht,
How that thai suld mak contrar to Wallace
Be argument, as he come upon cace
On fra the kyrk that was without the toun,
Quhill thar power mycht be in harnes boun.
Schyr Jhon the Grayme, bathe hardy, wys, and trew,
To Laynrik come, gud Wallace to persew
Of his weyllfayr, as he full oft had seyne.
Gud men he had in cumpany fifteen
And Wallace nine, thai war na feris ma.
Upon the morn unto the mes thai ga,
Thai and thar men graithit in gudly greyn,
For the sesson sic oys full lang has beyne.
Quhen sadly thai had said thar devocioune,
Ane argunde thaim as thai went throuch the toun,
The starkast man that Hesylryg than knew,
And als he had of lychly wordis ynew.
He salust thaim as it war bot in scorn:
"Dewgar, gud day, bone senyhour and gud morn."
"Quhom scornys thow?" quod Wallace, "Quha lerd thee?"36
"Quhy, schir," he said, "come yhe nocht new our se?
Pardown me than, for I wend ye had beyne
Ane inbasset to bryng ane uncouth queyne."
Wallace ansuerd, "Sic pardoune as we haiff
In oys to gyff thi part thow sall nocht craiff."
"Sen ye ar Scottis yeit salust sall ye be:
Gude deyn, dawch lard, bach lowch, banyoch a de."
Ma Sotheroune men to thaim assemblit ner.
Wallace as than was laith to mak a ster.
Ane maid a scrip and tyt at his lang suorde.37
"Hald still thi hand," quod he, "and spek thi word."
"With thi lang suerd thow makis mekill bost."
"Tharoff," quod he, "thi deme maid litill cost."
"Quhat caus has thow to wer that gudlye greyne?"
"My maist caus is bot for to mak thee teyne."
"Quhat suld a Scot do with so fair a knyff?"
"Sa said the prest that last janglyt thi wyff.
That woman lang has tillit him so fair
Quhill that his child worthit to be thine ayr."
"Me think," quod he, "thow dryvys me to scorn."
"Thi deme has beyne japyt or thow was born."
The power than assemblyt thaim about,
Twa hundreth men that stalwart war and stout.
The Scottis saw thar power was cummand,
Schir Robert Thorn and Hesilryg at hand,
The multitude wyth wapynnys burnist beyne.
The worthi Scottis, quhilk cruell was and keyne,
Amang Sotherone sic dyntis gaiff that tyd
Quhill blud on breid byrstyt fra woundis wyd.
Wallace in stour wes cruelly fechtand;
Fra a Sotheroune he smat off the rycht hand,
And quhen that carle of fechtyng mycht no mar,
With the left hand in ire held a buklar;
Than fra the stowmpe the blud out spurgyt fast,
In Wallace face aboundandlye can out cast;
Into gret part it merryt of his sicht.
Schyr Jhone the Grayme a straik has tayne him rycht
With his gud suerd upon the Sotherone syr,
Derffly to ded draiff him into that ire.
The perell was rycht awfull, hard, and strang,
The stour enduryt mervalusly and lang.
The Inglismen gaderit fellone fast;
The worthi Scottis the gait left at the last.
Quhen thai had slayne and woundyt mony man,
Till Wallace in the gaynest way thai can
Thai passit sune, defendand tham richt weill.
He and Schir Jhone with suerdis stiff of steill
Behind thar men, quhill thai the gett had tayne.38
The woman than, quhilk was full will of vayne,
The perell saw with fellone noyis and dyne,
Gat up the gett and leit thaim entir in.
Throuch till a strenth thai passit of that steid.
Fifty Sotheroun upon the gait wes dede.
This fair woman did besines and hir mycht
The Inglismen to tary with a slycht,
Quhill that Wallace onto the wood wes past;
Than Cartlane Craggis thai persewit full fast.
Quhen Sotheroun saw that chapyt wes Wallace
Agayne thai turnyt, the woman tuk on cace,
Put hir to dede, I can nocht tell yow how;
Of sic mater I may nocht tary now.
Quhar gret dulle is but rademyng agayne
Newyn of it is bot ekyng of payne.
A trew woman, had servit hir full lang,
Out of the toun the gaynest way can gang,
Till Wallace tald how all this deid was done.
The paynfull wo socht till his hart full sone;
War nocht for schayme he had socht to the ground
For bytter baill that in his breyst was bound.
Schir Jhone the Grayme, bath wys, gentill, and fre,
Gret murnynge maid that peté was to se,
And als the laiff that was assemblit thar
For pur sorou wepyt with hart full sar.
Quhen Wallace feld thar curage was so small
He fenyeit him for to comfort thaim all.
"Ces men," he said, "this is a butlas payne.
We can nocht now chewys hyr lyff agayne."
Unes a word he mycht bryng out for teyne;
The bailfull teris bryst braithly fra his eyne.
Sichand he said, "Sall nevir man me se
Rest intill eys quhill this deid wrokyn be,
The saklace slauchtir of hir blith and brycht,
That I avow to the Makar of mycht,
That of that nacioune I sall nevir forber
Yhong nor ald that abill is to wer.
Preystis no wemen I think nocht for to sla
In my defaut, bot thai me causing ma.
Schir Jhon," he said, "lat all this murnyng be,
And for hir saik thar sall ten thousand de.
Quhar men may weipe thar curage is the les;
It slakis ire of wrang thai suld radres."
Of thar complaynt as now I say no mar.
Gud Awchinlek of Gilbank, duelyt thar,
Quhen he hard tell of Wallace vexacioune,
To Cartlane Wood with ten men maid him boune.
Wallace he fand sum part within the nycht;
To Laynryk toun in all haist thai thaim dycht.
The wache of thaim as than had litill heid;
Partyt thar men and divers gatis yeid.
Schir Jhone the Grayme and his gud cumpany
To Schir Robert of Thorn full fast thai hy.
Wallace and his to Hesilrige sone past
In a heich hous quhar he was slepand fast,
Straik at the dure with his fute hardely
Quhill bar and brais in the flair he gart ly.
The schirreff criyt, "Quha makis that gret deray?"
"Wallace," he said, "that thow has socht all day.
The womannis dede, will God, thow sall der by."
Hesilrige thocht it was na tyme to ly;
Out of that hous full fayne he wald haiff beyne.
The nycht was myrk yeit Wallace has him seyne,
Freschly him straik as he come in gret ire,
Apon the heid birstit throuch bayne and lyr.
The scherand suerd glaid till his coler bayne,
Out our the stayr amang thaim is he gayne.
Gude Awchinlek trowit nocht that he was dede,
Thrys with a knyff stekit him in that stede.
The scry about rais rudly on the streyt;
Feyll of the layff war fulyeit undir feyt.
Yong Hesilryg and wicht Wallace is met;
A sekyr strak Wilyham has on him set,
Derffly to dede off the stair dang him doun.
Mony thai slew that nycht in Laynrik toune,
Sum grecis lap and sum stekit within.
A-ferd thai war with hidwis noyis and dyne.
Schir Jhone the Grayme had set the hous in fyr
Quhar Robert Thorn was brynt up bayne and lyr.
Twelve scor thai slew that wes of Ingland born;
Wemen thai levit and preistis on the morn
To pas thar way, of blys and gudis bar,
And swor that thai agayne suld cum no mar.
Quhen Scottis hard thir fyne tithingis of new
Out of all part to Wallace fast thai drew,
Plenyst the toun quhilk was thar heretage.
Thus Wallace straiff agayne that gret barnage.
Sa he begane with strenth and stalwart hand
To chewys agayne sum rowmys of Scotland.
The worthi Scottis that semblit till him thar
Chesit him for cheyff, thar chyftayne and ledar.
Amer Wallang, a suttell terand knycht,
In Bothwell duelt, King Eduuardis man full rycht.
Murray was out, thocht he was rychtwis lord
Of all that land, as trew men will racord;
Intill Aran he was duelland that tyd,
And othir ma, in this land durst nocht bide.
Bot this fals knycht in Bothwell wonnand was.
A man he gert sone to King Eduuard pas
And tald him haill of Wallace ordinance,
How he had put his pepill to myschance
And playnly was ryssyn agayne to ryng.
Grevit tharat rycht gretly wes the king;
Throuch all Ingland he gart his doaris cry
Power to get, and said he wald planly
In Scotland pas that rewme to statut new.
Feill men of wer till him full fast thai drew.
The queyne feld weill how that his purpos was;
Till him scho went, on kneis syne can him as
He wald resist and nocht in Scotland gang;
He suld haiff dreid to wyrk so felloune wrang.
"Crystyne thai ar, yone is thar heretage;
To reyff that croune that is a gret owtrage."
For hyr consaill at hayme he wald nocht byde;
His lordis hym set in Scotland for to ryde.
A Scottis man, than duellyt with Eduuard,
Quhen he hard tell that Wallace tuk sic part,
He staw fra thaim als prevalé as he may.
Into Scotland he come apon a day,
Sekand Wallace he maid him reddy boune.
This Scot was born at Kyle in Rycardtoune;
All Ingland cost he knew it wondir weill,
Fra Hull about to Brysto evirilk deill,
Fra Carleill throuch Sandwich that ryoll stede,
Fra Dover our onto Sanct Beis Hede.
In Pykarté and Flandrys he hade beyne,
All Normondé and Frans haill he had seyne;
A pursiwant till King Eduuard in wer,
Bot he couth nevir gar him his armes ber.
Of gret statur and sum part gray wes he;
The Inglismen cald him bot Grymmysbé.
To Wallace come and into Kile him fand;
He tald him haill the tithandis of Ingland.
Thai turnyt his name fra tyme thai him knew
And cald him Jop; of ingen he wes trew;
In all his tyme gud service in him fand;
Gaiff him to ber the armes of Scotland.
Wallace agayne in Cliddisdaill sone raid
And his power semblit withoutyn baid.
He gart commaund quha that his pees wald tak,
A fre remyt he suld ger to thaim mak
For alkyn deid that thai had doyne beforn.
The Perseys pees and Schir Ranaldis wes worn.
Feill till him drew that bauldly durst abid
Of Wallace kyn fra mony divers sid.
Schir Ranald than send him his power haill;
Himselff durst nocht be knawine in battaill
Agayne Sotheroun, for he had made a band
Lang tyme befor to hald of thaim his land.
Adam Wallace past out of Ricardtoun,
And Robert Boid with gud men of renoun.
Of Cunyngayme and Kille come men of vaill,
To Laynrik socht on hors, a thousand haill.39
Schyr Jhone the Grayme and his gud chevalré,
Schir Jhone of Tynto with men that he mycht be,
Gud Awchinlek, that Wallace uncle was,
Mony trew Scot with that chyftayne couth pas.
Thre thousand haill of likly men in wer
And feill on fute quhilk wantyt hors and ger.
The tyme be this has cummand apon hand,
The awfull ost with Eduuard of Ingland
To Beggar come, with sexté thousand men,
In wer wedis that cruell war to ken.
Thai playntyt thar feild with tentis and pailyonis,
Quhar claryowns blew full mony mychty sonis;
Plenyst that place with gud vittaill and wyne,
In cartis brocht thar purviance devyne.
The awfull king gert twa harroldis be brocht,
Gaiff thaim commaund in all the haist thai mocht
To charge Wallace, that he sulde cum him till
Withtout promys and put him in his will:
"Becaus we wait he is a gentill man,
Cum in my grace and I sall saiff him than.
As for his lyff I will apon me tak,
And efftir this gyff he couth service mak,
He sall haiff wage that may him weill suffice.
That rebald wenys for he has done supprice
To my pepill oft apon aventur.
Aganys me he may nocht lang endur:
To this proffyr gaynstandand giff he be,
Her I avow he sall be hyngyt hye."
A yong squier, was brothir to Fehew,
He thocht he wald dysgysit to persew
Wallace to se that tuk so hie a part;
Born sistir sone he was to King Eduuart.
A cot of armes he tuk on him but baid,
With the harroldis full prevaly he raid
To Tynto Hill withoutyn residens,
Quhar Wallace lay with his folk at defence.
A likly ost as of so few thai fand;
Till hym thai socht and wald no langar stand.
"Gyff ye be he that rewllis all this thing,40
Credence we haiff brocht fra our worthi king."
Than Wallace gert thre knychtis till him call,
Syne red the wryt in presens of thaim all.
To thaim he said, "Ansuer ye sall nocht craiff.
Be wryt or word, quhilk likis yow best till haiff?"
"In wryt," thai said, "it war the liklyast."
Than Wallace thus began to dyt in hast:
"Thow, reyffar-king, chargis me throw cas41
That I suld cum and put me in thi grace.
Gyff I gaynstand thow hechtis till hyng me.
I vow to God and evir I may tak thee
Thow sall be hangyt, ane exempill to geiff
To kingis of reyff als lang as I may leiff.
Thow profferis me thi wage for till haiff.
I thee defy power, and all the laiff
At helpis thee her of thi fals nacioun.
Will God thow sall be put of this regioune,
Or de tharfor, contrar thocht thow had suorn
Thow sall us se or nine houris to morn
Battaill to gyff magra of all thi kyn,
For falsly thow sekis our rewme within."
This wryt he gaiff to the harraldis but mar,
And gud reward he gart delyvir thaim thar.
Bot Jop knew weyll the squier yong Fehew
And tald Wallace, for he wes evir trew.
Than he command that thai suld sone thaim tak.
Himselff began a sair cusyng to mak.
"Squier," he said, "sen thow has fenyeit armys,
On thee sall fall the fyrst part of thir harmys,
Sampill to geyff till all thi fals nacioune."
Apon the hill he gert thaim set him downe,
Straik off his hed or thai wald forthir go.
To the herrold said syne withoutyn ho,
"For thow art fals till armys and maynsuorn
Throuch thi chokkis thi tong sall be out schorn."
Quhen that was doyne than to the thrid said he,
"Armys to juge thow sall nevir graithly se."
He gert a smyth with his turkas rycht thar
Pow out his eyne, syne gaiff thaim leiff to far.
"To your fals king thi falow sall thee leid;
With my ansuer turs him his nevois heid.
Thus sar I drede thi king and all his bost."
His dum falow led him onto thar ost.
Quhen King Eduuard his herroldis thus has seyne
In propyr ire he wox ner wode for teyne,
That he nocht wyst on quhat wis him to wreke;
For sorow almaist a word he mycht nocht spek.
A lang quhill he stud wrythand in a rage.
On loud he said, "This is a fell owtrage.
This deid to Scottis full der it sall be bocht;
Sa dispitfull in warld was nevir wrocht.
Of this regioun I think nocht for to gang
Quhill tyme that I sall se that rybald hang."
Lat I him thus intill his sorow duell;
Of thai gud Scottis schortly I will yow tell.
Furth fra his men than Wallace rakit rycht;
Till him he cald Schir Jhon Tynto the knycht,
And leit him witt to vesy himselff wald ga
The Inglis ost, and bad him tell na ma,
Quhatevir thai speryt, quhill that he come agayne.
Wallace dysgysit thus bownyt out the playne.
Betwix Cultir and Bygar as he past
He was sone war quhar a werkman come fast,
Dryfande a mere and pychars had to sell.
"Gud freynd," he said, "in treuth will thow me tell
With this chaffar quhar passis thow treuly?"
"Till ony, schir, quha likis for to by.
It is my crafft and I wald sell thaim fayne."
"I will thaim by, sa God me saiff fra payne.
Quhat price lat her. I will tak thaim ilkayne."42
"Bot half a mark, for sic prys haiff I tayne."
"Twenty schillingis," Wallace said, "thow sall haiff.
I will haiff mer, pychars, and als the laiff.
Thi gowne and hois in haist thow put off syne
And mak a chang, for I sall geyff thee myne,
And thi ald hud becaus it is thredbar."
The man wend weyll that he had scornyt him thar.
"Do tary nocht, it is suth I thee say."
The man kest off his febill weid of gray,
And Wallace his and payit silvir in hand.
"Pas on," he said, "thou art a proud merchand."
The gown and hois in clay that claggit was,
The hude heklyt, and maid him for to pas.
The qwhipe he tuk syne furth the mar can call.
Atour a bray the omast pot gert fall,
Brak on the ground; the man lewch at his fair,
"Bot thow be war thow tynys of thi chaiffair."
The sone be than was passit out of sicht;
The day our went and cummyn was the nycht.
Amang Sotheroun full besyly he past;
On athir side his eyne he gan to cast
Quhar lordis lay and had thar lugeyng maid,
The kingis palyone quharon the libardis baid;
Spyand full fast quhar his availl suld be
And couth weyll luk and wynk with the ta e.
Sum scornyt him, sum "gleid carll" cald him thar;
Agrevit thai war for thar herroldis mysfayr.
Sum sperd at him how he sald of the best.
"For forty pens," he said, "quhill thai may lest."
Sum brak a pot, sum pyrlit at his e.
Wallace fled out and prevalé leit thaim be;
Ontill his ost agayne he past full rycht.
His men be than had tayne Tynto the knycht.
Schyr Jhon the Grayme gert bynd him wondir fast,
For he wyst weill he was with Wallace last:
Sum bad byrn him, sum hang him in a cord;
Thai swor that he had dissavit thar lord.
Wallace be this was entryt thaim amang;
Till him he yeid and wald nocht tary lang,
Syne he gart lous him of thai bandis new
And said he was baith suffer, wys, and trew.
To souper sone thai bound but mar abaid.
He tald to thaim quhat merket he had maid,
And how at he the Sotheroun saw full weill.
Schyr Jhon the Grayme displessit was sumdeill
And said till him, "Nocht chyftaynlik it was
Throw wilfulnes in sic perell to pas."
Wallace ansuerd, "Or we wyn Scotland fre
Baith ye and I in mar perell mon be,
And mony othir the quhilk full worthi is.
Now of a thing we do sum part amys,
A litill slepe I wald fayne that we had,
With yone men syne luk how we may us glaid."
The worthi Scottis tuk gud rest quhill ner day.
Than rais thai up, till ray sone ordand thai.
The hill thai left and till a playne is gayne;
Wallace himselff the vantgard he has tayne;
With him was Boid and Awchinlek but dreid,
With a thousand of worthi men in weid.
Als mony syne in the mydwart put he;
Schir Jhone the Grayme he gert thar ledar be,
With him Adam, young lord of Ricardtoun,
And Somervaill, a squier of renoun.
The thrid thousand in the rerward he dycht,
Till Waltir gaiff of Newbyggyn the knycht,
With him Tynto that douchty wes in deid
And Davi son of Schir Waltir, to leid.
Behynd thaim ner the fute men gert he be
And bade thaim bid quhill thai thar tyme mycht se:
"Ye want wapynnys and harnes in this tid;
The fyrst cowntir ye may nocht weill abid."
Wallace gert sone the chyftaynis till him call.
This charge he gaiff, for chance that mycht befall,
Till tak no heid to ger nor of pylage,
"For thai will fle as wod folk in a rage.
Wyne fyrst the men, the gud syne ye may haiff;
Than tak na tent of covatys to craiff.
Throuch covatys sum losis gud and lyff;
I commaund yow forber sic in our stryff.
Luk that ye saiff na lord, capteyne, nor knycht;
For worschipe wyrk and for our eldris rycht.
God blys us that we may in our viage
Put thir fals folk out of our heretage."
Than thai inclynd all with a gudly will;
His playne commaund thai hecht for to fullfill.
On the gret ost thir partice fast can draw,
Cumand to thaim out of the south thai saw
Thre hundreth men intill thar armour cler,
The gaynest way to thaim approchit ner.
Wallace said sone thai war na Inglismen,
"For by this ost the gatis weyll thai ken."43
Thom Haliday thai men he gydyt rycht;
Of Anaddirdaill he had thaim led that nycht,
His twa gud sonnis, Jhonstoun and Rudyrfurd.
Wallace was blyth fra he had hard thar wourd,44
So was the laiff of his gud chevalry.
Jarden thar come intill thar cumpany,
And Kyrkpatrik, befor in Esdaill was,
A weyng thai war in Wallace ost to pas.
The Inglis wach, that nycht had beyne on steir,
Drew to thar ost rycht as the day can per.
Wallace knew weill, for he befor had seyne,
The kingis palyon quhar it was buskit beyne.
Than with rych hors the Scottis befor thaim raid;
The fyrst cowntir so gret abaysing maid
That all the ost was stunyst of that sicht;
Full mony ane derffly to ded was dicht.
Feill of thaim was as than out of aray,
The mair haisté and awfull was the fray.
The noyis rouschit throuch strakis that thai dang;
The rewmour rais so rudly thaim amang
That all the ost was than in poynt to fle.
The wys lordis fra thai the perell se,
The fellone fray all rasyt wes about
And how thar king stud in so mekill dout,
Till his palyone how mony thousand socht
Him to reskew be ony way thai mocht.
The erll of Kent that nycht walkand had beyne
With five thousand of men in armour cleyne;
About the king full sodandly thai gang,
And traistis weill the sailye wes rycht strang.
All Wallace folk in wys of wer was gud,
Into the stour syne lychtyt quhar thai stud.
Quhamevir thai hyt, na harnes mycht thaim stynt
Fra thai on fute semblit, with suerdis dynt.45
Of manheid thai in hartis cruell was,
Thai thocht to wyn or nevir thine to pas.
Feill Inglismen befor the king thai slew.
Schir Jhon the Grayme come with his power new.
Amang the ost with the mydwart he raid;
Gret martyrdome on Sotheroun men thai maid.
The rerward than set on sa hardely,
With Newbyggyn and all the chevalry.
Palyone rapys thai cuttyt into sowndir,
Borne to the ground and mony smoryt owndir.
The fute men come the quhilk I spak of ayr,
On frayt folk set strakis sad and sayr.
Thocht thai befor wantyt bath hors and ger,
Anewch thai gat quhat thai wald waill to wer.
The Scottis power than all togyddir war;
The kingis palyon brymly doun thai bar.
The erll of Kent with a gud ax in hand
Into the stour full stoutly couth he stand
Befor the king, makand full gret debait.
Quha best did than he had the heast stait.
The felloune stour so stalwart was and strang,
Tharto contened mervalusly and lang.
Wallace himself full sadly couth persew
And at a straik that cheiff chyftayne he slew.
The Sotheron folk fled fast and durst nocht byd,
Horssit thar king and off the feild couth ride,
Agaynis his will, for he was laith to fle;
Into that tyme he thocht nocht for to de.
Of his best men four thousand thar was dede
Or he couth fynd to fle and leiff that stede.
Twenty thousand with him fled in a staill.
The Scottis gat hors and folowit that battaill.
Throuch Cultir Hope or tyme thai wan the hycht46
Feill Sotheroun folk was merryt in thar mycht,
Slayne be the gait as thar king fled away.
Bathe fair and brycht and rycht cler was the day,
The sone ryssyn, schynand our hill and daill.
Than Wallace kest quhat was his grettest vaill.
The fleand folk that off the feild fyrst past
Into thar king agayne releiffit fast.
Fra athir sid so mony semblit thar
That Wallace wald lat folow thaim no mar:
Befor he raid, gart his folk turn agayne.
Of Inglismen sevyn thousand thar was slayne.
Than Wallace ost agayne to Beggar raid
Quhar Inglismen gret purvians had maid.
The jowalré as it was thiddir led,
Palyonnis and all, thai leiffit quhen thai fled.
The Scottis gat gold, gud, ger, and othir wage;
Relevyt thai war at partit that pilage.
To meit thai went with myrthis and plesance;
Thai sparyt nocht King Eduuardis purveance.
With solace syne a litill sleyp thai ta;
A preva wach he gert amang thaim ga.
Twa kukis fell, thair lyffis for to saiff,
With dede corssys that lay unputt in graiff;
Quhen thai saw weyll the Scottis war at rest,
Out of the feild to steill thaim thocht it best.
Full law thai crap quhill thai war out of sicht,
Eftir the ost syne rane in all thar mycht.
Quhen that the Scottis had slepyt bot a quhill,
Than rais thai up, for Wallace dredyt gyll.
He said to thaim, "The Sotherone may persewe
Agayne to us for thai ar folk enew.
Quhar Inglismen provisioune makis in wer
It is full hard to do thaim mekill der.
On this playne feild we will thaim nocht abid;
To sum gud strenth my purpos is to ryd."
The purveance that left was in that stede
To Ropis Bog he gert servandis it lede,
With ordinance at Sothroun brocht it thar.
He with the ost to Davis Schaw can far
And thar ramaynede a gret space of the day.
Of Inglismen yeit sumthing will I say.
As King Eduuart throuch Cultir Hoppis socht,
Quhen he persavit the Scottis folowed nocht,
In Jhonnys Greyne he gert the ost ly still.
Feill fleand folk assemblit sone him till.
Quhen thai war met the king ner worthit mad
For his der kyn that he thar lossyt had;
His twa emys into the feild was slayne,
His secund sone that mekill was of mayne,
His brothir Hew was kelyt thar full cald,
The erll of Kent, that cruell berne and bald,
With gret worschip tuk ded befor the king.
For him he murnyt als lang as he mycht ryng.
At this semlay as thai in sorow stand,
The twa kukis come sone in at his hand
And tald till him how thai enchapyt war:
"The Scottis all as swyne lyis dronkyn thar
Of our wicht wyne ye gert us thidder led;
Full weill we may be vengit of thar ded.
A payne our lyvis it is suth that we tell:
Raturne agayne, ye sall fynd thaim yoursell."
He blamyt thaim and said na witt it was
That he agayne for sic a taill suld pas.
"Thar chyftayne is rycht mervalus in wer;
Fra sic perell he can full weill thaim ber.
To sek him mar as now I will nocht ryd;
Our meit is lost, tharfor we may nocht byd."
The hardy duk of Longcastell and lord,
"Soverane," he said, "till our consaill concord.
Gyff this be trew ye haiff the mar availl.
We may thaim wyne and mak bot licht travaill.
War yon folk dede quha may agayne us stand?
Than neid we nocht for meit to leiff the land."
The king ansuerd, "I will nocht rid agayne,
As at this tyme my purpos is in playne."
The duk said, "Schir, gyff ye contermyt be,
To mowff yow mor it afferis nocht for me.
Commaund power agayne with me to wend
And I of this sall se a finaill end."
Ten thousand haill he chargyt for to ryd.
"Her in this strenth all nycht I sall yow bid.
We may get meit of bestiall in this land;
Gud drynk as now we can nocht bryng to hand."
Of Westmorland the lord had mett him thar;
On with the duk he graithit him to fair.
At the fyrst straik with thaim he had nocht beyne;
With him he led a thousand weill beseyne.
A Pykart lord was with a thousand bowne;
Of King Edward he kepyt Calys toun.
This twelve thousand onto the feild can fair.
The two captans sone mett thaim at Beggair
With the haill stuff of Roxburch and Berweike.
Schir Rawff Gray saw at thai war Sotheron leik,
Out of the south approchit to thar sicht;
He knew full weill with thaim it was nocht rycht.
Amer Wallange with his power come als,
King Eduuardis man, a tyrand knycht and fals.
Quhen thai war mett thai fand nocht ellis thar
Bot dede corsis, and thai war spulyeit bar.
Than merveld thai quhar at the Scottis suld be;
Of thaim about perance thai couth nocht se.
Bot spyis thaim tald, that come with Schir Amar,
In Davis Schaw thai saw thaim mak repar.
The fers Sotheroun sone passit to that place;
The wach wes war and tald it to Wallace.
He warnd the ost out of that wood to ryd;
In Roppis Bog he purpost for to byd.
A litill schaw upon the ta syd was
That men on fute mycht of the bog out pas.
Thar hors thai left into that litill hauld;
On fute thai thocht the mos that thai suld hauld.
The Inglis ost had weill thar passage seyne
And folowed fast with cruell men and keyne.
Thai trowit that bog mycht mak thaim litill vaill,
Growyn our with reys, and all the sward was haill.47
On thaim to ryd thai ordand in gret ire.
Of the formest a thousand in the myre
Of hors with men was plungyt in the deipe.
The Scottis men tuk of thar cummyng kepe,
Apon thaim set with strakis sad and sar;
Yeid nane away of all that entrit thar.
Lycht men on fute apon thaim derffly dang;
Feill undyr hors was smoryt in that thrang,
Stampyt in mos and with rud hors ourgayne.
The worthy Scottis the dry land than has tayne,
Apon the laiff fechtand full wondyr fast,
And mony groyme thai maid full sar agast.
Than Inglismen that besy was in wer
Assailyeit sar thaim fra the mos to ber
On athir syd, bot than it was no but.
The strenth thai held rycht awfully on fut
Till men and hors gaiff mony grevous wound;
Feyll to the dede thai stekit in that stound.
The Pykart lord assailyeit scharply thar
Upon the Grayme with strakis sad and sar.
Schir Jhone the Grayme with a staff suerd of steill
His brycht byrneis he persyt evirilkdeill,
Throuch all the stuff, and stekit him in that sted;
Thus of his dynt the bauld Pykart is ded.
The Inglis ost tuk playne purpos to fle;
In thar turnyng the Scottis gert mony de.
Wallace wald fayne at the Wallang haiff beyne;
Of Westmorland the lord was thaim betweyne.
Wallace on him he set ane awfull dynt,
Throuch basnet stuff that na steill mycht it stynt;
Derffly to dede he left him in that place.
The fals knycht thus eschapit throuch this cace.
And Robert Boid has with a captayne mett
Of Berweik, than a sad straik on him set
Awkwart the crag and kervyt the pissane,
Throuch all his weid in sondyr straik the bane.
Feill horssyt men fled fast and durst nocht byd;
Raboytit evill onto thar king thai rid.
The duk him tald of all thar jornay haill;
His hart for ire bolnyt for bytter baill.
Haill he hecht he suld nevyr London se
On Wallace deid quhill he ravengit be,
Or los his men agayne as he did ayr.
Thus socht he south with gret sorou and cair;
At the Byrkhill a litill tary maid,
Syne throuch the land but rest our Sulway raid.
The Scottis ost a nycht ramanyt still;
Apon the morn thai spulyete with gud will
The dede corssis, syne couth to Braidwood fayr;
At a consaill four dayis sojornyt thar.
At Forestkyrk a metyng ordand he.
Thai chesd Wallace Scottis wardand to be,
Traistand he suld thar paynfull sorow ces.
He rasavyt all that wald cum till his pes.
Schir Wilyham come that lord of Douglas was,
Forsuk Eduuard, at Wallace pes can ass;
In thar thrillage he wald no langar be.
Trewbut befor till Ingland payit he.
In contrar Scottis with thaim he nevir raid,
Far bettir cher Wallace tharfor him maid.
Thus tretyt he and cheryst wondir fair
Trew Scottis men that fewté maid him thar,
And gaiff gretly feill gudis at he wan.
He warnd it nocht till na gud Scottis man.
Quha wald rebell and gang contrar the rycht
He punyst sar, war he squier or knycht.
Thus mervalusly gud Wallas tuk on hand;
Lykly he was, rycht fair and weill farrand,
Mandly and stout and tharto rycht liberall,
Plesand and wys in all gud governall.
To sla forsuth Sotheroun he sparyt nocht;
To Scottis men full gret profyt he wrocht.
Into the south sone efftir passit he;
As him best thocht he rewllyt that contré.
Schirrais he maid that cruell was to ken
And captans als of wis trew Scottis men.
Fra Gamlis Peth the land obeyt him haill,
Till Ur Wattir, bath strenth, forest, and daill.
Agaynis him in Galloway hous was nayne
Except Wigtoun, byggyt of lyme and stayne.
That captayne hard the reullis of Wallace;
Away be sey he staw out of that place,
Levyt all waist and couth in Ingland wend.
Bot Wallace sone a kepar till it send,
A gud squier and to nayme he was cald
Adam Gordone, as the storie me tald.
A strenth thar was on the wattir of Cre,
Within a roch, rycht stalwart, wrocht of tre;
A gait befor mycht no man to it wyn,
But the consent of thaim that duelt within.
On the bak sid a roch and wattir was;
A strait entré forsuth it was to pas.
To wesy it Wallace himselff sone went;
Fra he it saw he kest in his entent
To wyn that hauld; he has chosyne a gait
That thai within suld mak litill debait.
His power haill he gert bid out of sicht,
Bot three with him, qwhill tyme that it was nycht.
Than tuk he twa, quhen that the nycht was dym,
Stevyn of Irland and Kerle that couth clyme
The wattir undir, and clame the roch so strang.
Thus entir thai the Sothrone men amang.
The wach befor tuk na tent to that syd;
Thir three in feyr sone to the port thai glid.
Gud Wallace than straik the portar himsell;
Dede our the roch into the dik he fell;
Leit doun the brig and blew his horne on hycht.
The buschement brak and come in all thar mycht,
At thar awne will sone enterit in that place;
Till Inglismen thai did full litill grace.
Sexty thai slew; in that hauld was no ma
Bot ane ald preist and sympill wemen twa.
Gret purveance was in that roch to spend;
Wallace baid still quhill it was at ane end,
Brak doune the strenth, bath bryg and bulwark all.
Out our the roch thai gert the temyr fall,
Undid the gait and wald no langar bid.
In Carrik syne thai bownyt thaim to rid,
Haistit thaim nocht bot sobyrly couth fair
Till Towrnbery; that captane was of Ayr
With lord Persie, to tak his consaill haill.
Wallace purpoisit that place for to assaill.
Ane woman tauld quhen the capitane was gane.
Gude men of fence into the steid was nane.
Thay fillit the dyke with eird and tymmer haill,
Syne fyrd the gett na succour mycht availl.
A prest thar was and gentill wemen within
Quhilk for the fyr maid hiddewis noyis and dyn.
"Mercy," thai criit, "for Him that deit on Tre."
Wallace gert slaik the fyr and leit thaim be.
To mak defens na ma was levyt thar.
He thaim commaund out of the land to far,
Spulyeit the place and spilt all at thai mocht.
Apon the morn in Cumno sone thai socht,
To Laynrik syne and set a tyme of ayr;
Mysdoaris feill he gert be punyst thar.
To gud trew men he gaiff full mekill wage,
His brothir sone put to his heretage.
To the Blak Crag in Cumno past agayne,
His houshauld set with men of mekill mayn.
Thre monethis thar he duellyt in gud rest;
Suttell Sotheroune fand weill it was the best
Trewis to tak for till enchew a chans;
To furthir this thai send for knycht Wallans.
Bothwell yeit that tratour kepyt still,
And Ayr all haill was at the Perseis will.
The byschope Beik in Glaskow duellyt thar,
Throucht gret supplé of the captayne of Ayr.
Erll of Stamffurd, was chanslar of Ingland,
With Schir Amar this travaill tuk on hand,
To procur pes be ony maner of cace.
A saiff condyt thai purchest of Wallace.
In Ruglen Kyrk the tryst than haiff thai set,
A promes maid to meit Wallace but let.
The day of this approchit wondyr fast.
The gret chanslar and Amar thiddir past,
Syne Wallace come and his men weill beseyn,
With him fyfty arayt all in greyne.
Ilk ane of thaim a bow and arrowis bar
And lang suerdis, the quhilk full scharply schar.
Into the kyrk he gert a preyst rawes,
With humyll mind rycht mekly hard a mes.
Syn up he rais and till ane alter went
And his gud men full cruell of entent.
In ir he grew that traitour quhen he sawe;
The Inglismen of his face stud gret aw.
Witt reullyt him that he did no owtrage.
The erlle beheld fast till his hye curage,
Forthocht sum part that he come to that place,
Gretlye abaysit for the vult of his face.
Schir Amer said, "This spech ye mon begyne.
He will nocht bow to na part of your kyn.
Sufferyt ye ar, I trow yhe may spek weill.
For all Ingland he will nocht brek adeyll
His saiff cundyt, or quhar he makis a band."
The chanslar than approfferit him his hand.
Wallace stud still and couth na handis ta;
Frendschipe to thaim na liknes wald he ma.
Schir Amar said, "Wallace, yhe undyrstand
This is a lord and chanslar of Ingland.
To salus him ye may be propyr skill."
With schort avys he maid ansuer him till:
"Sic salusyng I oys till Inglismen
Sa sall he haiff, quharevir I may him ken
At my power, that God I mak avow,
Out of soverance gyff that I had him now!
Bot for thi liff and all his land so braid
I will nocht brek this promes that is maid.
I had levir at myn awn will haiff thee
Without cundyt, that I mycht wrokyne be
Of thi fals deid thou dois in this regioune,
Than of pur gold a kingis gret ransoune.
Bot for my band as now I will lat be.
Chanslar, schaw furth quhat ye desyr of me."
The chanslar said, "The most caus of this thing,
To procur pees I am send fra our king
With the gret seill and voice of hys parliament.
Quhat I bynd her oure barnage sall consent."
Wallace ansuerd, "Our litill mendis we haiff
Syne of oure rycht ye occupy the laiff.
Quytcleyme our land and we sall nocht deny."
The chanslar said, "Of na sic charge haiff I.
We will gyff gold or oure purpos suld faill."
Than Wallace said, "In waist is that travaill.
Be favour gold we ask nayne of your kyn.
In wer of you we tak that we may wyn."
Abaissid he was to mak ansuer agayne.
Wallace said, "Schir, we jangill nocht in vayne.
My consell gyffis, I will na fabill mak,
As for a yer a finaill pes to tak.
Nocht for myselff that I bynd to your seill,
I can nocht trow that evir yhe will be leill,
Bot for pur folk gretlye has beyne supprisyt,
I will tak pees quhill forthir we be avisit."
Than band thai thus, thar suld be no debait,
Castell and towne suld stand in that ilk stait
Fra that day furth quhill a yer war at end,
Sellyt this pes and tuk thar leyff to wend.
Wallace fra thine passit into the west,
Maid playne repayr quhar so him likit best.
Yeit sar he dred or thai suld him dissaiff.
This endentour to Schir Ranald he gaiff,
His der uncle, quhar it mycht kepit be.
In Cumno syne till his duellyng went he.

Incipit Septimus


octaves; (see note); (t-note)
spring (i.e., April)
sign; sweet season
from; ready [to leave]
Among Englishmen; was living

clothed; without doubt
fertile; by
woods; got; covering of green
Nymphs; shelter; bower
Faunis' macers; accustomed
gladden; song

pleasurable pain; earlier
According to love's chance; follow; (t-note)
lingered there awhile
[Even] though; displeased; repairing there
troubled him extremely; (t-note)

fire of spring; such [a] way; (see note)
comely [one]
At times he would; on account of
gain I nothing except

would distract me from
lose; honor
to love her; cease for that reason

state of war; live or die

should; determined

agreement; while; (see note)
undertook; obey; (t-note)
ending; debate


happiness; complete joy
by choice
exalt high
wrap her (embrace)
great good fortune

marked; (see note)
Many times before then; elevated

in distress; quiet; (see note)
in gladness enjoying his pleasing love
[he] thought himself free from; (t-note)
always; prove
placed; high [on Fortune's wheel]

full; readily
How long they enjoyed this [married] life
it happened
conceived these two lovers
comely; fair
later on when she was the right age
(see note)
wealthy; got her

are descended from; young; (t-note)

went on with his war
cease; carried forward
Englishmen; spare
very often provoked him
From; moved; (t-note)

leave; great pleasure
love; lose a pledge
earth; redeemed
live; war; fierce; (see note)

fickle wheel
[good] faith; here; lasting
completely changed; [good] fortune
continued [enjoying] the best [fortune]
happiness here; jest
fierce; (see note)
From great favor in war, [to] suffering

hastens; destiny; (see note); (t-note)
good and evil
double dealing (i.e., tricks)

everlasting love

On this for now
1297; (see note)

happily goes

fierce, cunning; (see note)
means; (see note)


force; armor ready


they attended mass; (see note)
dressed in fine green [clothing]
such practice
solemnly; their prayers
One [of the English] challenged
contemptuous; enough
saluted; only
God preserve you; good gentleman; (see note)

recently from overseas
ambassador; foreign; (see note)

Habitually; crave
yet you shall be given a greeting
(see note); (t-note)
More English; near
loath; stir

lady uttered little [on your account]
wear; handsome green
greatest reason is only; angry
dagger (penis)
priest; lay with
Until; grew; heir

mother; tricked before
armed company
brave were; bold
army; coming
close by
burnished well; (t-note)
fierce; bold
[the] English such blows; time
Until; spurted everywhere from; wide
combat; fiercely fighting
an Englishman; severed
fellow; fighting; more
stump; gushed
splattered across Wallace's face
It spoiled his sight a great deal
blow; delivered
English man; (t-note)
Killed him outright in his rage
fighting; long
many men
To; nearest
swords; steel

in despair; (see note)
terrible; din
Raised the gate
to a stronghold; from; place
Englishmen; street; (t-note)
everything in her power
delay; stratagem
While; slipped away to the wood
made their way; (see note)
returned; arrested the woman
death; (see note)
On such [a] subject
grief; without remedy; (t-note)
Renewing; increase
loyal; [who] had served
nearest; went
To; deed
went straight to his heart
shame; fallen
sorrow; kept fast
noble, and generous
also the rest
pure; sorely
concealed his feelings
Cease; unavailing (bootless)
bring her back to life
Scarcely; utter; suffering
woeful; burst suddenly from; eyes
at ease until; be avenged

old; is fit to fight
Priests nor; slay; (t-note)
Wrongfully, unless they give me cause
Whenever; less
lessens anger [provoked] by wrongs; redress
lament; more
who dwelt there; (t-note)
made his way

set out
sentries; heed
Divided; ways went


high; sound asleep
Kicked the door
Until; floor; made
Who; din

woman's death, God willing; pay for
lie [in bed]
dark yet
Vigorously; in a rage
head broke; bone and flesh
cutting; went smoothly
did not believe
Thrice; stabbed; place
noise; rose loudly; street
Many; rest; trampled
sure blow
Violently to death; struck; down

leapt up the flight of stairs; stabbed
Frightened; were; hideous; din

burnt up bone and flesh

heard this excellent news; (see note)
From all over
strove against; barons; (see note)
recover; parts
flocked to; (see note)
cunning tyrant
exiled, though; (see note)

dwelling; time
many others; dared; stay
(i.e., Wallang); dwelling
Wallace's actions
people; misfortune
had risen; power
agents proclaim
A call to arms; openly
realm; rule anew
Many; war
perceived; what he intended
To; then asked him
stop; go
fear; grievous wrong
her counsel; home; stay
He arranged for his lords
(see note)
took such [a] position (i.e., had rebelled)
stole [away]
Seeking; ready to go
Riccarton; (see note)
England's coast
royal place
St. Bee's Head
Picardy; (t-note)

war; (see note)
make him wear his coat of arms
simply called him
news from
changed; (t-note)
nature; loyal

bear; [coat of] arms
soon rode
assembled; delay
pardon; arrange
every kind; done
had lapsed
Many to; boldly dared to withstand
entire army
Against [the] English; bond; (see note)
[A] long time; hold from

From; Kyle; worth

band of knights
(see note)

in all; men fit for war
many; lacked; weapons
By this time; come
awesome army; (see note)

armor; fierce; see
clarions; sounds
Supplied; food
God-sent provisions
awesome; made; heralds
Ordered; might
command; come to him
Unconditionally; submit
know; noble
[If he] comes; save
For [the rest of] his life
after; if he serves me
rebel is proud; has caused injury
by chance
Against; (t-note)
If he resists this offer
Here; vow; hanged high
Fitzhugh; (see note)
disguise himself
undertook so much
He was Edward's nephew (sister's son)
without delay


impressive army for so few; found
They made their way directly to Wallace

read; writ
You will not want for an answer
In writing or verbally, which
most fitting
compose a reply hastily

If I oppose; vow; hang
if ever
of [the consequences of] plunder; long; live

repudiate your power [to rule here]; others
That; here
expelled from
even though you had sworn the contrary
see us before nine o'clock in the morning
Ready for battle in spite of; countrymen
to occupy our realm
at once
had handed to them
loyal; (t-note)
seize them immediately
severe accusation
falsely assumed [heraldic] arms
these injuries
Example; make

Struck; before
then without pause
cheeks; tongue; cut out

readily see; (see note)
made; smith; pair of pincers
Pull; eyes; leave to go
your companion; lead; (t-note)
pack up for him; nephew's head
extremely; fear; threatening
His mute companion; (t-note)
(see note)
pure rage; grew; mad with grief
way to avenge himself

Scots will pay dearly for this action
So malicious [a deed]
Until [the] time; rebel
I leave him thus

Further; went directly

let him know; reconnoiter; go [to]
[To]; ordered; no one else; (t-note)
asked, until; returned
set out for the plain; (see note)
Culter; Biggar
aware; laborer; approached; (t-note)
Driving; mare; pitchers; (t-note)

To any; who; buy
occupation; willingly; (t-note)

Only; such; incurred; (see note)

[the] mare; also the rest
stockings; next
change; give
old hood; threadbare
thought; mocked
[the] truth
threw; meager gray garment

stockings; clogged
whip; then summoned the mare
[Going] over a hill; uppermost; fell
laughed; way of going
Unless; are careful; will lose; wares
sun; disappeared
[the] English
either; eyes
pavilion; leopards stood
advantage should
look; other eye
"squint-eyed fellow" called
Vexed; mishap
what was his best price; (t-note)
poked at his eye; (t-note)
host; straightaway
by then; seized

wished to burn; on a rope
by this [time]
To him he went
Then; had him loosed from
both trusty
supper soon; without further delay; (t-note)
that; English

It was not chieftain-like
headstrong conduct; such
Before we achieve Scotland's freedom
Both; more; must
somewhat amiss
be glad
until near
to battle order quickly they were ready
vanguard; assumed command
without doubt
men in armor
As; middle force

(see note)
to the rearguard he assigned; (t-note)
was bold in deed
lead; (t-note)
[Close] behind; foot soldiers
commanded; stay until
lack; armor at this time
encounter; withstand

order; whatever might happen; (t-note)
pay no heed; pillage; (see note)
mad; (t-note)
Conquer; goods afterwards
pay no attention
goods and life
keep away from such; struggle
bless; enterprise; (t-note)
promised; (t-note)
these divisions quickly approached
nearest; close
soon; not

those; guided

(see note); (t-note)

rest; band of knights
into; (see note)

[military] wing
scout; astir; (see note)

pavilion; had been pitched
fine horses; rode; (t-note)
[At] the first encounter; discomfiture
dismayed at the sight [of the Scots]
Very many were violently killed
Many; in disarray
more; frightening; din
deafened; blows; struck
alarm; strongly
at [the] point of fleeing

terrible din; roused
such great danger
any; might
watching; (see note); (t-note)
[you may] well believe the assault
ways of war; experienced
battle then dismounted

fierce were
from there

middle division
slaughter; [the] English
rearguard then; so

Tent ropes; to pieces
smothered under; (t-note)
spoke; earlier
frightened; strokes firm; sore
Although; lacked both; weapons
Enough; obtained which; choose for war

fiercely; bore

battle; boldly
offering; resistance
Whoever; then; highest place [of honor]
terrible fighting
steadfastly conducted himself; (t-note)
stroke; prime; (see note)
English; dared; stay
Put their king on horseback; rode
did not expect to die; (t-note)

Before; was persuaded; leave; place
got; battalion

Many English; injured
by the wayside
shining over; dale
considered; advantage
fleeing; first left the battlefield
Unto; rallied
From either side; assembled
not allow [his men] to follow; more
In front; rode, made; back

Wallace's army; rode
left behind
goods, weapons; reward
Relieved; who divided those spoils
dinner; in good spirits
They did not skimp [with]; supplies
Refreshed then; took
secret scout; made; go
fierce rascals; save
corpses; unburied

steal [away]
low; crept until
After; [English] host; ran
only a [short] while
rose; guile
English; renew the attack
On us; there are enough of them
provision; war
much harm
supplies; place
made; lead; (see note)
[the] provisions that [the] English
Wood went
remained; part

Valley made his way
John's Green; (see note)
Many; soon
nearly became
two uncles
son; of great strength
killed; cold
fierce and bold baron
mourned; reigned
gathering; stood
rascals soon approached him
had escaped
like swine lie drunk there
From; strong wine; lead
avenged; deed
On pain [of] our lives
Return; yourself
reproached; it made no sense
such a tale
food; stay
(see note)
to; counsel agree
If; better advantage
defeat; effort
Were those; dead
we need not leave the land for food
ride back
are firmly set against it
move; becomes
[an] army back; go; (t-note)

in all; commanded; ride
Here; stronghold; await you

prepared to go on
When the first blow was struck
Picard; prepared; (see note)
From; held Calais

whole garrisons
they were like [the] English; (see note)
within sight

(see note)
found nothing else there
bodies; stripped of belongings
they wondered where
They could see no sign of them

Wood; saw them go
fierce English soon
sentries; aware; told; (t-note)
summoned the army
wood; the one side
marsh; keep

fierce; bold
believed; difficulty

foremost; swamp
firm; severe
Dismounted; violently attacked them
Many; crushed; throng
Trampled; [the] bog; strong; crushed
rest fighting very vigorously
men; afraid
Tried hard; carry
either side; to no avail
stronghold; awesomely; foot
Many; stabbed (killed); time
attacked eagerly
stabbing sword of steel
corslet; pierced completely
cloth; stabbed; place
blow; bold
retreat; (t-note)
The lord of Westmoreland
formidable blow
helmet; steel; stop
escaped; chance
(see note)
Across; neck; severed; gorget
armor [and] shattered the bone
Many; remain
Badly repulsed; ride
feat of arms
swelled; woe
Wholeheartedly; vowed
Until he was revenged for Wallace's deed
lose; before
he made his way; sorrow
short halt; (see note)
Then; without stopping; Solway
Braidwood; (see note)
stayed there
(see note)
chose; Guardian; (see note)

received; peace
(see note)
subjection to them
Against; rode
welcome; (t-note)
treated; dearly
gave generously many; won
refused; to; (t-note)
go against
severely, were
Well-made; good-looking
Manly; strong; generous
Pleasant; leadership
slay in truth Englishmen

governed; region
Sheriffs; fierce; know
Gamelspath; entirely
[the] Urr River; strongholds
built; stone
by sea; stole
Left; went to England

history; told; (see note)
castle; Cree River
rock; made of wood
passageway at the front; find
At the rear; river
reconnoiter; soon
considered how; (t-note)
conquer; way
whole company; wait
Except; until
two; dim
under; climb
watch in front paid no attention
These; together; gate; moved smoothly
Dead over; ditch
Let; bridge; loudly
ambush broke; came
own pleasure soon; (t-note)
To; showed little kindness
stronghold; more
Except; harmless
stayed; until; finished
over; timber
Destroyed; stay
prepared; ride
They did not hurry; steadily traveled
To; [castle's] captain went to Ayr; (see note)
sound counsel
planned; (t-note)
told [him]; gone
defense; place; none
ditch; earth; timber completely
Then set fire to the gate
who died on [the] Cross (i.e., Jesus)
caused the fire to be put out; let
more were left there
to go
Plundered; destroyed
Cumnock; went
Lanark; for [a] justice-ayre; (see note)
Many wrongdoers
gave very large rewards
(see note)
(see note)
appointed; great strength

Cunning Englishmen found
To have [a] truce; obtain

yet; protected
(see note)
chancellor; (see note)
by any manner possible
safe conduct
Church; meeting; arranged; (see note)
promise; meet; straight away

Then; equipped
dressed; green
Each one; carried
long [very sharp] swords; cut
church; priest put on his vestments
meekly heard a mass
After he rose
fierce in purpose
anger; traitor (i.e., Sir Amer)

took great heed of
Regretted somewhat
dismayed; expression on

Assured [by safe conduct]; believe
at all
conduct; where; bond
did not take hands
semblance; make

greet; as is right and proper
Without delay; to him
greeting; use to
I vow to God
safe conduct if

[safe] conduct; revenged
you do
pure; ransom
Because of my bond
the main reason for
seal; voice (i.e., support)
agree [to] here; barons
Very little reparation
Since what is rightfully ours
I have no such orders
give; before
That is a useless offer
Gold [given as] a favor; none; kin
We take by conquest what we can from you
He was [too] abashed to reply
bandy words
decrees; not lie
year; conclusive
believe; loyal
poor; oppressed
until; advised
agreed formally; strife
same state
until; was
Sealed the truce; leave; go
from there
went openly where; (t-note)
Yet he feared greatly; deceive

Continue to Books 7-12