Ancrene Wisse: Part One
ANCRENE WISSE, PART ONE: FOOTNOTES
1 Her biginneth . . . beoth to seggen, Here begins the first book [which is] about hours and prayers which are good to say.
2 Hwen ye earst ariseth . . . seggeth, When you first arise, cross yourself and say.
2-3 In nomine Patris . . . Amen, "In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, Amen" (monastic invocation to the Trinity).
3 biginneth anan, begin (imper.) at once; Veni, Creator Spiritus, "Come, Creator Spirit" (hymn to the Holy Spirit, often attributed to Rabanus Maurus).
4-5 with up ahevene ehnen . . . with the verset, with eyes and hands lifted up towards heaven, bowing on knees forward upon the bed, and say out thus (i.e., in this posture) all the hymn with the versicle.
5-6 Emitte spiritum tuum, "Send forth your spirit" (versicle based on Psalm 103:30).
6 ant te ureisun, and the prayer (te = reduced form of the); Deus, qui corda fidelium, "God, who [did teach] the hearts of the faithful" (prayer to the Holy Spirit).
6-7 Her-efter, scheoiende ow . . . seggeth, After that, putting on your shoes and clothes (lit., shoeing yourself and clothing yourself), say.
7 Pater noster ant Credo, "Our Father" (i.e., the Lord's Prayer) and "I believe" (i.e., the Apostles' Creed).
7-8 Jesu Criste, fili Dei . . . miserere nobis, "Jesus Christ, Son of the living God, have mercy on us, you who thought it worthy (or, deigned) to be born of the Virgin, have mercy on us" (a prayer).
8-10 This word seggeth . . . sitten ye other stonden, Say (imper.) this word (or, speech) continually until you are completely ready. Have (imper.) this word much in use (i.e., use this prayer often) and in [your] mouth often, each time that you can, [whether] you sit or stand.
11-13 Hwen ye beoth . . . with theose gretunges, When you are completely ready, sprinkle yourself with holy water, which you always ought to have [available], and think on God's flesh (or, body) and on his precious blood, which is above the high altar, and fall down towards it with these greetings.
14-29 Ave, principium nostre creationis . . . Cum Patre, et cetera, "Hail, beginning of our creation, / Hail, price of our redemption, / Hail, viaticum (i.e., allowance for a journey; or, Eucharist at the last rites) for our pilgrimage, / Hail, reward of our expectation, / Hail, comfort for our patient suffering. // Be our joy, / You who will be [our] reward. / May our glory [be] in You / through all [time], for ever and ever. // Stay with us, O Lord. / Take away the dark night; / Wash clean every wrong; / Grant a holy remedy. // Glory [be] to you, O Lord, / You who were born of the Virgin. / With the Father, etc." (a prayer, or hymn typically recited at the elevation of the host).
30-31 Alswa ye schule . . . schule beon i-huslet, You ought to do likewise when the priest holds it (i.e., the host) up at the mass, and before the "I confess" (i.e., the form of confession used in the mass) when you are given the Eucharist (lit., houseled).
31-32 Efter this falleth o cneon . . . Godes fif wunden, After this, fall on [your] knees at your Crucifix with these five greetings, in remembrance of God's five wounds.
32-34 Adoramus te, Christe . . . qui passus es pro nobis, "We worship You, Christ, and bless You because You have, through the Holy Cross, redeemed the world. We worship Your Cross, O Lord. We contemplate Your glorious passion. Have mercy on us, You who have suffered for us" (antiphon and response for matins on the Feasts of the Invention and Exaltation of the Cross).
35-38 Salve, crux sancta . . . Mundi tulit talentum, "Hail, Holy Cross, / Worthy tree, / Whose precious strength / Bore the weight of the world" (hymn for the Mass of the Cross).
39-40 Salve crux, que . . . margaritis ornata, "Hail [O] Cross, [you] who are consecrated in the body of Christ, and by His limbs are decorated as with pearls" (antiphon for the Feast of St. Andrew).
41-46 O crux, lignum triumphale . . . egras sana, "O Cross, victorious wood, / True safety of the world, hail. / Among wood (or, trees) [there is] no such [a one] / In leaf, flower, bud. // Christian medicine, / Save the healthy (fem.), heal the sick (fem.)" (stanzas from the hymn Laudes crucis atollamus).
47 beateth, (imper.) beat.
47-48 Quod non valet . . . in tuo nomine, "What human strength is not strong [enough] for, [let it] be [done] in your name."
49-50 Hwa-se ne con theos five . . . gretunges, Whosoever does not know these five say the first, "We worship you" (see gloss to 1.32-35 above) kneeling, five times and cross yourself with each one of these greetings.
50-51 Miserere nostri . . . nobis, "Have mercy on us, [you] who have suffered for us" (the end of the response in the Adoramus te - see gloss to 1.32-34 above).
51-52 beateth ower heorte . . . with the thume, beat your heart (i.e., chest) and kiss the earth, crossed with the thumb.
52-55 Th'refter wendeth ow . . . yef ei is i-halhet, After that (lit., thereafter), direct yourself to our Lady's likeness and kneel with five "Aves," and lastly to the other images, and bow to your relics or kneel, namely to the saints to which you have turned your altars, so much more readily if any [of them] is consecrated (lit., hallowed).
56-58 Ther-efter anan-riht . . . ba stille, Immediately after that (lit., thereafter at once) [say] our Lady's matins (lit., morning song) - and say [it] in this way: if it is a work day, fall to the ground; if it is a holiday (i.e., feast day), bowing somewhat downward say, "Our Father" (i.e., the Lord's Prayer) and "I believe" (i.e., the Apostles' Creed).
58-59 Rihteth ow up . . . with the thume, Straighten yourself up after that and say, "Lord, open my lips" (versicle based on Psalm 50:17). Make a cross on your mouth with the thumb.
59-62 Ed Deus in adiutorium . . . Sicut erat, At "God [come] to [my] aid" (Psalm 69:2 as a response, recited at the beginning of each of the canonical hours except compline), [make] a large cross with the thumb and with the two fingers, from above the forehead down to the chest, and fall to the ground - if it is a work day, with the "Glory [be] to the Father" (i.e., the lesser doxology) or bow down if it is a holiday (i.e., feast day) until the "As it was [in the beginning]" (i.e., the last verse of the Gloria Patri).
62-68 Thus ed euch Gloria Patri . . . to ther eorthe, So (i.e., do the same - make the sign of the Cross) at the beginning (or, start) of the "Come" (i.e., the "invitation" to matins, Psalm 94) and in (i.e., during) the "Come," at "Come, let us adore" (Psalm 94:6) and at the "Hail Mary," and wheresoever you hear Mary's name named, and at each "Our Father" that belongs (lit., falls) to your hours and to the "I believe" (i.e., the Apostles' Creed), and to the collect at each and every canonical hour (lit., tide), and at the final verse of each and every (lit., every each) hymn, and at the last verse but one of the psalm, "Bless, Lord, all the works of the Lord" (the canticle of the three children - see Daniel 3:57). At all these very [things], if it is a holiday, bow somewhat downward. If it is a work day, fall to the ground.
68-69 Ed te biginnunge . . . as ich ear tahte, At the beginning of each and every canonical hour, [start] with.
69 Deus in adiutorium, "God [come] to [my] aid" (Psalm 69, recited at the beginning of each canonical hour except compline).
69-70 makieth rode-taken . . . te dei is, make the sign of the Cross (lit., Rood-token), as I taught [you] before. At "Come, Creator" (see gloss to 1.3) bow or kneel according to what the day is (i.e., which day it is).
70-73 With Memento . . . Homo factus est, At "Remember, Author of salvation" (from a Christmas hymn, Christe redemptor omnium), always fall down, and at this word - "Once born, You took on [our] form" (a later verse in the same hymn) - kiss the earth and also in the "We praise You, God" (i.e., the "Te Deum," a famous hymn intregal to matins) at this word (or, phrase): "You did not shudder at [the thought of entering] the Virgin's womb" (a later verse in the "Te Deum") and at the mass in the great "I believe" (i.e., the Apostles' Creed) at "from the Virgin Mary," and "[He] was made man" (later verses in the Creed).
74-76 Euch-an segge . . . i the dahunge, Let each one say her hours as she has written them [down], and each [canonical] hour separately, as far as you can, say in its [proper] time, rather too soon than too late if you cannot always keep the time. Matins by night in winter, in summer at the dawning (or, daybreak).
76-78 This winter schal biginnen . . . Pretiosa th'refter, This winter will begin at the Holy Cross Day (i.e., September 14) in the fall, and last until Easter. Prime [will be] early in winter, in summer around morning, and "Precious [in the sight of the Lord]" after that (Psalm 115:15, opening to a quasi-office associated with prime).
78-79 Yef ye habbeth neode . . . swa neodeth, If you have an urgent need to speak (lit., if you have need to speak because of any impetuosity, or haste), you may say it before and after matins immediately if it is thus necessary.
79-82 Non eaver efter mete . . . for ye eoteth twien, As long as summer lasts, [let] None (i.e., the canonical hour at midday, originally the ninth) always [be] after the meal, except when you all are fasting, and, when you sleep (i.e., take midday nap), after sleep. In winter, [let None come] before the meal, when you are all fasting; on Sunday (lit., the Sunday), however, [let it come] after the meal since you eat twice.
82-83 Ed te an salm . . . ant buhen, At the first (lit., one) psalm [of each canonical hour], you will stand if you are able, and at the second sit, and always with the "Glory to the Father" [you will] rise up and bow.
83-86 Hwa-se mei stonden . . . the Pater noster, Whosoever can stand, all for our Lady's honor, [let her] stand for God's sake (lit., side). At all of the seven [canonical] hours sing (imper.) "Our Father," and "Hail, Mary" both before and after; [sing] "Souls of the faithful" (versicle concluding prime) after each hour, before the "Our Father."
86-87 Ed threo tiden . . . haldeth silence, At [these] three hours, say "I believe" with "Our Father": 1) before matins and 2) after prime, and 3) after compline; from your compline until after "Precious [in the Lord's sight]" keep silence (Psalm 115:15 - see gloss to 1.76-78 above).
88-90 Efter even-song anan . . . efter uht-song, After vespers (lit., evensong) say at once your "I shall please [the Lord]" (an antiphon from the Office of the Dead, based on Psalm 114:9) each night when you are at leisure (or, are able), unless it be a holy night for a feast of nine lessons which comes in the morning, before compline, or after vespers.
90 Dirige, "Direct [my path]" (an antiphon from the Office of the Dead, based on Psalm 5:8).
90-92 In aniversaries . . . lux perpetua luceat eis, On anniversaries [of the death] of your dearest friends say all nine [lessons]. In place of "Gloria" at the end of each psalm, [say] "Give them eternal peace, Lord, and let perpetual light shine on them" (versicle and response from the Office of the Dead).
92-94 Ed Placebo . . . Laudate al ut, At "I shall please [the Lord]" sit until "[My soul shall] magnify [the Lord]" (the "Magnificat," from the Office of the Dead, based on Luke 1:46), likewise [sit] at "Direct [my path]," except at the lessons, at the "Have mercy" (Psalm 50, used in the Office of the Dead) and from "Praise [the Lord]" (Psalm 150, used in the Office of the Dead) completely to the end (lit., all out).
94 Requiescant in pace . . . Benedicamus, [Say] "May they rest in peace" (versicle from the Office of the Dead) in the place of (or, instead of) "Let us bless [the Lord]" (versicle recited near the end of the day).
95-96 Ine marhen . . . other stondinde, In the morning or at night after the intercessory prayers (lit., suffrages) of matins say the Commendation (see glossary), [say] the psalms sitting, the prayers kneeling or standing.
96-98 Yef ye thus doth . . . the mete-graces, If you do thus each night except Sunday night only, you do much better. On a one-meal-day we (i.e., members of our order) say both "I shall please [the Lord]" and "Direct [my path]" (see glosses to lines 88-90 above) after the prayers of thanks for food (lit., food-graces).
98 I twi-mel-dei . . . mote don, On a two-meal-day [we say them] after None, and you may do likewise.
99 Seove psalmes (i.e., the seven penitential psalms: 6, 31, 37, 50, 101, 129, and 142); fletanie, Litany; Fiftene psalmes (i.e., the fifteen gradual psalms, often recited for private devotion: 119-33).
100 o this wise, in this way.
100-02 the earste five . . . the forme five, the first five for yourself and for all who do or wish good to you. The second five for the peace of all Holy Church, the third five for all Christians' souls. After the first five [say].
102-04 Kyrie eleison . . . cui proprium est, "Lord have mercy; Christ have mercy; Lord have mercy" (a prayer used in both the mass and the divine office); "Our Father" . . . "and [lead] us not [into temptation]"; "Save your servants and handmaidens, my God, [who] are hoping in you" (versicle and response based on Psalm 85:2, 16:7); Let us pray: "God, whose nature it is [always to forgive]" (prayer).
105-07 Domine, fiat pax . . . placatus, "Lord, let there be peace in your strength and abundance in your towers" (Psalm 121:7 as versicle); Let us pray: "We beseech you to be pleased with the prayers of your church" (prayer).
107-09 Efter the thridde five . . . Deus omnium, After the third five, without the "Glory be to the Father" you must say "Lord have mercy"; three [times] "Our Father" . . . "and [lead] us not [into temptation]"; "From the gate of hell, O Lord, deliver their souls" (versicle from the Office of the Dead); Let us pray: "God, [Creator and Redeemer] of all the faithful" (prayer).
110-13 abuten under . . . hare meassen, around Tierce (or, morning), for around such time as people sing mass in all religious orders and our Lord suffered pain upon the Cross, you ought to be especially in prayers and in petitions, and likewise from Prime until mid-morning, when priests of the world (i.e., secular priests) sing their masses.
114 an Godd, one God.
115-19 ant thah is mihte . . . leovest, and nevertheless in Holy Writ power is directed to You, especially, You precious Father; wisdom to You, blessed Son; love to You, Holy Spirit. Give me, [O] one almighty God threefold in three persons (or, occupations), these very three things: power to serve You, wisdom to please You, love and desire to do it - power that I may do, wisdom that I can do, love that I want to do always what is most dear to You.
119-21 As thu art ful . . . of the, As you are full of every good - likewise, [there] is no lack of good where these three are: power and wisdom and love, joined together - [I pray] that You [may] grant them to me, Holy Trinity, in the worship of You.
122-26 Verset: Benedicamus . . . the wulle, Versicle: "Let us bless the Father and the Son along with the Holy Spirit; let us praise and exalt Him above all others forever" (versicle for Trinity Sunday); Let us pray: "Omnipotent, eternal God, You who have granted Your servants in the confession of the true faith to know the glory of the eternal Trinity" (prayer for Trinity Sunday). "Alpha and Omega" (a famous hymn to the Trinity by Hildebert of Lavardin [1056-1133] - see also Revelations 1:8, 21:6, and 22:13) - whoever has it (i.e., by heart), or whoever wants [may] say some other [prayer] about the Holy Trinity.
127-29 "A Jesu . . . deore-wurthe Laverd," "Ah, Jesus, [grant me] Your grace! Jesus, hung on a Cross for my sins, by the very five wounds [from] which You bled on it, heal my bloody soul of all the sins which she is wounded with by my five senses. That it [may] be so, in the memory of them (i.e., the five wounds), precious Lord, [I will pray]."
129-32 Fif Pater nostres . . . sancte crucis, [Say] five "Our Fathers"; versicle: "Let all the earth adore You, and recite a psalm to Your name"; Let us pray: "O righteous Judge" (hymn probably by Berengar of Tours [999-1088]) - if you can (or, know [it]), or [say] some other [prayer] about the Cross - "God, who by the precious blood of Your only begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, [wanted to sanctify] the emblem (or, standard) of the Holy Cross."
134 yiftes, gifts.
134-38 thet ich ham mote habben . . . eadi nome, that I might have them, and for the seven hours (i.e., the liturgical hours) that Holy Church sings, that I [may] share in them, [whether] I sleep or wake, and for the seven prayers in the "Our Father" against the seven capital and mortal sins, that you protect me from them and all their branches (or, perhaps, miseries - see glossary) and give me the seven happy blessings (or, happinesses) which You have, Lord, promised Your elect in Your blessed name."
138-40 Seove Pater nostres . . . preces, [Say] seven "Our Fathers"; versicle: "Send forth Your spirit" (versicle based on Psalm 103:30); Let us pray: "God, to whom every heart opens" (collect); We beg You, Lord, [to hear the prayers] of Your church; We beg You to hear, Lord, the prayers of the supplicants" (prayer from the Litany).
141-43 "For the ten heastes . . . Laverd," "For the ten commandments which I have broken, some or all, and for myself - for whatever of anything else which is tithed (i.e., which I have tithed) unfaithfully to You - in repentance for these breaches (or, violations), in order to reconcile myself to You, precious Lord, [I will say]."
143-45 verset: Ego dixi . . . misereri, versicle: "I said to the Lord, have mercy on me, heal my spirit, because I have sinned against You" (a response); Let us pray: "God, whose nature it is [always to forgive]" (prayer).
145-47 "[I] the wurthgunge . . . blisfule Laverd," "In honor, Jesus Christ, of Your twelve Apostles, that I might everywhere follow their teaching, that I might have through their prayers the twelve branches which blossom with love, as Saint Paul writes, blessed Lord [I will say]."
148-49 verset: Annuntiaverunt . . . presidiis, versicle: "They made known the works of God; and understood His deeds" (versicle and response for the Feast of the Apostles); Let us pray: "Hear us, God our salvation, and watch over us with the protection of Your Apostles" (collect for the Feast of the Apostles).
150-53 H[a]lhen the ye luvieth best . . . Laverd, The saints which you love best - in their honor say either more or less as your heart directs (lit., as [it] best weighs You in heart), and [say] the versicle[s] afterwards with their collect: "For all those who have done any good to me, said [it] to me, or wished [it] to me, and for all those who accomplish the six works of mercy, [O] merciful Lord [I will say]."
153-54 verset: Dispersit . . . Domine, versicle: "He has bestowed, He has given [to the poor]; His justice remains" (versicle and response for lauds); Let us pray: "Condescend to reward, Lord" (prayer for after the meal).
155 Hwa-se wule . . . Pater nostres, Whoever wants [may] say the psalm "To You I have lifted up [my eyes]" (Psalm 122) before the "Our Fathers."
157-59 beoth forth-fearen . . . Laverd, which have departed in the belief of the four Gospels which hold up all Christendom on four sides (i.e., corners), [I pray] that You [may] give them the four bridal-gifts in heaven, gracious Lord.
159-61 Yef ye seggeth nihene . . . betere, If you say nine - as there are nine troops of angels - [so] that God through His mercy [may] hurry them (i.e., the departed souls) out of pain into their (i.e., the angels') fellowship - you do even better.
161 De profundis, "From the Depths" (Psalm 129, one of the seven penitential Psalms).
162-63 Kyrie eleison . . . Fidelium, "Lord have mercy" three [times]; versicle: "From the gate of hell [deliver their souls]" (antiphon from the Office of the Dead); Let us pray: "[O God, Creator and Savior] of all the faithful" (prayer from the Litany).
164-67 Bi dei sum time . . . other asse, By day some time, or by night, gather in your heart all sick and sorrowful [people] who suffer distress and poverty, the pains which prisoners suffer and experience where they lie, weighed down heavily with iron, especially for the Christians who are in heathen lands, some in prison, some in as much servitude (or, slavery) as [an] ass is or ox.
167-69 Habbeth reowthe . . . are, Have pity on those who are in severe temptations: set all their sorrows in your heart and sigh to our Lord that He [may] take pity on them and look at them with the eye of His grace.
170 hwile, time.
170-72 Levavi oculos . . . famulabus, "I have lifted [my] eyes [to the mountains]" (Psalm 120); "Our Father"; versicle: "Return, O Lord - How long [will you stay away]? And be receptive to your servants" (prayer for Ash Wednesday); Let us pray: "Stretch out, Lord, [your right hand] to your servants and handmaids" (collect in the Litany).
173 heveth up . . . stondinde, lifts up God's body, say (imper.) this verse, standing.
174-75 Ecce salus . . . verus homo, "Behold the salvation of the world, the word of the Father, the true sacrifice (or, Host), living flesh, divinity complete, true man" (invocation in the consecration).
176-86 Ave, principium . . . Gloria tibi, Domine, "Hail, beginning of our creation, / Hail, price of our redemption, / Hail, viaticum (i.e., allowance for a journey; or, Eucharist at the last rites) for our pilgrimage, / Hail, reward of our expectation, / Hail, comfort for our patient suffering. // Be our joy, / You who will be [our] reward. / May our glory [be] in You / Through all [time]. Amen. // Stay with us, O Lord. // Glory [be] to You, O Lord" (see gloss to 1.14-29 above).
187-94 Set quis est locus . . . famule tue, But what place is there in me where my God may come into me, where God may come and remain in me, the God who created heaven and earth? Is it so, Lord, my God? Is [there] something in me which captures (or, contains) You? Who will grant to me that You may come into my heart and make it drunk and that I may embrace You, my one good? Who are You to me? Have mercy so I may speak. My spirit is a narrow house for You. In order that You come to it, let it be enlarged by You. It is broken down: restore it. It may have [things] which offend Your eyes, I confess and know, but who will clean it? Or to whom else except You will I cry out? Cleanse me, Lord, from my hidden [sins], and spare Your servant from others (i.e., other sins)" (Based on Augustine, Confessions, Book 1, chs. 2 and 5).
195 Miserere . . . magnam, "Have mercy, have mercy, have mercy on me, God, according to [Your] great [compassion]" (Psalm 50, used in the Office of the Dead).
195-96 ant swa al the salm . . . twien, and so [say] the psalm out with "Glory be to the Father" (the doxology) and "Christ, hear us" (an antiphon) twice.
196-203 Kyrie eleison . . . Dominum, "Lord have mercy, Christ have mercy, Lord have mercy"; "Our Father"; "I believe in the resurrection of the body and life everlasting. Amen." (the Apostles' Creed); "Save Your servant, my God, who hopes in You" (versicle and response based on Psalm 85:2, 16:7); "Teach me to do Your will, because You are my God" (from Psalm 142:10); "Lord, hear my prayer, and may my cries reach You" (Psalm 101, one of the penitential Psalms); Let us pray: "Grant, we ask, all-powerful God, that Him whom we see obscurely and in a strange form, on whom we dine sacramentally on earth, we may see Him face to face, and that we may be worthy to delight in Him in heaven just as He actually and truly is, through the same Lord" (prayer for the Lauds of Our Lady).
203-06 Efter the measse-cos . . . easkith, After the kiss of peace (lit., mass-kiss), when the priest consecrates [the Eucharist] - there forget all the world, there be completely out of [your] body, there in sparkling (or, shining) love embrace your beloved (or, lover) who has lighted (or, descended) from heaven into the bower of your breast (or, heart), and hold Him firmly until He has granted you all that you ever ask.
207 This ureisun . . . strengthe, This prayer, [recited] before the great Cross, is of great power.
208-09 hwa-se mei . . . derve pine, whoever can - whoever cannot then, at some other time - [should] think on God's Cross and His cruel pain, as much as she ever most knows how or is able.
209-11 Ant biginne . . . bone, And [let her] begin afterwards the same five greetings (or, salutations) which are written above, and also kneel at each one and make the sign of the Cross, as it says there (i.e., above), and beat your (lit., the) breast and make one such prayer [as this].
212-13 Adoramus te . . . lignum, "(1) We worship You, Christ. (2) [We worship] Your Cross. (3) Hail, Holy Cross. (4) Hail, O Cross, which. . . . (5) O, Cross, wood [victorious]" (i.e., the five greetings mentioned above).
213 antefne, antiphon.
213-14 Salva nos . . . crucis, "Save us, Christ [our] savior, by the power of the Holy Cross" (antiphon from the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross).
214-20 rode-taken . . . sanctam crucem as ear, sign of the Cross and say standing the psalm, "Rejoice [in the Lord]" (Psalm 99) with "Glory be to the Father" (the doxology). And then say the antiphon always in this way: "Save us, Christ [our] Savior, by the power of Your Holy Cross" (antiphon for the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross) and make the sign of the Cross with "[You] who have saved Peter on the ocean, have mercy on us" (antiphon based on Matthew 14:28-31) and beat [your] breast and then fall down and say, "Christ, hear us. Jesus Christ, hear us" (an antiphon); "Lord have mercy, Christ have mercy, Lord have mercy"; "Our Father" . . . "and [lead] us not [into temptation]" (Lord's prayer); versicle: "Our protector, God, see and look into the face of Your Christ" (based on Psalm 83:10); Let us pray: "God, who [ascended] the Holy Cross" (antiphon for matins) as before.
220-27 Eft biginne . . . in sanctis eius, Begin again "We worship" (see gloss to 1.32-34 above) as before, all five; "Save us, Christ," the antiphon as before, the psalm "To you [Lord] I have lifted up [my eyes]" (Psalm 122); [say] the antiphon as before completely out (i.e., to the end), and then as before [kneel] to the ground; "Christ, hear us" twice; "Lord have mercy" three [times]; "Our Father" . . . "and [lead] us not [into temptation]"; versicle: "Our Protector," as before; Let us pray: "Defend (lit., be present), we pray, O Lord our God, those whom You cause to rejoice in the Holy Cross" (prayer for after the Mass of the Holy Cross) - a third time [say these prayers] just so, and a fourth time, and a fifth: change nothing at all except the psalms and the prayers. The first psalm [is] "Rejoice [in the Lord]" (Psalm 99), the second, "To You I have lifted up [my eyes]" (Psalm 122), the third, "Those who trust [in the Lord]" (Psalm 124), the fourth, "Lord, [my heart] is not lifted up" (Psalm 130), the fifth, "Praise the Lord in His sanctuary" (Psalm 150).
228-30 Ant in euch beoth . . . intemerata, And in each [there] are five verses. The five prayers are: "Lord, who [ascended] the Holy Cross" (collect); "Defend, Lord, we pray" (post-communion prayer); "God, who for us [consented that] Your Son should suffer" (collect); "God, who [with the precious blood] of Your only begotten Son" (mass prayer for Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross); "Upright Judge" (hymn); with "O blessed and unsullied" (variant of a prayer to the Virgin and St. John).
230-31 Ant hwa-se . . . salmes, And whoever does not know these five prayers, may always say one. And whoever thinks [it] too long may leave out the psalms.
232-35 Leafdi Seinte Marie . . . of heovene, Lady, Saint Mary, for the same great joy which you had within you in the very time that Jesus God, God's son, after the angel's greeting, took flesh and blood in you and from you, receive my greeting with the same "Hail" [as the angel used] and make me think little of each external joy, but comfort me within and obtain for me those [joys] from heaven.
235-37 Ant ase wis . . . sunnen, And as surely as in that same body which He took of you [there] was no sin, nor in yours - as people believe [that your body was sinless] after this same taking (i.e., the incarnation), whatever [it] might have been before - cleanse my soul of bodily sins.
238-40 Ave athet . . . sithen, "Hail [Mary]" until "The Lord be with you" (i.e., end of the first verse of the "Ave") as one begins the antiphon, and then the psalm, and after the psalm, [said] out completely five times, and so at [the end of] each psalm [say] "Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord be with you" (the "Ave," based on Luke 1:28). "[My soul] magnifies [the Lord]" (the "Magnificat," based on Luke 1:46); "Hail, Mary" out completely five times.
241-44 tha thu sehe . . . of dede, when you saw the same joyful Son born from your pure body for mankind's healing (or, salvation), without ever any rupture, with intact virginity and virgin's honor, heal me who, I fear, am shattered by desire (or, by my will), whatever [the case may] be concerning [my] actions.
244-45 Ant yef me . . . ferredden, And give (or, grant) me in heaven to see your joyful face, and at least to behold the virgins' honor, if I am not worthy to be blessed in their companionship.
246-47 Ave, Maria . . . ear five, "Hail, Mary full of grace, [may] the Lord [be] with you"; "When I was in trouble [I cried out] to the Lord" (Psalm 119, first of 15 gradual psalms); "Hail" - five, as before.
248-52 tha thu sehe . . . in heovene, when you saw your dear precious Son after His cruel death arise to joyful life, His body seven times brighter than the sun, give (or, grant) me to die with Him and arise in Him - to die worldly (i.e., with respect to the world), to live spiritually - to share in His pains as a comrade on earth, in order to be His comrade in joy in heaven.
252-53 of his blisful ariste . . . muchele sorhe, from His joyful resurrection after your great sorrow.
253 ich am in her, I am in here.
254 Retribue servo tuo, "Restore your servant" (Psalm 118:7).
255-59 tha thu sehe . . . blissen, when you saw your bright, joyful Son, whom the Jews hoped to suffocate (or, kill) in the tomb, rise so worthily and so powerfully on Holy Thursday to His joy into His kingdom of heaven, grant me to throw all the world under foot (lit., feet) and climb with Him to heavenly joys - now, in heart (lit., heartily); when I die, spiritually; on Judgment Day, quite bodily.
259 Ave, Maria . . . tecum, "Hail, Mary, fully of grace, the Lord be with you" (first line of the "Ave").
259-60 In convertendo, "[The Lord] in reversing [the captivity of Zion]" (Psalm 125, one of the 15 gradual psalms).
261-64 thet fulde al the eorthe . . . in heovene, which filled all the earth when He received you into immeasurable (or, unimaginable) joy and with His joyful arms set you in the throne and [set] the queen's crown on [your] head, brighter than the sun, [O] high heavenly queen, receive these greetings from me in such a way on earth that I might greet you joyfully in heaven.
265 Ad te levavi, "To you I have lifted up [my eyes]" (Psalm 122, one of the 15 gradual psalms).
265-67 verset: Spiritus sanctus . . . Gratiam tuam, versicle: "The Holy Spirit will come over you and the strength of the Most High will overshadow you" (Luke 1:35 as versicle for the Feast of the Assumption); Let us pray: "[Pour out] your grace" (collect for Easter vespers of Our Lady).
267 Antefne, [and say this] antiphon.
268-73 Ave, Regina celorum . . . exora, "Hail, Queen of heaven, / Hail, Ruler (lit., Lady) of angels, / Greetings, Sacred Root (or, source), / From whom light has arisen to the world, / Hail, O exceedingly beautiful [one], / And always pray to Christ for us" (antiphon for the Feast of the Nativity of Our Lady).
274-75 Verset: Egredietur . . . aulam, Versicle: "A shoot will spring out from the root of Jesse, and a flower will rise up from his root" (Isaiah 11:1 as a versicle and response). Let us pray: "God, who [lowered Himself to choose] the virginal palace (i.e., Mary's womb)" (collect for the Feast of the Assumption).
276-83 Gaude, Dei Genitrix . . . Interventrix, "Rejoice, Mother of God, unblemished Virgin, / Rejoice, [you] who have received joy from the angel, / Rejoice, [you] who have given birth to the splendor of eternal light, / Rejoice, Mother. / Rejoice, holy Virgin, Mother of God, / You alone are a virgin-Mother, / Every creature of your Son praises you, Mother of light, / Be for us a holy Intercessor (fem.)" (antiphon for Tierce of Our Lady).
284-85 Verset: Ecce, Virgo . . . utero, versicle: "Behold, a Virgin will conceive and bear a Son, and His name will be called Emmanuel" (Isaiah 7:14, as a capitulum); Let us pray: "God, who from the womb of the blessed Virgin Mary" (prayer).
286-90 Gaude, Virgo . . . Dominum, "Rejoice, [O] Virgin, / Rejoice, Mother of God, / And rejoice, Mary, joy of all the faithful. / May the church, never ceasing, rejoice in your praises, / And, holy Lady, make us rejoice with you before the Lord" (untraced antiphon).
291-92 Verset: Ecce, concipies . . . generi, versicle: "Behold, you will conceive in your womb and will give birth to a Son, and you shall call His name Jesus" (based on Luke 1:31); Let us pray: "God, [You] who by the fruitful virginity of eternally blessed Mary [have obtained the reward] of salvation for the human race" (collect for the Tierce and Vespers of Our Lady).
294-99 Alma Redemptoris . . . miserere, "Gracious Mother of the Redeemer, who remains the accessible (or, open) gate of heaven / And star of the sea, help the falling people / To rise, who care to rise; you who have given birth to - / Nature was dumbfounded - your holy Father, / Virgin before and afterwards, from the mouth of Gabriel / Receiving that 'Hail,' have mercy on sinners" (an eleventh-century hymn sometimes used as an antiphon for the Feast of the Nativity of the Virgin).
300 Her sitteth . . . hwile, Sit here [to say] the "Aves," fifty or a hundred, or more or less according to [whether] one has time.
301-02 verset: Ecce, ancilla Domini . . . virginum, versicle: "Behold, the handmaid of the Lord. Let it be to me according to your word" (Luke 1:38 as antiphon for the Feast of the Annunciation); Let us pray: "O holy Virgin of virgins" (a collect by Marbod of Rennes).
302-03 Hwa-se wule . . . tale of Avez, Whoever wants may stop above right after the first prayer, "[Pour out] your grace" (collect for Easter vespers of Our Lady), and [let her] say then her full count of "Aves."
304 Ad te levavi, "To you I have lifted up [my eyes]" (Psalm 122).
304-07 Eaver bivore . . . bi five, Before the psalm, always begin (imper. pl.) [with] one "Hail" until "The Lord [be] with you" and say the psalm standing. The psalms are chosen (lit., taken) according to the five letters of our Lady's name - whoever pays (lit., takes) attention [will see] - and all this same prayer runs by fives according to her five highest (or, most exalted) joys.
307 Tele i the antefnes, count (imper.) in the antiphons.
307-09 The ureisuns . . . kunnen, The prayers, which I have but (i.e., only) indicated, except the last [one], are written everywhere. Have written on a scroll whatsoever you do not know.
309-10 other-hwiles, sometimes.
311-12 swetest alre leafdi . . . mulierum, sweetest of all ladies, Lady, most beloved Lady, loveliest Lady. "O most beautiful of women" (Song of Songs 5:9, 17).
312 deore-wurthe, precious.
313 cwen of are . . . are, queen of grace, Lady, have mercy on me (lit., do me grace).
314 milce, mercy.
315-20 O Virgo virginum . . . et cetera, "O Virgin of virgins, / Mary Mother of grace, / Mother of mercy, / Protect us from the enemy / And receive [us] at the hour of death. / Through your Son, Virgin, / Through the Father, and the Paraclete (i.e., the Holy Spirit), / May you be present at [our] passing away, / And prepare a way for our departure. / Glory be to You, Lord, / [You] who were born from the Virgin, etc." (hymn).
326-27 Ant fallen . . . thus forth, And fall (imper., pl.) to the ground and kiss it (lit., her) at this last verse, whoever is in good health (lit., healthy headed), and then ten "Hail [Mary]s," and [say those] ten together, the tenth always [say it] out this way.
327-29 Ave, Maria . . . ventris tui, "Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord be with you; blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb" (the "Ave," based on Luke 1:28, 42).
329-30 Spiritus sanctus . . . Filius Dei, "The Holy Spirit will come over you and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. And therefore the holy one [who] will be born from you will be called the Son of God" (Luke 1:35 as versicle for the Feast of the Assumption).
330-31 Ecce ancilla . . . verbum tuum, "Behold the handmaid of the Lord, let it be to me according to your word" (Luke 1:38 as antiphon for the Feast of the Annunciation).
331-32 ant cusse . . . as ear, and kiss (imper.) the ground at the end, or a step, or a bench, or something higher, and begin, "Lady, sweet Lady," as before.
332-37 The forme tene . . . i the frumthe, [Say] the first ten of the fifty kneeling [alternatively] up and down; the second [group of ten] kneeling upright and still, except at the "Hail Mary" [you should make] some show [of kneeling] with the other knee a little; [say] the third ten down and upon the elbows right to the ground; [say] the fourth, the elbows on a step, or on a bench, and always bow your head (lit., with the head) at the "Hail"; the fifth ten [say] standing, and begin the cycle (lit., turn) again as at the start.
338-42 Al thet ye eaver seggeth . . . grace, All that you ever say of other prayers of this kind, [such] as "Our Fathers," and "Hail [Mary]s" in your own way, psalms and prayers, I am well pleased [with]. [Let] each one say as her heart best directs (lit., as [it] best weighs her in heart) the recitation of the Psalter, reading of English or French, holy meditations, your kneelings whenever (lit., whensoever) you can attend to [them], before meals (lit., food) and after - always as you do more, so [may] God further increase His precious grace [in] you.
342-44 Ah lokith swa . . . awakenin, But so look [to it], I beg you, that you are never unoccupied, but work or read or be in prayers and thus always do something [from] which good may arise (lit., awake).
344-45 The ures of the Hali Gast . . . tide, The hours of the Holy Spirit - if you want to say them, say each hour of them before our Lady's hour.
346-48 Toward te preostes . . . i-writen ow, Listen (imper.) to the priest's hours as far as you can, but [you] must not either recite or sing with him [so] that he might hear it. [Say] your graces (i.e., prayers of thanks at mealtimes) standing before meals (lit., food) and after, as they are written for you.
348-49 Ant with the Miserere . . . segge, And with the "[Lord] have Mercy" go before your altar and end the graces there. Whoever wants to drink between meals [should] say.
349-53 Benedicite . . . Deo gratias, "A blessing. The Son of God blesses our drink. In the name of the Father" (a monastic blessing) - and make the sign of the Cross afterwards. "Our help [is] in the name of the Lord, who made heaven and earth. Blessed be the name of the Lord from this time forth and forevermore. Let us bless the Lord. Thanks be to God" (a versicle).
354 even, evening, night.
354-55 thencheth i hwet . . . Laverd, think in what you have angered our Lord during the day.
355 yeorne, eagerly, earnestly.
356-57 Yef ye habbeth . . . thenchen, If you have done any good, thank Him for His gift, without whom we cannot do well (i.e., any good), or think well.
357-65 Miserere . . . efter-warde clauses, "[Lord] have mercy" and "Lord have mercy, Christ have mercy, Lord have Mercy"; "Our Father" . . . "and [lead] us not [into temptation]"; versicle: "My God, Save your handmaidens [who are] hoping in you"; Let us pray: "God, whose nature it is [always to have mercy]" (prayer); and standing [say] "Visit, O Lord, this house" (prayer for Compline of Our Lady); and then lastly, "Christ conquers, Christ reigns, Christ rules" (antiphon for Easter) with three [signs of the] Cross with the thumb on the forehead, and then "Behold the Cross of the Lord; flee enemy; the lion of the tribe of Judah, the root of David, has conquered. Alleluia" (antiphon for the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross). [Make] a large [sign of the] Cross as [you did] at "God, [come] to my aid" with "Behold the Cross of the Lord," and then [make] four [signs of the] Cross on four sides (i.e., in each of the four directions) with these four following clauses.
366-71 Crux † fugat . . . benignum, "The Cross puts to flight all evil. / The Cross is the restorer of things. / By this sign of the Cross / May all evil flee far away. / And by this very symbol, / May whatever is good be saved" (an untraced hymn).
372-73 On ende . . . slepen, At last, [make the sign of the Cross] over yourself and over the bed as well, "In the name of the Father and of the Son" (monastic invocation to the Trinity). In bed, as far as you can, do not do or think of anything but sleeping (lit., to sleep).
374-80 The ne con . . . adiutorium, Whoever either does not know matins (lit., morning song) or cannot say it, [let her] say in place of matins thirty "Our Fathers" and [thirty] "Hail, Marys" after each "Our Father," and "Glory be to the Father" after each "Hail," and finally, "Let us pray," - whoever knows [it] - "God, whose nature it is [always to forgive]" (prayer); "Let us bless the Lord" (versicle recited near the end of the day); "The souls of the faithful" (versicle concluding prime). For vespers (lit., evensong) [say] twenty, for every other [canonical] hour say fifteen in this way, except that at matins whosoever knows [it] will say first, "Lord, open my lips, and my mouth" (monastic prayer recited before beginning the divine office); "God, [come] to my aid" (Psalm 69:2 as a response, recited at the beginning of each of the canonical hours except compline), and at Compline, "Convert us, beneficent God" (versicle) and "God, [come] to my aid." At all the other hours, "God, [come] to my aid."
381-84 Hwa-se is unheite . . . singeth, Whosoever is unwell [may] cut out from matins ten and from each of the other [hours] five - [she may cut out] half of each one (i.e., each hour), if she is sicker. Whosoever is full of discomfort (i.e., terribly sick), [let her] be released from all. [Let her] take her sickness not only patiently but do [so] very gladly; and everything is hers that Holy Church reads or sings.
384-88 Thah ye ahen . . . her-abuten, Although you ought to think of God at all times (lit., in each time), most [of all], though, in your hours, [so] that your thoughts are not wandering then. If you, through carelessness, skip over words, or mistake a verse, make (lit., take) your "Pardon" with only your (lit., the) hand down on the ground - fall down completely (i.e., kneel with your body fully bowed forward) for serious mistakes, and reveal often in confession your carelessness in this (lit., hereabout).
389-91 This is nu . . . i-halden, This is now the first part (i.e., the first part is now finished), which has spoken up to now about your [divine] service (or, devotional duties). Whatever may now be concerning that (i.e., as the case may be concerning your divine service), these following rules (i.e., those concerning the inner rule) - I would they were kept by all, as they are by you, through God's grace.
ANCRENE WISSE, PART ONE: EXPLANATORY NOTES
The AW proper begins with a section devoted almost wholly to the outer rule - the description of the anchoress' hours. Part One sketches out in rough chronological order the daily prayers (with their accompanying antiphons, responses, versicles, hymns, psalms, etc.) from early morning to just before bedtime, with a scattering of votive prayers which could be recited during any spare moment. This is perhaps the most daunting part of AW for modern readers. As Dahood remarks in "Design in Part I of Ancrene Riwle," "The subject-matter is rather dry and, to many, alien: what prayers should be said and when, what gestures and postures should accompany the prayers, and what atonement should be made for errors of recitation. Many of the prayers, moreover, are not in Middle English but in Latin, and many are cited only by incipit. To modern readers Part I may seem curiously fragmented, a loose assemblage of incipits, prayers and instructions" (p. 1). However, Dahood shows, on the basis of manuscript divisions, that Part One has a tight structure consisting of four main parts, with heavy emphasis on the "normal routine," which was centered around the Little Office of the Virgin, a scaled back version of the divine office, with prescribed prayers for the seven canonical hours (matins/lauds, prime, terce, sext, nones, vespers, and compline). The Little Office formed the backbone of the anchoress' daily devotions.
The following outline of Part One has been adapted from Dahood's "Design in Part I of Ancrene Riwle," pp. 5-6.
I. Normal Routine (1.2-373)
A. Principal devotions between arising and bedtime (1.2-73)
1. Non-official devotions before matins
2. The daily office (1.74-98)
a) Gestures and postures, mainly accompanying the Little Office (1.82-84)
b) Performance and scheduling of the Little Office and dependent activities
c) Performance and scheduling of the Office of the Dead (1.88-98)
3. Non-official devotions after prime (1.99-337)
a) At terce and between prime and terce (1.99-172)
seven penitential psalms and the litany (1.99-113)
prayer to the Trinity (1.114-26)
prayer to the crucified Christ (1.127-33)
prayer for the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit (1.134-40)
prayer for forgiveness for broken ten commandments (1.141-49)
prayer to favorite saints (1.150-56)
prayer for the souls of the departed faithful (1.157-63)
special prayers for the poor and wretched (1.164-72)
b) During the mass (1.173-206)
at the elevation of the Host (1.173-203)
at the kiss of peace (1.203-06)
c) At about midday or at some other time (1.207-337)
special prayers to the Cross: the five greetings (1.207-31)
prayers based on the five joys of the Virgin (1.232-64)
Aves and hymns to the Virgin (1.264-337)
B. Lesser devotions and activities between arising and bedtime (1.338-53)
1. Recommended as defenses against idleness (1.338-45)
a) Additional Pater nosters, Aves, psalms, and prayers (1.338-40)
b) Singing from the Psalter (1.340)
c) Reading of holy meditations in English or French (1.340-42)
d) Work (1.343)
e) Hours of the Holy Ghost before corresponding hours of the Little Office (1.344-45)
2. Required (1.346-53)
a) Listening to the priest's hours as much as possible (1.346-47)
b) Graces before and after meals and when drinking between meals (1.347-53)
C. Bedtime Prayers (1.354-73)
1. Prayer for forgiveness (1.354-59)
2. Prayers and hymns with signs of the Cross (1.359-73)
II. Substitute Routine (1.374-84)
III. Penance for Errors of Recitation (1.384-88)
IV. A Short Formal Conclusion (1.389-91)
As Ackerman and Dahood point out, "Even after making allowance for optional acts of worship, one must conclude that the anchoress' liturgical day was a crowded one" (p. 36). See the Introduction (pp. 8-9) for a reconstructed itinerary.
Many scholars have attempted to match the liturgical practices outlined here to those of a particular order and thus narrow the search for the author. See the Introduction (pp. 11 ff.) for a summary of the various theories.
The best guide to the details of Part One is Ackerman and Dahood's edition, Ancrene Riwle: Introduction and Part I, along with Dahood's later article "Design in Part I of Ancrene Riwle." For more information on the origin or use of particular prayers, hymns, psalms, etc. in Part One, see especially the former. Barbara Raw's article, "The Prayers and Devotions of the Ancrene Wisse," in Chaucer and the Middle Ages: Studies in Honour of Rossell Hope Robbins, ed. Beryl Rowland (London: Allen & Unwin, 1974), pp. 260-71, is also useful in that it reveals the influence of late Anglo-Saxon liturgical practice.
2-3 As Ackerman and Dahood note, making the sign of the Cross and invoking the Trinity after awaking was an "established monastic custom" (p. 92n1).
13 hehe weoved. The anchoress could see the high altar through her "church-window," that is the slit or "squint" pointed towards the altar in the church. See 2.259-61 for a reference to this window.
49 In "The Liturgical Day in Ancrene Riwle," Ackerman takes the scattered instructions about such things as kneelings as evidence that the anchoresses had not gone through a novitiate and thus were not nuns: "explicit directions about kneeling, beating the breast, signing oneself with the cross, and the like are the best evidence that the original anchoresses were without liturgical training" (p. 739).
74 hire ures. These "hours" refer to the Little Office of the Virgin and represent the core of the liturgical day (see the headnote to Part One).
88 ff. This paragraph describes how the anchoresses are to say the Office of the Dead, which begins with the antiphon, Placebo Domino in regione vivorum ("I shall please the Lord in the land of the living").
95 efter the suffragies of uht-song seggeth commendaciun. Ackerman and Dahood explain: "Suffrages are prayers intercessory in nature and may include prayers for the souls of the dead. Commendations are prayers for the dead at burials and commemorative services which usually end Tibi, Domine, commendamus" (p. 96n41).
99 letanie. The Litany consists of a series of prayers and invocations to various saints. Though part of the public liturgy of the mass, it became very popular in private devotions as well.
127 fif wunden. The Five Wounds of Christ as well as the Five Joys of Mary (see Explanatory Note to 1.232) became stock motifs in literature and art by the late Middle Ages (see Ackerman and Dahood, p. 97n55).
134 seove yiftes of the Hali Gast. Ackerman points out that this series of prayers is "based on number symbolism" ( "The Liturgical Day," p. 737): the five wounds of Christ, the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, the prayer about the ten commandments, etc.
232 Here begin a series of five prayers based on the Five Joys of Mary, which describe the joy of the Virgin at five key events: 1) the Annunciation, 2) the Nativity, 3) the Resurrection, 4) the Ascension, and 5) the Assumption (of the Virgin into heaven). The subject was often treated in English lyrics - see, for example, the six poems in the section entitled "The Joys of Mary" in Karen Saupe's edition Middle English Marian Lyrics (Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1998), pp. 137-46. Ackerman and Dahood note that the "theme of five joys was especially popular in England in contrast to the seven joys figuring in works originating on the Continent. Later, fifteen and even twenty-five joys were distinguished" (p. 100n100). These prayers must have been well known to either the scribe or intended readers of the Corpus version since they are heavily abbreviated, often with a single letter standing for an entire word (a practice unusual for this scribe): for example, line 1.255 appears in the MS as "Leafdi seinte Ma. for þe il. m. b. þet tu h. þa þu sehe. . . . "
305-06 the fif leattres of ure Leafdis nome. A series of five biblical verses which spell out the name M-A-R-I-A with their first letters: the canticle Magnificat (from Luke 1:46-55), Ad Dominum cum tribularer (Psalm 119:1), Retribuo servo tuo (Psalm 118:17), In convertendo (Psalm 125:1), and Ad te levavi (Psalm 122:1) (Ackerman and Dahood, p. 102n120).
360 A "†" appears in the MS where the anchoresses are to make the sign of the Cross.
ANCRENE WISSE, PART ONE: TEXTUAL NOTES
57-58 buhinde sum-deal dune-ward seggeth Pasternoster. MS: buhinde sumdeal duneward seggeð. Pater noster. Tolkien, with an eye on Nero, suggests that a ; 7 (that is, a mark of punctuation and the abbreviation for ant) has fallen out before seggeð. In Cleo., Scribe B writes an ampersand over an original point, though Dobson calls this a "[f]alse alteration . . . but superficially attractive and also found in Nero . . . ; cf. also [Vitellius'] more consistent abaissez . . . et dites, which shows what the corrector [in Cleo.] and the Nero scribe had in mind" (p. 18, note n). The Corpus reading is retained here. [Cleo.: bu3inde sumdel duneward. (ant) segeð. Pater noster, with an ampersand written over the point; Titus (lost); Nero: buinde sumdel duneward. ant siggeð paternoster; Vernon: bouwynde sumdel dounward. sigge pater noster; Pepys: boweþ sumdel dounward wiþ þe. Pater noster; Caius (lacking); Vitellius: abaissez auq . . . vers val. et dites [Pater] noster; Trinity (lacking); Lat. (lacking).]
62 hit [is] hali-dei. MS: hit hali dei. The missing is is restored here. [Cleo.: hit is hali dai; Titus (lost); Nero: hit is halidei; Vernon: hit is haly day; Pepys: it is haliday; Caius (lacking); Vitellius: sil est iour ouerable; Trinity (lacking); Lat. (lacking).]
86-87 bivoren uht-song ant efter prime ant eft[er complie]; from ower complie athet. MS: biuoren uhtsong ant efter prime. ant eft from ower complie aþet . . . Since the first part of the sentence stipulates three hours, the scribe probably omitted efter complie by eye-skip to the next phrase (from complie athet efter pretiosa), altering efter to eft. The text is restored on the model of Cleo. [Cleo.: biforen vchtsong. ant et prime ant et compelin. From ouwer compelin oðet . . . ; Titus (lost); Nero: biuoren vhtsong ant efter prime. ant efter cumpelie vrom þet efter preciosa . . . ; Vernon: Bifore matyns and after prime and after cumplye. til that preciosa; Caius (lacking); Pepys: Att Matyns. Att Pryme. and att complyn. with þe Pater noster. and after Preciosa . . . ; Vitellius: Deua[nt] [matines et ap]res prime. et apres [com]pli. de vostre compli deskes [apres] . . . ; Trinity (lacking); Lat. (lacking).]
124 vere fidei eternae gloriam. MS: uere fidei eter. gloriam. Tolkien notes that trinitatis has been omitted after gloriam. [Cleo. (lacking); Titus (lost); Nero: uere fidei eterne trinitatis; Vernon (lacking); Pepys (lacking); Caius (lacking); Vitellius (lacking); Trinity (lacking); Lat. (lacking).] In general Nero provides longer versions of Latin quotations.
125-26 hwa-se hit haveth, other [sum other] of the hali thrumnesse segge the wulle. MS: hwa se hit haueð. oðer of þe hali þrumnesse segge þe wulle. The text in Corpus - which now reads "or whoever wants [may] say of the Holy Trinity" - seems corrupt, probably due to eye-skip from one oþer to the second, and here the missing phrase sum oþer is supplied from Nero (since Cleo.'s text is problematic), giving the reading "or whoever wants [may] say some other [prayer] of the Holy Trinity." See Dobson (p. 24n3) for an involved description of this line, much corrected and muddled, in Cleo. [Cleo.: hwase hit haueð al (;) oðer sum. oðer of þe hali Trumnesse; segge wase wulle; Titus (lost); Nero: hwo se hit haueð oþer sum oþer of ðe holi þrumnesse sigge þe wulle; Vernon: hose hit haueþ oþer of þe holy trinite sigge þat wole.; Pepys (lacking); Caius (lacking); Vitellius: ke lad. ou auscun altre oroison de la seinte trinitee; die qe vult; Trinity (lacking); Lat. (lacking).]
145 MS: tweof apostles. Tolkien believes that tweof is "probably a genuine form," (p. 18, fol. 7v, line 10), and does indeed appear again in 4.481; 8.11 reads tweofte, however. Thus, it seems best to allow the MS form to stand. [Cleo.: tweolf apostles; Titus (lost); Nero: tweolf apostles; Vernon: twelue apostles; Pepys: alle þine Apostles; Caius (lacking).]
150 H[a]lhen. MS: Hlhen. Omitted a restored. [Cleo.: Hale3en.]
151 [F]or alle. MS: ¶or alle. Tolkien remarks, "a red paragraph [symbol], ornamented with blue, mistakenly substituted for F" (p. 19, fol. 7v, line 19). It is emended to F here. [Cleo.: For alle.]
158 yeven. A later reader or perhaps the emender has striken through yeuen, as Tolkien says, "with a bold stroke" (p. 19, fol. 7b, line 28), in the mistaken belief that 3euen/3eoue was a repetition of the same word. It clearly is not, however: marhe-yeven is a "morning gift" (or dowry) and the yeove (following at the top of the next folio) is the verb.
164 other. MS: oder. A clear mistake for oðer. [Cleo.: oðer.]
210-11 cneolin to euch an ant blescin. MS: cneolin to euchan ant blescin. Tolkien suggests emending cneolin and blescin to their singular imperative forms since the verbs before and after them are singular (p. 21, fol. 9a, line 1). However, it seems likely that a variation between singular and plural imperatives is a matter not so much of a copying error as an actual linguistic process. Thus, the plural forms are retained here: blescin (pl.) occurs between two singular imperatives segge "say!" and beate "beat!" [Cleo.: cneoli to vhan. ant blescin; Titus (lost); Nero: kneolinde to euerichon ant blesceð; Vernon: also knelen to uchon. and blessen; Pepys: kneleþ to vchone and blisseþ; Caius (lacking); Vitellius: genoilliez a chescune. et vous seignez; Trinity (lacking); Lat. (lacking).]
212 Tuam crucem. [Salve, crux sancta.] Salve, crux que. MS: Tuam crucem. Salue crux que. One of the five greetings listed here has fallen out between Tuam crucem "your cross" and Salue crux que "Hail, cross which . . . ," namely Salue crux sancta "Hail, Holy Cross," a phrase which appears in Cleo., Vitellius, and (in expanded form) Nero as well. The omission is probably due to eye-skip from one Salue crux to the next. The missing phrase is restored from Cleo. [Cleo.: tuam crucem. Salue crux sancta. salue crux que; Titus (lost); Nero: Adoramus te christe et benedicimus tibi quia per sanctam crucem tuam redemisti Mundum. Tuam crucem adoramus domine. tuam. gloriosam. recolimus passionem miserere nostri. qui passus es pro nobis. Salue crux sancta abor digna que sola fuisti digna portare regem celorum et dominum. Salue crux que in corpore O crux gloriosa o crux adoranda o lignum preciosum et admirablie signum per quod et diabolus ext uictus et mundus christi sanguine redemptus; Vernon: Adoramus te christe et bn t. g. p. crucem t. r. mund. Quam crucem et c. Salue crux et cetera. Salue crux que in corpore et cetera O crux lignum. et cetera; Pepys: Tuam crucem adoramus. Salue crux sancta. O crux lignum; Vitellius: Tuam crucem. Salue crux sancta. Salue crux que; Trinity (lacking); Lat. (lacking).]
262-63 cwene crune on heaved. MS: cwene crune of heaued. Of "off" should probably read on, as in the other versions. Perhaps the text was faulty in the exemplar, reflected in the heavily reworked text in Cleo. (see Dobson, p. 33, notes g, h) contributing to the confusion here. [Cleo.: cuwene (cwenene) crune on heaued (sette þé); Titus (lost); Nero: quene crune on heaued; Vernon: qweene croune on hed; Pepys: quenes croune vpon þine heued; Caius (lacking); Vitellius: corone de royne sur ta teste; Trinity (lacking); Lat. (lacking).]
270 MS: salue radix sancta. Although Tolkien sees an error here - "porta omitted after sancta" (p. 24, fol. 10r, line 17) - the other versions do not bear this out. [Cleo.: Salue radix sancta exqua mundo; Titus (lost); Nero: salue radix sancta ex qua mundo; Vernon: Salue radix sancta. ex qua mundo; Pepys (lacking); Caius (lacking); Vitellius (lacking); Trinity (lacking); Lat. (lacking).]
372 On ende, [on] ow-seolf ant o the bedd bathe. MS: on ende ow seolf ant o þe bedd baðe. The text reads, "in the end yourself and on the bed both." An on probably omitted before ow is restored here. [Cleo.: On ende on ouself ant on oure bed baðe; Titus: On ende on owself ant o þe bed baðe; Nero: alast ou sulf ant ower bed boðe; Vernon: On ende. on ow self. and on the bed bothe; Pepys: on 3oure self and on 3oure bedde; Caius (lacking); Vitellius: A la fin sur vouis meismes et sur vostre lit ausi; Trinity (lacking); Lat. (lacking).]
386 owe[r] Venie. MS: owe venie. As Tolkien notes (p. 29, fol. 12r, line 20), the MS form is a clear mistake for ower. [Cleo.: ouwer venie; Titus: owre uenie; Nero: ower uenie; Vernon: ower venye; Pepys (recast); Caius (lacking).]
The Outer Rule (Hours and Prayers)
Her biginneth the earste boc of ures ant ureisuns the gode beoth to seggen.
Hwen ye earst ariseth, blescith ow ant seggeth, In nomine Patris et Filii
et Spiritus sancti, Amen. Ant biginneth anan, Veni, Creator Spiritus,
with up ahevene ehnen ant honden toward heovene, buhinde o cneon forth-
ward up-o the bedde, ant seggeth swa al the ymne ut with the verset, Emitte spiritum
tuum, ant te ureisun, Deus, qui corda fidelium. Her-efter, scheoiende ow ant clathinde
ow, seggeth Pater noster ant Credo; Jesu Criste, fili Dei vivi, miserere nobis, qui
de Virgine dignatus es nasci, miserere nobis. This word seggeth eaver athet ye beon
al greithe. This word habbeth muchel on us ant i muth ofte, euch time thet ye mahen,
sitten ye other stonden.
Hwen ye beoth al greithe, sprengeth ow with hali-weater, thet ye schulen eaver
habben, ant thenchen o Godes flesch ant on his deore-wurthe blod, thet is abuve the
hehe weoved, ant falleth adun ther-towart with theose gretunges:
Ave, principium nostre creationis,
Ave, precium nostre redemptionis,
Ave, viaticum nostre peregrinationis,
Ave, premium nostre expectationis,
Ave, solamen nostre sustentationis.
Tu esto nostrum gaudium,
Qui es futurus premium.
Sit nostra in te gloria
Per cuncta semper secula.
Mane nobiscum, Domine.
Noctem obscuram remove;
Omne delictum ablue;
Piam medelam tribue.
Gloria tibi, Domine,
Qui natus es de virgine.
Cum Patre, et cetera.
Alswa ye schule don hwen the preost halt hit up ed te measse, ant bivore the Confiteor
hwen ye schule beon i-huslet. Efter this falleth o cneon to ower crucifix with theose fif
gretunges, ine munegunge of Godes fif wunden: Adoramus te, Christe, et benedicimus
tibi quia per sanctam crucem redemisti mundum. Tuam crucem adoramus, Domine.
Tuam gloriosam recolimus passionem. Miserere nostri qui passus es pro nobis.
Salve, crux sancta,
Cuius robur preciosum
Mundi tulit talentum.
Salve, crux, que in corpore Christi dedicata es, et ex membris eius tanquam
O crux, lignum triumphale,
Mundi vera salus, vale.
Inter ligna nullum tale
Fronde, flore, germine.
Salva sanas, egras sana.
Ant with this word beateth on ower breoste: Quod non valet vis humana, sit in tuo
Hwa-se ne con theos five, segge the earste Adoramus te, cneolinde, fif sithen ant
blescith ow with euch-an of theose gretunges. Ant with theose wordes, Miserere
nostri, qui passus es pro nobis, beateth ower heorte ant cusseth the eorthe i-cruchet
with the thume. Th'refter wendeth ow to ure Leafdi onlicnesse ant cneolith with fif
Avez, aleast to the othre ymagnes, ant to ower relikes luteth other cneolith, nomeliche
to the halhen the ye habbeth to thurh luve i-turnd ower weofdes, swa muche the reathere
yef ei is i-halhet.
Ther-efter anan-riht ure Leafdi uht-song - ant seggeth o this wise: yef hit is werc-
dei, falleth to ther eorthe; yef hit is hali-dei, buhinde sum-deal dune-ward seggeth Pa-
ternoster ant Credo ba stille. Rihteth ow up th'refter ant seggeth, Domine, labia mea
aperies. Makieth on ower muth a creoiz with the thume. Ed Deus in adiutorium, a
large creoiz with the thume ant with the twa fingres, from buve the forheaved dun to
the breoste, ant falleth to the eorthe - yef hit is werc-dei with Gloria Patri, other
buheth dune-ward, yef hit [is] hali-dei athet Sicut erat. Thus ed euch Gloria Patri ant
ed te biginnunge of the Venite, ant i the Venite, ed Venite, adoremus, ant ed te Ave,
Maria, ant hwer-se ye eaver hereth Maries nome i-nempnet, ant ed euch Pater noster
thet falle to ower ures ant to the Credo ant to the collecte ed eaver-euch tide, ant ed te
leate-meste vers of eaver-euch ymne, ant ed te leaste vers withuten an of the salm,
Benedicite, omnia opera Domini, Domino. Ed alle thes ilke, yef hit is hali-dei, buheth
sum-del dune-wart. Yef hit is werc-dei, falleth to ther eorthe. Ed te biginnunge of eaver-
euch tide, with Deus in adiutorium, makieth rode-taken as ich ear tahte. Ed Veni,
Creator buheth other cneolith efter thet te dei is. With Memento, salutis auctor,
falleth eaver adun, ant ed tis word, Nascendo formam sumpseris, cusseth the eorthe,
ant alswa i the Te Deum laudamus, ed tis word: Non horruisti virginis uterum, ant
ed te messe i the muchele Credo, ed ex Maria Virgine ant Homo factus est.
Euch-an segge hire ures as ha haveth i-writen ham, ant euch tide sunderliche, ase
forth as ye mahen, seggeth in his time, ear to sone then to leate yef ye ne mahen eaver
halde the time. Uht-song bi niht i winter, i sumer i the dahunge. This winter schal
biginnen ed te Hali-Rode Dei ine hervest, ant leasten athet Easter. Prime in winter earliche,
i sumer bi forth-marhen, Pretiosa th'refter. Yef ye habbeth neode for eani hihthe to
speoken, ye muhe seggen hit bivoren ant efter uht-song anan yef hit swa neodeth. Non
eaver efter mete - ant hwen ye slepeth, efter slep - hwil thet sumer leasteth bute
hwen ye feasteth, i winter bivore mete hwen ye al veasteth, the Sunne-dei thah efter
mete for ye eoteth twien. Ed te an salm ye schulen stonden yef ye beoth eise, ant ed te
other sitten, ant eaver with Gloria Patri rungen up ant buhen. Hwa-se mei stonden al
on ure Leafdi wurthschipe, stonde o Godes halve. Ed alle the seove tiden singeth Pater
noster ant Ave Maria ba bivoren ant efter; Fidelium anime efter euch tide, bivore the
Pater noster. Ed threo tiden seggeth Credo with Pater noster: bivoren uht-song ant
efter prime ant eft[er complie]; from ower complie athet efter Pretiosa haldeth silence.
Efter even-song anan ower Placebo euche niht seggeth hwen ye beoth eise, bute hit
beo hali niht for feaste of nihe lesceuns the cume ine marhen, bivore cumplie other efter
uht-song. Dirige with threo salmes ant with threo lesceuns euche niht sundri. In
aniversaries of ower leoveste freond seggeth alle nihene. I stude of Gloria ed euch
psalmes ende, Requiem eternam dona eis, Domine, et lux perpetua luceat eis. Ed
Placebo sitteth athet Magnificat, alswa ed Dirige bute ed te lesceuns, ant ed te Miserere
ant from Laudate al ut. Requiescant in pace i stude of Benedicamus seggeth on
ende. Ine marhen other i niht efter the suffragies of uht-song seggeth commendaciun,
sittinde the salmes, cneolinde the ureisuns other stondinde. Yef ye thus doth euche niht
bute ane Sunne-niht, ye doth muche betere. In a-mel-dei we seggeth ba Placebo ant
Dirige efter the mete-graces. I twi-mel-dei efter non, ant ye alswa mote don.
Seove psalmes seggeth sittinde other cneolinde with the letanie. Fiftene psalmes
seggeth o this wise: the earste five for ow-seolf, ant for alle the ow god doth other
unnen. The othre five for the peis of al Hali Chirche, the thridde five for alle Cristene
sawles. Efter the forme five, Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison; Pater
noster...et ne nos; Salvos fac servos tuos et ancillas tuas, Deus meus, sperantes
in te; Oremus: Deus cui proprium est. Efter the othre five alswa: Kyrie eleison,
Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison; Pater noster . . . et ne nos; Domine, fiat pax in
virtute tua, et abundancia in turibus tuis; Oremus: Ecclesie tue quesumus,
Domine, preces placatus. Efter the thridde five, the ye schulen seggen - withuten
Gloria Patri - Kyrie eleison; iii Pater noster . . . et ne nos; A porta inferi, erue,
Domine, animas eorum; Oremus: Fidelium Deus omnium. Seove salmes ant thus
theose fiftene seggeth abuten under, for abute swuch time as me singeth measse in alle
religiuns ant ure Laverd tholede pine up-o the rode, ye ahen to beo nomeliche i beoden
ant i bonen, ant alswa from prime athet mid-marhen hwen preostes of the worlt singeth
hare meassen. Ye mahen, yef ye wulleth, seggen ower Pater nostres this wise:
"Almihti Godd, Feader, Sune, Hali Gast, as ye beoth threo an Godd, alswa ye beoth
an mihte, an wisdom, ant an luve, ant thah is mihte i-turnd to the in Hali Writ, nomeliche,
thu deore-wurthe Feader; to the wisdom, seli Sune; to the luve, Hali Gast. Yef me, an
almihti Godd thrile i threo hades, thes ilke threo thinges: mihte for-te servi the, wisdom
for-te cweme the, luve ant wil to don hit - mihte thet ich mahe don, wisdom thet ich
cunne don, luve thet ich wulle don aa thet te is leovest. As thu art ful of euch god -
alswa nis na god wone ther-as theose threo beoth: mihte ant wisdom ant luve i-veiet
togederes - thet tu yetti me ham, Hali Thrumnesse, i the wurthschipe of the." Threo
Pater nostres; Credo; Verset: Benedicamus Patrem et Filium, cum Spirito Sancto;
Laudemus et superexaltemus eum in secula; Oremus: Omnipotens sempiterne
Deus, qui dedisti famulis tuis in confessione vere fidei eternae gloriam [trinitatis]
agnoscere. Alpha et Omega, hwa-se hit haveth, other [sum other] of the hali
thrumnesse segge the wulle.
"A Jesu, thin are! Jesu, for mine sunnen ahonget o rode, for the ilke fif wunden the thu
on hire bleddest, heal mi blodi sawle of alle the sunnen thet ha is with i-wundet thurh mine
fif wittes. I the munegunge of ham thet hit swa mote beon, deore-wurthe Laverd:" Fif
Pater nostres; verset: Omnis terra adoret te, et psalmum dicat nomini tuo; Oremus:
Juste Judex - yef thu const, other of the creoiz sum other - Deus, qui unigeniti tui,
Domini nostri Jesu Christi, pretioso sanguine vexillum sancte crucis - this is an of
"For the seove yiftes of the Hali Gast, thet ich ham mote habben, ant for the seove tiden
thet Hali Chirche singeth, thet ich deale in ham, slepe ich other wakie, ant for the seove
bonen i the Pater noster ayein the seoven heaved ant deadliche sunnen, thet tu wite me
with ham ant alle hare brokes ant yeove me the seovene selie eadinesses the thu havest,
Laverd, bihaten thine i-corene i thin eadi nome:" Seove Pater nostres; verset: Emitte
spiritum tuum; Oremus: Deus, cui cor omne patet; Ecclesie tue quesumus, Domine;
Exaudi quesumus, Domine, supplicum preces.
"For the ten heastes the ich i-broken habbe, summe other alle, ant me-seolven -
towart te hwet-se beo of other-hwet untreoweliche i-teohethet - i bote of theose bruchen
for-te sahtni me with the, deore-wurthe Laverd:" Ten Pater nostres; verset: Ego dixi
Domine miserere mei; Sana animam meam, quia peccavi tibi; Oremus: Deus cui
proprium est misereri. "[I] the wurthgunge, Jesu Crist, of thine tweof apostles, thet
ich mote over-al folhin hare lare, thet ich mote habben thurh hare bonen the tweolf
bohes the bloweth of chearite, as Seinte Pawel writeth, blisfule Laverd:" Tweolf Pater
nostres; verset: Annuntiaverunt opera Dei, et facta eius intellexerunt; Oremus:
Exaudi nos, Deus salutaris noster, et apostolorum tuorum nos tuere presidiis.
H[a]lhen the ye luvieth best - in heore wurthgunge seggeth other leas other ma, as
ow bereth on heorte, ant thet verset efter-ward with hare collecte: "[F]or alle theo the
habbeth eani god i-do me, i-seid me other i-unnen me, ant for alle the ilke the wurcheth
the six werkes of misericorde, mearciable Laverd:" Six Pater nostres; verset: Dispersit,
dedit pauperibus. Justicia eius manet; Oremus: Retribuere dignare, Domine.
Hwa-se wule, segge the salm Ad te levavi bivore the Pater nostres ant Kyrie eleison,
Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison.
"For alle the sawlen the beoth forth-fearen i the bileave of the fowr Goddspelles, the
haldeth al Cristendom up-o fowr halves, thet tu the fowr marhe-yeven yeove ham in
heovene, milzfule Laverd:" Fowr Pater nostres. Yef ye seggeth nihene - as ther beoth
nihene englene weoredes - thet Godd thurh his mearci hihi ham ut of pine to hare
feolah-redden - ye doth yet betere. Ant her, alswa ye wulleth, seggeth De profundis
bivore the Pater nostres, ant Kyrie eleison (iii); verset: A porta inferi; Oremus:
Bi dei sum time, other bi niht, gederith in ower heorte alle seke ant sarie thet wa ant
poverte tholieth, the pinen the prisuns tholieth ant habbeth ther ha liggeth with irn hevie
fetheret, nomeliche of the Cristene the beoth in heathenesse, summe i prisun, summe
in ase muche theowdom as oxe is other asse. Habbeth reowthe of theo the beoth i
stronge temptatiuns: alle hare sares setteth in ower heorte ant siketh to ure Laverd thet
he neome reowthe of ham ant bihalde toward ham with the ehe of his are. Ant yef ye
habbeth hwile, seggeth the salm Levavi oculos; Pater noster; verset: Convertere,
Domine - usquequo. Et deprecabilis esto super servos tuos; Oremus: Pretende,
Domine, famulis et famulabus.
I the measse hwen the preost heveth up Godes licome, seggeth this vers stondinde:
Ecce salus mundi, verbum Patris, hostia vera, viva caro, deitas integra, verus
homo. Ant thenne falleth adun with theose gretunges:
Ave, principium nostre creationis,
Ave, pretium nostre redemptionis,
Ave, viaticum nostre peregrinationis,
Ave, premium nostre expectationis,
Ave, solamen nostre sustentationis.
Tu esto nostre gaudium,
Qui es futurus premium.
Sit nostra in te gloria
Per cuncta semper secula. Amen.
Mane nobiscum, Domine.
Gloria tibi, Domine.
Set quis est locus in me quo veniat in me Deus meus, quo Deus veniat aut maneat
in me, Deus qui fecit celum et terram? Itane, Domine, Deus meus, est quicquam
in me quod capiat te? Quis michi dabit ut venias in cor meum et inebries illud, et
unum bonum meum amplectar te? Quis michi es? Miserere ut loquar. Angusta
est tibi domus anime mee. Quo venias ad eam, dilatetur abs te. Ruinosa est:
refice eam. Habet que offendant oculos tuos, fateor et scio, set quis mundabit
eam? Aut cui alteri preter te clamabo? Ab ocultis meis munda me, Domine, et
ab alienis parce famule tue.
Miserere, miserere, miserere mei, Deus, secundum magnam - ant swa al the
salm ut with Gloria Patri; Christe, audi nos twien; Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison,
Kyrie eleison; Pater noster; Credo carnis resurrectionem et vitam eternam.
Amen; Salvam fac famulam tuam, Deus meus, sperantem in te. Doce me facere
voluntatem tuam, quia Deus meus es tu. Domine, exaudi orationem meam, et
clamor meus ad te veniat. Oremus: Concede, quesumus, omnipotens Deus, ut
quem enigmatice et sub aliena spetie cernimus, quo sacramentaliter cibamur in
terris, fatie ad fatiem eum videamus, eo sicuti est veraciter et realiter frui
mereamur in celis, per eundum Dominum. Efter the measse-cos, hwen the preost
sacreth - ther foryeoteth al the world, ther beoth al ut of bodi, ther i sperclinde luve
bicluppeth ower leofmon, the into ower breostes bur is i-liht of heovene, ant haldeth
him hete-veste athet he habbe i-yettet ow al thet ye eaver easkith.
This ureisun bivore the muchele rode is of muche strengthe:
Abute mid-dei hwa-se mei - hwa-se ne mei thenne, o sum other time - thenche o
Godes rode, ase muchel as ha eaver con mest, other mei, ant of his derve pine. Ant
biginne th'refter the ilke fif gretunges the beoth i-writen th'ruppe, ant alswa cneolin to
euch an ant blescin, as hit seith ther, ant beate the breoste ant makie a thulli bone:
Adoramus te, Christe. Tuam crucem. [Salve, crux sancta.] Salve, crux que
. . . . O, crux lignum. Aris thenne ant bigin the antefne Salva nos, Christe salvator,
per virtutem sancte crucis with the rode-taken, ant segge stondinde the salm Jubi-
late with Gloria Patri. Ant thenne the antefne segge eaver thus: Salva nos, Christe
salvator, per virtutem sancte crucis ant blescin with Qui salvasti Petrum in mare,
miserere nobis ant beate the breoste ant tenne falle adun ant segge Christe, audi nos.
Jesu Christe, audi nos; Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison; Pater noster
. . . et ne nos; Verset: Protector noster aspice, Deus, et respice in faciem Christi
tui; Oremus: Deus, qui sanctam crucem as ear. Eft biginne Adoramus as ear, alle
five; Salva nos, Christe, the antefne, as ear; the salm Ad te levavi; the antefne as ear
al ut, ant tenne as ear to the eorthe; Christe, audi nos twien; Kyrie eleison iii; Pater
noster . . . et ne nos; Verset: Protector noster, as ear; Oremus: Adesto, quesumus,
Domine, Deus noster, et quos sancte crucis letari facis - thridde chearre riht
alswa, ant feorthe chearre, ant fifte: na-wiht ne changeth bute the salmes ant te ureisuns.
The forme salm Jubilate, the other Ad te levavi, the thridde Qui confidunt, the
feorthe Domine, non est exaltatum, the fifte Laudate Dominum in sanctis eius.
Ant in euch beoth fif vers. The fif ureisuns beoth: Deus, qui sanctam crucem; Adesto,
quesumus, Domine; Deus, qui pro nobis filium tuum; Deus, qui unigeniti; Juste
Judex; with O beata et intemerata. Ant hwa-se ne con theos fif ureisuns, segge
eaver an. Ant hwa-se thuncheth to long, leave the salmes.
"Leafdi Seinte Marie, for the ilke muchele blisse thet tu hefdest in-with the i thet ilke
time thet Jesu Godd, Godes sune, efter the engles gretunge nom flesch ant blod in the
ant of the, underfeng mi gretunge with the ilke Ave ant make me telle lutel of euch blisse
ute-with, ah frovre me in-with ant ernde me theo of heovene. Ant ase wis as i the ilke
flesch thet he toc of the nes neaver sunne, ne i thin - as me leveth efter the ilke
tacunge, hwet-se bivore were - clense mi sawle of fleschliche sunnen." Biginne the
Ave athet Dominus tecum as me biginneth antefne, ant tenne the salm, ant efter the
salm al ut fif sithen, ant thus to euch salm Ave, Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum;
Magnificat; Ave, Maria al ut fif sithen.
"Leafdi Seinte Maria, for the ilke muchele blisse thet tu hefdest tha thu sehe the ilke
blisfule bearn i-boren of thi cleane bodi to mon-cunne heale, withuten eaver-euch bruche,
with i-hal meithhad ant meidenes menske, heal me thet am thurh wil tobroken, as ich
drede, hwet-se beo of dede. Ant yef me in heovene seon thi blisfule leor, ant bihalde
lanhure meidenes menske, yef ich nam wurthe for-te beon i-blisset in hare ferredden."
Ave, Maria gratia plena, Dominus tecum; Ad Dominum cum tribularer; Ave as
"Leafdi Seinte Marie, for the ilke muchele blisse thet tu hefdest tha thu sehe thi deore
deore-wurthe sune efter his derve death arisen to blisful lif, his bodi seve-valt brihtre
then the sunne, yef me deien with him ant arisen in him - worltliche deien, gasteliche
libben - dealen in his pinen feolahliche in eorthe, for-te beon i blisse his feolahe in
heovene. For the ilke muchele blisse thet tu hefdest, Leafdi, of his blisful ariste efter thi
muchele sorhe, efter mi sorhe thet ich am in her, lead me to thi blisse." Ave, Maria
gratia plena, Dominus tecum; Retribue servo tuo; Ave fif sithen.
"Leafdi Seinte Marie, for the ilke muchele blisse thet tu hefdest tha thu sehe thi brihte
blisfule Sune, thet te Giws wenden for-te athrusmin i thruh, se wurthliche ant se mihtiliche
on Hali Thursdei stihe to his blisse into his riche of heovene, yef me warpe with him al
the worlt under fet ant stihen-nu heorteliche; hwen ich deie, gasteliche; o Domes-dei
al licomliche to heovenliche blissen." Ave, Maria gratia plena, Dominus tecum; In
convertendo; Ave fif sithen.
"Leafdi Seinte Marie, for the ilke muchele blisse thet fulde al the eorthe tha he underveng
the into unimete blisse ant with his blisfule earmes sette the i trone ant cwene crune on
heaved, brihtre then the sunne, heh heovenliche cwen, underveng theos gretunges of
me swa on eorthe thet ich mote blisfulliche grete the in heovene." Ave, Maria gratia
plena, Dominus tecum; Ad te levavi; Ave fif sithen, ant thenne thet verset: Spiritus
sanctus superveniet in te, et virtus altissimi obumbrabit tibi; Oremus: Gratiam
Ave, Regina celorum,
Ave, Domina angelorum,
Salve, Radix Sancta,
Ex qua mundo lux,
Vale, valde decora,
Et pro nobis semper Christum exora.
Verset: Egredietur virga de radice Jesse, et flos de radice eius ascendet. Oremus:
Deus, qui virginalem aulam. Antefne:
Gaude, Dei Genitrix, Virgo inmaculata,
Gaude, que gaudium ab angelo suscepisti,
Gaude, que genuisti eterni luminis claritatem,
Gaude, sancta Dei Genitrix Virgo,
Tu sola Mater innupta,
Te laudat omnis filii tui creatura Genitricem lucis,
Sis pro nobis pia Interventrix.
Verset: Ecce, Virgo concipiet et pariet Filium, et vocabitur nomen euis Emmanuel;
Oremus: Deus, qui de beate Marie Virginis utero. Antefne:
Gaude, Dei Genitrix,
Et gaude, gaudium, Maria, omnium fidelium.
Gaudeat ecclesia in tuis laudibus assidua,
Et, pia Domina, gaudere fac nos tecum ante Dominum.
Verset: Ecce, concipies in utero et paries filium, et vocabis nomen eius Jesum;
Oremus: Deus, qui salutis eterne beate Marie virginitate fecunda humano generi.
Alma Redemptoris Mater, que pervia celi
Porta manes et stella maris, succurre cadenti
Surgere qui curat populo; tu que genuisti -
Natura mirante - tuum sanctum Genitorem,
Virgo prius ac posterius, Gabrielis ab ore
Sumens illud "Ave," peccatorum miserere.
Her sitteth the Avez, fifti other hundret, other ma other leas efter thet me haveth hwile.
On ende thet verset: Ecce, ancilla Domini. Fiat michi secundum verbum tuum;
Oremus: O Sancta Virgo virginum. Hwa-se wule mei stutten th'ruppe anan-rihtes
efter the forme ureisun, Gratiam tuam, ant segge thenne hire tale of Avez efter the
leaste salm, Ad te levavi. Eaver bivore the salm biginnen an Ave athet Dominus tecum
ant segge stondinde the salm. The salmes beoth i-numene efter the fif leattres of ure
Leafdis nome - hwa-sa nimeth yeme - ant al this ilke ureisun efter hire fif heste
blisses eorneth bi five. Tele i the antefnes ant tu schalt finden in ham gretunges five. The
ureisuns thet ich nabbe buten ane i-mearket beoth i-writen over al withute the leaste.
Leoteth writen on a scrowe hwet-se ye ne kunnen. Thus ich biginne mine Avez other-
"Leafdi, swete Leafdi, swetest alre leafdi, Leafdi, leovest Leafdi, lufsumest Leafdi. O
pulcherrima mulierum. Leafdi Seinte Marie, deore-wurthe Leafdi, Leafdi cwen of
heovene, Leafdi cwen of are, Leafdi, do me are. Leafdi meiden Moder, Meiden Godes
Moder, Jesu Cristes Moder, Meiden of milce, Moder of grace.
O Virgo virginum,
Maria Mater gratie,
Tu nos ab hoste protege
Et hora mortis suscipe.
Per tuum, Virgo, Filium,
Per Patrem, Paraclitum,
Assis presens ad obitum
Nostrumque muni exitum.
Gloria tibi, Domine,
qui natus es de Virgine, et cetera.
Ant fallen to ther eorthe ant cussen hire with this leaste vers, hwa-se is hal i-heafdet, ant
tenne Avez tene ant tene togederes, the teohethe eaver thus forth: Ave, Maria gratia
plena, Dominus tecum, benedicta tu in mulieribus, et benedictus fructus ventris
tui; Spiritus sanctus superveniet in te, et virtus altissimi obumbrabit tibi. Ideoque
et quod nascetur ex te sanctum vocabitur Filius Dei. Ecce ancilla Domini, fiat
michi secundum verbum tuum - ant cusse the eorthe on ende, other degre, other
bench, other sum-hwet herres, ant biginnen, "Leafdi, swete Leafdi," as ear. The forme
tene the fifti cneolinde up ant dun; the othre cneolinde i-riht up stille, buten ed te Ave,
Marie sum semblant with the other cneo a lutel; the thridde tene adun ant up-o the
elbohen riht to ther eorthe; the feorthe, the elbohen o degre, other o bench, ant eaver to
the Ave lute with the heaved; the fifte tene stondinde, ant eft biginne the turn as i the
Al thet ye eaver seggeth of thulliche othre bonen, as Pater nostres ant Aves on ower
ahne wise, salmes ant ureisuns, ich am wel i-paiet. Euch-an segge ase best bereth hire
on heorte verseilunge of sawter, redunge of Englisc other of Frensch, halie meditatiuns,
ower cneolunges hwen-se ye eaver mahen i-yemen, ear mete ant efter -eaver se ye
mare doth, se Godd ow eche forthre his deore-wurthe grace. Ah lokith swa, ich bidde
ow, thet ye ne beon neaver idel, ah wurchen other reden, other beon i bonen, ant swa
don eaver sum-hwet, thet god mahe of awakenin. The ures of the Hali Gast -yef ye
ham wulleth seggen, seggeth euch tide of ham bivoren ure Leafdi tide.
Toward te preostes tiden hercnith se forth as ye mahen, ah with him ne schule ye
nowther verseilin ne singen thet he hit mahe i-heren. Ower graces stondinde bivore
mete ant efter, as ha beoth i-writen ow. Ant with the Miserere gath bivoren ower
weoved ant endith thear the graces. Bitweone mel, the drinken wule, segge Benedicite.
Potum nostrum Filius Dei benedicat. In nomine Patris - ant blesci efter-wart.
Adiutorium nostrum in nomine Domini, qui fecit celum et terram. Sit nomen
Domini benedictum, ex hoc nunc et usque in seculum. Benedicamus Domino.
Hwen-se ye gath to ower bedd i niht other in even, falleth o cneon ant thencheth i
hwet ye habbeth i the dei i-wreathet ure Laverd, ant crieth him yeorne merci ant
foryevenesse. Yef ye habbeth ei god i-don, thonkith him of his yeove, withute hwam
we ne mahen ne wel don, ne wel thenchen, ant seggeth Miserere ant Kyrie eleison,
Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison; Pater noster . . . et ne nos; Verset: Salvas fac
ancillas tuas, Deus meus, sperantes in te; Oremus: Deus cui proprium est; ant
stondinde, Visita, Domine, habitationem istam; ant aleast thenne, Christus vincit †,
Christus regnat †, Christus imperat †, with threo creoiz with the thume up-o the
forheaved, ant thenne Ecce crucem Domini; fugite partes adverse; vicit leo de
tribu Juda, radix Davith. Alleluia. A large creoiz as ed Deus in adiutorium with
Ecce crucem Domini, ant tenne fowr creoiz o fowr half with theose fowre efter-
Crux † fugat omne malum.
Crux † est reparatio rerum.
Per crucis hoc signum †
Fugiat procul omne malignum.
Et per idem signum †,
Salvetur quodque benignum.
On ende, [on] ow-seolf ant o the bedd bathe, In nomine Patris et Filii. I bedd se vorth
se ye mahen, ne do ye, ne ne thenchen na thing bute slepen.
The ne con other uht-song, other ne mei hit seggen, segge for uht-song thritti Pater
nostres ant Ave, Maria efter euch Pater noster, ant Gloria Patri efter euch Ave,
aleast Oremus (hwa-se con): Deus cui proprium est; Benedicamus Domino; Anime
fidelium. For even-song twenti, for euch other tide segge fiftene o this ilke wise, bute
thet ed uht-song schal seggen earst hwa-se con, Domine, labia mea aperies, et os
meum; Deus in adiutorium, ant ed Complie, Converte nos, Deus salutaris; Deus
in adiutorium. Ed alle the othre tiden, Deus in adiutorium.
Hwa-se is unheite forkeorve of uht-song tene, of euch of the othre five - the
halven-dal of euch-an, yef ha is seccre. Hwa-se is ful meoseise, of al beo ha cwite.
Neome hire secnesse nawt ane tholemodliche, ah do swithe gleadliche; ant al is hiren
thet Hali Chirche ret other singeth. Thah ye ahen of Godd thenchen in euch time, meast
thah in ower tiden, thet ower thohtes ne beon fleotinde thenne. Yef ye thurh yemeles
gluffeth of wordes, other misneometh vers, neometh owe[r] Venie dun ed ter eorthe
with the hond ane - al fallen adun for muche misneomunge, ant schawith ofte i schrift
ower yemeles her-abuten.
This is nu the forme dale, the haveth i-speken hider-to of ower servise. Hwet-se beo
u ther-of, theose riwlen her-efter ich walde ha weren of alle - as ha beoth of ow, thurh
Godes grace - i-halden.
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