The Liflade ant te Passiun of Seinte Juliene
THE LIFLADE ANT TE PASSIUN OF SEINTE JULIENE: EXPLANATORY NOTES
Header Seinte Juliene. Juliana was an early fourth-century virgin and martyr who probably was mar¬tyred at Cumae or Naples, and whose cult in England goes back at least as far as Bede’s late ninth-century Martyrology. See Farmer, Oxford Dictionary of Saints, p. 280. Bodley 34 gives Juliana a French name, which reinforces the argument that the milieu in which these works were produced was at least trilingual. It is likely that the readers of these texts knew how to read English and French and a certain degree of Latin. See the note to the header of SK. For a discussion of multilingual literacy in this period see Robertson, “This Living Hand.”
1.1 alle leawede men . . . to Englische leode. This passage shares with SM a self-consciousness about its status as a translation into English. Compare SM 74.1. This life is clearly addressed to those who did not understand Latin — that is, untrained lay audiences. Women in the religious life in this period were unlikely to have been trained in Latin as were their male counterparts. Notice also that this life stresses that it should be listened to rather than read, suggesting that at one point the narrative was read aloud, as opposed to read privately. SJ’s rhetorical flourishes contribute, according to Ursula Schaefer, to a skillful combination of highly literate, Latinate translation with powerful oral/aural formulaic language. See Schaefer, “Twin Collocations,” pp. 188–91, for her specific discussion of how the dense pairing of semantically or phonologically similar nouns and verbs affects the orality and aurality of this text.
2.1 Nichomedese. During the reign of Diocletian, Nicomedia was the largest metropolis in the Roman province of Bithynia in what is now northwest Turkey Diocletian established the City as capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in 286 CE and it remained so until 330, when Constantine the Great moved the capital to Byzantium (thereafter Constantinople). See OCE, “Diocletian.”
3.1 i thon time. I.e., the early fourth century, when Maximian (d. 310) and Diocletian (d. 312) ruled and perse¬cuted Christians together. See Eusebius’ account of the Diocletian persecutions in Book VIII of his Church History; chapters 5 and 6 cover the oppression of Christians in Nicomedia, which were especially brutal. The suppression of Christian practices began in Nicomedia in February 303 CE. See OCD, “Nicomedia.”
3.3 wes wel with the king. I.e., “got along well with the king,” or “was well off with the king”; D glosses as “was on good terms with” (p. 137); Savage and Watson translate as “was thus so favored by the king” (AS, p. 306).
4.1 As he hefde . . . hire luve libben. This version of the persecution of the female saint draws on traditional courtly love imagery to describe Eleusius’ attraction to Juliana. Compare, for instance, Roman de la Rose, the Lover’s torment at the hands of the God of Love when he first beholds the Rose: “I was in great pain and anguish because of my doubled danger: I didn’t know what to do, what to say, or where to find a physician for my wound . . . but my heart drew me toward the rosebud, for it longed for no other place” (trans. Dahlberg, p. 54). Gayle Margherita discusses the Juliana-author’s use of French courtly love discourse in this text, in an English culture that had not yet seen the instantiation of courtly love in its vernacular literature: “Eleusius’s courtly discourse conceals an aggressive and sadistic subtext that is, in the legend, allied with both pagan and Norman political hegemony. The text sets up an analogy between early Christians and Anglo-Saxon aristocrats, marginalized under pagan and Norman domination respectively” (Romance of Origins, p. 47). This suggestion sets up a productive context from which to read the legend’s agenda of English myth-making and the attempt at establishing vernacular authority.
4.3 Affrican wiste thet . . . him his bone. Here some of the concerns of secular marriage practices are made evident as Eleusius considers the class similarity between himself and Juliana. Concerns over marriage are at the forefront of SJ, when Juliana must negotiate between her pledge to marry Christ and the cultural expectation of her secular marriage. A useful historical comparison is Christina of Markyate, whose insistence that she is already married (to Christ) helps her annul her marriage to Beohtred; see the Life of Christina of Markyate, ed. and trans., Talbot.
4.4 hire unwil. Literally, “to her displeasure.” However, we have attempted to include the concept of willing consent in our translation, an essential element in medieval marriage practice. For more on marriage law and practice in the Middle Ages, see McCarthy, Marriage in Medieval England; Sheehan, Marriage, Family, and Law; Noonan, “Power to Choose”; and most recently McSheffrey, Marriage, Sex, and Civic Culture.
5.4 with purpres ant pelles. See also the explanatory note to SK 33.3, where this same phrase is used to describe an upper class woman’s clothing.
6.1–4 Juliene the eadie . . . . luve sech the. Hassel, in Choosing Not to Marry, discusses in detail the unique position Juliana occupies (as opposed to Katherine or Margaret) in that the marriage proposal Eleusius offers is “most appealing for a young woman” (p. 70). Eleusius’ social rank equals that of Juliana’s own family, and he approaches her initially in a romantic and socially appropriate way. The potential legitimacy of this earthly marriage, however, emphasizes Juliana’s role as a Bride of Christ, which she reaffirms at 13.4. For more discussion of the contrast between this earthly marriage and her marriage to Christ, see Hassel, Choosing Not to Marry, pp. 70–71.
14.1–2 Hire feader feng . . . . with him icnawen. Christina of Markyate’s conflict with her parents is similar to that of Juliana and Africanus: both daughters have rejected the parents’ traditional right to select a spouse for their child, a selection in which the family has a lot at stake, since a good marriage could be of significant economic and social benefit to the family. Christina’s parents plead, threaten, and abuse her in their attempts to persuade her to abandon her commitment to Christ. Like Christina, Juliana claims a prior “marriage” to Christ as an impediment to a secular marriage. See Life of Christina of Markyate, ed. and trans. Talbot. For a discussion of the legitimacy of her marriage vows to Christ in the secular sphere see Head, “Marriages of Christina of Markyate.” See Hassel, Choosing Not to Marry, p. 75, on Juliana’s complete alienation from her family and society.
19.2 Beliales budeles. The name Belial comes from 2 Corinthians 6:15, and is a common name for the devil or one of his henchmen. In this context (as in 60.4 below), budeles are senior lieutenants who execute the orders of a superior authority (OED beadle (n.), sense 2a). See also SK 43.1 and the corresponding explanatory note.
21.3–4 For eaver se . . . . in His servise. Especially emphasized in this life is Christ’s ability to provide all that a secular husband can and more. Eleusius tempts Juliana with material wealth and status, which mean nothing to her compared to the spiritual wealth and status afforded to her by Christ. This contrast evokes Matthew 6:19–21 as well as Matthew 22:21. Compare also SM 6.3 and 67.14, as well as the corresponding explanatory notes.
22.2 lilies ilicnesse, ant rudi ase rose. The white lily is traditionally associated in saints’ lives with purity and the red rose with blood. Compare, for example, the faces of the converted pagan scholars after their execution (SK 32.3), or Chaucer’s Second Nun’s interpretation of Saint Cecilia’s name (CT VIII[G] 85–91) and especially Saint Cecilia’s association with roses and lilies (CT VIII[G] 218–24 and 246–52). Romance heroines are also conventionally described as white-skinned and red-cheeked.
22.3–4 His heorte feng . . . . thet he walde. On Eleusius’ reaction to Juliana’s beauty, compare Gower’s Tale of Apollonius, where the daughter of the King of Pentapolis thinks about Apollonius:
Hire herte is hot as eny fyr, And otherwhile it is acale; Now is sche red, nou is sche pale Riht after the condicion Of hire ymaginacion. (Confessio Amantis, ed. Peck, 8.846–50)While Genius might certainly accuse Eleusius of “mislok” (CA 1.334), his love-symptoms, however, prefigure the sadistic and violent character he will become. This description, in addition to participating in the subtext of courtly love, also evokes images and sensations disturbingly evocative of hellfire and fury, particularly in the melting bone marrow and alternation of hot and cold. Compare, for example, the melting of sinners’ bodies in Purgatory in Passus II of The Vision of Tundale, ed. Foster, lines 339–44, or the torment of fire and ice in Passus III, lines 365–80 (though much of this imagery originates in Bede’s Vision of Drythelm from the Ecclesiastical History [see Foster’s Introduction to Tundale, pp. 179–90]). In addition, Margherita points out the parallel between the psychological torment Eleusius experiences at Juliana’s hands, and the physical torture he inflicts on her later, which includes bursting her bone marrow and snapping all of her limbs (Romance of Origins, pp. 46–47).
23.5–6 Ant loke alswa . . . . the so lathe? Eleusius’ tactic here is to make a direct comparison between these ancient pagan customs and Juliana’s kin group (the alswa . . . as construction). In this way he appeals (or attempts to appeal) to her sense of duty to her gens or to her domestic impulses toward her family. The strong link in Roman culture between the patriarchal family and the family’s own personal pagan gods is evident in the iconographic image of Aeneas, departing the wreckage of Troy while carrying his father Anchises on his shoulders and the bust of the family gods, while leading his young son by the hand (his wife, Creusa, forgotten, disappears behind him). This attempt at manipulation fails utterly, as Juliana has wholeheartedly renounced this system of simultaneous religious worship and family honor in favor of a heavenly family.
24.3 cwike deovlen. In response, Juliana equates Eleusius’ gods (the same gods whose loyalty he has thrust upon her) with living demons, predicting the infernal family the governor will adopt when he ends up in Hell.
24.4 world àà buten ende. An adverbial phrase, basically “forever and forever and forever,” although it is tempting to read this as a prepositional “in the world that is forever without end” (i.e., Hell). We suspect that both senses are implied.
25.1 Me, leof . . . me to deathe. Eleusius’ pragmatic but ultimately cowardly response to Juliana’s challenge signifies the end of his courtly sweet-talk. His refusal to enter into what would be a holy marriage bond with Juliana is worth contrasting with Valerian’s response to Saint Cecilia on their wedding night in Chaucer’s Second Nun’s Tale; when she warns him gently of a holy angel who loves her and who will slay Valerian if he touches her, the bridegroom responds:
“If I shal trusten thee, Lat me that aungel se and hym biholde; And if that it a verray angel bee, Thanne wol I doon as thou has prayed me; And if thou love another man, for sothe Right with this swerd thanne wol I sle yow bothe” (CT VIII[G] 163–68)Evidently Valerian has been reading up on Gower’s Tale of Nectanabus, but he also demonstrates a remarkable ability to listen to his holy wife and to see what for Eleusius would be an impossibility. In contrast, Eleusius fears the loss of his secular office and ultimately death (which fear Valerian conquers in his visit to the catacombs).
27.1 bigoten of the blode. “Covered over” or “drenched” in blood. The image of Juliana naked, covered in her own blood, and the particular phrasing here not only draws attention to the sadistic and potentially violent erotic subtext of the tale but more importantly to the analogy drawn between the image of the naked, feminized, tortured body of Christ and the virgin martyrs who love him. D points out a useful Anglo-Saxon parallel in the Dream of the Rood, where the Cross describes how it became entirely “mid blode . . . begoten” after Christ’s side was pierced (line 48, quoted in D, p. 79).
27.4 wurthe him wurst. Literally, “it becomes him the worst.”
30.2 ne for luve nowther ne for luther. Juliana refers to the gentleness with which both Africanus and Eleusius began their attempts at persuasion, and to the wicked anger with which they ended it.
31.4–7 Lauerd Godd almighti . . . . to Thin help. Compare Vulgate Psalm 17.
32.3 Ah the worldes . . . wes hal meiden. In De Praescriptione Haereteticorum [Of the Prescription against Heretics], Chapter 36, Tertullian states that John was thrown into a cauldron of boiling oil from which he emerged unscathed before the Porta Latina in Rome.
33.7–8 As Thu biwistest . . . . ferden ham efter. For the story of Daniel in the lions’ den, see Daniel 6. The tale of the Hebrew children cast into the furnace is found in Daniel 3, where they are called Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago (Daniel 1:6–7 tells of the children’s renaming). The Parting of the Red Sea is found in Exodus 14 (the full story of the escape from Egypt, including Passover and a celebratory hymn of praise to God, is recounted in Exodus 13–15).
34.1 com a kempe of Helle on englene heowe. The scenario of a demon disguised as an angel most likely originates from 2 Corinthians 11:14, where Paul states, “And no wonder, for Satan himself masquerades as an angel of light.” This episode in SJ is remarkable for its violence, in that many of the tortures Juliana inflicts on Belial in some ways approach those torments she receives at the hands of her father and Eleusius. However, the episode also points to, as Hassel notes, “the difficulties of faith facing holy women” (Choosing Not to Marry, p. 74). In particular, the words of Belial-as-angel represent what suffering but flawed Christians want to hear, but what the martyr must resist: that Juliana need not suffer more pain and that her spiritual striving is finished. In many ways, Belial’s words are so convincing because, in his assertion that “Ne mei ich tholien thet ha thus mear¬ren the na mare” (34.4) and “Me areoweth thi sar” (34.6), he echoes, in some ways, the grief of the Father for the torments of the Son (typologically re-enacted by God’s testing of Abraham in Genesis 22:1–19). The false angel scenario can be compared to the apocryphal story of the post-lapsarian life of Adam and Eve in the Vita Adae et Evae; in this text, as recounted by Rosemary Woolf, Adam and Eve do penance by immersing themselves in the Jordan and Euphrates (respectively) for one month. After two weeks, the devil comes to Eve disguised as an angel and asks her to leave off her penance and exit the river (Woolf, “Fall of Man,” pp. 19–20). In both the cases of Eve and Juliana, the false messenger expresses the unstated desire of these two women, the ultimate temptation voluntarily to give up suffering. Unfortunately for Eve, she gives in yet again, whereas Juliana does not. For more on this episode, see Hassel, Choosing Not to Marry, pp. 74–77, and Woolf, “Fall of Man,” pp. 19–20.
37.1 hwet me beo to donne. Literally, “what there is for me to do.” The impersonal construction (“me beo”) is a common form in highly inflected languages. The inflected infinitive usually indicates obligation, hence our translation “what I should do.”
38.5 unthonc in his teth. “Ingratitude in his teeth” – i.e., “against his will” or “despite himself.” Winstead translates as “willy-nilly” (Chaste Passions, p. 18), and Watson and Savage as “even against his will” (AS, p. 313). This idiom is used only in AB texts; compare HM 41.7 and the AW 4:699–700, which Hasenfratz glosses as “damn his teeth (i.e., despite himself)” (p. 254, lines 698–703). Curiously, all three instances involve the phrase in reference to the virgin/anchoress’s power to further frustrate and enrage the devil by resisting his temptations. D suggests that this phrase became modified from contact with Old French malgré suen (“despite his”), resulting in the extremely common Middle English phrase maugre his heed (face, teeth, &c.) (p. 135), meaning “in spite of his wishes.”
42.1 Deore leafdi . . . scharpe speres ord. The devil recites and takes credit for the major catastrophes of the Bible from Genesis through the Gospels. See note to 61.3–18 below.
42.2 Adam ant Eve . . . Caym the acursede acwalde his brother Abel. For the Biblical account of Adam and Eve being cast out of Paradise, see Genesis 3:1–19. On the murder of Abel and God’s cursing of Cain, see Genesis 4:3–15.
42.3 te threo children. On Nebuchadnezzar and the idol of gold and the attempted burning of Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago, see Daniel 3. See also the note to 33.7–8 above.
42.4 Ant ich hit . . . thurh to deathe. This story of Isaiah’s death is told in the apocryphal book, the Ascension of Isaiah, in which Manasseh, his heart taken over by Bel’ar (Belial), has the pro¬phet cut in two with a wooden saw.
42.5 Godes deore temple todriven al to duste. On the destruction of the temple of Jerusalem by the armies of Nebuchadnezzar, see 2 Kings 25:8–17 and 2 Chronicles 36:17–21.
42.6 ant makede ham . . . . ant to herien. Exodus 32:1–6 describes the creation of the golden calf, which seems to be the godes to which the demon refers.
42.7 the riche Iob. For Job’s lamentation on the dung-hill, see Job 2:7–8.
42.9 Sein Iuhan the . . . Seinte Stephene isteanet. For the death of John the Baptist, see Matthew 14:1–12. For the death of Stephen, see Acts 7:54–59.
Simunes muth, the . . . Peter ant Pawel. Simon Magus, whose encounter with Peter and Philip is narrated in Acts 8:9–25, gave rise to a long string of apocryphal works. His struggles in Rome against Peter and Paul are variously told, though perhaps most influentially in the “Philosophumena” of Hippolytus of Rome and in the Acts of St. Peter.
42.10 Ant ich hit . . . to biheafdin Pawel. Paul’s martyrdom, though not told in the Bible, is narrated by Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical History 2.25, and also appears in Patristic sources such as Tertullian’s De Praescriptione, Chapter 36.
42.11 the cniht to thurlin Godes side with scharpe speres ord. On the piercing of Christ’s side at the Crucifixion, see John 19:34. This unnamed knight was later associated with Longinus, who according to tradition was miraculously cured of blindness when the blood and water from Christ’s wound ran into his eyes.
44.1 Belzeebub. The name Beelzebub comes from Ba’al-zebub, the god of the Philistine city of Ekron (see 2 Kings 1:2), and is a synonym for Satan. See MED Belzebub (n.), sense c. Also compare Luke 11:15 of the Wycliffite Bible where Satan is identified as “Belsebub, prince of deuelis.”
46.3 ure luvewurthe feader. This is the first of several times that Belial mentions his father, Satan. The terms Belial uses to describe him (“luvewurthe feader” [46.3], “mi kinewurthe feader” [50.8], “mi meinfule feader” [50.9], and “mi leove feader” [56.4]) unwittingly — and perhaps unflatteringly — juxtapose Satan with God, the true paternal authority. One key distinction between the promises that serve as the foundation of these relationships (Belial’s with Satan; Juliana’s with God) is that the demonic one is easily broken. Unlike Juliana, Belial betrays his father, while Juliana stands firm, even under torture.
48.2–8 hwer se we . . . . eaver to uvele. Belial describes here his assaults on religious men and women who attempt to pray together, revealing yet more anxiety about the necessary relationship between female religious and their confessors and priests. See the explanatory note to SM 43.1–43.9.
48.4 overstiheth. We have taken some liberty with the translation of this word, which MED defines as “prevail over” (overstihen (v.), sense c.). The verb also describes rising water, as in Jacob and Joseph:” Þer nas in Þis worldhul non so heiõ, Þat tis vnirude flod muchel no ouersteiõ” (MED overstihen (v.), sense a.) These rapidly rising flood waters appropriately describe the growing desire the devils plant in well-meaning religious, who can become engulfed in their weakened state.
48.6 hwen the preost . . . noteth Godes licome. I.e., when the priest receives the Eucharist, thereby partaking of God’s body.
52.1 euch neil ant blakede of the blode. This vivid and violent image of bleeding fingernails, although not unique to these texts, appears elsewhere in the cluster of texts that collectively make up what is known as the AB group. In the “Lofsong of Ure Louerde” (Þe Wohunge of Ure Laured, ed. Thompson), the visionary describes, in a kind of emotional climax, “ha þe bunden swa heteli faste þ[et] te blod wrang ut at / tine finger neiles” (lines 467-70) [how they bound you so cruelly tight that blood was twisted out from your finger-nails].
52.2 wa wes him o live. Literally, “it was woe for him [to be] alive,” the phrase is glossed in the MED as “grief weighed upon him” (wo (n.), sense 7a, citing this line). However, see also MED alive (adj./adv.), sense 3a, which glosses as “he was ever so wretched” (not citing this line). Either way, the sense is clear though the idiom becomes awkward when translated literally. Both Savage and Watson (AS, p. 315) and Winstead (Chaste Passions, p. 20) translate as “he was sorry to be alive,” which we have followed.
55.5–6 Of al thet . . . . meast of springeth. Our translation departs from the original here in syntax, though the Middle English text can be translated more literally: “Of all that evil in the world, what more do you want? I am, of the wills . . .” We have translated so that the antecedent of “hit” (55.6) is clear: “al thet uvel.”
55.7 O, the mihte . . . weorrin ayein us. The physical power of virgins receives repeated emphasis in the saints’ lives, especially in terms of how the virgins wield this power over devils. Juliana and Margaret display this power frequently, as they torture their demons in between their own episodes of being tortured. Compare SM 35.3; see also the corresponding explanatory note.
56.3 ne make thu . . . ne to hokere. hutung is likely a substitute gerund, though D notes that the ending is unusual (p. 103). A literal translation of this passage would read: “do not turn me into [an object of] scorn and mocking for people.” Savage and Watson maintain this sense with “don’t make me the derision and scorn of humanity!” (AS, p. 316). We have translated the whole phrase liberally here, both to maintain alliteration as well as to include the vocal component of both hutung (shouting at, hooting at; OED hoot (v.)) and hokere (mockery, derision, scornful speech, MED hoker (n.), sense b).
56.12 thet ter flue monie. “so that many flew there,” i.e., hurried there in order to see what was going on. We have translated “flue” literally in order to preserve the alliteration.
57.2 beo soth cnawes. This phrase, literally “to be truly acknowledging,” is used only in AB texts, SK, SJ, HM, and AW. MED knoues (adj./adv.) defines it as “acknowledging” but glosses this whole phrase as “confess or acknowledge truly.” See D’s extensive note on the possible origin of “soth-cnawes” (pp. 164–65).
58.2 Ich heie ant . . . ant ihwer untweamet. Here Juliana echoes the Apostles’ Creed.
60.1–8 Ant lette o . . . . thet stude stode. Compare the wheel of torture in SK 43.5–44.2.
60.1 felien. “Fellies” literally, but we have followed the less literal translation of “rims,” the part of the wheel to which the tire is attached. See MED felwes.
60.4 budel. See the explanatory note to 19.2 above, as well as the explanatory note to SK 43.1.
ant bunden hire. “and they bound her”; “they” refers to the henchmen who are the object of the “bet” (ordered) in the previous clause.
61.2 fischhal. Literally “fish-whole”; Compare Alliterative Morte Arthure, line 2709: “The freke shall be fish-hole within four houres” (ed. Benson); and The Wars of Alexander, line 2700: “As fast was he fysch-hale & Philip he callis” (ed. Duggan and Turville-Petre). D compares the term to the German idiom gesund wie ein Fisch (p. 91) or gesund wie ein fisch im wasser [fit as a fish in water]. OED glosses “fish-whole . . . as sound as a fish; thoroughly sound or healthy.” The term is not recorded in use after 1599. This idiom is perhaps echoed in such modern if old-fashioned phrases as “healthy as a horse.”
61.3–18 Thu makedest mon . . . . cwike ant deode. Here Juliana summarizes the major events of the Old and New Testaments. On the narrative level, by doing so she instantiates herself in this ancient and venerated Christian history. On a didactic level, though, this summary and catalogue of the major events in the Bible remind the female religious audience of scriptural events that they themselves most likely could not read. Compare also 42.1–11, where Belial takes credit for the great catastrophes in Scripture; this catalogue also marks an opportunity for Scriptural education.
61.4 thurh the eggunge of Eve. Literally “through Eve’s egging.” We have translated liberally here to maintain clearly and preserve the essence of this flavorful Norse-derived term. See also Savage and Watson, who translate as “through the urging of Eve” (AS, p. 317).
61.5 hit sunegede. Literally, “it sinned”, “it” referring to the “team” (progeny) of the previous clause, a quantitative singular noun. We have translated this singular as a plural (they), to remind the reader of the numerous individuals within the collective “team” whose degraded morality was responsible for the Flood.
61.14 Thu were ioffret. I.e., in the temple for circumcision. See Luke 2:21–40. The gift through which Juliana is redeemed is the pair of young doves or pigeons (2:24) offered in sacrifice to the Lord at the time of his circumcision. The feast of the circumcision, January 1st, was celebrated in the Western Catholic Church until Vatican II, when it was changed to the Feast of the Virgin, although it is celebrated still in the Eastern Orthodox tradition. Considered the first day that Christ shed his blood for mankind, the Feast marks the opening of New Year’s festivities in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.
62.1–3 Mihti Lauerd is . . . . ilevet thine reades. These sentences contain strong echoes of the Creed, fulfilling the purpose not only of an articulation and affirmation of faith but of declaring a Christian community or congregation, albeit a short-lived one.
62.14 sende o wodi . . . hwet he readde. Sende should be understood as “sent [a message to find out]” (See D, p. 123) or “inquired.” See also MED senden (v.2) senses 5e and 6b.
o wodi wise. Literally, “in an insane manner.” We have followed D’s suggestion and translated the adverbial phrase as “frantically” (p. 140).
63.1 swa . . . ant. We have translated as “both . . . and” following MED so (adv.), sense 12c, which cites this occurrence, and D, p. 58n3. Both sources admit that this instance of swa is confusing, and there are no other recordings of the adverb being used this way; D speculates that swa the could be a corruption of bathe, although she does not emend.
65.3 The reve seh . . . mahte hire awealden. This simile indicates Eleusius’ increasingly bestial behavior, comparing him to a boar, the most dangerous quarry in the hunt. The former courtly lover has been transformed into a beast without reason — the conventional enemy of the serene and rational virgin martyr. Several texts use comparison to a boar to imply bravery or fierceness in combat (often in a positive light): compare, for example, Cursor Mundi, “Þe sargantz þat ware brem als bare” (ed. Morris, line 4899). Instead, SJ’s author clearly compares Eleusius in his rage to the violence of an unpredictable and dangerous animal. The famous boar-hunt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight demonstrates the clear peril of hunting the animal: “The frothe femed at his mouth unfayr by the wykes, / Whettes his whyte tusches . . . / He had hurt so mony beforne / That all thoght then ful lothe / Be more with his tusches torne, / That breme was and braynwod both” (ed. Burrow, lines 1572–73, and 1577–80). This boar, literally backed into a corner, exhibits some of the same behavior and madness as Eleusius.
66.2 smat up. See MED smiten (v.) sense 7c . Savage and Watson translate as “dashed” (AS, p. 319) and D glosses as “shot, dashed” (p. 24). We have taken some liberty with the translation to more clearly indicate a violent movement of water.
69.5 in alre diche deofle wei. This phrase presents some difficulty in translation. The case of diche is unclear; D (p. 147) suggests the form is corrupt or possibly a genitive adjective, hence Winstead’s translation: “a devil of a ditch” (Chaste Passions, p. 25). We have taken diche as the object of the preposition, and alre deofle as a genitive plural, following Watson’s translation instead of Winstead. The sense is that the “ditch of all demons” is an epithet for Hell. (However, compare Jacobus de Voragine’s version of the legend, where after Juliana drags Belial through the crowd, she throws him into quite the devil of a ditch — the latrine!)
70.1–71.6 Lusteth me, leove . . . . ant to reste. Hassel discusses Juliana’s role as preacher: “Juliana translates otherwise inaccessible biblical truth into a form that is both accessible to its audience and persuasive . . . Her act of biblical translation resonates with the middle English version of her own life, in that, like the unknown translator of the Latin story, she renders the clerical language of sacred texts into the vernacular, enabling the understanding of a wider audience, one that included women” (Choosing Not to Marry, p. 78). Juliana’s translation of the holy word to her audience reflects back on the act of translation that takes place in the rendering of her Vita into the vernacular, an act which could potentially mangle the body of the authoritative Latin text. This use of translation and transformation in her sermon additionally expresses the aesthetic dream of the perfect organic text in the English vernacular, a method of response to the anxieties about translating the Latin into English.
70.3 buldeth upo treowe . . . ne for wedere. Compare Matthew 7:24–25: “Therefore everyone who hears these words of mine and puts them into practice is like a wise man who built his house on the rock. The rain came down, the streams rose, and the winds blew and beat against that house; yet it did not fall, because it had its foundation on the rock.”
70.11 coss of peis. The kiss of peace is symbolic of the charitable Christian community Juliana has forged here, and functions as a token of spiritual love and friendship as well as a kind of benediction. See OED kiss (n.), sense 6c, which cites this line, as well as OED pax (n.), sense 2.
71.3 Thin ilicnesse. I.e., humanity. Winstead’s translation here, “one made in your image” (Chaste Passions, p. 25) clarifies the sense of the passage.
72.2 Sophie. Sophia (or Sephonia) transported the saint’s body to Italy and had it buried in Campania. The motif of the rudderless boat usually signifies abandonment to the will of God. See, for example, The Voyage of Saint Brendan or Chaucer’s Man of Law’s Tale.
74.1 the sixtenthe dei . . . kalende of Mearch. The feast day of Saint Juliana is February 16th in the Western Catholic Church and December 21st in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Kalende is the first day of each month in the Roman calendar. The “fourteenth Calends of March” is the fourteenth day counted back from the first of March, or 16 February.
76.1 Hwen Drihtin o . . . to Englische ledene. The author falls into rhymed verse here: aabbc. Compare the ending of SM 75.1–4. In B, just after this verse on fol. 52r, a poem has been inserted in a sixteenth-century secretary hand. Ker (Facsimile of MS Bodley 34, p. xiv) transcribes this addition as:
Whan Iudge at domesday dothe winnow his wheat And drives dustye chaffe into hellishe heat god make him a corne, in Eden to duell that owt of latinethis treatise did freat and him that last wrote Amen Quoth Maidwell.
THE LIFLADE ANT TE PASSIUN OF SEINTE JULIENE: TEXTUAL NOTES
ABBREVIATIONS: BT: Bosworth and Toller, Anglo-Saxon Dictionary; D: d’Ardenne (1961); H: a series of sixteenth-century scribbles in various hands (see Introduction, p. 22); HM: Hali Meithhad; MS: Bodleian Library MS Bodley 34 [base text]; R: British Library MS Royal 17 A XXVII; SJ: The Liflade ant te Passiun Seinte Juliene; SK: The Martyrdom of Sancte Katerine; SM: The Liflade and te Passiun of Seinte Margarete.
Before 1.1 Header is in faded red ink of poor quality, in a different hand than the header to SM, which appears on fol. 18r.
1.1 In. MS: large rubricated capital I, 3.3 cm.
ba. MS: ba
unaginninde. MS: unagin. We have adopted D’s emendation following her suggestion that unagin is a corrupted form; see p. 169 for her discussion of this word. MED (unagunnen (pp1.)) also suggests that this word in SJ is an error for unagunnen, a well-attested Old English past participle meaning “uncreated.” See also BT, un-águnnen (adj.).
icweme. MS: rubricated decorative line filler follows this word to the end of line.
2.1 Theos. MS: large rubricated capital Þ, 2.5 cm with flourish; indicator letter is visible in the left margin.
al. MS: alt (i.e. a second l is canceled).
2.2 God. MS: goð.
scheaftes. So MS, with a inserted above the line.
is 2. MS: s enlarged with flourish, followed by rubricated decorative line filler to the end of the line.
3.1 Wes: MS: large rubricated capital wynn, 1.9 cm; indicator letter is visible in the left margin.
3.3 dohter. MS: rubricated decorative line filler follows this word to the end of the line.
4.1 As. MS: large rubricated capital A, 3.2 cm counting flourish.
utnume. So D, following R. MS: utnunme.
4.2 stunde. MS: stonde, corrected to stunde.
4.4 wes. So D, following R. MS: þes.
thet2. So D, following R. MS: ha.
unwemmet. MS: rubricated decorative line filler follows this word to the end of the line.
5.1 Elewsius. MS: large rubricated capital E, 1.1 cm.
swithe. So D. MS: swðe. R omits.
5.2 hwile. So MS, with h inserted above the line.
In the top margin of 38r, H: Willelmus Sebourne This indent.
6.1 him al. MS: him to al.
6.6 habben. MS: habben idon. R condenses; the full phrase in R reads: efter thet hewende to habben his iwil. We have emended to match the sense of R. D also suggests that idon was incorporated later (p. 8n2).
7.1 seith. So D. MS: sehð. R: seide.
8.4 reade. MS:
9.1 Godd. MS: gdd, with o inserted above the line. speoken. So D, following R. MS omits.
9.2 For. So MS, D. R omits.
10.1 In the top margin of fol. 39r, H: In the Name of god Amen I george Wyssham of tedestorn In the Com.
11.2 for. So D, R. MS omits.
12.1 Affrican. MS: the a of affrican has been added in a different hand. Space is left for a capital here which was never added. No indicator letter is visible in the margin; this letter was most likely trimmed off before binding.
13.4 ich2. So MS, corrected from ih.
13.5 In the bottom margin of fol. 39v, H has scribbled a short phrase upside down and heavily smeared: mas N(?) . . . bus(?). Versions of the same phrase are repeated in the same hand on fols. 40v, 41v, 42v, and 57r. H has also written, in the bottom margin and perpendicular to the text: he shal or possibly he that. And in the left margin, H: felix quem sue (?) Aliena . . .
14.1 Hire. MS: large rubricated capital H, 1.9 cm.
16.2 wani thet tu. MS, R: omit. D argues that an earlier manuscript must have dropped a term for “lament,” which, to fill out the clause, would have been followed by thet tu. Because of the nearby thet tu (besmen thet tu), these words were left out by eyeskip. We have followed D’s suggested emendation (p. 14n1).
17.2 Wurch. So, D, following R. MS: a word, ending with d or possibly ð, has been erased and is unreadable.
19.1 het. So D, following R. MS: omits.
leggen. So D, to agree with strupen. MS: leggeth. R: beten.
thet. So D, following R’s swa luðere þet hire leofliche liche liðeri al oblode. MS: ant. Thet is needed to finish out the result clause started in se earlier in the same sentence.
21.1 Ye. MS: large rubricated capital Ȝ; indicator letter is visible in the margin.
21.7 to4. So R. MS: se. We have emended to to following the fairly common phrase to wrather heale at 7.1, 16.2, and 48.1. D emends to te.
22.1 Affrican. MS: ffrican. MS: space has been left for a capital A that was never inserted. The indicator letter in the left margin has been inserted by a later hand.
22.2 rudi. MS: te rudi.
22.4 bearnde. So MS, with a inserted above the line.
23.1 Mi. MS: space has been left for a large capital M that was never inserted. The indicator letter in the left margin has been added by a later hand.
23.5 on. So D. R: of. It is possible that of is not a mistake, since the word often follows or precedes akennet; however more likely it is a mistake for on, which should accompany leven.
23.6 ha. So D. R: omits.
24.2 schulden to. R: schulden to schulden to.
26.1 efter. So D. R: hefter.
thet ich livie. So D. R: leve. D substitutes this phrase since the R reading “is clumsy, and certainly corrupt.” She argues that this phrase was probably omitted because of the repetition of luve and leve here (p. 20n6).
i. So D. R: omits.
26.2 maht. MS: mahen, which is a 2nd person plural. We have emended to maht (2nd person singular) to agree with singular ye. However, see D, p. 16n1, where she emends to thet yit . . . mahen, so that yit (2nd person dual pronoun) agrees with mahen. Both R and MS read thet ye [. . .] mahen, so some emendation is needed.
26.3 thah. So D. R: thah ne schaltu. The scribe has anticipated the ne schaltu at the end of the line.
for na. Our text follows the MS manuscript again starting here. We have omitted the first word of MS, fol. 41r (tu) in order to avoid repetition with schaltu, the previous word in R.
slaht. MS: schalt, corrected sloppily to slaht, or possibly to sclaht. This mistake was evidently because of schalt written at the very end of the preceding folio (now lost). See D, p. 22n3.
27.1 The. MS: space has been left for a capital Þ that was never inserted. The indicator letter has been cropped, but a later hand has inserted þ into the empty space.
27.2 ant of the scheome thet tu schalt. So D, following R’s: ant te scheome thet tu schalt. MS: schalt ant of the scheome. We have adopted D’s emendation in order to clarify the syntax.
27.3 wult. MS: wult ase. R: wult bithench. D makes the point that ase, the final word on fol. 40v, preceded another short phrase that is now lost, and as such emends to ase wise wis wummon, as an example of what might have followed on the next page (p. 18n6). We have stayed with R’s reading. Following wult, we have adopted our text from the R manuscript, since the next folio is missing from MS.
28.1 Doth. MS: deð, with d added in a later hand. Space has been left for a capital D that was never inserted. The original indicator latter has been cropped. D reads as [D]oð.
al thet te deoflen. MS: this phrase is inserted above the line.
29.1 Nu. So MS, R. D reads MS as Na. Both Savage and Watson, and Winstead translate as “No.”
31.1 Eleusius. MS: space has been left for a capital E that was never inserted; indicator letter is visible in the margin.
31.3 ant leiden. So MS, R. The subject is dropped, largely because of the previous line me dude sone, although this phrase is passive. D emends to ant ha leiden to clarify the implied subject “they.” We have retained the manuscript reading here, since the plural subject is implied by the plural leiden.
biyet. So D, R. MS: yet.
31.7 swuch. So D, R. MS: swuc.
31.8 schule. So MS, but with h and u ligatured. See also D, p. 24n4.
32.1 Tha. MS: space has been left for a capital Þ that was never inserted. The indicator letter has been cropped, but a later hand has inserted þ in the margin.
anan. MS: of anan.
endelong. So D, R. MS: enddelong.
helen. MS: healen.
32.4 warth. So D, R. MS omits.
33.1 Heo. MS: space has been left for a capital H that was never inserted. The indicator letter has been cropped, but a later hand has inserted h in the left margin.
murhthe. So D, R. MS: murhde.
33.2 mi. MS: a word has been erased following mi; the space has been left empty. See D, p. 26n6.
33.4 habbeth. So D, R. MS: habbe.
33.7 with. MS: wid.
33.10 schunchen. MS:
33.14 eche. MS: rubricated decorative line filler follows this word to the end of line.
34.1 As. MS: large rubricated capital A, 1.7 cm. The indicator letter is visible in the left margin.
this. So D, R. MS: his.
34.7 hercne. So D, R. MS omits.
leave. MS: rubricated decorative line filler follows this word to the end of line.
35.1 Thes. MS: large rubricated capital Þ, 2.2 cm; indicator letter is visible in the left margin.
36.2 cleopede. So MS, but written over an erasure; the earlier word is not discernible.
Criste. MS: rubricated decorative line filler follows this word to the end of line; it has been copied over an entire erased line which is not discernible.
37.1 Jhesu. MS: large rubricated capital I, 2.3 cm.
37.2 thet the. So D, R. MS: thet the thet.
38.1 softe. So D, R. MS: fofte.
seide. MS: seide
In the bottom margin of fol. 43v, H has written two words, through smeared ink has made them illegible.
38.2 to. So D. MS: ta.
leofmon. So MS, with o1 inserted above the line.
40.1 wenden. So D, R. MS: hwenden.
41.1 thuncheth. MS: rubricated decorative line follows this word to the end of the line.
42.1 Deore. MS: large rubricated capital D, 9 mm.
unwihtes. So D. MS: unwhihtes.
42.8 sumchearre. So MS, with a inserted above the line.
42.12 brethren. MS: rubricated decorative line filler follows this word to the end of line.
43.1 Do. MS: large rubricated capital D, 6 mm; indicator letter is visible in the left margin.
In the bottom margin of fol. 44v the page, upside down, H: I george Wyshame de Tedestorne in the Com’ of herff’ yeo man doethe. See also the textual note to HM 2.5, which mentions George’s father Thomas as well as Ker, Facsimile to MS Bodley 34, p. xiv, on the Wysham family of Herefordshire.
46.3 luvewurthe. So D. MS: luvewrthe. R: leowunde lauerd.
willes. MS: rubricated decorative line filler follows this word to the end of line.
47.1 Sei. MS: large rubricated capital S, 8 mm.
wurcheth. So D, R. MS: wurchen.
bichearreth. So MS, with a inserted above the line.
48.2 easkest. So MS, with a inserted above the line.
48.3 A number of small lacunae are in the bottom half of fol. 45r; the scribe has worked around them.
48.4 ha. So D. MS omits. R: heo.
strengeth. So D, R. MS: strenged.
and overstiheth al. So D, R. MS omits.
ear. So D. MS: car. R: er.
48.6 warpeth. MS, R: ant warpeth. We have followed D’s emendation (see p. 38n4).
48.8 uvele. MS: rubricated decorative line filler follows this word to the end of line.
49.1 Me. MS: large rubricated capital M, 7 mm. The indicator letter has been cropped, but a later hand has inserted m in the left margin.
50.9 mi. So D, R. MS omits.
51.1 O. So MS. D, R: A.
threatest tu. So D, following R’s threatestu. MS: threates tu.
ha. MS: þa added above the line in a different hand.
53.1 O. MS: large rubricated capital O, 7 mm. The indicator letter has been cropped, but a later hand has inserted o in the left margin.
freond. So D, R. MS: freonð.
53.2 In the top margin of fol. 46r, a later hand (late 15th–early 16th c.) has written E E ✤ a a b c d e f g.
me. So D, R. MS omits.
dredeth. So D, R. MS: ðredeð.
54.1 Stew. MS: space has been left for a capital S that was never inserted. The indicator letter is visible in the left margin; a later hand has also inserted s in the left margin.
54.2 ahest. MS: a inserted above the line.
54.3 mid. So D, R. MS: ant of.
55.7 hu. So R. D, MS: as.
55.12 ihalden. So D. Both MS and R have an infinitive form; MS: forte halden and R: to halden, which presents difficulty in translation. D argues that the mistake must have occurred in an earlier manuscript (p. 44n1).
56.1 Eleusius. MS: space has been left for a capital E that was never inserted. The indicator letter is cropped, but a later hand has inserted e in the left margin.
bringen. So D, R. MS: brugen.
56.3 hutung ne to hokere. See the explanatory note to this line.
56.7 Ne. So D, R. MS: ȝe.
56.10 chepmenne. So R. MS: champmen, which D emends to chapmen.
56.12 As. MS: space has been left for a capital A that was never inserted. The indicator letter is visible in the left margin; a later hand has also inserted a in the left margin.
him1. So D, R. MS: hit.
58.1 Her. MS: space has been left for a capital H that was never inserted. The indicator letter is visible in the left margin; a later hand has also inserted h in the left margin.
58.3 alle. MS:
58.6 shuken. MS:
59.1 Ye. MS: space has been left for a large capital Ȝ that was never inserted.
60.4 Me. MS: space has been left for a large capital M that was never inserted.
60.6 ant from. MS: ant
61.1 As. MS: s; space has been left for a large capital A that was never inserted. An indicator letter in a later hand has been inserted in the left margin, but is cropped.
61.2 Drihtin. MS: rihtin; space has been left for a large capital D that was never inserted. An indicator letter in a later hand has been inserted in the left margin, but is cropped.
61.5 thet 1. So D, R. MS omits.
61.7 leddest Moyses. So D. MS: leddest þurh Moyses. R: leddest moysen þurh. The mistaken þurh was likely inserted here through eyeskip to þurh þe Reade Sea in an earlier copy. See D, p. 54n1.
ant 1. So D, R. MS omits.
cunredden. MS: cunredden
61.10 weorre. So MS, with r inserted above the line.
61.13 hirden. MS:
61.16 idon. So MS, with i inserted above the line.
61.24 art. So D, following R. MS: arrt.
61.24–25 worlde into worlde. Amen. So D. We have followed D’s emendation, and regularized the syntax of this common idiom; compare HM 21.8 and SW 14.9. MS: worlde into worlde. Amen wið uten ende. R: amen.
62.1 With. MS: space has been left for a large capital wynn that was never inserted.
62.5 In the top margin of fol. 49v, H has written T(?) repeatedly, then written: (?)hes Thomas Willelmus Ricus henricus willhelmus . . . ?? . In the left margin, H has written: This bill made the xth daye of Maye.
62.8 Ontend. So D. MS: on tentd. R: tend.
62.9 tu. So D. MS omits. R: þu.
62.17 to Heovene. MS: to
63.1 Eleusius. MS: space has been left for a large capital E that was never inserted.
64.1 Ne. MS: space has been left for a large capital N that was never inserted.
64.4 In the top margin of fol. 50r, H: Thomas.
64.6 Schaw. So D. MS: schwau, with h added above the line. R omits.
iheiyetv. So MS, with ȝ inserted above the line.
iheret. So D. MS: ihere. R omits.
65.1 Nefde. MS: space has been left for a large capital N that was never inserted.
to . . . ant i. MS: The scribe misplaces ant 1, putting it before to thet ferliche and omitting it before i thet lei. D suggests that the scribe made this mistake while in the process of expanding the line (p. 60n2). He also may have anticipated ant while looking at the line below.
65.3 feng. So D, R. MS: fen.
65.4 were iheat. MS: were
66.1 As. MS: space has been left for a large capital A that was never inserted.
hire1. So D, R. MS omits.
66.3 feonden. MS: feont. We have emended for plural sense following R’s mawmez. The sense here is that Eleusius curses the demon or demons he has been blasphemously worshiping. D emends to “weon” for a sense similar to R’s.
67.1 Swithe. MS: large rubricated capital S, 1 cm; indicator letter is visible in left margin.
heaved. MS: heavet, with t corrected to d.
67.2 Godd. So D, R. MS: goð.
68.1 ilke. So D, R. MS: ill
spearie. So MS, with a inserted above the line.
68.5 abade. MS: rubricated decorative line filler follows this word to the end of the line.
69.1 Juliene. MS: large rubricated capital I, 2.7 cm.
openede. So D, R. MS: openenede.
bali. So R. MS: beali. D emends to Belial (see D’s glossary entry under beali, p. 78). We have emended more conservatively, taking R’s bali as an adjectival form of bale, following the MED (bali (adj.)).
69.5 the. MS: inserted in the margin.
69.6 weren. MS: rubricated decorative line filler follows this word to the end of the line.
70.1 Lusteth. MS: large rubricated capital L, 1.3 cm.
70.3 buldeth. So D, R. MS: buldes.
70.4 grund. So MS, corrected from grunt.
70.5 secheth. So D. MS, R: seleð. D asserts that seleð here represents an error, since the word does not exist in a similar context in other Middle English texts (see p. 123, under D’s glossary entry for seleð). Middle English sellen with the sense of “to betray” might work; however this verb takes the form of sullen in AB (e.g. SJ 61.16).
71.1 Lauerd. MS: large rubricated capital L, 1.3 cm.
72.1 Anan. MS: large rubricated capital A, 2.5 cm.
Nichomedesse. So MS, with h inserted above the line.
72.4 halhe. MS: ahalhe.
73.1 The. MS: large rubricated capital Þ, 2.5 cm.
leop. So D. MS: leup. R omits.
On the sixteenth-century additions to this page, see the explanatory note to 76.1. See also the Introduction, pp. 20 and 22, especially p. 22n83.
the. So D. MS: thea. R: omits.
73.2 ham 1. So D, R. MS: him.
adrenchet. MS: adrenctchet.
74.1 Thus. MS: large rubricated capital Þ, 2.5cm.
75.1 Heo. MS: large rubricated capital H, 1.4 cm; the indicator letter is visible in the left margin.
76.1 Hwen. MS: large rubricated capital H, 1.4 cm; indicator letter is visible in the left margin.
warpeth. MS: the original word has been erased and replaced with weopð, which is barely legible and written in a different hand. MED suggests that weorpð was intended (werpen (v.), sense 8b). We have emended to warpeth, the common conjugation of this form of the verb in the Katherine Group (see SM 7.7, SJ 48.3, and HM 22.13 and 27.11). D speculates that the erased word may have been deð (p. 70n4).
the liflade ant te passiun of Seinte Juliene.
wurthmunt of His deorewurthe Sune, ant i the heiunge of the Hali Gast, the of
ham ba glideth, an Godd unaginninde, euch godes ful: alle leawede men the
understonden ne mahen Latines ledene, litheth ant lusteth the liflade of a
meiden, | thet is of Latin iturnd to Englische leode, with thon thet teos hali leafdi
in Heovene luvie us the mare, ant thurh this lihinde lif leade us to thet eche,
thurh hire eadi erndunge, thet Crist is swithe icweme.
i Nichomedese burh al of heathene cun icumen ant akennet, ant hire fleshliche
feader Affrican hehte, the heande ant heascede mest men the weren Cristene ant
droh ham thurh derve pinen to deathe. (2) Ah heo, as theo thet te hehe
heovenliche Lauerd hefde His luve ilenet, leafde hire ealdrene lahen ant bigon
to luvien then áá liviende God, the lufsume Lauerd thet schupte alle scheaftes
ant wealdeth ant wisseth, efter thet His wil is, al thet ischeapen is.
heriende ant heiende heathene maumez with unimeath muchel hird ant with heh
duhethe, ant fordemde alle theo the o Drihtin bilefden. (2) Thes mihti Maximien
luvede an Eleusium bivoren monie of his men: akennet of heh cun, ant swithe
riche of rente, ant yung mon of yeres. (3) Thes yunge mon Eleusius, thet thus wes
wel with the king, hefde iunne feolahschipe to Affrican ant wes iwunet ofte to
cumen with him | to his in ant iseon his dohter.
freoliche yuhethe, felde him iwundet inwith in his heorte with the flan the of luve
fleoth, swa thet him thuhte thet ne mahte he nanes weis withute the lechnunge of
hire luve libben. (2) Ant efter lutle stunde withute long stevene, wes himseolf
sonde to Affrican hire feader, ant bisohte him yeorne thet he hire yeve him, ant
he hire walde menskin with al thet he mahte as the thing i the world thet he meast
luvede. (3) Affrican wiste thet he wes swithe freo-iboren ant walde wel bicumen
him a freoi-boren burde, ant yetede him his bone. (4) Ha wes him sone ihondsald,
thah hit hire unwil were, ah ha truste upon Him thet ne truked na mon thet
trewliche Him truste, on ant eode to chirche euche dahethes dei to leornin Godes
lare, biddinde yeorne with reowfule reames thet He wissede hire o hwuche wise
ha mahte witen hire meithhath from mones man unwemmet.
ant to bed ibrohte. (2) Ah heo, forte werien hire with him summe hwile, | sende
him to seggen thet nalde ha nawt lihten se lahe to luvien, ne nalde ha neolechin
him for na liviende mon ear then he were under Maximien, hehest i Rome, thet
is heh reve. (3) He, ase timliche as he hefde iherd this, biyeted te keiser thet he
yette him al thet he walde, ant lette, as me luvede tha, leaden him i cure up o fowr
hweoles ant teon him yeonte tun thron from strete to strete. (4) Al the cure wes
overtild thet he wes itohen on, with purpres ant pelles, with ciclatuns ant cendals
ant deorewurthe clathes, as the thet se heh thing hefde to heden ant se riche
refschipe to rihten ant to readen. (5) Tha he hefde thus idon, sende hire thus to
seggen: hire wil he hefde iwraht; nu his ha schulde wurchen.
seolven, ant sende him al openliche bi sonde to seggen: “This word ha send te:
‘For nawt thu havest iswech te. (2) Wreathe se thu wreathe, do thet tu do wult. (3)
Nule ich, ne ne mei ich lengre heolen hit te: yef thu wult leaven the lahen thet tu
livest in ant leven i Godd Feader ant in His deorwurthe Sune, ant i the Hali Gast
folkene frovre an Godd | thet is igret with euches cunnes gode, ich chule wel
neome the. (4) Ant yef thet tu nult no, thu art windi of me ant other luve sech
the.’” (5) Tha the hehe reve iherde this ondswere bigon to wrethen swithe, ant
cleopede hire feder forth ant feng on to tellen hwuch word ha sende him. (6)
Efter thet, he wende forte habben al thet heo wilnede.
ilke godes thet me is lath to gremien, beo hit soth thet tu seist, to wrather heale
ha seith hit! (2) Ant ich wulle o great grome al biteachen hire the, ant tu do hire
al thet tu wult.”
feng on earst feire on to lokin yef he mahte with eani luve speden. (3) “Juliene,”
quoth he, “mi deorewurthe dohter! (4) Sei me hwi thu forsakest thi sy ant ti
selhthe, the weolen ant te wunnen the walden awakenen ant waxen of the wedlac
thet ich reade the to. (5) Hit nis nan ethelich thing the refschipe of Rome, and tu
maht, yef thu wult, beon burhene leafdi ant of alle the londes the therto liggeth.”
Godd almihti thenne mei he speoken throf ant speden inohreathe. (2) For yef he
thet nule no, ich segge the thet soth is ne schal he wiven on me. (3) Sei nu hwet
ti wil is.”
Apollo, mi lauerd, ant mi deore leafdi, the deorewurthe Diane, thet ich muche
luvie, yef thu haldest her-on, ich schal leote wilde deor toluken ant toteore the ant
yeove thi flesch fode to fuheles of the lufte.”
thet tu offeare me swa. (2) Ich swerie ayein the, for Jhesu Crist, Godes Sune, thet
ich on leve ant luvie as leoflukest ant lufsumest Lauerd, thah ich cwic beo forbearnd
bathe lim ant lith i leitinde leie, nulle, ich the her-onont — threate se thu threate
— buhe ne beien.”
olhnunge wenden hire heorte, ant leoftede luveliche ant seide hire sikerliche, thet
ne schulde ha lihtliche wilni na wunne thet ha ne schulde wealden, with then an
thet ha walde hire wil wenden.
deoflen is bitaht ant to eche death fordemet, to forwurthe with him, worlt buten
ende, i the putte of Helle for his wedlackes weole other for ei wunne? (3) To sothe
ich hit segge the: unwurth hit is me. (4) Ich chulle thet he wite hit ful wel, ant tu
eke mid al, ich am to an iweddet thet ich chulle treowliche withute leas luvien thet
is unlich him ant alle worltliche men. (5) Ne nulle ich neaver mare Him lihen ne
lea|ven, for weole ne for wunne, for wa ne for wontreathe, thet ye me mahen
hokerliche, “Ant hwet is he, thes were thet tu art to iweddet, thet tu havest withute
me se forth thi luve ilenet, thet tu letest lutel of al thet tu schuldest luvien? (2) Ne
ich nes neaver — thet ich wite — yet with him icnawen.”
thet tu navest iherd of him yare: thet is, Jhesu, Godes Sune, thet forte alesen
moncun thet schulde beon forloren al, lette lif o Rode. (3) Ich ne seh Him neaver,
ant thet me ofthuncheth, ah ich Him luvie ant wulle don ant leve on as o Lauerd.
(4) Ne schal me firsen Him from nowther deovel ne mon.”
habbe throf hearm ant scheome bathe. (2) Ant nu thu schalt on alre earst, as on
ernesse swa beon ibeaten with bittere besmen thet tu wani thet tu were, wummon
of wummone bosum, to wrather heale eauer iboren i the worlde.”
thing for His luve drehe. (2) Wurch thu thet ti wil is.”
| liche on hire leofliche lich thet hit litheri o blode. (2) Me nom hire ant dude swa
thet hit yeat adun of the yerden ant heo bigon to yeien: “Beaten se ye beaten, ye
Beliales budeles, ne mahe ye nowther mi luve ne mi bileave lutlin towart te
liviende Godd, mi leofsume leofmon, the luvewurthe Lauerd; ne nulle ich leven
ower read, the forreadeth ow seolf; ne the mix maumez — the beoth thes feondes
fetles — heien ne herien for teone ne for tintreohe thet ye me mahe timbrin.”
sende the nu ant biteache thi bodi to Eleusium the riche thet reve is over Rome
ant he schal the forreaden ant makie to forswelten, as his ahne wil is, thurh al thet
eaver sar is.”
me bute thet He wule theavien ant tholien ow to donne to mucli mi mede ant te
murhthe thet lith to meithhades menske. (3) For eaver se ye nu her mearreth me
mare, se mi crune schal beon brihttre ba ant fehere. (4) Forthi, ich chulle
blitheliche ant with blithe heorte drehen eaver-euch derf for mi leofmones luve
the lufsume Lauerd, ant softe me bith euch sar in His servise. (5) Thu wult, thu
seist, ayeove me to Eleusium the luthere: Ayef | me, for nawiht ne yeove ich for
inc nowther. (6) Thet ye mahen ane pine me here, ah hit ne hearmeth me nawt;
ah helpeth ant heveth up ant maketh mine murhthes monifalde in Heovene. (7)
Ant yef ye doth me to death, hit bith deore to Godd, ant ich schal blithe bicumen
to endelese blissen, ant ye schulen, wrecches — wei ower wurthes, thet ye weren
i the worlt iboren ant ibroht forth to wrather heale — ye schule sinken adun to sar
ant to eche sorhe, to bitternesse ant to bale deope into Helle.”
reve of Rome, ant lette bringen hire bivoren his ehsihthe as he set ant demde the
hehe burh-domes. (2) As he biseh ant biheold hire lufsume leor lilies ilicnesse, ant
rudi ase rose, ant under hire nebscheft al se freoliche ischapet, weorp a sic as a
wiht thet sare were iwundet. (3) His heorte feng to heaten ant his meari mealten;
the rawen rahten of luve thurh euch lith of his limes. (4) Ant inwith bearnde of
brune swa ant cwakede, as of calde, thet him thuhte in his thonc thet ne bede he
i the worlt nanes cunnes blisse bute hire bodi ane, to wealden hire with wil efter
thet he walde. (5) Ant bigon with swotnesse soffte to seggen:
Rome richest am ant iboren hehest. (2) Hwi dest tu us ba so wa thurh thi muchele
unwit ant wurchest so wrathe? (3) Nulli ich the na mare uvel then thi seolf waldest.
(4) Ah leof me were thet tu thi luthere thonc lefdest, ant te wel schal with alle
wunne iwurthen, ant neaver of thi wil ne schulde the nawt wontin. (5) Ant loke
alswa the lahen as al thet cun, thet tu art of icumen ant akennet, on leveth ant
luvieth. (6) Hwi leavest tu ham the ane, ant wurtheth ha the so lathe? (7) Ne wen
thu nawt the ane with thi wisdom to overstihen ham alle.”
nohtes. (2) For, yef thu cneowe ant were cuth with the King thet is over alle kinges
icrunet in Heovene, lutel waldest tu leoten of ower lahelese lahen thet leareth ow to
luten dedliche schaften, as ye schulden to | Godd, ant gremieth ower Schuppent.
(3) For the cwike deovlen doth ham-thrin, on hwet ye bileveth, ant hwen so ye
herieth ham, ye herieth thet unhwiht ant buheth as to healent. (4) Ant he wule ower
hwile bitterliche yelden, for ne wergeth he neaver to wurchen ow al thet wandrethe,
world àà buten ende. (5) Do thet tu don wult, for nulle ich the nan other don, bute
yef thu lithe and leve min lare, ant luvie Godd almihti, ant leave alle the lahen
thet tu list inne.”
keiser ant ikudd to the kinge, ant he me walde warpen ut of mine wike ant demen
me to deathe.”
liveth al ayein lay, and leneth al his luve in liflese schaften, on his Schuppent
scheome, ant art offruht swa to leosen his freontschipe, schuld ich thenne
forsaken Jhesu Crist, Godes sune, the is ort ant ende of al thet eaver god is, the
wule efter this lif — thet ich lete lutel of — for His lufsum luve, thet ich livie with
Himseolf i the sy ant the selhthe of heovenriches wunnen? (2) Speche thu maht
spillen ant ne speden nawiht! (3) Thah thu me buste and beate, as thet is bitaht
te, ant to derve pine don me ant to dreori deth, thah thu, famon, flea me, ne schal
| tu for na slaht, the sonre seo me slakien to luvien ant to leven o then liviende
Godd, alre gume Lauerd.”
strupin hire steort-naket ant strecchen o ther eorthe, ant hwil thet eaver six men
mahten idrehen, beaten hire beare bodi, thet ha al were bigoten of the blode. (2)
Ha duden al as he bed, ant hwil thet ha beoten hire bigunnen to yeien: “This is
a biginnunge of the sar ant of the scheome thet tu schalt drehen yef thu nult to
ure wil buhen ant beien. (3) Ah yet thu maht, yef thu wult, burhe the seolfen. (4)
Ant yef thu mare withseist, alre monne, wurthe him wurst of wa ant of wontreathe
the ne wurche the meast.”
beoth — driveth ow te donne. (2) Lutel me is of ower luve, leasse of ower laththe,
ant of thes threates riht noht. (3) Wite ye hit to wisse!”
Ah heo hit al thuldeliche tholede for Drihtin, ant hwen ha felde meast sar,
sikerlukest seide, “Haldeth longe | ne leave ye neaver for nulle ich leaven His
luve thet ich on leve ne for luve nowther ne for luther eie.”
Ant hehte swithe neomen hire ant teon bi the top up. (3) Ant swa me dude sone,
swa thet ha hongede feor from ther eorthe, bi the vax ane ant leiden tha se
lutherliche on hire on euch halve thet euch dunt defde in hire leofliche lich, the
biyet of the yerden al o gure-blode. (4) “Lauerd Godd almihti,” quoth ha, “loke
to Thi meiden. (5) Thu fondedest Abraham, ant fundest him treowe; lef me thet
ich mote The treowliche luvien. (6) Halt me, Healent min, Jhesu Crist, Godes
Sune, as Thu havest bigunnen, for nam ich strong of na thing buten of Thi
strengthe. (7) Ant o The i truste al, ant nawt o me seolven, ant her ich bihate The
swuch hope ich habbe to Thin help. (8) Milde Godd almihti, ne schal neaver mi
luve ne mi bileave towart Te lutlin ne lihen for na derf ne for na death thet ich
bileave, thohte he walde don hire anan ut of dahene, ant bed bilive bringen forth
brune-wallinde bres, ant healden hit se, wal-|-hat hehe up on hire heaved thet hit
urne endelong hire leofliche lich adun to hire helen. (2) Me dude al as he het. (3)
Ah the worldes Wealdent — thet wiste Sein Juhan His ewangliste unhurt i the veat
of wallinde eoli ther he wes idon in, thet ase hal com up throf as he wes hal
meiden — the ilke lives Lauerd wiste Him unwemmet, His brud, of the bres thet
wes wallinde, swa thet ne thuhte hit hire buten ase wlech weater al thet ha felde. (4)
Eleusius warth wod tha nuste hwet segen, ah hehte swithe don hire ut of his eh
sihthe, ant dreaien in to dorc hus, to prisunes pine. (5) Ant swa ha wes idon sone.
ant bidde theos bone: “Lauerd Godd almihti, mi murhthe ant mi mede, mi sy ant
al the selhthe thet ich efter seche, Thu sist al hu ich am bisteathet ant bistonden,
festne mi bileave! (2) Riht me ant read me, for al mi trust is on The. (3) Steor me
ant streng me, for al mi strengthe is of The. (4) Mi feader ant mi moder, forthi
thet ich nule The forsaken, habbeth forsake me; ant al mi nestfalde cun, thet
schulde beo me best freond, beoth me meast feondes, ant mine inhinen, alre
meast heamen. (5) Herewurthe Healent, habbe | ich Thin anes help: Ich am
wilcweme. (6) Ne forleaf Thu me nawt, luviende Lauerd. (7) As Thu biwistest
Daniel bimong the wode liuns ilatet se luthere, ant te threo children the chearre
nalden from the lahen thet ha schulden luvien, Ananie ant Azarie ant Misahel
inempnet, as Thu, al Wealdent, biwistest ham unwemmet with thet ferliche fur i
the furneise, swa Thu, wunne of the worlt, wite me ant were, ant witere ant wisse
thurh Thi wisdom to wite me with sunne. (8) Lauerd, lives lattow, lead me thurh
this lease, this lutle leastinde lif, to the havene of heale, as Thu leaddest Israeles
leode of Egipte bute schip, dru-fot, thurh the Reade Sea ant asenchtest hare van
the ferden ham efter. (9) Ant Tu, folkes Feader, aval mine vamen, ant Tu,
Drihtin, todrif the deovel thet me derveth for ne mei na monnes strengthe
withuten Thin stonden him toyeines. (10) Lef me thet ich mote, mihti meinfule
Godd, iseon him ischeomet yet, the weneth me to schrenchen ant schunchen of
the nearowe wei thet leadeth to eche lif. (11) Loke me from his lath, liviende
Lauerth. (12) Make me war ant wite me with his crefti crokes thet ha me ne
crechen. (13) Were me swa with then unwine, helpleses Heale, thet Tu beo iheiet
ant iheret eavre in eorthe as in Heovene. | (14) Beo thu áá iblescet, Lauerd, as
Thu were ant art ant schalt beon in eche.”
ant feng on to motin thus with this meiden: “Juliene, mi leofmon, thu havest for
mi luve muchel idrohen ant idrahen. (2) Thu havest feorliche fan thet te fehteth
ayein. (3) Ha greithith theo grome nu alles cunnes pinen. (4) Ne mei ich tholien
thet ha thus mearren the na mare! (5) Thu art inoh ifondet ant tu havest mi
freondschipe inoh swithe ofservet. (6) Me areoweth thi sar! (7) Ah hercne nuthe
mi read: wurch Eleusius wil, for ich the yeove leave.”
feng on to freinin: “Hwet wiht,” quoth ha, “art tu thet thulli word me bringest?”
isent te from Heovene.” (2) Ha wundrede hire swithe, ant as theo the nes nawt of
lihte bileave, stille, bute steavene on heh in hire heorte cleopede to Criste.
wummon, hwet me beo to donne. (2) Ant yef Thi deore wil is, do me to
understonden thet the this seith me yef he beo Thi sonde.”
the eadie, | iblescet beo the time thet tu ibore were. (2) Nule nawt thi leofmon
tholie na leas thing to lihe the longe. (3) Hit is the stronge unwiht the stont ter of
Helle! (4) Ga nu neor ant nim him, ant with the bondes thet ter beoth bind him
heteveste. (5) Godd almihti yeveth the mahte forte don hit, ant tu schalt leaden
him al efter thet te liketh, ant he schal al telle the — unthonc in his teth — thet
tu wilnest to witen, ant kenne the ant cuthen al thet tu easkest.”
him ant seide: “Sei me swithe hwet tu beo ant hweonene ant hwa the hider sende.”
unhwiht of Helle. (2) “Leafdi,” quoth he, “leaf me ant ich chulle seggen.”
unwreste unwihtes the wurste ant meast awariet, for nis me neaver wel ne nes,
bute hwen ich makede moncun to wurche to wundre. (2) Ich hit am thet weorp ut
Adam ant Eve of Paraise selhthe; ant ich hit am thet makede Caym the acursede
acwalde his brother Abel. (3) Ant ich hit am thet makede Nabugodonosor, the
kene king of Caldey, makien the maumez igoten al of golde, ant ich | hit am thet
makede thet te threo children icoren over the othre weren idust to fordon i thet
ferliche fur of the muchele oven. (4) Ant ich hit am thet makede then muchele
witti witege, Ysaie, beon isahet thurh ant thurh to deathe. (5) Ant ich hit am thet
makede to ontenden Jerusalem ant Godes deore temple todriven al to duste. (6)
Ant ich hit am thet makede ant readde Israeles folc to leaven i the wildernesse the
Lauerd thet alesde ham of Pharaones theowdom ant makede ham godes igotene
to heien ant to herien! (7) Ant ich hit am the reafde the riche Iob his ahte, swa
thet he weolewede of wontrethe i the mixne. (8) Ant ich hit am thet sumchearre
wes thurh the wise Salomon ethalden. (9) Ant ich hit am thet makede Sein Iuhan
the Baptiste beon heafdes bicorven, ant Seinte Stephene isteanet, ant ich hit am
thet spec thurh Simunes muth, the wicche the weorrede eaver ayein Peter ant
Pawel. (10) Ant ich hit am the readde Nerun, the riche keiser of Rome, to don o
rode Peter ant to biheafdin Pawel. (11) Ant ich makede the cniht to thurlin Godes
side with scharpe speres ord! (12) Thah ich talde aldei yet ich mahte tellen, for
ma wundres ich habbe iwraht thene ich mahte munien, ant ma monne bone ibeon
then ei of mine brethren.”
meister over the.”
us thenne thider as him thuncheth. (2) Ant hwen we nawt ne spedeth, ne ne
mahen wrenchen sum rihtwis of the weie, we dearieth ant ne durren nohwer cume
bivoren him, ant he heterliche hat theo thet habbeth iwraht efter his wille, hwer
se ha us ifinden, beaten us ant binden, ant don us mare wa on then ei mon mahte
tholien. (3) Forthi we moten, leafdi, buhen swithe ant beien to ure luvewurthe
feader ant wurchen alle his willes.”
bichearreth Godes children.”
heale, ich wende iwis to leade the into thine ealdrene lahen ant makie to leaven
the luve of thi Lauerd, ant feng on to fondin the, ah ich am aveallet. (2) Ich chulle
kenne the nu al thet tu easkest: hwer se we eaver iseoth mon other wummon eani
god biginnen, we wepnith us ayein ham ant makieth iswiken al thet best mahte
wenden hare heorte, ant makien ham to thenchen thohtes ther-toyelnes, ant
wendeth to other willes thet ham wulleth hearmin. (3) Ant makieth ham forte
leose lust for te bidde yeorne thet Godd bineo|me ham the wil thet we in ham
warpeth. (4) Ant ha unstrengith therwith, ant we strengeth therwith on ham, and
overstiheth al, ear ha lest wenen. (5) Ant yef we seoth ham yeornliche sechen to
chirche, ant ter swithe bi hamseolf bireowsin hare sunnen, ant leofliche lustnin
Hali Chirche lare, ther we beoth yetten bisiliche ham abuten (ant mare ther then
elleshwer) to letten ham, yef we mahen, wrenchen hare thonkes towart unnette
thinges. (6) Ah hwucche se beoth se stealewurthe thet ha understonden ham, ant
warpeth ut with strengthe ut of hare heorte unwreaste willes thet ich ham in
warpe, ant yeornliche yeiyeth efter Godes grace to help ant to heale, ant thenne
meast hwen the preost in with the Messe noteth Godes licome, thet He nom of
thet lathlese meiden. (7 ) Ther is riht bileave ant inwardliche bonen swa icweme
to Godd thet i thet ilke time we biginneth to fleon ant turneth to fluhte. (8) This
is al thet we doth Cristemen, ant eggith eaver to uvele.”
neomen ow to Cristes icorene?”
heterliche bute thuh thet tu art trusti o thi Lauerd. (2) Ant ich do as thu dest,
truste o mi lauerd thet is meister | of alle mixschipes, ant wurche his wil over al
ase forth as i mei. (3) Ant yef ich mahte forthre ich walde beo the feinre. (4) Ah
nat i hwet unseli sith makede me her to sechen, bute mi muchele unselhthe sohte
the to seonne. (5) Wumme áá — thet sihthe se sariliche hit sit me. (6) Ne set me
neaver na thing se luthere ne se sare. (7) Wei hwi nefde ich iwist hwuch weane me
wes towart? (8) Ne mi kinewurthe feader ne cuthe nawt warnin of thulli wa his
foster? (9) Forlet me nu, leafdi, ant ich chulle al bileave the ant folhin an other,
other ich chulle forwreie the to mi meinfule feader. (10) Ah wel ich warni the
vore, hit nis nawt thin biheve.”
wrecche?(2) The schal iwurthen, Godd hit wat, godes the wurse.”
his rug ba twa his honden thet him wrong euch neil ant blakede of the blode, ant
duste him ruglunge adun riht to ther eorthe. (2) Ant stondinde o the steorve, nom
hire ahne bondes ant bigon to beaten then Belial of Helle, ant he to rarin
reowliche, to yuren ant to yein, ant heo leide on se lutherliche thet wa wes him o
ant leof with alle martyrs, englene feolahe, ant archanlene freond! (2) Frithe | me
ane hwile, ich halsi the o Godes half, ant on His Sune Rode thet we se muchel
dredeth, ant o the pine ant o the death thet He droh for moncun milce have ant
merci, wummon, of mi wrecchedom.”
with the, forthi ne ahest tu nan milce to ifinden! (3) Ah sei me swithe, mare of the
wa thet tu havest mid woh iwraht mon.”
ant ibroken ham the schuldren ant te schonken, i fur iwarpen ham ant i water, ant
hare ahne blod ich habbe ofte imaket ham to spitten ant to speowen, ant te an to
sclein then other, ant a hon him seolven. (3) Me, witti wummon, hu wult tu thet ich
endi the the tale the waxeth áá as ich telle? (4) Se feole ich habbe ifulet of theo the
neren iblescet nawt se wel as ham bihofde, thet ne mahte hit na mon rikenin ne
reden. (5) Of al thet uvel i the world, hwet wult tu wurse? (6) Ich am, of the
sprunges, the an thet hit meast of springeth, ne neaver athet tis dei nes ich thus
ihondlet. (7) O, the mihte of meithhad, hu thu art iwepnet to weorrin ayein us!
(8) Yet tu wurchest us wurst, of al thet us wa deth, as thu dudest eavre. (9) Ah we
schule sechen efter wrake on alle theo thet te biwiteth, ne ne schulen ha neaver
beo sker of ure weorre. (10) We wulleth meidenes áá mare heanen ant heatien, |
ant thah monie etsterten us, summe schulen stutten. (11) O Jhesu, Godes Sune,
The havest Thin hehe seotel o meithhades mihte — hire to muche menske — wa
wurchest Tu us therwith! (12) To wel Thu witest ham the treowliche habbeth hire
in heorte ihalden, yef ha milde ant meoke beon as meiden deh to beonne.” (13)
With thet he this hefde iseid, bigon swa te yuren thet monie weren awundret hwet
tet yur were.
ha were o live. (2) Heo the weren ihaten forth ant funden hire thus, ant of thet
grisliche gra weren agrisen swithe, leadden hire thah forth. (3) Ant heo leac eaver
efter hire then laddliche of Helle thet olhnede swithe ant bed tus ant bisohte, “Mi
leove leafdi Juliene, ne make thu me nawt men to hutung ne to hokere; thu havest
ido me wa inoh, thah thu ne do me wurse! (4) Ich habbe, wumme, forloren mi
leove feaderes freontschipe. (5) Ne neaver mare her onuven ne der ich cumen
bivoren him. (6) Mihti meiden, leaf me o Godes half, ich halsi the! (7) Ne beoth
Cristene men — yef hit is soth thet me seith — merciable ant milzfule? (8) Ant tu
art bute reowthe! (9) Have merci of me for the Lauerdes luve, thi luvewurthe
leafdi, i the bidde.” (10) Ant heo leac him eaver endelong the cheping chepmenne
to huting. (11) Ant heo leiden to him, sum with | stan, sum with ban, ant sleatten
on him hundes, ant leiden to with honden. (12) As he wes imaket tus earmest alre
thinge, ant berde as the ful wiht, thet ter flue monie, se thet eadi wummon
wergede sumhwet, ant reat him with the raketehe unrudeliche swithe ant weorp
him forth from hire awei into a put of fulthe.
schiminde hire nebscheaft schene as the sunne. (2) The reve, tha he seh hire,
thuhte muche sullich ant bigon to seggen: “Juliene, sei me ant beo soth cnawes:
hwer were the itaht theose wicchecreftes, thet tu ne telest na tale of nanes cunnes
tintreohe, ne ne dredest nowther death ne cwike deoflen?”
Godd feader, ant His sulliche Sune, Jhesu Crist hatte, ant te Hali Gast, Godd as
the othre, threo ant nawt threo godes, ah is eaver an ant ihwer untweamet. (3) He,
kempene King, haveth todei overcumen Helles bule, Belial, baldest of alle, ant ti
sire Sathanas thet tu levest upon. (4) Ant ti feader hatest, ant his heaste forthest
ant wel bisemeth the to beon ant bikimeth to beo streon of a swuch strunde. (5)
Ah eaver beo acurset, colt of swuch cunde! (6) The mihti mildfule Godd, thet
ich áá munne, yef me mihte of Heo|vene, him forte hearmin ant te forte
schenden, ant makien to scheomien thet schalt swucche shuken heien ant herien.
(7) Weila, as thu were iboren, wrecche, o wrathe time, thet ti sari sawle ant ti
sorhfule gast schal with swucche ploiveren pleien in Helle! (8) Reve, areow the
seolven. (9) Unseli mon, bisih the, hei Godd, ant her me! (10) Jhesu is se
milzful thet He walde blitheliche Heovenes heale to alle. (11) Ah hwa se o bote
ne geath ne schal he beon i borhen.”
Wenest tu thet we beon se eth to biwihelin? (4) Ah we schulen iseo nu, for hit schal
sone sutelin hu thi wichecreft schal wite the ant werien.”
thurh-spitien hit al with spaken ant felien, thicke ant threofalt with irnene gadien,
kene to keorven al thet ha rinen to ase neil-cnives. (2) Ant stod the axtreo istraht
o twa half into stanene postles, thet hit, as hit turnde, ne overtoke nohwer
bineothen to ther eorthe. (3) Grisen him mahte thet sehe hu hit gront into hwet
se hit ofrahte. (4) Me brohte hire vorth, as Beliales budel bet, ant bunden hire
therto hearde ant heteveste. (5) He dude on either half hire fowre of hise cnihtes
forte turnen thet hweol with hondlen imaket thron o thet eadi | meiden, se swithe
as ha mahten; ant het, o lif ant o leomen, swingen hit swiftliche ant turnen hit
abuten. (6) Ant heo, as the deovel spurede ham to donne, duden hit unsperliche
thet ha bigon to broken al as thet istelede irn strac hire in over al, ant from the
top to the tan, áá as hit turnde, tolimede hire ant toleac lith ba ant lire. (7)
Bursten hire banes ant thet meari bearst ut, imenget with the blode. (8) Ther me
mahte iseon alre sorhene meast, the i thet stude stode.
lihtinde com an engel of Heovene, ant reat to thet hweol swa thet hit al toreafde.
(2) Bursten hire bondes, ant breken alle clane, ant heo, ase fischhal as thah ha
nefde nohwer hurtes ifelet, feng to thonki thus Godd with honden up ahevene:
“Drihtin undeathlich, an Godd almihti alle othre unlich, Heovene wruhte ant
eorthes ant alle iwrahte thinges, The ich thonki todei alle Thine deden. (3) Thu
makedest mon of lame ant yeve him liviende gast ilich to Theseolven, ant settest
for his sake al thet i the worlt is. (4) Ah he forgulte him anan thurh the eggunge
of Eve, ant wes iput sone ut of paraise selhthen. (5) Weox swa his team her thet
ne mahte hit na mon tellen, ah swa swithe hit sunegede thet tu hit forsenctest al
in Noees flod bute eahte thet Tu frithedest. (6) Thu chure | seoththen i the alde
lahe, Abraham ant Isaac, Jacob ant his children, ant yeve to Joseph (thet wes the
yungeste) hap i Pharaones halle. (7) Longe ther efter Thu leddest Moyses, thet Tu
se muchel luvedest, bute brugge ant bat thurh the Reade Sea ant al his
cunredden, thear as al Pharaones ferde fordrencte. (8) Ant feddest ham fowrti yer
i the wildernesse with heovenliche fode, ant wurpe under hare vet hare fan alle
ant brohtest ham, thurh Iosue, into Ierusalemes lond thet Tu ham bihete. (9)
Ther wes i Samueles dei Saul the forme king, kempene icorenest. (10) In a weorre
as he wes, Thu dudest i the lutle Davith the selhthe thet he slong ant ofsloh with
a stan to deathe the stronge Golie, ant readdest him to rixlen i Saules riche. (11)
Thus Thu makest, milde Godd, alle theo muchele the makieth ham meoke, ant
theo the heith ham her leist swithe lahe. (12) Threfter, tha the thuhte — ithonket
hit beo the! — lihtest hider to us of heovenliche leomen ant nome blod ant ban
i thet meare meiden, ant were I Bethleem iboren moncun to heale. (13) Ant to the
hirden schawdest te, thet te engles to The tahten, ant of the threo kinges were
kinewurdliche iwurdget, weoxe ant wrahtest wundres. (14) Ah ear, Thu were
ioffret ant with lac aleset ant i Iordanes flum of Sein Iuhan ifulhet. (15) Thu
healdest alle unhale ant te deade of deathe. (16) Aleast, as the biluvede, lettest an
of | the tweolve thet Tu hefdest icoren chapi the ant sullen, ant tholedest pine ant
passiun thurh Giwes read o Rode, deidest, ant were idon dead i thruh of stane.
(17) Stepe adun ant struptest ant herhedest Helle arise, ant Thin ariste cuddest
Thine icorene, ant stuhe abuve the steorren into the heste heovene. (18) Ant
kimest, King, o Domesdei to deme cwike ant deade. (19) Thu art hope of heale.
(20) Thu art rihtwises weole ant sunfules salve. (21) Thu art an thet al maht ant
nult nawt bute riht. (22) Iblescet beo Thu eavre the ah eaver-euch thing heien ant
herien; ant ich do, deore Drihtin, Thi meiden, an thet ich am, ant luvie The to
leofmon luvewende Lauerd thet havest se muche for me iwraht withute mine
wurthes. (23) Beo, mi blisfule Godd, with me, ant wite me with the deoveles
driveles ant with hare creftes. (24) Wurch yet swucche wundres, forthi deorewurthe
nome, thet te reve rudni ant scheomie with his schucke ant Tu beo áá iwurdget,
as Thu art wurthe wurthmunt, from worlde into worlde. (25) Amen withuten
Lauerd is The thet Juliene on leveth. (2) Ne nis na godd buten He, we beoth wel
icnawen. (3) Reve, us reoweth ure sith thet we se longe habbeth ilevet thine
reades.” (4) Ant wenden alle anesweis abute fif hundret, the stoden ant yeiden alle
in a stevene: “Luvewurthe wummon, we wendeth alle to thet Godd thet tu on
trustest. | (5) Forlore beo thu, reve, with false bileave, ant iblescet beo Crist ant
alle His icorene. (6) Do nu deadliche on us al thet tu do maht. (7) Make us, reve,
ananriht misliche pinen. (8) Ontend fur ant feche hweol! (9) Greithe al thet tu
const grimliche bithenchen. (10) Forthe al thi feaders wil, thes feondes of Helle.
(11) To longe he heold us as he halt te nuthe, ah we schulen heonne forth halden
to Jhesu, Godes kinewurthe Sune, moncun Alesent.” (12) Swa the reve gromede
thet he gristbetede. (13) Wod he walde iwurthen! (14) Ant sende o wodi wise forth
to Maximien, the mihti caisere of Rome, her of hwet he readde. (15) Ant he ham
het euch fot, heafdes bikeorven. (16) Fif hundret itald of wepmen, ant of wimmen
an hundret ant thritti, thrungen euch an bivoren other forte beo bihefdet. (17)
Ant ferden alle martyrs, with murhthe, to Heovene.
binden hire swa the fet ant te honden, ant keasten hire into the brune cwic to
forbearnen. (2) As ha lokede up ant seh this lei leiten, biheolt towart Heovene
with honden a hevene, ant thus to Crist cleopede:
Godd, milce me, Thi meiden, ant mid Ti softe grace salve mine sunnen. (3) Jhesu,
mi selhthe, ne warp Thu me nawt ut of Thin ehsihthe! (4) Bihald me ant help me,
ant of this reade lei reaf ant arude me, swa thet | tes unseli ne thurve nawt
seggen: ‘Thi Lauerd thet tu levest on ant schulde thi scheld beon, hwer is he
nuthe?’ (5) Ne bidde ich nawt, Drihtin, this for deathes drednesse; ah false swa
hare lahe ant festne i Thine icorene treowe bileave. (6) Schaw, mi mihti Godd, Thi
meinfule mahte ant hihendliche iher me, iheiyet ant iheret áá on ecnesse.”
to thet ferliche fur, ant i thet lei lihte, ant acwente hit anan, eaver-euch sperke.
(2) Ant heo stod unhurt ther amidheppes, heriende ure Healent with heheste
stevene. (3) The reve seh hit acwenct ant bigon to cwakien, se grundliche him
gromede, ant set te balefule beast, as eaver ei iburst bar thet grunde his tuskes,
ant feng on to feamin ant gristbeatien grisliche upo this meoke meiden, ant
thohte with hwuch mest wa he mahte hire awealden. (4) Ant het fecchen a veat,
ant with pich fullen, ant wallen hit walm-hat ant het warpen hire thrin, hwen hit
meast were iheat ant wodelukest weolle.
warth hire ase wunsum as thah hit were a wlech beath, iwlaht for then anes in for
te beathien. (2) Ant smat up ayein theo the iyarket hit hefden, ant forschaldede
of ham, as hit up scheat | alle italde bi tale, seove sithe tene, ant forthre yet five.
(3) Tha the reve this iseh, rende hise clathes ant toc himseolf bi the top ant feng
to fiten his feonden ant lastin his lauerd.
heonne forth mare, ear the buc of hire bodi ant tet heaved liflese liggen isundret.”
(2) Sone se ha this iherde, ha herede Godd of Heovene ant warth utnume glead,
forthis ha hefde iwilnet. (3) Me leadde hire ant leac forth, ant heo wes ethluke.
com the ilke Belial thet ha hefde ibeaten feorren to bihinden ant bigon to yeien:
“A, stalewurthe men, ne spearie ye hire nawiht. (2) Ha haveth us alle scheome
idon. (3) Schendeth hire nuthe! (4) Yeldeth hire yarow borh efter thet ha wurthe
is. (5) A, stalewurthe men, doth hire bilive to death buten abade.”
seide; ant tet bali blencte, ant breid him ayeinwart bihinden hare schuldren as for
a schoten arewe. (2) “Wumme thet ich libbe,” quoth he, “ich beo nunan ilaht. (3)
Ah ilecche ha me eft, ne finde ich na leche. (4) Igripe ha me eanes ne ga i neaver
mare threfter o grene.” (5) Ant leac him ayeinwart, as the beare unhwiht, in alre
diche deofle wei — ne mahte nawt letten. (6) As ha schulde stupin ant strecche
forth | thet swire, ha bed first, ant feng on thus for te learen theo the ther weren:
salvith with soth schrift ant with deathbote! (3) Leaveth ower unlahan ant buldeth upo
treowe eorthe thet ne dredeth na val for wind ne for wedere. (4) Lokith thet te
heovenliche Lauerd beo grund-wal of al thet ye wurcheth, for thet stont studevest,
falle thet falle. (5) Yeieth to Godd in Hali Chirche thet He yeove ow wit wel forte
donne, ant strenge ow with His strengthe ayein the stronge unwiht thet secheth eaver
ant áá ow to forswolhen. (6) Lustnith lustiliche hali writes lare ant livieth threfter.
(7) Wel him the waketh wel ant i this lutle hwile wit her himseolven, ant
heorteliche siketh ofte for his sunnen. (8) This worlt went awei as the weater the
eorneth, ant ase sweven imet aswint hire murhthe, ant al nis bute a leas wind thet
we i this worlt livieth. (9) Leaveth thet leas is ant leoteth lutel throf, ant secheth
thet sothe lif thet áá leasteth, for this lif ye schulen leoten — ant nuten ye neaver
hwenne — ant reopen ripe of thet sed thet ye her seowen; thet is, undervo yeld
of wa other of wunne efter ower werkes. (10) Swithe ich biseche ow thet ye bidden
for me, brethren ant sustren.” (11) Ant custe | ham coss of peis alle as ha stoden.
(12) Ant biheold uppart, ant hehede hire stevene:
me nuthe. (3) Thu luvest over alle thing treowe bileave, ne lef Thu neaver to Thi
va Thin ilicnesse thet Tu ruddest of death thurh Thi death o Rode! (4) Ne let Tu
me neaver deien i the eche death of Helle! (5) Underveng me to The ant do me
with thine i thet englene hird with meidenes imeane. (6) Ich ayeove The mi gast,
deorrewurthe Drihtin, ant do hit, blisfule Godd for Thin iblescede nome to ro ant
to reste.” (7) With thet ilke ha beide hire ant beah duvelunge adun, bihefdet, to
ther eorthe. (8) Ant te eadie engles with the sawle singinde sihen into Heovene.
towart Rome. (2) Sophie wes inempnet, of heh cun akennet, ant nom this
meidenes bodi ant ber hit into hire schip biwunden swithe deorliche i
deorrewurthe clathes. (3) As ha weren i watere com a storm thet te schip ne mahte
na mon steorin, ant drof ham to drue lond in to Champaine. (4) Ther lette
Sophie, from the sea a mile setten a chirche ant duden hire bodi thrin in a
stanene thruh, hehliche, as hit deh halhe to donne.
men into a bat ant bigon to rowen swiftliche efter, for te reavin hit ham ant i the
sea senchen. (2) Ant arisen stormes se sterke ant se stronge, thet te bordes of this
bat bursten ant tobreken, ant te sea sencte him on his thrituthe sum, ant therto
yet fowre, ant draf ham adrenchet dead to the londe, ther ase wilde deor limmel
toluken ham ant tolimeden eaver-euch lith from the lire. (3) Ant te unseli sawlen
sunken to Helle, to forswelten i sar ant i sorhe eaver.
Heoveriches wunnen, i the nomecuthe burh Nicomede inempnet, i the sixtenthe
dei of Feoverreres moneth, the fowrtuthe kalende of Mearch thet is seoththen.
tah is untweamet. (2) Iheret ant iheiet beo He Him ane as He wes ant is eaver in
(1) Hwen Drihtin o domesdei windweth his hweate
the life and the passion of Saint Juliana.
ship of His precious Son, and in the praise of the Holy Ghost, who proceeds from
them both, one God without beginning, full of every good thing: all unlearned people
who cannot understand the language of Latin, hear and listen to the life of a maiden
which is translated from Latin into the English language, so that this holy lady in
Heaven may love us the more, and through this deceitful life may lead us to that
eternal one, through her blessed intercession, which is very pleasing to Christ.
from and was born to an entirely heathen family in the city of Nichomedia, and her
fleshly father was called Africanus, who oppressed and persecuted most men who
were Christian and put them to death through terrible tortures. (2) But she, as one
to whom the high heavenly Lord had given His love, left her elders’ laws and began
to love then the ever living God, the lovely Lord who created all creatures, and
rules and directs, according to His will, all that is created.
Rome worshiping and praising heathen idols with an immeasurably large court
and with a noble company, and he condemned all those who believed in the
Ruler. (2) This mighty Maximian loved, above many of his men, one Eleusius:
descended from noble kin, and very rich from rent, and a young man of years. (3)
This young man Eleusius, who was so well off with the king, had given friendship
to Africanus and was accustomed often to come with him to his house and to see
beautiful youth, he felt himself wounded inside in his heart with the arrows which
fly from love, so that it seemed to him that he could not in any way live without
the medicine of her love. (2) And after a little while without a long delay, he was
himself the messenger to Africanus her father, and he eagerly besought Africanus
to give her to him, and he would honor her with everything that he might as the
thing that he loved most in the world. (3) Africanus knew that he was of very noble
birth and that a nobly born lady would suit him well, and granted him his boon.
(4) She was soon betrothed to him, although she was unwilling, but she trusted in
Him who does not fail anyone who truly trusts in Him, and went to church at
dawn every day to learn God’s lore, praying earnestly with pitiful cries that He
guide her as to what way she might keep her maidenhood unblemished from sex
with a man.
to marriage and bed. (2) But she, in order to defend herself against him for some
time, sent for him to say that she did not at all wish to descend so low to love, nor
did she wish to approach him for any living man until he was directly beneath
Maximian, the highest in Rome, that is, the high reeve. (3) He, as soon as he had
heard this, obtained from the emperor the promise that he would grant him all
that he wished; and, as was the custom, he had him set in a four-wheeled chariot
and drawn through the town in it from street to street. (4) The entire chariot that
he was drawn in was canopied with purple cloths and satin, with cloth of gold and
fine linen and precious cloths, like one who had to attend to so high a thing and
had to direct and arrange so powerful a governorship. (5) When he had done this
he sent to her to say thus: he had fulfilled her wish, now she should fulfill his.
blissful love, and sent to him by messenger to say entirely in public: “This word
she sends to you: ‘You have troubled yourself for nothing. (2) Angry as you may
be, do what you will. (3) I will not, nor can I, conceal it from you any longer: if you
will leave the law that you live in and believe in God the Father, and in His precious
Son, and in the Holy Ghost, comfort of men, one God who is glorified with every
kind of good, I will well accept you. (4) And if you will not, you are done with me
and should seek another love.’” (5) When the high reeve heard this answer he began
to grow very angry, and he called her father forth and began to tell what message
she sent him. (6) After that, he expected to have everything that he wished.
gods that I hate to anger, if what you say is true, she says it to disastrous fortune!
(2) And in great anger I will hand her over entirely to you, and you may do to her
all that you wish.”
began at first to see whether he might succeed with any love. (3) “Juliana,” he
said, “my precious daughter! (4) Say to me why you forsake your triumph and
your happiness, the good fortune and delight which would awaken and wax from
the wedlock that I recommend to you. (5) It, the reeveship of Rome, is no
inconsiderable thing and you might, if you wish, be the lady of the city and of all
the lands which lie nearby.”
God Almighty then he may speak about it and succeed soon enough. (2) But if he
does not wish that, I say to you that it is true he shall not marry me. (3) Say now
what your will is.”
lord, and by my dear lady, the precious Diana, whom I love very much, if you hold
to this, I will have wild beasts pull and tear you to pieces and give your flesh as
food to the birds of the sky!”
you frighten me with this. (2) I swear again to you, for Jesus Christ, God’s Son, in
whom I believe and love as the most lovely and most gracious Lord, that were
I burned alive both limb and joint in flaming fire, I would not, in regard to this
— threaten however you threaten — bow to or obey you.”
heart with flattery, and cajoled kindly and said to her that certainly, she would not
lightly desire any delight that she would not possess on the condition that she
would change her will.
entirely committed to devils and doomed to eternal death, to perish with him,
world without end, in the pit of Hell for the benefit of his wedlock or for any
reward? (3) To you I truly say: it is worthless to me. (4) I wish that he knew full
well and you also with everyone: I am wedded to one whom I will truly love
without lies who is unlike him and all worldly men. (5) I will never more lie to or
leave Him for fortune or joy, for woe or for misery, which you may do to me.”
“And who is he, this husband to whom you are wedded, to whom you have given
your love, without me, so far that you make light of all that you should love? (2)
As of now, I was never — that I know — introduced to him!”
you have not heard of him before: that is, Jesus, God’s Son, who in order to
redeem mankind that would be completely lost, relinquished his life on the Rood.
(3) I never saw Him and that displeases me, but I love Him and will do so and
believe in Him as Lord. (4) Nor shall either devil or man take me away from Him."
you will have both harm and shame for it. (2) And now you will, first of all, as a
foretaste be beaten so with sharp rods that you will lament that you were ever
born to evil fortune in the world, a woman from a woman’s womb.”
the more grievous thing for His love. (2) Work what is your will!”
wickedly on her lovely body that it lathered in blood. (2) She was seized and it was
done so that blood poured down off the rods and she began to cry out: “However
badly you beat me, you beadles of Belial, you can lessen neither my love nor my
belief toward the living God, my beloved lover, the loveworthy Lord; nor will I
believe your advice, which leads you to destruction; nor will I praise or glorify
your filthy idols — which are vessels of the Fiend — for any pain or torture that
you may contrive.”
send you now and surrender your body to Eleusius the noble who is reeve of
Rome, and he will lead you to destruction and make you die in agony as is his own
will, through all that is ever painful.”
to me except what He will permit and allow you to do to multiply my reward and
the mirth that pertains to maidenhood’s honor. (3) For however much you hurt
me here, the more my crown will be both brighter and fairer. (4) Therefore, I will
joyfully and with a joyful heart endure every single suffering for the love of my be-
loved, the lovely Lord, and every torment will be soft to me in His service. (5) You
wish, you say, to give me up to Eleusius the wicked: give me to him, for I care
nothing at all for either of you two! (6) You who can only torture me here but it
harms me not at all, but helps me and lifts me up and makes my mirths manifold
in Heaven. (7) And if you put me to death, it will be dear to God, and I will
become happy because of endless blisses, and you will, you wretches — alas for
your fates, that you were born into the world and brought forth to evil fortune —
you will sink down to suffering and to eternal sorrow, to bitterness and to bale,
deep into Hell!”
reeve of Rome, and had her brought before his eyes as he sat and decided the
high city court judgments. (2) As he saw and beheld her lovely face in the likeness
of a lily and red as rose, and everything below her face so beautifully shaped, he
heaved a sigh like a creature that was sorely wounded. (3) His heart began to heat
up and his marrow to melt; the rays of love reached through every joint of his
limbs. (4) And inside he burned from fire so and quaked, as if from cold, that it
seemed to him in his mind that he wanted no kind of bliss in the world but her
body alone, to possess her with his will according to what he wished. (5) And he
began with sweetness to say softly:
richest in Rome and the highest born. (2) Why do you do such woe to us both
through your great lack of reason and act so angrily? (3) I wish you no more evil
than you yourself wish. (4) But I would prefer that you leave your wicked purpose,
and it will go well for you with every joy, and you will never lack anything you
desire. (5) And consider, in comparison, the customs which all your kin, whom
you are come from and are descended from, believe in and love. (6) Why do you
alone abandon them, and why have they become so loathsome to you? (7) Do not
at all expect yourself alone, with all your wisdom, to overpass them all!”
all right! (2) For if you knew and were familar with the King who is crowned over
all kings in Heaven, little would you esteem your lawless customs which teach you
to bow down to lifeless idols as you should to God, and which anger your Creator.
(3) For the living devils set themselves inside of them, in whom you believe, and
whenever you praise them, you praise that demon and bow to it as if to a savior.
(4) And He will bitterly repay your time, for He will never grow weary working for
you all that woe, world forever without end. (5) Do what you wish to do, for I will
do nothing else for you, unless you listen to and believe my teaching, and love
God Almighty, and abandon all the customs to which you are in subjection.”
to the emperor and reported to the king, and he would cast me out of my office
and condemn me to death!”
entirely against the law, and who bestows all his love on lifeless things, a shame
upon his Shaper, and if you are so afraid to lose his friendship, should I then
forsake Jesus Christ, God’s Son, who is the beginning and the end of all that is
ever good, who wishes after this life — which I care little for — for his lovely love
that I live with Him in the triumph and the happiness of the joys of the heavenly
kingdom? (2) You can waste speech and succeed not at all! (3) Though you buffet
me and beat me, since it is your right, and put me to cruel torture and to a dreary
death, although you, enemy, flay me, you will not, for any slaughter, see me
slacken in loving and believing in the living God, Lord of all men.”
manded his heathen men to strip her stark-naked and to stretch her upon the
earth, and for six men to beat her bare body for as long as they could, so that she
was entirely drenched from the blood. (2) They did entirely as he ordered and
while they beat her they began to shout: “This is a beginning of the pain and of
the shame that you will endure if you will not bow to and obey our will! (3) But
yet, you may save yourself if you wish. (4) And if you still refuse, may there be
misfortune and misery of all men to he who does not do his best to work on you.”
are — drive you to do. (2) Your love matters little to me, your loathing less, and
these threats matter nothing at all! (3) Know it for certain!”
But she patiently endured it all for the Lord, and when she felt the worst, she said
most certainly, “Keep it up for a while and do not ever stop, for I will not leave
His love which I believe in, neither for love nor for any wickedness.”
rage. (2) And he commanded quickly that she be seized and pulled up by the hair.
(3) And it was soon done, so that she hung far from the earth by the hair alone,
and they laid then on her so horribly on every side that every blow sank into her
lovely body, which became completely drenched in gore-blood from the rods. (4)
“Lord God Almighty,” said she, “Watch over Your maiden! (5) You tested
Abraham and found him true; grant that I may truly love you. (6) Hold fast to me,
my Savior, Jesus Christ, God’s Son, as you have begun to, for I am not strong
from anything but from Your strength. (7) And I trust entirely in You and not in
myself, and here I vow to You that I have this hope in your help. (8) Mild God
Almighty, neither my love nor my belief in you shall ever lighten or prove false
because of any pain or any death that I will suffer.”
thought he would immediately put her days to an end, and he ordered quickly for
boiling molten brass to be brought forth, and commanded it to be poured boiling
hot, so high up on her head that it flowed along her lovely body down to her
heels. (2) Everything was done as he commanded. (3) But the world’s Ruler —
who kept Saint John His Evangelist unhurt in the vat of boiling oil in which he
was placed, so that he arose from it as whole as if he were a whole virgin — the
same Lord of life kept His bride for Himself, untouched by the brass that was
boiling, so that all that she felt seemed to her nothing but lukewarm water. (4)
Eleusius became mad then and did not know what to say, but ordered her quickly
taken out of his eyesight and dragged into a dark house, to the pain of prison. (5)
And so she was soon put there.
and prayed this prayer: “Lord God Almighty, my joy and my reward, my triumph
and all the happiness I seek, you see how I am all beset and surrounded: make
fast my belief! (2) Guide me and advise me, for all my trust is in you. (3) Steer me
and strengthen me, for all my strength is from you. (4) Because I will not forsake
you, my father and my mother have forsaken me; and all my closest kin, those
who should be my best friends, are my greatest foes, and my household, the
greatest of all churls. (5) Praiseworthy Savior, I have your help alone: I am well
pleased. (6) Do not forsake me, loving Lord. (7) As you guarded Daniel among
the wild lions looking so wicked, and the three children named Ananie and Azarie
and Misahel who would not turn aside from the laws that they would love, as you,
Ruler of all, protected them unblemished from that fearsome fire in the furnace,
so you, joy of the world, guard and defend me, and protect and guide through
your wisdom to keep me from sin. (8) Lord, leader of life, lead me through this
false life, this little lasting life, to the harbor of salvation, just as you led Israel’s
people from Egypt without a ship, dry footed, through the Red Sea and drowned
their foes who followed after them. (9) And you, Father of the people, fell my
foes, and you, Ruler, drive off the devil who torments me, for no man’s strength
may stand against him without your strength! (10) Give me leave that I might,
mighty powerful God, see him shamed yet, he who thinks to deceive me and
frighten me away from the narrow path that leads to eternal life. (11) Protect me
from his malice, living Lord. (12) Make me wary and guard me against his crafty
tricks so that they do not catch me. (13) Defend me so against the fiend, Savior
of the helpless, that you may be praised and glorified forever on earth as in
Heaven. (14) May you be forever blessed, Lord, as you were and are and shall be
of an angel, and began to speak thus with this maiden: “Juliana, my beloved, you
have received and suffered much for my love. (2) You have frightening foes who
fight against you. (3) Enraged, they are preparing all kinds of tortures for you. (4)
I cannot abide them to harm you any more! (5) You are tested enough and you
have earned my friendship plenty enough. (6) Your pain grieves me! (7) Now
listen to my advice: do Eleusius’ will, for I give you leave.”
she began to ask: “What creature,” said she, “are you who brings such words to me?”
this to you.” (2) She was very surprised, and, since she was not of an unquestioning
nature, silently, but in a loud voice in her heart, called out to Christ:
woman, as to what I should do. (2) And if it is Your dear will, make me understand
whether he who says this to me is Your messenger.”
the holy, blessed be the time that you were born. (2) Your beloved will not suffer any
false thing to deceive you for long. (3) It is the fierce demon from Hell who stands
there! (4) Go near him now and grab him, and with the bonds which are there bind
him cruelly tight. (5) God almighty gives you the strength to do it, and you shall
control him completely just as you please; and he will tell you — damn his teeth! —
everything that you wish to know, and declare and make known to you all that you
caught hold of him and said: “Say to me quickly what you are, and where you came
from, and who sent you here!”
fiend of hell. (2) “Lady,” said he, “release me and I shall tell you.”
the worst and the most wicked, for I am not and was not ever happy except when I
made mankind commit shameful actions. (2) I am the one who cast out Adam
and Eve from the happiness of Paradise; and I am the one who made Cain the
accursed kill his brother Abel. (3) I am the one who made Nebuchadnezzar, the
cruel king of Caldee, make the idols cast entirely of gold, and I am the one who
made it so that the three children chosen over the others were flung into that
fearsome fire of the huge oven. (4) And I am the one who caused the great wise
prophet, Isaiah, to be sawed through and through to death at that time. (5) And
I am the one who caused Jerusalem to be burned and God’s dear temple reduced
entirely to ash. (6) And I am the one who made and advised Israel’s folk to
abandon the Lord who freed them from Pharaoh’s thralldom, in the wilderness;
and they made for themselves gods cast of metal to praise and to worship! (7) And
I am the one who stole the rich Job’s goods, so that he wallowed from misery in
the midden-heap. (8) And I am the one who once was held captive by Solomon
the wise. (9) And I am the one who caused Saint John the Baptist to be beheaded,
and Saint Steven be stoned, and I am the one who spoke through the mouth of
Simon, the witch, who always made war against Peter and Paul. (10) And I am the
one who advised Nero, the rich emperor of Rome, to crucify Peter and to behead
Paul. (11) And I made the knight pierce God’s side with a sharp spear’s point!
(12) If I spoke all day I might tell more, for more crimes have I wrought than I
can recall, and I have been the bane of more people than any of my brothers.”
sends us then to where it seems best. (2) And when we do not succeed and cannot
wrench someone righteous from the right path, we cower and do not dare come
before him, and he fiercely orders those who have done his will, wherever they
find us, to bind us and beat us and to work us more woe than any man might
endure. (3) Therefore we must, lady, bow down to and obey our lovable father,
and carry out all his desires.”
deceive God’s children.”
fortune, I truly thought to lead you into your elders’ laws and make you leave the
love of your Lord, and I began to test you, but I am defeated. (2) I will now
declare to you all that you ask: wheresoever we see man or woman begin any
good, we arm ourselves against them and make them desert all that might turn
their hearts to the best, and make them think thoughts to the contrary, and turn
to other desires that will harm them. (3) And we make them lose the desire to
pray eagerly that God deprive them of the desire that we put in them. (4) And
they grow weak with it, and we grow strong in them from that desire, and engulf
them completely, before they least expect it. (5) And if we see them eagerly visit
church, and there, all by themselves, repent of their sins and lovingly listen to
Holy Church’s teaching, there we are still busily about them (and more there than
elsewhere) to hinder them if we may, and to wrench their thoughts toward vain
things. (6) But whoever is so stalwart that they understand, with strength from
their hearts they cast out from the wicked desires that I cast into them, and
eagerly cry after God’s grace for help and for salvation, and especially when the
priest during the Mass partakes of God’s body, which He took from that flawless
maiden. (7) There true belief and heartfelt prayers are so pleasing to God that at
that same time we begin to flee and turn to flight. (8) This is all that we do to
Christians and we egg them on always to evil.”
visit Christ’s chosen ones?”
me so violently, unless you are confident in your lord. (2) And I do as you do:
trust in my lord who is master of all villainies, and do his will over everything as
far as I may. (3) And if I could do further, I would be the gladder. (4) But I do not
know what unhappy fate made me search here unless my great ill luck sought to
see you. (5) Woe is me forever — so sorely does that sight grieve me! (6) Nothing
ever grieved me so wickedly or so painfully. (7) Alas, why did I not know what
wretchedness was upon me? (8) And did my royal father not think to warn his
child of such woe? (9) Let me go now, lady, and I will leave you completely alone
and follow another, or I will denounce you to my mighty father. (10) But I warn
you well beforehand, it is not to your benefit.”
It will turn out, God knows it, so much the worse for you.”
his two hands behind his back so that each of his nails twisted painfully and
became black from the blood, and flung him backwards straight down to the
earth. (2) And, standing on top of that pestilent creature, she seized her own
bonds and began then to beat Belial of Hell, and he began to howl pitifully, to
yowl and yell, and she laid on so fiercely that he was sorry to be alive.
and beloved among all the martyrs, angels’ fellow and archangels’ friend! (2)
Spare me for a minute, I beg you in God’s name and on his Son’s Cross which we
dread so much, and on the pain and the death that he suffered for humankind:
have pity and mercy, woman, upon my wretchedness.”
is no mercy for you because you should not enjoy any mercy! (3) But tell me
quickly more of the woe that you have wrongfully wrought upon humans.”
blinded men and broken them, both shoulders and shanks, flung them into fire and
water, I have often made them spit and spew their own blood, and the one to slay
the other, and then hang himself. (3) But, wise woman, how do you wish me to end
for you the tale which always grows as I tell it? (4) I have befouled so many of those
who were not so well blessed as they should have been, that no man might
reckon nor estimate it. (5) Of all that evil in the world, what worse do you want?(6)
I am, of the wells of all that evil in the world, the one from which it wells up the
most, and never until this day was I treated so. (7) Oh, the might of maidenhood,
how you are armed to wage war against us! (8) Even now, out of everyone who
hurts us, you do us the worst, as you always did. (9) But we will strive for
vengeance on all those who protect you, and they will never be free from our war.
(10) We will ever more humiliate and hate maidens, and although many escape
us, some shall not escape. (11) Oh Jesus, God’s Son, you who have your high seat
in maidenhood’s might — a great honor to her — you work us woe through that!
(12) You protect them too well who truly have her held in the heart, if they be
mild and meek as a maiden should be.” (13) As soon as he had said this, he began
to howl so that many were wondering what that howl could be.
before him if she were alive. (2) Those who were ordered went forth and found her
so, and were very terrified of that grisly evil spirit, though they yet led her forth. (3)
And she dragged always behind her the loathly thing from Hell who cajoled very
much and begged thus and besought her: “My dear lady Juliana, do not let everyone
hoot and holler at me; you have done me enough woe, even if you do me no worse!
(4) Woman, I have lost my dear father’s friendship. (5) And never again from here on
do I dare come before him. (6) Mighty maiden, release me for God’s sake, I beg you!
(7) Are not Christian people — if it is true what you tell me — merciful and mild? (8)
And you are without pity! (9) Have mercy on me, for the Lord’s love, your love-worthy
lady, I pray you.” (10) And she dragged him always along, to the hooting of the
marketing merchants. (11) And they laid on him, some with stones, some with bones,
and set hounds on him, and laid on him with hands. (12) So while he became the most
miserable of all things, and cried aloud as a foul creature so that many flew there, that
blessed woman became wearied somewhat and she flung him with the chain very
roughly and cast him forth away from her into a pit of filth.
bright, blazing like the sun. (2) The reeve, when he saw her, thought it a great marvel
and began to say: “Juliana, tell me and be truthful: where were you taught those
witchcrafts, by which you hold no account of any kind of torment, nor fear neither
death nor living devils?”
God the Father and his marvelous son called Jesus Christ and the Holy Ghost, God
as the other gods, three and not three but always one and everywhere undivided. (3)
He, king of champions, has today overcome Hell’s bull Belial, boldest of all, and your
sire Satan, whom you believe in. (4) And your father ordered you, and you carry out
his order; and it suits you well and becomes you to be the progeny of such a race. (5)
But may you always be cursed, colt of such a stock! (6) May the mighty merciful
God, whom I always keep in mind, give me might from Heaven to hurt him
and put him to shame, and to make ashamed whoever will praise and glorify
such fiends. (7) Alas, wretch, that you were born at an evil hour, because your sorry
soul and your sorrowful ghost will play with such playfellows in Hell! (8) Reeve,
pity yourself. (9) Unhappy man, behold, yourself praise God and hear me! (10)
Jesus is so merciful that he happily desires Heaven’s salvation for everyone. (11)
But whoever does not do penance will not be saved.”
you think that we are so easy to beguile? (4) But we will see now, for it will soon
become clear how your witchcraft guards and keeps you.”
had it filled throughout with spokes and with rims, thick and threefold with spikes
of sharp iron, to carve everything that they came upon like razors. (2) And the
axle stood, extended on both sides into stone pillars, so that as it turned, the
wheel did not reach anywhere underneath on the earth. (3) It could terrify anyone
who saw how it ground into whatever it came upon. (4) She was brought forth, as
Belial’s beadle bid, and they bound her to it hard and cruelly tight. (5) He placed
four of his knights on either side of her to turn that wheel, with handles made for
it, as hard as they could on that blessed maiden, and he ordered them, upon life
and limb, to swing it swiftly and to turn it about. (6) And they, as the devil spurred
them to do, did so unsparingly so that she began to break apart as that steel-hard
iron struck her all over, and from the top to the toes always as it turned, it
dismembered her and pulled apart both limb and flesh. (7) Her bones burst and
that marrow burst out mingled with the blood. (8) Whoever stood in that place
could see there the greatest of all sorrows.
an angel of Heaven came descending, and it crashed into that wheel so that it
shattered completely. (2) Her bonds burst and broke up completely, and she, as
fish-whole as though she had nowhere felt hurt, began to thank God thus with her
hands uplifted: “Immortal Lord, one almighty God unlike all others, maker of
Heaven and of earth and of all created things, I thank you today for all of your
deeds. (3) You made man from earth and gave him a living spirit similar to
yourself and made for his sake all that is in the world. (4) But he fell into sin right
away because Eve egged him on and he was soon put out of the joys of paradise.
(5) His progeny grew so much here that no one could tell it, but they sinned so
much that you drowned them all in Noah’s flood, except for eight whom you
protected. (6) Afterwards, in the old law, you chose Abraham and Isaac, Jacob and
his children, and gave to Joseph (who was the youngest) happiness in Pharaoh’s
hall. (7) Long after that you led Moses, whom you loved so much, and all of his
kindred through the Red Sea without a bridge or boat, whereas all the Pharaoh’s
host drowned. (8) And you fed them for forty years in the wilderness with
heavenly food and cast under their feet all of their foes and, by means of Joshua,
you brought them into the land of Jerusalem which you had promised to them.
(9) In Samuel’s day Saul was the first king, the choicest of champions. (10) When
he was at war, You bestowed on the little David such grace that he slung and slew
to death with one stone the strong Goliath, and advised him to rule in Saul’s
kingdom. (11) Thus you make great, mild God, all those who make themselves
meek, and those who glorify themselves here you lay very low. (12) After that,
when it pleased you — may you be thanked for it! — you came down to us here
from heavenly light and took blood and bone in that noble maiden, and were born
in Bethlehem for the salvation of humankind. (13) And to the shepherds you
showed yourself, whom the angels led to you, and you were royally worshiped by
the three kings, and grew and worked wonders. (14) But before that, you were
offered and redeemed with a gift, and baptized in the river Jordan by Saint John.
(15) You healed all the sick and raised the dead from death. (16) Finally, as it
pleased you, you let one of the twelve that you had chosen trade and sell you, and,
through the Jews’ plot, you suffered pain and passion on the Cross, died, and
were put dead in a coffin of stone. (17) You stepped down and stripped and
harrowed Hell, arose, and made known your Resurrection to your chosen ones,
and ascended above the stars into the highest heaven. (18) And you will come,
king, on Doomsday to judge the quick and dead. (19) You are hope for salvation.
(20) You are the wealth of the righteous and the salve of the sinful. (21) You are
the one who can do all and wishes for nothing but justice. (22) Blessed be you
forever, whom every creature ought to praise and glorify; and I do, dear Lord,
your maiden, alone that I am, and I love you as a lover, lovely Lord, you who have
done so much for me without any merits of mine. (23) Be with me, my blissful
God, and guard me against the devil’s drudges and against their tricks. (24) Work
yet such wonders, for your precious name, that the reeve with his devils may
redden and be shamed and you may always be glorified, since you are worthy of
worship, from world into world. (25) Amen without end.”
mighty Lord is the one whom Juliana believes in. (2) There is no God but he, we
acknowledge. (3) Reeve, our conduct grieves us that we have so long believed in
your counsels.” (4) And they all converted, about five hundred, who stood and
cried all in one voice: “Loveworthy woman, we all turn to that God whom you
trust. (5) Lost are you, reeve, with false belief and blessed be Christ and all his
chosen. (6) Now do to us cruelly everything that you can do. (7) Make for us,
reeve, all kinds of tortures right now. (8) Kindle the fire and fetch the wheel! (9)
Prepare all that you can cruelly contrive! (10) Carry out completely your father’s
will, the fiend from Hell. (11) Too long he held us as he holds you now, but we
will henceforth hold to Jesus, God’s royal Son, humankind’s redeemer.” (12) The
reeve was so angry that he ground his teeth. (13) He was about to go mad! (14)
And he sent frantically forth to Maximian, the mighty emperor of Rome, to find
out what he advised about it. (15) And Maximian ordered that the heads be
chopped off of every one of them. (16) Five hundred men in total, and of women
one hundred and thirty, thronged each one before the other to be beheaded. (17)
And they made their way with mirth, all martyrs, to Heaven.
to bind her, both the feet and the hands, and cast her into the fire alive to burn
up. (2) As she looked up and saw this flame lit, she looked toward Heaven with
hands upraised and cried out thus to Christ:
pity me, your maiden, and with your gentle grace salve my sins. (3) Jesus, my
happiness, do not cast me out of your eyesight! (4) Behold me and help me, and
take and rescue me from this red flame so that these wicked men may not have
cause to say: ‘Your Lord, in whom you believe and who should be your shield —
where is he now?’ (5) I do not beg this, Lord, for fear of death; but falsify their law
and fasten true belief in your chosen ones. (6) Show, my mighty God, your strong
power and quickly hear me; be praised and glorified forever into eternity.”
burned, to that fearsome fire and he alighted into that flame and quenched it at
once, every single spark. (2) And she stood there unhurt in the midst of it,
praising our Savior with the loudest voice. (3) The reeve saw it quenched and
began to shake, so deeply did it anger him: and the baleful beast sat, like any
bristled boar that ever ground his tusks, and began to foam and horribly grind his
teeth at this meek maiden, and considered by what greatest pain he might master
her. (4) And he ordered a vessel fetched and filled with pitch, and boiled it
boiling-hot and commanded her to be cast inside, when it was the hottest and
boiled most bitterly.
immediately and became as pleasant for her as though it were a luke-warm bath,
made warm just for the purpose of bathing. (2) And it surged up against those
who had prepared it and scalded them to death as it shot up, all told in number
seven times ten, and five still more. (3) When the reeve saw this, he tore his
clothes and grabbed himself by the hair and began to quarrel with his fiends and
curse his lord.
more before the trunk of her body and the lifeless head lie sundered!” (2) As soon
as she heard this, she praised God of Heaven and became exceedingly glad, since
she had desired this. (3) She was led and dragged forth, and she was easy to drag.
suffer death, then that same Belial whom she had beaten came from far behind
and began to cry out: “Ah, stalwart men, do not spare her at all! (2) She has put
us all to shame. (3) Kill her now! (4) Give her ready repayment for what she
deserves. (5) Ah, stalwart men, put her to death now without delay!”
thus, and that evil one flinched and sprang backwards behind their shoulders as
if in fear of a fired arrow. (2) “Woe is me that I live!” said he, “I am soon caught.
(3) But should she catch me again I will not find rescue. (4) Once she grasps me,
I will nevermore afterwards live on the earth.” (5) And he jerked himself
backwards, like the Devil himself, into the ditch of all demons — he could not stop
himself. (6) As she was about to stoop and stretch forth the neck, she prayed first
and began thus to instruct those who were there:
and heal them with true shrift and with penance! (3) Leave your evil customs and
build upon trustworthy ground so that you fear no fall from wind or from weather.
(4) See to it that the heavenly Lord is the foundation of all that you do, for He
stands steadfast, fall what may befall. (5) Cry out to God in Holy Church so that he
gives you the knowledge to do well and strengthens you with His strength against
the strong fiend, who seeks always and forever to swallow you. (6) Listen eagerly to
Holy Scripture’s teaching and live according to it. (7) It is well for him who is
very vigilant and who in this little time here guards himself, and heartily sighs
often for his sins. (8) This world wends away like the water which flows, and, like
a dream dreamt, its joy fades away, and all that we experience in this world is
nothing but a false wind. (9) Leave what is false and reckon it little, and seek that
true life that lasts forever, for you will leave this life — and you never know when
— and reap the harvest from that seed which you sow here; that is, accept the
yield of woe or of joy according to your works. (10) Earnestly, I beseech you that
you pray for me, brothers and sisters.” (11) And she kissed them all with the kiss
of peace as they stood. (12) And she looked upward, and raised up her voice:
(3) You love above all things true belief; do not ever leave to your foe your
likeness, which you rescued from death through your death on the Rood! (4) Do
not ever abandon me to die in the unending death of Hell! (5) Take me to you
and place me with your own in that angels’ company among the fellowship of
maidens. (6) I give you my spirit, precious Lord, and commit it, blissful God, for
your blessed name, to peace and to rest.” (7) With that she bent herself and bowed
headlong down, beheaded, to the earth. (8) And the blessed angels singing
departed with the soul into Heaven.
of Nicomedia. (2) She was called Sophie, descended from high kin, and she took
this maiden’s body, wrapped very preciously in rich clothes, and carried it into
her ship. (3) When they were on the water, there came a storm through which no
man could steer the ship, and it drove them onto dry land into Campagna. (4)
There Sophie, a mile from the sea, founded a church and placed her body inside
in a coffin of stone, solemnly, as one ought to do for a saint.
leaped into a boat with a few men and began to row swiftly after, in order to seize
the body from them and sink it into the sea. (2) And there arose storms so stark
and so strong that the boards of this boat burst and broke apart, and the sea sank
him and thirty of his men, and still four more in addition, and drove them
drowned dead to land, where wild beasts tore them apart limb from limb and
ripped every single joint from the flesh. (3) And the unholy souls sank to Hell, to
perish miserably in pain and in sorrow forever.
the joys of the heavenly kingdom, in the renowned city named Nicomedia on the
sixteenth day of the month of February, which is after the fourteenth Calends of
rules in the Trinity and yet is undivided. (2) May he be praised and glorified, Him
alone, as He was and is, forever into eternity.
(1) When the Lord on Doomsday winnows his wheat