Back to top

Richard Coer de Lyon: Bibliography


MS Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland Advocates’19.2.1 [formerly the Auchinleck MS] fols. 326r–27v [1330–40; the oldest manuscript extant, though fragmentary, and a good portion of its text survives in separated leaves: the Laing leaves, MS Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Library — 218, fols. 2 and 7, and MS St. Andrews, St. Andrews University Library — PR 2065 R.4, 2 fols.]

MS London, BL Egerton 2862, fols. 1r–44v [formerly: Sutherland or Trentham MS] [late fourteenth c.]

MS Badminton House 704.1.16, single folio [1400–1425]

MS Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College 175/96 (pp. 1–98) [1400–1450; used by Brunner and by Weber as their base manuscript]

MS London, BL Additional 31042 [formerly: London Thornton], fols. 125r–163v [1425–1450]

MS London, College of Arms HDN 58 [formerly: Arundel], fols. 250–275 [c. 1448]

MS London, BL Harley 4690, fols. 106–115 [1450–1500]

MS Oxford, Bodleian 21802 [formerly: Douce 228], fols. 1–40v [late fifteenth century]

Kynge Rycharde cuer du lyon, Oxford, Bodleian Crynes 734, and Manchester, John Ryland’s Library – Deansgate 15843 [1509; a London printing by Wynkyn de Worde that Brunner used to complete gaps in his base MS, Gonville and Caius College 175/96; STC 21007; ESTC S120269]

Kynge Rycharde cuer du lyon, Oxford, Bodleian S. Seld. D. 45 (1), and London, BL – C.40.c.51 [formerly Harleian] [1528; a second London printing by de Worde nearly identical to his 1509 printing; STC 21008; ESTC S101588]


Adams, Jenny. Power Play: The Literature and Politics of Chess in the Late Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.

Adamson, Melitta Weiss. Food in Medieval Times. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004.

Adémar de Chabannes. Ademari Cabannensis Chronicon. Ed. P. Bourgain, Richard Allen Landes, and Georges Pon. Turnhout: Brepols, 1999.

Ailes and Barber. See Ambroise.

Akbari, Suzanne Conklin. “The Hunger for National Identity in Richard Coer de Lyon.” In Reading Medieval Culture: Essays in Honor of Robert W. Hanning. Ed. Robert M. Stein and Sandra Pierson Prior. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2005. Pp. 198–227.

Alexander, James. “Becket, Thomas, Saint.” In Strayer. 2:151–53.

Alighieri, Dante. Dante Alighieri’s Divine Comedy. Ed. Mark Musa. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.

Ambrisco, Alan. “Cannibalism and Cultural Encounters in Richard Coeur de Lion.Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 29 (1999), 499–528.

Ambroise. The History of the Holy War: Ambroise’s Estoire de la Guerre Sainte. Ed. and trans. Marianne Ailes and Malcolm Barber. 2 vols. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2003.

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 1983.

Anderson, Carolyn B. “Constructing Royal Character: King Richard in Richard Coer de Lyon.” Proceedings of the Medieval Association of the Midwest 6 (1999), 85–108.

Archer, Thomas A., ed. and trans. The Crusade of Richard I, 1189–92: Extracts from the Itinerarium Ricardi, Bohâdin, Ernoul, Roger of Howden, Richard of Devizes, Rigord, Ibn Alathîr, Li Livres de Eracles, &c. London: David Nutt, 1888.

Arnold of Bonneval. Vita primi Bernardi. 2:2.11–14. Patrologia Latina vol. 185: col. 275–77. Arthour and Merlin. Ed. Eugen Kölbing. Leipzig: O. R. Reisland, 1890. Athelston. In Herzman, Drake, and Salisbury. Pp. 341–84.

Baker, Craig. “Editing Medieval Texts.” In Handbook of Medieval Studies: Terms – Methods – Trends. Ed. Albrecht Classen. Vol. 1. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2010. Pp. 427–50.

Barber, Malcolm. The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Barker, Juliet R. V. The Tournament in England, 1100–1400. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1986.

Barron, W. R. J. “The Penalties for Treason in Medieval Life and Literature.” Journal of Medieval History 7 (1981), 187–202.

———. English Medieval Romance. London: Longman, 1987.

Beckingham, Charles F. and Bernard Hamilton, eds. Prester John: The Mongols and the Ten Lost Tribes. Aldershot: Variorum, 1996.

Benoît, de Sainte-Maure. Le Roman de Troie. Ed. Léopold Constans. 6 vols. Paris: Firmin Didot, 1904-12.

Benson, Larry D., ed. King Arthur’s Death: The Middle English Stanziac Morte Arthur and Alliterative Morte Arthure. Rev. ed. Edward E. Foster. Kalmazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1994.

Bevis of Hampton. In Herzman, Drake, and Salisbury. Pp. 187–340.

Blurton, Heather. Cannibalism in High Medieval English Literature. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

Boas, Adrian. Archaeology of the Military Orders: A Survey of the Urban Centres, Rural Settlement and Castles of the Military Orders in the Latin East (c. 1120–1291). London: Routledge, 2006.

Borgström, Edvard. The Proverbs of Alfred. Lund: Ohlsson, 1908.

Boyle, David. The Troubadour’s Song: The Capture and Ransom of Richard the Lionheart.New York: Walker and Co., 2005.

Braswell, Mary Flowers., ed. Sir Perceval of Galles and Ywain and Gawain. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995.

Broughton, Bradford B. The Legends of King Richard I, Coeur de Lion: A Study of Sources and Variations to the Year 1600. The Hague: Mouton and Company, 1966.

———. Dictionary of Medieval Knighthood and Chivalry: Concepts and Terms. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1986.

Brundage, James A. “‘Cruce Signari’: The Rite for Taking the Cross in England.” Traditio 22 (1966), 289–310.

———. Medieval Canon Law and the Crusader. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969.

———. Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Brunner, Karl, ed. Der Mittelenglische Versroman über Richard Löwenherz. Vienna: Wilhelm Braumüller, 1913.

Busby, Keith. Gauvain in Old French Literature. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1980.

La Chanson d’Antioche. Ed. Jan A. Nelson. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 2003.

La Chanson d’Antioche. Ed. Suzanne Duparc-Quioc. 2 vols. Paris: P. Geuthner, 1976–78.

La Chanson de Roland. See The Song of Roland. Chapman, Robert L. “A Note on the Demon Queen Eleanor.” Modern Language Notes 70 (1955), 393–96.

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Riverside Chaucer. Gen. Ed. Larry D. Benson et al. Third edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987.

Le Chevalier au Cygne. Ed. Jan A. Nelson. In The Old French Crusade Cycle: Le Chavalier au Cygne and La Fin d’Elias. Ed. Janet Nelson. Vol. 2. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1985. Pp. 2–357.

Chrétien de Troyes. Cligés. In Arthurian Romances. Ed. and trans. D. D. R. Owen. London: J. M. Dent and Sons, 1987. Pp. 93–184.

La Chrétienté Corbaran. Ed. Peter R. Grillo. In The Old French Crusade Cycle: The Jérusalem Continuations, part I. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1984.

Clanchy, M. T. England and Its Rulers, 1066–1307. Second edition. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1998.

Clark, Willene B., ed. and trans. The Medieval Book of Birds: Hugh of Fouilloy’s Aviarium. Binghamton, NY: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, 1992.

Cook, Robert Francis. “Crusade Propaganda in the Epic Cycles of the Crusades.” In Sargent-Baur. Pp. 157–75.

Cordery, Leona F. “Cannibal Diplomacy: Otherness in the Middle English Text Richard Coer de Lion". In Meeting the Foreign in the Middle Ages. Ed. Albrecht Classen. New York: Routledge, 2002. Pp. 153–71.

Cowdrey, H. E. J. “Pope Urban II’s Preaching of the First Crusade.” In The Crusades: The Essential Readings. Ed. Thomas F. Madden. Maldwin, MA and Oxford: Blackwell, 2002. Pp. 15–29.

Croxton Play of the Sacrament. Ed. John T. Sebastian. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2012.

Curtius, Ernst Robert. European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages. Trans. Willard R. Trask. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1973.

Dante. Dante Alighieri’s Divine Comedy. Ed. Mark Musa. Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.

Davis, Norman. “Another Fragment of ‘Richard coer de lyon.’” Notes and Queries 214 (1969), 447–52 [selections from the single folio that survives from MS Badminton House — 704.1.16].

Dutton, Paul Edwin. Charlemagne's Courtier: The Complete Einhard. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 1998.

Edbury, Peter. The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade: Sources in Translation. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1996.

Ellis, George and J. C. Halliwell. Specimens of Early English Metrical Romances. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1848.

——–. Richard Coeur de Lion. In Specimens of Early English Metrical Romances. Pp. 282–341 [extracts with linking prose summaries].

Fantosme, Jordan. Chronique de la guerre entre les Anglois et les Ecossois en 1173 et 1174, par Jordan Fantosme. In Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I. Ed. Richard Howlett. London: Longman, 1886. Pp. 202–377.

Farmer, David Hugh. The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. Fourth edition. Oxford: Oxford Universty Press, 1997.

Fewster, Carol. Traditionality and Genre in Middle English Romance. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 1987.

Field, Rosalind. “Romance as History, History as Romance.” In Romance in Medieval England. Eds. Maldwyn Mills, Jennifer Fellows and Carol M. Meale. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 1991. Pp. 163–73.

A Fifteenth-Century Courtesy Book. In A Fifteenth-Century Courtesy Book and Two Fifteenth-Century Franciscan Rules. Ed. R. W. Chambers and Walter W. Seton. EETS, o.s. 148. London: Oxford University Press, 1914. Pp. 3–22.

Finlayson, John. “‘Richard, Coer de Lyon’: Romance, History or Something in Between?” Studies in Philology 87 (1990), 156–180.

———. “Legendary Ancestors and the Expansion of Romance in Richard, Coer de Lyon.” English Studies 79 (1998), 299–308.

———. “The Marvellous in Middle English Romance.” The Chaucer Review 33 (1999), 363–408.

Fisher, John H. “A Language Policy for Lancastrian England.” PMLA 107 (1992), 1168–80.

Fleischman, Suzanne. “On the Representation of History and Fiction in the Middle Ages.” History and Theory 22 (1983), 278–310.

Fox-Davies, Arthur C. A Complete Guide to Heraldry. Rev. ed. J. P. Brooke-Little. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1969.

Frasetto, Michael and David R. Blanks. Western Views of Islam in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Perception of Other. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.

Fulcher of Chartres. A History of the Expedition to Jerusalem: 1095–1127. Ed. Harold S. Fink. Trans. Frances Rita Ryan. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1969.

Gautier, Léon. Chivalry. Trans. Henry Frith. London: George Routledge and Sons, 1891.

Geoffrey of Monmouth. History of the Kings of Britain. Trans. Lewis Thorpe. London: Penguin, 1966.

Gerald de Barri. Liber de principis instructione. vol. 8. Ed. George F. Warner. See Giraldus Cambrensis Opera.

———. Giraldi Cambrensis Opera. 8 vols. Eds. James F. Dimock, J.S. Brewer and George F. Warner. London: Longman & co, 1891. Reprint. Boston, MA: Elibron Classics, 2007.

A Gest of Robyn Hood. In Robin Hood and Other Outlaw Tales. Ed. Stephen Knight and Thomas Ohlgren. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2000. Pp. 90–148.

Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum: The Deeds of the Franks and the other Pilgrims to Jerusalem. Ed. and trans. Rosalind Hill. Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1962.

Gesta Romanorum. Ed. Sidney J. H. Herrtage. EETS e.s. 33. London: Oxford University Press, 1879.

Gillingham, John. “Foundations of a Disunited Kingdom.” In Uniting the Kingdom? The Making of British History. Ed. Alexander Grant and Keith J. Stringer. New York: Routledge, 1995. Pp. 48–64.

———. Richard I. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999.

Gillmor, C. M. “Horses.” The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. Ed. Clifford J. Rogers. 3 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. 1:271–75.

Gough, Henry, and James Parker. A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry. London: James Parker & Company, 1894.

Guddat-Figge, Gisela. Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Middle English Romances. Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 1976.

Guido delle Colonne. Historia Destructionis Troiae. Ed. and trans. Mary Elizabeth Meek. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1974.

Haggar, Mark S. The Fortunes of a Norman Family: the de Verduns in England, Ireland and Wales, 1066–1316. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2001.

Hahn, Thomas., ed. Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995.

Hamel, Mary. “The Siege of Jerusalem as a Crusading Poem.” In Sargent-Baur. Pp. 177–94.

Havelok. Ed. G. V. Smithers. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987.

Havelok the Dane. In Herzman, Drake, and Salisbury. Pp. 85–159.

Heng, Geraldine. “The Romance of England: Richard Coer de Lyon, Saracens, Jews, and the Politics of Race and Nation.” In The Postcolonial Middle Ages. Ed. Jeffrey Jerome Cohen. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000. Pp. 135–171.

———. Empire of Magic: Medieval Romance and the Politics of Cultural Fantasy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

Herzman, Ronald B, Graham Drake, and Eve Salisbury, eds. Four Romances of England: King Horn, Havelok the Dane, Bevis of Hampton, Athelston. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1999.

Hibbard, Laura. Mediæval Romance in England: A Study of the Sources and Analogues of the Non-Cyclic Metrical Romances. New York: Oxford University Press, 1924.

Higden, Ranulph. Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden Monachi Cestrensis. Ed. Churchill Babington and J.R. Lumby. 9 vols. 1865–86. Reprint. Nendeln, Liechtenstein: Kraus Reprint Co., 1964.

Higham, N. J. King Arthur: Myth Making and History. London: Routledge, 2002.

Hollister, Warren C. “Courtly Culture and Courtly Style in the Anglo-Norman World.” Albion 20 (1988), 1–17.

Hudson, Harriet., ed. Four Middle English Romances: Sir Isumbras, Octavian, Sir Eglamour of Artois, Sir Tryamour. Second edition. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1996.

Ingledew, Francis. “The Book of Troy and the Genealogical Construction of History: The Case of Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae.” Speculum 69 (1994), 665–704.

Jacobus de Cessolis. The Buke of Chess: Edited from the Asloan Manuscript. Ed. Catherine van Buuren. Edinburgh: Scottish Text Society, 1997.

James, T. E. “The Age of Majority.” The American Journal of Legal History 4 (1960), 22–33. Jeffrey, David Lyle, ed. A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1992.

Jentsch, F. “Die mittelenglische Romanze Richard Coeur de Lion und ihre Quellen.” Englische Studien 15 (1891), 161–247.

Joinville, Jean de. Joinville’s Chronicle of the Crusade of St. Lewis. In Chronicles of the Crusades by Jean de Joinville and Geffroy de Villehardouin. Trans. Frank Marzials. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2007. Reprint. Memoirs of the Crusades. London: J. M. Dent, 1908.

Jones, Martin H. “Richard the Lionheart in German Literature.” In Nelson. Pp. 70–116.

Kaeuper, Richard W. “Treason.” In Strayer. 12:165–68.

———. Holy Warriors: The Religious Ideology of Chivalry. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.

Kedar, Benjamin Z. Crusade and Mission: European Approaches toward the Muslims. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Keen, Maurice. Chivalry. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 1984.

Kennedy, Hugh. Crusader Castles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Kieckhefer, Richard. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer’s Manual of the Fifteenth Century. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997.

King Horn. In Herzman, Drake and Salisbury. Pp. 11–73.

The King of Tars: Ed. from the Auchinleck MS, Advocates 19.2.1. Ed. Judith Perryman. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1980.

Knight, Stephen and Thomas Ohlgren, eds. Robin Hood and Other Outlaw Tales. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 2000. Pp. 194–219.

Kyng Alisaunder. Ed. G. V. Smithers. 2 vols. EETS o.s. 227. London: Oxford University Press, 1952; Reprint. 1961.

La Monte, John. Feudal Monarchy in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1100 to 1291. Cambridge, MA: Medieval Academy of America, 1932.

Laborderie, Olivier de. “Richard the Lionheart and the Birth of a National Cult of St George in England: Origins and Development of a Legend.” Nottingham Medieval Studies 39 (1995), 37–53.

Laskaya, Anne and Eve Salisbury, eds. The Middle English Breton Lays. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2001.

Lay le Freine. In Laskaya and Salsibury. Pp. 61–87.

Liu, Yin. “Middle English Romance as Prototype Genre.” Chaucer Review 40 (2006), 335–353.

Livingston, A. A. “Grifon. ‘Greek.’” Modern Language Notes 22 (1907), 47–49.

Lloyd, Simon. “William Longespee II: The Making of an English Crusading Hero.” Nottingham Medieval Studies 35 (1991), 41–69.

Loftin, Alice. “Visions.” In Strayer. 12.475–78.

Longnon, Jean. "The Frankish States in Greece, 1204–1311". In Setton. 2:235–74.

Loomis, Laura Hibbard. See Hibbard, Laura.

Loomis, Roger Sherman. “Richard Cœur de Lion and the Pas Saladin in Medieval Art.” PMLA 30 (1915), 509–28.

———. Review of Der Mittelenglische Versroman über Richard Löwenherz. Ed. Karl Brunner. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 15 (1916), 455–66.

Lupack, Alan, ed. Three Middle English Charlemagne Romances: The Sultan of Babylon, The Siege of Milan, and The Tale of Ralph the Collier. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1990.

Lynch, John E. “Oath.” In Strayer. 9:207.

Lyon, Bruce. A Constitutional and Legal History of Medieval England. Second edition. New York: W. W. Norton, 1980.

MacCulloch, J. A. 1932. Medieval Faith and Fable. London: George G. Harrap, 1932.

Machaut, Guillaume de. Guillaume de Machaut: The Debate Series. Vol. 1. In The Complete Works. 8 vols. Gen. ed. R. Barton Palmer. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, Forthcoming.

———. Guillaume de Machaut: The Boethian Poems. Vol. 2. The Complete Works. 8 vols. Gen. ed. R. Barton Palmer. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, Forthcoming.

Major, J. Russell. “‘Bastard Feudalism’ and the Kiss: Changing Social Mores in Late Medieval and Early Modern France." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 17 (1987), 509–35.

Malory, Sir Thomas. Works. Ed. Eugene Vinaver. Second edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Map, Walter. De nugis curialium: Courtiers’ Trifles. Ed. and trans. M. R. James et al. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.

Marchalonis, Shirley. “Sir Gowther: The Process of a Romance.” Chaucer Review 6 (1971/72), 14–29.

Marie de France. “Guigamar.” In The Lais of Maríe de France. Trans. Robert Hanning and Joan Ferrante. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2009. Pp. 30–55.

Marshall, Linda E. “‘Sacral Parody’ in the Secunda Pastorum.” Speculum 47 (1972), 720–36.

McDonald, Nicola. “Eating People and the Alimentary Logic of Richard Cœur de Lion.” In Pulp Fictions of Medieval England. Ed. Nicola McDonald. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2004. Pp. 124–50.

Mehl, Dieter. The Middle English Romances of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. London: Routledge, 1968.

Merrilees, Brian. “Crusade, Concept of.” In Strayer. 4.15–22.

Middle English Dictionary (MED). Online at

The Middle English Versions of Partenope of Blois. Ed. A. Trampe Bödtker. EETS, e. s., 109. London: Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1912. Reprint. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2002.

Mills, Maldwyn. “Generic Titles in Bodleian Library MS Douce 261 and British Library MS Egerton 3132A.” In The Matter of Identity in Medieval Romance. Ed. Phillipa Hardman. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2002. Pp. 125–38.

Mooers, Stephanie L. “Patronage in the Pipe Roll of 1130.” Speculum 59 (1984), 282–307.

Needler, George Henry. “Richard Coeur de Lion in Literature.” Ph.D. Dissertation, Universität Leipzig, 1890.

Nelson, Jan A., et al, eds. The Old French Crusade Cycle. 10 vols. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1977-99.

Nelson, Janet L. Richard Coeur de Lion in History and Myth. London: Centre for Late Antique and Medieval Studies, King’s College, 1992.

Nelson, Paul B. "Swan Knight." In Medieval Folklore: A Guide to Myths, Legends, Tales, Beliefs, and Customs. Ed. Carl Lindahl, John McNamara, and John Lindow. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Pp. 398–99.

Newman, Barbara. “Possessed by the Spirit: Devout Women, Demoniacs, and the Apostolic life in the Thirteenth Century.” Speculum 73 (1998), 733–70.

Nicholson, Helen. Templars, Hospitallers, and Teutonic Knights: Images of the Military Orders, 1128–1291. Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1993.

———. trans. Chronicle of the Third Crusade: A Translation of the Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1997.

Nicholas, David. The Growth of the Medieval City from Late Antiquity to the Early Fourteenth Century. London: Longman, 1997.

Nicholas, Nicolas H. A History of the Royal Navy from the Earliest Times to the Wars of the French Revolution. 3 vols. London: Richard Bentley, 1847.

Nickel, Helmet. “Chivalry, Orders of.” In Strayer. 3:303–07.

———. “Games and Pastimes.” In Strayer, 5: 347–53.

———. “The Tournament: An Historical Sketch.” In The Study of Chivalry: Resources and Approaches. Ed. Howell Chickering and Thomas H. Seiler. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1988. Pp. 213–262.

Octavian. In Hudson. Pp. 45–88.

Of Roland and Vernagu. In The English Charlemagne Romances VI: The Taill of Rauf Coilyear, with the Fragments of Roland and Vernagu and Otuel. Ed. S. J. Herrtage. EETS e. s., 39. 1869. Reprint. Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2012. Pp. 37–61.

Olson, Claire C. “The Minstrels at the Court of Edward III.” PMLA 56 (1941), 601–12. “On Good and Bad Fairies.” The Edinburgh Magazine and Literary Miscellany 5 (1819), 16–19.

Onions, C. T. “The Middle English ‘Ord and Ende.’” MLR 24 (1929), 389–93.

Ordene de Chevalerie. In Ramon Lull’s Book of Knighthood and the Anonymous Ordene de Chevalerie. Trans. William Caxton and Brian R. Price. Union City, CA: Chivalry Bookshelf, 2001. Pp. 107–22.

The Ormulum. Vol. 2. Ed. Robert Holt. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1878.

Painter, Sidney. “Western Europe on the Eve of the Crusades.” In Setton. 1:3–29.

———. “The Third Crusade: Richard the Lionhearted and Philip Augustus.” In Setton. 2:45–85.

The Parlement of the Thre Ages. In Wynnere and Wastoure and The Parlement of the Thre Ages. Ed. Warren Ginsberg. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1992. Pp. 43–79.

Paris, Gaston. “Le Roman de Richard Cœur de Lion.” Romania 26 (1897), 353–93.

Partington, J. R. A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Cambridge: W. Heffer and Sons, 1960. Reprint, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Pearsall, Derek. “The Development of Middle English Romance.” Mediaeval Studies 27 (1965), 91–116.

———. “The English Romance in the Fifteenth Century.” Essays and Studies 29 (1976), 56–83.

———. “Middle English Romance and Its Audiences.” In Historical and Editorial Studies in Medieval and Early Modern English for Johan Gerritsen. Ed. Mary-Jo Arn, Hanneke Wirtjes, and Hans Jansen. Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff, 1985. Pp. 37–47.

Partenope of Blois. Ed. A. Trampe Bödtker. EETS, e. s., 109. London: Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1912. Reprint, Woodbridge, UK and Rochester, NY: Boydell and Brewer, 2002.

Peck, Russell A. “The Careful Hunter in The Parlement of the Thre Ages.” Journal of English Literary History 39 (1972), 333–341.

The Peterborough Lapidary. In English Mediaeval Lapidaries. Ed. Joan Evans and Mary S. Serjeantson. EETS o.s. 190. London: Oxford University Press, 1933; Reprint. 1960. Pp. 63–118.

Peters, Edward. The First Crusade: The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and Other Source Materials. Second edition. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998.

Pollock, Frederick, and Frederick William Maitland. The History of English Law before the Time of Edward I. Second edition. 2 vols. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1898.

Prestwich, J. O. “Richard Coeur de Lion: Rex Bellicosus.” In Nelson. Pp. 1–16.

Pringle, Denys. The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Corpus. Vol. 1, A–K. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

———. Secular Buildings in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: An Archaeological Gazetteer. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Pseudo-Turpin Chronicle. See Turpine’s Story.

Reedy, William T. “Commendation.” In Strayer. 3:490–91.

Richard of Devizes. Chronicon Richardi Divisensis de Tempore Regis Richardi Primi: The Chronicle of Richard of Devizes of the Time of Richard the First. Ed. and trans. John T. Appleby. London: Thomas Nelson, 1963.

Richmond, Velma Bourgeois. Laments for the Dead in Medieval Narrative. Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press, 1966.

Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Crusades: A Short History. Second edition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005.

Roberte the Deuyll. In Remains of Early Popular Poetry of England. Vol. 1. Ed. William Carew Hazlitt. London: John Russell Smith, 1864. Pp. 218–263.

Roger of Howden. Chronica magistri Rogeri de Houedene. Ed. William Stubbs. 4 vols. London: Longman and Co., and Trübner, 1868-71.

Rogers, R. Latin Siege Warfare in the Twelfth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Roman van Walewein. David F. Johnson, ed. and trans. New York: Garland, 1992.

Rubenstein, Jay. “Cannibals and Crusaders.” French Historical Studies 31 (2008), 525–52.

Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades. 3 vols. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1951.

Sargent-Baur, Barbara, ed. Journeys toward God: Pilgrimage and Crusade. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1992.

Scofield, C. I., ed. The New Scofield Reference Bible. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Setton, Kenneth M., et al., eds. A History of the Crusades. 6 vols. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955; Reprint, 1969.

The Siege of Milan. In Lupack. Pp. 109–56.

Shores, Doris, ed. The King of Tars: A New Edition. Ph.D. Diss., New York University, 1969.

Sir Degrevant. In Sentimental and Humorous Romances: Floris and Blancheflour, Sir Degrevant, The Squire of Low Degree, The Tournament of Tottenham, and The Feast of Tottenham. Ed. Erik Kooper. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2006. Pp. 61–105.

Sir Eglamour of Artois. In Hudson. Pp. 97–132.

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Ed. J. R. R. Tolkien and E. V. Gordon and revised by Norman Davis. Second edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967.

Sir Gowther. In Laskaya and Salisbury. Pp. 274–96.

Sir Isumbras. In Hudson. Pp. 5–29.

Sir Orfeo. In Laskaya and Salisbury. Pp. 15–59.

Sir Perceval of Galles and Ywain and Gawain. Ed. Mary Flowers Braswell. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995.

Skeat, W. W., ed. The Tale of Gamelyn. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1884.

The Song of Roland: An Analytical Edition. Ed. and trans. Gerard J. Brault. 2 vols. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1978.

Strayer, Joseph, et al., eds. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. 13 vols. New York: Scribner, 1982–1989.

Strohm, Paul. “Storie, Spelle, Geste, Romaunce, Tragedie: Generic Distinctions in the Middle English Troy Narratives.” Speculum 46 (1971), 348–59.

The Sultan of Babylon. In Lupack. Pp. 7–95.

The Tale of Gamelyn. In Robin Hood and Other Outlaw Tales. Ed. Stephen Knight and Thomas Ohlgren. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2000. Pp. 194–219.

Tarassuk, Leonid, and Claude Blair, eds. The Complete Encyclopedia of Arms and Weapons. New York: Simon and Shuster, 1982.

Tattersall, Jill. “Anthropophagi and Eaters of Raw Flesh in French Literature of the Crusade Period: Myth, Tradition and Reality.” Medium Ævum 57 (1988), 240–53.

Taylor, Andrew. “The Myth of the Minstrel Manuscript.” Speculum 66 (1991), 43–73.

Thompson, John J. Robert Thornton and the London Thornton Manuscript: British Library MS Additional 31042. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 1987.

Tolan, John V. Sons of Ishmael: Muslims through European Eyes in the Middle Ages. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2008.

———. Saracens: Islam in the Medieval European Imagination. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Trotter, D. A. Medieval French Literature and the Crusades (1100–1300). Geneva: Librairie Droz, 1988.

Turpine’s Story: a Middle English Translation of the Pseudo-Turpin Chronicle. Ed. Stephen H. A. Shepherd. EETS no. 322. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Turville-Petre, Thorlac. England the Nation: Language, Literature, and National Identity, 1290–1340. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

Tyerman, God’s War: A New History of the Crusades. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2006.

Walsh, Elizabeth. “The King in Disguise.” Folklore 86 (1975), 3–24.

The Wars of Alexander: An Alliterative Romance Translated Chiefly from the Historia Alexandri Magni de Preliis. Ed. Walter W. Skeat. EETS e.s. 47. London: N. Trübner & Co., 1886.

Weber, Henry. Richard Coer de Lion. In Metrical Romances of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Centuries: Published from Ancient Manuscripts. Vols. 2 and 3. Edinburgh: Archibald Constable and Company, 1810.

Westerhof, Danielle. Death and the Noble Body in Medieval England. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2008.

Weston, Jessie L. The Three Days’ Tournament: A Study in Romance and Folk-Lore. London: David Nutt, 1902.

Whiting, Bartlett Jere, and Helen Wescott Whiting. Proverbs, Sentences, and Proverbial Phrases. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1968.

Whitman, Jon. “The Body and the Struggle for the Soul of Romance: La Queste del Saint Graal.” In The Body and Soul in Medieval Literature. Ed. Piero Boitani and Anna Torti. Camdridge: D.S. Brewer, 1999. Pp. 31–61.

William of Malmesbury. Gesta Regum Anglorum: The History of the British Kings. Ed. and trans. R. A. B. Mynors, R. M. Thompson, and M. Winterbottom. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

William of Tyre. Chronicon. Ed. R. B. C. Huygens. Corpus Christianorum. Vols. 63–63A. Turnhout: Brepols, 1986.

White, Beatrice. “Saracens and Crusaders: From Fact to Allegory.” In Medieval Literature and Civilization: Studies in Memory of G. N. Garmonsway. Ed. D. A. Pearsall and R. A. Waldron. London: Athlone Press, 1969. Pp. 170–91.

Wülker, Richard Paul. “Richard Löwenherz.” In Altenglisches Lesebuch. Vol. 1. Halle: Max Niemeyer, 1874, pp. 95–104 [text of last 479 lines from MS Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College – 175/96].

Zaller, Robert. “Breaking the Vessels: The Desacralization of Monarchy in Early Modern England.” Sixteenth Century Journal 29 (1998), 757–78.