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From Avalon to Iberia: The Contemporary Literary Returns of King Arthur in the Languages of Spain: An Annotated listing of Arthurian Spanish literature in the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries (February 2003)


From Avalon to Iberia: The Contemporary Literary Returns of King Arthur in the Languages of Spain: An Annotated listing of Arthurian Spanish literature in the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries (February 2003)

For updates to this listing, please contact Juan Miguel Zarandona at

Correspondence address:
Facultad de Traducción e Interpretación,
Nicolá s Rabal 17, 42003 Soria, Spain.
Phone: +34 975 129 174.
Fax: +34 129 101.
Cell: +34 650 624 995.

The New Arthurian Encyclopedia (1996), edited by Professor Norris J. Lacy, is no doubt the most important general reference book on Arthurian subject matters available. The Encyclopedia is well provided with specific entries devoted to different national relevant traditions. Consequently, scholars and those interested in Arthurian literature can read about medieval traditions such as Irish (244), Welsh (507-509), English (133-136), Dutch (122-123), French (160-162), German (182-188), Italian (245-247), Scandinavian (398-401), Czech (106-108), and Spanish and Portuguese (425-428). The Encyclopedia is also provided with a second series of entries devoted to modern national Arthurian literary traditions, but the number of them is much smaller: only the English (136-144), French (162-166), German (188-194) and Dutch (123-124) ones are included. The other relevant medieval traditions do not seem to have enjoyed continuity or revival whatsoever.

I cannot claim to know what has happened in modern Scandinavia or Italy, but when I consulted the Encyclopedia in 1996 I quickly realized that it was not totally right not to include modern Arthurian Spanish literature. I knew it because in 1994 I had published an article in which I studied a long verse legend, Los encantos de Merlín (Merlin's charms) (1868), written by the popular romantic Spanish poet José Zorrilla, who was inspired by one of Tennyson's Idylls, "Merlin and Vivien." From that moment onwards, I started compiling my own list, corpus or canon of modern Spanish Arthurian literature. And this interest of mine, much rewarded with fruitful findings, finally resulted in a doctoral thesis which I finished in the year 2001: Alfred Tennyson y la literatura artúrica española de los siglos XIX y XX: traducción, manipulación e intertextualidad (Alfred Tennyson and Modern Arthurian Spanish Literature: Translation, Manipulation and Intertextuality). The non-existence of a modern Spanish tradition never made sense to me, but I can now affirm that, although much unnoticed, it does exist and that it is well-provided with a good number of excellent writers and outstanding works, written in all the languages of Spain. The aforementioned poem of 1868 by José Zorrilla opened a gate closed in Spain since the publication of the Second Part of Don Quixote in 1616 and its fierce attacks on all Arthurian and chivalric romance. But, once that romantic poet reopened it, with the help of Tennyson, the stream of Arthurian inspiration, although almost always minoritarian, has never ceased. To tell the whole truth, I must state that Spanish-speaking readerships of Arthurian literary works usually enjoy Arthurian legend and myth by means of translations, rather than original creative output in Spanish or other Hispanic languages. The number of translations available is just amazing. I have also begun compiling a corpus of Spanish Arthurian translated literature, but it is so abundant that I have still not been able to finish it at all.

Nevertheless, I will mention now two very representative examples: "translated Arthurian poems by Tennyson," and "some very recent English Arthurian fiction series in translation."
- As I said before, the 1868 verse legend by Zorrilla, very freely translated from or closely inspired in one of Tennyson's Idylls, was responsible for the comeback of the matter of Brittany to Spain. In addition, although they are very difficult to translate, Tennyson's Arthurian poems have also been translated some other times since then.

- It is also very surprising to realize the popularity of English modern Arthurian fiction series among Spanish-speaking readers. It is a fact that those books are translated and published in Spain almost immediately after they have been published in the United Kingdom or the United States of America, sometimes even the same very year (Rosalind Miles).

My main corpus only included nineteenth and twentieth century entries, but the new century has already brought new original Spanish Arthurian books: a whole series for children by Graciela Montes, and a bestselling novel, Erec y Enide, by a well-known and popular Spanish writer: Vázquez Montalbán. Erec y Enide, a story about contemporary love and solitude with the help of very old characters, was included in the top ten shortlist of bestselling books published by a prestigious Spanish literary supplement (ABC Cultural) for ten weeks:

                DATE                                      RANKING
Erec y Enide 13-4-2002 10
Erec y Enide
20-4-2002 5
Erec y Enide
27-4-2002 8
Erec y Enide
4-5-2002 6
Erec y Enide
11-5-2002 10
Erec y Enide
18-5-2002 6
Erec y Enide
25-5-2002 9

Arthurian subject matters continually prove to be very appealing to both Spanish readers and writers. The writer himself, Vázquez Montalbán, famous for his detective stories and travel books, declared that he had been planning to write this novel of his for almost forty years, since those times of his youth when he studied Medieval Literature under Professor Martín de Riquer in Barcelona, but had never been able to finish it until then.


I have listed and annotated my 125 entries by year, from 1868 to 2002, and alphabetically by writer. All entries appear under the year when they were published for the first time, which may or may not be the year corresponding to the edition I have used. Most entries correspond to original writers of Spanish Arthurian literature in the four main languages of Spain, but there are two exceptions. The listing includes translations from the English Arthurian poems by Tennyson and the German opera librettos by Richard Wagner due to the key role played by these two nineteenth century Arthurian masters in the origin and development of modern Spanish Arthurian literature. Every entry is also provided with three abbreviated codes related to: 1) the language in which the work is written; 2) the genre into which it must be classified; and 3) the main or secondary position or relevance it occupies within a comprehensive corpus of modern Spanish Arthurian literature. When the entry corresponds to a translation it is also mentioned. (See next section).


SP= Spanish
CA= Catalan
GA= Galician
BA= Basque

N= novel
SN= short novel
PL= prose legend
SS= short story
CN= children's novel
CSS= children's short story
LP= long poem
SP= short poem
PP= prose poem
L= libretto
E= essay
AB= autobiography
SC= screenplay

MC= main corpus (the work's primary focus is Arthurian)
SC= secondary corpus (the work contains Arthurian elements, but does not focus solely on the Arthurian legend)
TCT= translated corpus (Tennyson)
TCW= translated corpus (Wagner)


1868 1875 1883 1887 1892 1899 1900 1902 1904 1905
1906 1907 1909 1910 1912 1916 1926 1929 1935 1936
1951 1953 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962
1963 1964 1965 1969 1970 1972 1974 1976 1977 1978
1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1987 1988 1989
1990 1991 1992 1993 1996 1997 1998 2000 2001 2002


1. Zorrilla, José. "Los encantos de Merlín." Ecos de las montañas. Illustrated by Gustave Doré (Barcelona: Montaner y Simón, 1894): 389-444. [SP LP MC]
Zorrilla was supposed to translate all the Idylls of the King by Tennyson, but he finally half-translated only one of them: "Merlin and Vivien." His translated poem can be defined as a long legend somewhere between a very free translation and an original work. New elements related to Spain are frequent. Bibiana (Vivien), for example, becomes a Spanish noble lady. The original phylosophical and melancholic mood disappears and Zorilla substitutes new intentions of his own. It also represents the comeback of Arthurian subject matters to the literature of Spain after a very long absence.


2. Gisbert, Lope, tr. "Elena." Idilios. Elena, Enid (Madrid: Medina y Navarro, 1875): 3-88. [SP LP TCT]
Outstanding verse translation of the idyll "Elaine." The unique and most difficult formal characteristics of Tennyson's style are surprisingly well translated into Spanish.
3. Gisbert, Lope, tr. "Enid." Idilios. Elena, Enid (Madrid: Medina y Navarro, 1875): 91-190. [SP LP TCT]
Unfortunately, Gisbert only translated two idylls, "Enid" being the second one. He chose the good ladies rather than the evil ones: Vivien or Guinevere.


4. De Arana, Vicente, tr. "Gareth y Linette." Poemas de Alfredo Tennyson. Enoch Arden. Gareth y Linette. Merlín y Bibiana. La Reina Ginebra. Dora. La Maya. Illustrated by José Riudavets (Barcelona: Verdaguer, 1883): 75-161. [SP PL TCT]
Tennyson was mainly known in Spain thanks to the prose translations made by Vicente de Arana, a Basque industrialist that also had a good taste in poetry. But he only chose to translate three idylls.
5. De Arana, Vicente, tr. "Merlín y Bibiana." Poemas de Alfredo Tennyson. Enoch Arden. Gareth y Linette. Meríín y Bibiana. La Reina Ginebra. Dora. La Maya. Illustrated by José Riudavets (Barcelona: Verdaguer, 1883): 163-223. [SP PL TCT]
Arana's second prose translation of an idyll by Tennyson.

6. De Arana, Vicente, tr. "La reina Ginebra." Poemas de Alfredo Tennyson. Enoch Arden. Gareth y Linette. Meríín y Bibiana. La Reina Ginebra. Dora. La Maya. Illustrated by José Riudavets (Barcelona: Verdaguer, 1883): 225-267. [SP PL TCT]
Arana's third prose translation of an idyll by Tennyson.
7. Ojea, José. "Énide." Célticos. Cuentos y leyendas de Galicia. Introduction by Manuel Murguia (Orense: Imprenta de Antonio Otero, 1883): 261-315. [SP PL SC]
Ojea took part in the late XIXth century Galician Celtic revival and also drew much of his inspiration from Tennyson as this legend of his proves. Although this legend is written in Spanish, Manuel Murguia, the writer of the introduction, is regarded as the Patriarch of modern letters in the Galician language.


8. Blasco Ibáñez, Vicente. "Tristán sepulturero." Cuentos medievales (Madrid: Libros Clan, 1996): 115-137. [SP SS SC]
This tragic love story, whose male lover honors the name of the unfortunate knight and female lover the name of the unfortunate Laura, Petrarch's lady.


9. Pérez Galdós, Benito. Tristana (Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1997). [SP N SC]
One of the most popular novels by one of the greatest Spanish writers. Tristana is a kind of unhappy female Tristam trapped between an old husband and a young lover: the tragic triangle.


10. De Riquer, Alexandre. Crisantemes (Barcelona: Verdaguer, 1899). [CA PP MC]
Immediately before and after the beginning of the new XXth century, all arts and avant-garde movements flourished in Barcelona, capital city of Catalonia. It was the so-called Modernismo Catalán. This beautifully illustrated prose poem combines classical (Arcadia), medieval, oriental and Arthurian motifs: Merlin and his end in the deep of a wood, for example.
11. Pardo Bazán, Emilia. "El Santo Grial." Cuentos Completos. Vol. IV. Edited by Juan Paredez Núñez (La Coruña: Fundación Pedro Barrie de la Maza, 1990): 442-424. [SP SS MC]
A vision in a dream of the Holy Grail saves the void and tedious life of an apathetic gentleman, familiar only with material pleasures. The impact of Wagner's operas is evident. Pardo Bazán, the great Spanish woman writer, was known to be a devotee of his music and plots.


12. Morera i Galícia, Magí. "Lohengrin. Impressió." Antologia de la Poesia Modernista. Edited by Jordi Castellanos (Barcelona: Edidions 62 , 1995): 187. [CA SP MC]
Catalan modernist poem in honor of the opera by Wagner, showing a special interest in the description of the most pure knight Lohengrin.
13. Zanné, Jeroni. "Bianca Maria degli Angeli." Novel.les i poemes (Barcelona: L'Avenç, 1912): 2-12. [CA SN SC]
Catalan modernist novel closely inspired in the Pre-Raphaelite movement. Wagner is also a very marked source of inspiration. Tristam and Isolda are frequently quoted.


14. Viura, Xavier. "La vida nova." Preludi. Poesies (Barcelona: Vilá y Compa, 1904): 109. [CA LP SC]
Long poem inspired, on the one hand, by the Italian medieval poet Dante Alighieri and his Vita Nuova, and, on the other hand, by Wagnerian and Pre-Raphaelite Arthurian motifs.


15. Maragall, Joan & Ribera, Antoni, tr. Tristan y Isolda (Barcelona: Edició Catalunya, 1904). [CA L TCW]
First translation of a Wagner opera libretto into Catalan. The great cult of Wagner in Barcelona promoted those years by the Associació Wagneriana (The Wagner Association), founded in 1901, and that became the meeting point for Catalan modernist artists.
16. Viura, Xavier. "Percival Infant." Preludi. Poesies (Barcelona: Vilà y Compa, 1904): 161. [CA SP MC]
Sonnet devoted not to the great deeds of the hero's adult life but instead to a minor passage of his life, i.e., his mother's failed struggle to keep him apart from knighthood. This is a typical treatment of myth inherited from the French Parnassians. Wagner also plays a leading role. Besides, the form is that of the so-called Shakespearean sonnet tradition: three quartets and one couplet, which is a very unusual one in the metrical tradition of Spain.


17. Zanné, Jeroni. "L'Encís del Sant Divendres." Assaigs estétics (Barcelona: L'Avenç, 1905): 51-53. [CA SP MC]
Religious Arthurian poem full of Wagnerian and Pre-Raphaelite influences. Parsifal complains bitterly against Nature for its blooming beauty on Holy Friday, the day our Lord Jesus Christ died. Montsalvat and the Holy Grail are also mentioned.
18. Lleonart, Joseph, & Ribera, Antoni, tr. Lohengrin (Palma: Imp. Bartolomé Rotger, 1905). [CA L TCW]
Second translation of a Wagner opera libretto into Catalan.
19.- Viura, Xavier, & Pena, Joaquim, tr. Lohengrin (Barcelona: Associació Wagneriana, 1905). [CA L TCW]
A different translation of the same Wagner opera libretto into Catalan the same year.


20. De Riquer, Alexandre. "La Bella Dama sens Mercé." Aplech de sonets. Les cullites. Un poema d'amor (Barcelona: Verdaguer, 1906): 33. [CA SP MC]
Catalan Modernism sonnet devoted to Merlin and Vivien and their forest, indeed the main character. Fully Pre-Raphaelite.
21. Palacio Valdés, Armando. Tristán o el pesimismo (Madrid: Narcea, 1971). [SP N SC]
The writer chooses the name Tristam, a second Tristam, for the main character of his novel, which depicts another sad love story.
22. Zanné, Jeroni. "Espectral," Imatges i melodies (Barcelona: L'Avenç, 1906): 15. [CA SP MC]
Catalan Modernist poem devoted to Tristam and his night thoughts and visions.
23. Zanné, Jeroni. "Tristany i Iselda." Imatges i melodies (Barcelona: L'Avenç, 1906): 17. [CA SP MC]
Catalan modernist poem devoted to the fatal love of Tristam and Isolda and their suffering.
24. Zanné, Jeroni. "Eliana." Imatges i melodies (Barcelona: L'Avenç, 1906): 102. [CA SP MC]
Catalan Modernist sonnet inspired in the work of the Italian poet Gabriele d'Annunzio. Two Arthurian characters are mentioned: Eliana and Morgana.
25. Zanné, Jeroni. "A Richard Wagner." Imatges i melodies (Barcelona: L'Avenç, 1906): 42. [CA SP MC]
Catalan Modernist sonnet in honour of Richard Wagner. One important Arthurian motif is present: The Holy Grail. The sonnet follows the Shakespearean pattern, rather than the Italian-Spanish one.
26. Zanné, Jeroni. "El cavaller del temple." Imatges i melodies (Barcelona: L'Avenç, 1906): 91. [CA SP MC]
Catalan Modernist sonnet. Medieval, Wagnerian and Pre-Raphaelite atmosphere.
27. Zanné, Jeroni, & Pena, Joaquim, tr. Tristan y Isolda (Barcelona: Associació Wagneriana, 1906). [CA L TCW]
First of the Wagner opera librettos translated into Catalan in collaboration between Zanné and Pena. Translation norms were then in favor of translating opera librettos, something that does not happen any more nowadays.


28. Zanné, Jeroni, & Pena, Joaquim, tr. Parciva (Barcelona: Associació Wagneriana, 1907). [CA L TCW]
Second Catalan translation of a Wagner opera libretto by Zanné and Pena.


29. Zanné, Jeroni. "Deliris de Tristany." Ritmes (Barcelona: Fidel Firó, 1909): 87-88. [CA SP MC]
Catalan Modernist poem displaying an original combination of long and short verses. Closely inspired by Wagner, it presents the agonized night suffering of Tristam when remembering his love Isolda.


30. De Riquer, Alexandre. "Sonet." El poema del bosch (Barcelona: Verdaguer, 1910): 11. [CA SP MC]
El poema del bosch (The Poem of the Wood) is the most important composition by Alexander de Riquer, which consists of eighteen books or chants and thousands of verses. The poem fully reviews the wood as a literary as a literary motif from the Greek to modern writers. It is also a passionate defense of Nature against destructive civilization. The matter of Britain is present in the opening sonnet and in Books/Chants I and VII. The sonnet identifies the Holy Grail with Poetry, Love and the Renaissance of Catalonia and Catalan letters and culture in general.
31. De Riquer, Alexandre. "Cant I. El bosch." El poema del bosch (Barcelona: Alvar Verdaguer, 1910): 13-21 . [CA LP MC]
Chant I is full of Arthurian motifs and characters, closely associated with the Celtic wood: Merlin, Isolda, Tristany, Viviana, la Dama del LLach (The Lady of the Lake), Artús, Lancelot, Guinebra, Lionel, Bleciana, el Sant Graal, etc.
32. De Riquer, Alexandre. "Cant VIII. Escalibor." El poema del bosch (Barcelona: Alvar Verdaguer, 1910): 61-71 . [CA LP MC]
Arthur's sword Escalibor is made to symbolize the revival of Catalonia and the new Catalan modernist high ideals of Faith and Love. A waste land turns into a blooming countryside.


33.- Zanné, Jeroni. "Visions d'hivern". Elegies australs (Barcelona: Fidel Giró, 1912): 27-33. [CA SP MC]
Catalan Modernist poem showing a very strong Wagnerian inspiration. The leading characters of all the three Arthurian operas by Wagner are present: Parsifal, Isolda, and Lohengrin.


34. Pardo Bazán, Emilia. "La última fada." La Novela Corta. Revista Semanal Literaria. Año I - Nº 46 (Madrid: La Novela Corta, noviembre 1916): 3-33. [SP SN MC]
The authoress, a well-known Wagner devotee, fuses two Arthurian stories: the love stories of Tristam and Isolda and of Merlin and Vivien. She also adds new very original developments of the traditional arguments. By putting the fairies on the verge of disappearing, the novel depicts a battle between decaying fantasy and plain realism. In addition, Isayo, the young protagonist and secret son of Tristam and Isolda, is made to travel to medieval Castile (Spain), and is promoted to the role of Christian champion against Moorish infidels.
35. Sanjurjo, Carmela Eulate, tr. "Sir Galahad." Alfred Lord Tennyson. Las mejores poesías líricas (Barcelona: Editorial Cervantes, 1916): 21-22. [SP SP TCT]
Translation of this early Arthurian poem by Tennyson.


36. Cabanillas, Ramón. "A espada Escalibor." A noite estrelecida. Sagas (Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 1976): 257-265 . [GA LP MC]
Cabanillas, namely the Poet of the Galician race or people, made use of two main sources to write his epic poetic trilogy, A noite estrelecida (Starry Night): the Arthurian matter (Tennyson) and Celtic Ossianism, and fully identifies them Galicia, a Celtic nation as well. The first part of the trilogy centres around the finding of the sword Escalibor in the isle of Sálvora (Galicia).
37. Cabanillas, Ramón. "O cabaleiro do Sant Grial." A noite estrelecida. Sagas (Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 1976): 266-273. [GA LP MC]
The second part of the trilogy centres around the search for the Holy Grail by Arthur and his knights. Galahad finds it in the Mount Cebreiro (Galicia).
38. Cabanillas, Ramón. "O soño do rei Arturo." A noite estrelecida. Sagas (Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostea, 1976): 274-282. [GA LP MC]
The third part of the trilogy sees the end of Arthur and his departure towards his resting place in Galicia.


39. Jarnés, Benjamín. "Viviana y Merlín. Leyenda." Viviana y Merlín (Madrid: Cátedra-Letras Hispánicas, 1994): 259-283. [SP SS MC]
First short text by Jarnés dealing with the love story of Merlin and Vivien, a story he read in Arana's prose translation of this idyll by Tennyson, an idyll that captivated his spirit for many years.


40. Jarnés, Benjamín. Tántalo. (Farsa) (Madrid: Los Cuatro Vientos, 1935). [SP N SC]
Novel in which the characters are actors and actresses that are about to stage a play dealing with the story of Merlin and Vivien (a play with a novel). During the rehearsal process, they fully identify themselves with the Arthurian characters they represent.


41. Jarnés, Benjamín. Viviana y Merlín. Edited by Rafael Conte (Madrid: Cátedra-Letras Hispánicas, 1994). [SP N MC]
Second or final version of the novel by Jarnés on Merlin and Vivien. There was a shorter version published in 1930. The order of the names in the title, where Viviana is placed before Merlin, was devised totally on purpose. The writer turns the myth and traditional plot totally upside-down. Viviana is seen as a character representing all positive values of life: energy, initiative, sensuality, true love, etc. Merlin, on the contrary, symbolizes decadence and uselessness. In the end, Viviana beats Merlin completely and takes him to Spain in search of happiness and a new beginning.
42. Jarnés, Benjamín. "En el mundo de Viviana y Merlín." Cita de ensueños. Figuras del cinema (Madrid: Ediciones del Centro, 1974): 94-98. [SP E SC]
Viviana is always first. This essay is a critique of a movie based on A Midsummer Night's Dream by Shakespeare. This world of fairies and merry fantasies takes the writer immediately back to the world of Vivien and Merlin.


43. Mangrané, Daniel, Naranjo, Francisco, Zúñiga, Ángel & Serrano de Osma, Carlos. Parsifal (Barcelona: Daniel Mangrané). [SP SC MC]
Movie version of the Wagner opera. The whole screenplay is structured by means of a flashback when a group of soldiers, surviving a Third World War find a book among the ruins of a monastery. It tells them the story of Parsifal.


44. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "Los países del señor Merlín." (Barcelona: Tusquets, 1986): 229-231. Viajes imaginarios y reales [SP E MC]
The Galician writer Álvaro Cunqueiro was the most important modern Arthurian Spanish writer. He never stopped producing Arthurian texts both in Galician and Spanish during his whole life. Merlin was always his favorite. Here he displays all his knowledge about the magician, whom he combines with many other mythical characters.


45. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "Carta de Irlanda." Viajes imaginarios y reales (Barcelona: Tusquets, 1986): 221-223. [SP E MC]
Study of the myths associating Celtic Galicia and Ireland, with allusions to Arthurian characters such as Vivien.
46. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. Merlín e familia e outras historias. (Vigo: Galaxia, 1996). [GA N MC]
After the end of Camelot and the Round Table, and the parting of Arthur, Merlin and Guinevere settle down in Miranda (Galicia) and start a peaceful new life. However, although retired, Merlin attracts a varied array of characters who come to his home looking for advice and help. Galician folk motifs, Arthurian traditions, fantasy beings, and all kinds of mythical entities get together in Miranda under the benign figure of Merlin. There is an English translation of it: Merlin and Company. Trans. Colin Smith (London: Everyman-J.M. Dent, 1996).
47. D'Ax, Anna, tr. Lohengrin (Barcelona: Gràfiques El Tinell, 1955). [CA L TCW]
New translation of the Wagner opera libretto into Catalan.
48. D'Ax, Anna, tr. Tristan i Isolde (Barcelona: Gràfiques El Tinell, 1955). [CA L TCW]
New translation of the Wagner opera libretto into Catalan.
49. D'Ax, Anna, tr. Parsival. (Barcelona: Gràfiques El Tinell, 1955). [CA L TCW]
A translation of the last of the three Wagner Arthurian operas into Catalan.


50. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "Epílogo." El baladro del sabio Merlín (1498). Edited by Justo García Morales (Madrid: Biblioteca Nacional-Colección Joyas Bibliográficas, 1956-1957): 195-199. [SP E MC]
Cunqueiro provided the reedition of this Arthurian medieval classic with an epilogue, in which he describes his lifetime fascination for Merlin. The magician is for him just like a close friend.
51. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "El caballero, la muerte y el diablo y otras dos o tres historias" Flores del año mil y pico de ave (Barcelona: Seix Barral, 1984): 9-45. [SP SS MC]
Cunqueiro first wrote this short novel on the life of Felipe de Amancia in ca1940, and then he rewrote and published it in 1956. As Felipe became Merlin's aide in Merlín e familia, this is the story of the life of this new Arthurian character before and after meeting the wise old man.
52. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. As crónicas do Sochantre (Vigo: Galaxia, 1984). [GA N SC]
A novel set in Brittany, a land Cunqueiro had not visited yet, but had read a lot about. References to Arthur and the matter of Britain/Brittany are abundant.


53. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. Merlín y familia y otras historias (Barcelona: Destino, 1986). [SP N MC]
Spanish enlarged version of Merlin e familia. A new original rather than a very faithful self-translation.
54. Perucho, Joan. Llivre de cavalleries (Barcelona: Edicions 62, 1996). [CA N SC]
The author acknowledged that he got his inspiration from Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889). Consequently, the novel mixes medieval and contemporary times. It is more a chivalry novel than a full Arthurian text in the tradition of classical Spanish novels of chivalry such as the famous Amadís de Gaula (1508).


55. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "Merlín y Don Pedro el Cruel." O reino da chuvia. Artigos esquencidos (Lugo: Diputación Provincial, 1992): 117-118. [SP E MC]
Article summarizing an old Castilian legend retaled to King Pedro I, and claiming that his death had been predicted by Merlin. The writer also analyses the reception of his bilingual Merlín e familia / Merlín y familia.
56. Méndez Ferrín, Xosé Luís. "Percival." Percival e outras historias (Vigo: Xerais, 1993): 15-25. [GA SS MC]
New generations of Galician writers have kept their interest in the Arthurian traditions. With Méndez Ferrín, Arthurian character become enigmatic, nightmarish, experimental, absurb, revolutionary and profoundly original, as this short story proves.


57. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "Inventando Bretaña", Los otros caminos (Barcelona: Tusquets, 1988): 233-235. [SP E SC]
Cunqueiro not only wrote about the matter of Brittany, but also about Brittany, the French region, as well. From Brittany he travels to the Arthurian subject matters very easily as it is here the case.


58. Morales, María Luz, tr. "Gareth y Lynette." Historias de Tennyson contadas a los niños (Barcelona: Araluce, 1960): 11-70. [SP PL TCT]
New abridged version for children of the idylls of Tennyson translated by Vicente de Arana in the nineteenth century.
59. Morales, María Luz, tr. "Merlín y Bibiana." Historias de Tennyson contadas a los niños (Barcelona: Araluce, 1960): 109-122. [SP PL TCT]
New abridged version for children of Tennyson's "Merlin and Vivien" idyll translated by Vicente de Arana.


60. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "Las historias de Llwyn." O reino da chuvia. Artigos esquencidos (Lugo: Diputación Provincial, 1992): 473-474. [SP E SC]
A pilgrim who lives in a ruined castle by the seashore tells the story of his meetings with Parsifal and Isolda.


61. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "La tumba de Arturo." Los otros caminos (Barcelona: Tusquets, 1988): 167-168. [SP E MC]
Newspaper essay reviewing the finding of Guinevere and Arthur's tomb in Glastonbury Abbey (Somerset). Cunqueiro declares himself very offended for this claim: everybody knows that Arthur did not die, but that he is waiting in Avalon for his second coming as the Once and Future King.


62. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "San Criduec y su palma." Los otros caminos (Barcelona: Tusquets, 1988): 238-239. [SP E SC]
Saint Criduec's legendary travel is associated with the search for the Holy Grail.


63. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "Los guardianes de la cruz." Los otros caminos (Barcelona: Tusquets, 1988): 269-270. [SP E SC]
Now Cunqueiro makes connections among Don Quixote, Amadis of Gaul, Galahad and other Arthurian knights.
64. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "Peregrinos de Bretaña." Los otros caminos (Barcelona: Tusquets, 1988): 271-272. [SP E SC]
Brittany and Galicia got much closer by means of those pilgrims who travelled to Saint James's tomb in Santiago de Compostela (Galicia).


65. Aranda, Vicente & Suárez, Gonzalo. Fata Morgana (Madrid: Films Internacionales). [SP SC MC]
This film got its Arthurian title from a poem written by the French surrealist poet André Breton.
66. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "La flor de los caminos." Viajes imaginarios y reales (Barcelona: Tusquets, 1986): 5-57. [SP E MC]
The Way of Saint James towards Santiago de Compostela crosses the Mount Cebreiro, where the Holy Grail is kept. There you can see Galaz (Galahad) and Parsifal from time to time.


67. Buñuel, Luis & Alejandro, Julio. Tristana (Madrid: Época Films / Talia Films) [SP SC MC]
Classic film directed by the Spanish director Luis Buñuel, who also was co-author of the screenplay. This one was based on the novel Tristana by Pérez Galdós. Tristana here continues to be a kind of female Tristam.


68. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "Merlín en Carmarther." Viajes imaginarios y reales (Barcelona: Tusquets, 1986): 289-291. [SP E MC]
Here Cunqueiro demonstrates the key roles that Arthur and Merlin still play in modern Britain. Legend and myth are more important than what current politicians guess.


69. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. Vida y fugas de Fanto Fantini della Gherardesca (Barcelona: Destino, 1972). [SP N SC]
Fanto, the main character in the novel, is a nephew-grandson of Lanzarote (Lancelot). Capovilla, his old domestic servant, sings the Song of Lancelot and knows all Arthurian books by heart. Isolda is also mentioned frequently.

70. Torrente Ballester, Gonzalo. La saga/fuga de J.B. (Barcelona: Ediciones Destino, 1995). [SP N MC]
Monumental novel by another Galician writer. In an imaginary Galician town, Castroforte del Baralla, a group of citizens decides to found a New Round Table. Many years later, another group of locals gets to know what their ancestors did, and try again to found a New Round Table and become new Arthurs, Lancelots, Galahads, Merlins, and Guineveres. Both experiences fail absolutely. The novel is a great humourous parody of human weaknesses in general, and of Galicia and its collective myths in particular. The text is also an outstanding example of experimental post-structuralist literary style.


71. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. El año del cometa con la batalla de los cuatro reyes (Barcelona: Destino, 1974). [SP N SC]
This novel is full of Arthurian motifs. Paulos, the main character, is aided by the Lady of the Lake, travels to a decaying Camelot, where he visits Arthur and Guinevere, finds Isolda's shoe, dresses up as Lancelot, and gets the help of Kings Arthur and David, as well as Julius Caesar when battling his enemies. Avalon is also mentioned.


72. Sánchez-Cutillas, Carmelina. Matèria de Bretanya (Valencia: Eliseu Climent, 1976). [CA AB MC]
Matèria de Bretaña (Matter of Brittany), the book title, is also the title of its last chapter. The authoress writes about her own childhood and about the time when she started reading about Arthur and his world of knights and ladies.


73. Carré, Leandro. "El Santo Grial del Cebreiro." Las leyendas tradicionales gallegas (Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1999): 110-111. [SP PL MC]
Rewriting of the traditional Galician legend locating the finding of the Holy Grail in the Mount Cebreiro, next to the Way of Saint James, when it enters Galicia.
74. Carré, Leandro. "Galaaz y el Santo Grial." Las leyendas tradicionales gallegas (Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1999): 282-286. [SP PL MC]
Rewriting of the traditional Galician legend that has Galahad travelling to Galicia where, on Holy Friday, he finds the Holy Grail in Mount Cebreiro.
75. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "Pasei a porta." Herba aquí ou acolá (Vigo: Galaxia, 1991): 69-70. [GA SP MC]
Poem about the Kings of Brittany. Isolda is mentioned.


76. De Cuenca, Luis Alberto, tr. "La dama de Shalott." Museo (Barcelona: Antoni Bosch, 1978): 215-222. [SP SP TCT]
Translation into Spanish of this popular and early Arthurian poem by Tennyson.


77. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "Tristán García." Obra en galego completa. Semblanzas III (Vigo: Galaxia, 1983): 417-419. [GA SS MC]
A young Galician boy, named Tristam, finally finds out who Tristam was when reading about Tristam and Isolda's love story. From then on, he sets out in search of somebody named Isolda, which proves very difficult. In the end, he meets and old lady named Isolda, who has also spent her life waiting for a Tristam to find her. The love is impossible because of their age difference.


78. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "Merlín misionero." Viajes imaginarios y reales (Barcelona: Tusquets, 1986): 116-119. [SP E MC]
Merlin becomes a theologian and tries to convert the Jewish people with his magic.
79. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "Dona Flamenca." Herba aquí ou acolá (Vigo: Galaxia, 1991): 68. [GA SP MC]
Poem where Galahad, Guinevere and Lancelot are mentioned.


80. Perucho, Joan. Les aventures del cavaller Kosmas (Barcelona: Edicions 62, 1990). [CA N SC]
Second modern novel of chivalry by Perucho. Very close to the Arthurian world.


81. Cabana, Darío Xohán. "Cebreiro en materia de Bretaña." Dorna. Expresión Poética Galega. Nº 7 (Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 1982): 36. [GA SP MC]
Sonnet about the mythical Mount Cebreiro in Galicia, where the Holy Grail is. Arthur, Galahad, Lancelot and Percival are mentioned.
82. Méndez Ferrín, Xosé Luís. "Amor de Artur." Amor de Artur (e novos contos con Tagen Ata ao lonxe) (Vigo: Xerais, 1982): 9-35. [GA SN MC]
A very challenging and sophisticated reinterpretation of the Arthurian tradition and the love triangle among Arthur, Guinevere and Lancelot. Méndez Ferrín breaks the triangle and, at first, he seems to turn it into a square by adding Liliana (Elaine), but the result is rather a circle where everybody shares his or her love with everybody else. Mysterious, enigmatic, symbolic, oneiric, and very, very lyrical. There is an English translation: "Arthur's Love". Them and Other Stories. Trans. John Rutherford, Xelís de Toro, Benigno Fernández (Aberystwyth, Wales: Planet, 1996).


83. Cabana, Darío Xohán. "A invasión." VII Concurso de Narrative Curta Rodríguez Figueiredo do Patronato de Pedrón de Ouro (Sada-A Coruña: Edicións do Castro, 1983): 61-74. [GA SS MC]
In a symbolic world of evil, and surrounded by a nighmarish and oppressing atmosphere, only some Arthurian knights can offer some hope: King Arthur, Galván (Gawain), Lancelot, Galahad, and Percival.
84.- Fuster, Jaume. L'illa de les tres taronges (Barcelona: Planeta, 1983). [CA N SC]
Fuster was a devoted admirer of J.R.R. Tolkien and his trilogy The Lord of the Rings. He followed Tolkien's example and wrote his own trilogy. Fuster's L'Home Savi takes after Gandalf the Grey, who also takes after Merlin, all of them belonging to the same kind of archetypical creations.
85.- Sarrionandia, Joseba. "Ginebra erregina herbestean." Narrazioak (Donostia: Elkar, 1983): 25-36. [BA SS MC]
The Arthurian tales by Sarrionandia are not only outstanding because they are very original reinterpretations of the Arthurian motifs, but also because they are written in the minority language of Basque. Queen Guinevere in Exile (Ginebra erregina herbestean) is the first one of this short stories. After the end of Camelot, Arthur and Guinevere exile from their homeland and settle down in a rural area in the Basque Country. Lancelot leaves them, but his son Galahad settles down next to his King and Queen. Guinevere misses Lancelot, and because of their similarity she seduces young and pure Galahad, which seems the end of the possibility of finding the Holy Grail. Arthur finds out and kills Galahad out of revenge. But hope can never be uprooted: Guinevere got pregnant and is carrying Galahad's son in her womb.


86. Díaz-Mas, Paloma. El rapto de Santo Grial o El Caballero de la Verde Oliva (Barcelona: Anagrama, 1984). [SP N MC]
The authoress takes advantage of many traditional Arthurian motifs in order to imagine and write about a whole new set of motifs of her own: new plots and characters. Nobody believes in the ideal anymore; Arthur is just an old sceptical man; Lancelot and Perceval become fully useless for deeds of knighthood. The new star is young Pelinor, the new hero of the Round Table. Many ballads and popular traditions of Spain are also incorporated into the text.


87.- Anselmi, Luigi. "Beafeater." Luka eta lurra. Euskal poesia 80ko hamarkadan. Edited by Jon Kortazar (Bilbao: Bilbao Bizkaia Kutxa - Labayru Ikastegia): 575. [BA SP MC]
Short poem based on a wordplay. In Basque, as in Spanish, Guinevere and Gin sound the same: Ginebra.
88. Díaz-Mas, Paloma, wr. Tras las huellas de Artorius (Cáceres: Institución Cultural El Brocense, 1985). [SP N SC]
A group of academics centres their research in difficult anonymous medieval texts. References to the Matter of Brittany and to the Breton Lais by Marie de France are frequent.
89. Fuster, Jaume. L'anell de ferro (Barcelona: Planeta, 1985). [CA N SC]
Second part of Fuster's trilogy, inspired by Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings.
90. Méndez Ferrín, Xosé Luís. Arnoia, Arnoia (Vigo: Xerais, 1997). [GA N SC]
Revolutionary political fiction full of intertextual references, many of them to the matter of Britain, particularly Percival and the forest of Brocelianda.


91. Cabana, Darío Xohán. "Guenebra." Amor e tempo liso (Cancioneiro) (Santiago de Compostela: Concello de Santiago, 1987): 38. [GA SP MC]
Sonnet devoted to Queen Guinevere and her two loves: Arthur and Lancelot.
92. González Reigosa, Carlos. "A tentación de Lanzarote." Irmán Rei Artur (Vigo, Xerais, 1987): 39-71. [GA SS MC]
First part of a new Galician trilogy on King Arthur and his knights. González Reigosa presents himself as a passionate defender of the suitability of the Arthurian tradition for Galicia. Here we see a Lancelot tortured by doubts related to the viability of the ideas of the Round Table and the real intentions of King Arthur.
93. González Reigosa, Carlos. "Amor de Merlín." Irmán Rei Artur (Vigo: Xerais, 1987): 72-96. [GA SS MC]
Second part of this trilogy. For Reigosa, the traditional version of the Vivien-Merlin love affair does not make sense. He cannot believe that Vivien could beat Merlin. Indeed, Merlin here manipulates Vivien in order to get peace and retire from the world.
94. González Reigosa, Carlos. "A morte do rei Artur." Irmán Rei Artur (Vigo: Xerais, 1987): 97-126 [GA SS MC]
Third part of the trilogy. Reigosa follows Malory very closely now, but emphasizes the inner feelings of his characters. In spite of their diverging destinies, Arthur, Lancelot and Guinevere continue loving each other.
95. Méndez Ferrín, Xosé Luís. Bretaña, Esmeraldina (Vigo: Xerais, 1987). [GA N SC]
Another radical and politically-inspired novel by Méndez Ferrín, who never forgets including Arthurian references in his texts, as it is here the case: chivalry novels and the Welsh Mabinogion.


96. Sainero, Ramón, tr. "La llegada de Arturo." Los grandes mitos celtas y su influencia en la literatura (Barcelona: Edicomunicación, 1988): 234-262. [SP LP TCT]
Partial word-for-word translation of the idyll "The Coming of Arthur" by Tennyson.
97. Sainero, Ramón, tr. "La muerte de Arturo." Los grandes mitos celtas y su influencia en la literatura (Barcelona: Edicomunicación, 1988): 263-278. [SP LP TCT]
Partial word-for-word translation of the idyll "The Passing of Arthur" by Tennyson.
98. Sainero, Ramón, tr. "Ginebra." Los grandes mitos celtas y su influencia en la literatura (Barcelona: Edicomunicación, 1988): 279-317. [SP LP TCT]
Partial word-for-word translation of the idyll "Guinevere" by Tennyson.


99. Cabana, Darío Xohán. "Galván en Demonte," Patria do mar (Vigo: Ir Indo Edicións, 1989): 81. [GA SP MC]
Sonnet on the adventures of Gawain and other Arthurian knights in Galicia in search of the Holy Grail.
100. Cabana, Darío Xohán. Galván en Saor (Vigo: Xerais, 1989). [GA N MC]
Galván, or Gawain, leaves Arthur's Court and travels to Saor (Galicia), where he meets Merlin, now a bus driver, and settles down for a while. The novel takes place in two different moments: the present and medieval times. And the action jumps from one to the other without interruption. We may see Gawain riding a horse now and driving a motorbike immediately after. Galician folk stories and popular traditions are widely used.


101. Perucho, Joan. "La fata Morgana." El baslisc (Barcelona: Destino, 1990): 58-59. [CA E MC]
This essay describes a natural phenomenon that usually takes place in Calabria (Italy) and which has been popularly named Fata Morgana.
102. Sarrionandia, Joseba. "Amorante ausarta." Ifar aldeko orduak (Donostia: Alkar, 1990): 87-99. [BA SS MC]
Second Basque short story by Sarrionandia: The Bold Lover (Amorante ausarta) deals with the love story of Merlin and Vivien, now living in the Basque Country rural core.


103. Carvalho Calero, Ricardo. "Soneto." Actas do Segundo Congreso de Estudios Galegos (Vigo: Galaxia, 1991): 393-394. [GA SP MC]
Sonnet mixing Galician folk traditions and myths, Arthurian motifs, and new Galician interpretations of the matter such as those by Méndez Ferrín. Don Quixote is also mentioned.
104. Cunqueiro, Álvaro. "A xénese da novela occidental." Obra en Galego Completa. Vol. IV / Ensaios (Vigo: Galaxia, 1991): 9-12. [GA E MC]
In this essay Cunqueiro claims that Tristam and Isolda love story in not Celtic in origin but Persian, and that was taken into Europe by means of the Arab invasions.


105. Cabana, Darío Xohan. Cándido Branco e o Cabaleiro Negro (Vigo: Xerais, 1992). [GA N SC]
Novel of chivalry close to the Arthurian novels. Cabana has also produced many full Arthurian texts.


106. Fuster, Jaume. El jardi de les tres palmeres (Barcelona: Planeta, 1993). [CA N SC]
Third part of Fuster's trilogy, inspired by Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings.


107. Sarrionandia, Joseba. "Eguziak ortza urdinean nabegatzen." Atabala eta euria (Donostia: Elkar, 1996): 7-17. [BA SS MC]
Third short story in Basque by Sarrionandia. The Sun is Sailing in the Firmament (Eguziak ortza urdinean nabegatzen) centres around Percival and a fatal hunting of the Unicorn. The knight also falls in love with a Pre-Raphaelite-looking rural lady.
108. Sarrionandia, Joseba. "Ezpata hura arragoan." Atabala eta euria (Donostia: Elkar, 1996): 71-80. [BA SS MC]
Fourth Arthurian short story in Basque by Sarrionandia. The Sword in the Crucible (Ezpata hura arragoan) presents old King Arthur in his Basque Country retirement talking to his servant Fool about the good old days forever lost. Very melancholic in mood.


109. Méndez Ferrín, Xosé Luís. "Lanzarote ou o sabio consello." Trabe de Ouro. Publicación Galega de Pensamento Crítico. Nº 31 (Santiago de Compostela: Grupo Soteblan, Xullo-Agosto-Setembro 1997): 399-405. [GA SS MC]
A young man loves the wife of a Scottish prince. And an old wise man warns him against this love by telling him the story of Arthur, Guinevere and Lancelot. The Arthurian heroes are described not in ideal terms, but in very negative words. There is a French translatin: "Le sage conseil". Lancelot (Paris: Editions Autrement).


110. Matute, Ana María. Olvidado Rey Gudú (Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1998). [SP N SC]
Fantasy novel of chivalry set in the Middle Ages. Very close to the Arthurian literature.
111. Moleón Viana, Miguel Ángel. El rey Arturo cabalga de nuevo, más o menos (Madrid: SM, 2002). [SP CN MC]
A 250-year-old King Arthur leaves Avalon and experiences a new series of delicious adventures typically devised for young readers. Merlin and Vivien and many other fanciful beings accompany him.


112. Matute, Ana María. Aranmanoth (Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 2000). [SP N SC]
Second fantasy novel of chivalry by the same authoress. Also set in the Middle Ages and very close to the Arthurian literature.
113. Paolantonio, Jorge, tr. "La Dama de Shalott." Antología poética (texto bilingüe) (Cáceres: Universidad de Extremadura, 2002): 150-163. [SP SP TCT]
Second translation into Spanish of The Lady of Shalott, early Arthurian poem by Tennyson.


114. Montes, Graciela. Arturo, el dueño de la espada. Illustrated by Mikel Valverde (Madrid: SM, 2001). [SP CSS MC]
First volume of a whole series retelling all the Arthurian cycle for small children. The coming of Arthur and the sword in the stone.
115. Montes, Graciela. El mago Merlín. Illustrated by Mikel Valverde (Madrid: SM, 2001). [SP CSS MC]
Second volume of this Arthurian cycle retelling for children. The story and powers of Merlin and his battle against two dragons.
116. Montes, Graciela. El misterio del Santo Grial. Illustrated by Mikel Valverde (Madrid: SM, 2001). [SP CSS MC]
Third volume of this Arthurian cycle retelling for children. Perceval and his search of the Holy Grail. The Fisher King.
117. Montes, Graciela. Lanzarote, el caballero enamorado. Illustrated by Mikel Valverde (Madrid: SM, 2001). [SP CSS MC]
Fourth volume of this Arthurian cycle retelling for children. Lancelot, who is in love with Guinevere, saves her from kidnappers.
118. Montes, Graciela. Tristán e Isolda. Illustrated by Mikel Valverde (Madrid: SM, 2001). [SP CSS MC]
Fifth volume of this Arthurian cycle retelling for children. The beautiful love story between Tristam and Isolda. The battle of Tristam against a terrible monster to save Ireland.
119. Montes, Graciela. El caballero del León. Illustrated by Mikel Valverde (Madrid: SM, 2001). [SP CSS MC]
Sixth volume of this Arthurian cycle retelling for children. The story of Ivain and his combat against a terrible knight.
120. Montes, Graciela. Perceval y el caballero Rojo. Illustrated by Mikel Valverde (Madrid: SM, 2001). [SP CSS MC]
Seventh volume of this Arthurian cycle retelling for children. How Perceval left his homeland in Wales and becomes a knight like the Red Knight.
121. Montes, Graciela. La hija del rey. Illustrated by Mikel Valverde (Madrid: SM, 2001). [SP CSS MC]
Eighth volume of this Arthurian cycle retelling for children. How Gineth, daughter of Arthur, makes a mess of the whole Court.


122. Rivero, Antonio, tr. "La dama de Shalott." Alfred Tennyson. La Dama de Shalott y otros poemas (Madrid: Editorial Pre-Textos, 2002): 16-33. [SP SP TCT]
Third translation into Spanish of The Lady of Shalott, the popular early Arthurian poem by Tennyson.
123. Rivero, Antonio, tr. "Morte d'Arthur." Alfred Tennyson. La Dama de Shalott y otros poemas (Madrid: Editorial Pre-Textos, 2002): 64-83. [SP SP TCT]
Translation of this early Arthurian poem by Tennyson.
124. Rivero, Antonio, tr. "Lanzarote y la Reina Ginebra." Alfred Tennyson. La Dama de Shalott y otros poemas (Madrid: Editorial Pre-Textos, 2002): 90-93. [SP SP TCT]
Translation of this early Arthurian poem by Tennyson.
125. Vázquez Montalbán, Manuel. Erec y Enide (Barcelona: Areté, 2002). [SP N MC]
Inspired in the medieval romance by Chrétien de Troyes, a set of present-day characters are made to match their medieval counterparts by Professor-Emeritus Julio Matasanz, specialist in Arthurian medieval literature. A manifesto novel in favor of feelings, communication and love.


      1.- King Arthur and his world do not only belong to modern Spanish literature, but have also given rise to a distinctive canon of modern Arthurian literature, which deserves beyond doubt to be included within the pages of a Encyclopedia such as the one edited by Prof. Lacy. It should not be neglected any more by Spanish or international Arthurian scholars.

      2.- It may not compare in output, for example, with the modern tradition in English, but it certainly does compare in quality and interest.

      3.- Both Tennyson and Wagner, the so-called modern heirs of Malory, also exercised a great influence in the Spanish revival of Arthurian legends and myths.

      4.- This canon listed here is comprised of both well-known authors belonging to great canon of Spanish Literature and lesser-known voices. It includes men and women; nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first centuries writers; poets, narrators and thinkers; romantic, realist, modernist, avant-garde or post-structuralist talents. Arthur has also captivated the most varied spirits of modern and contemporary Spain.

      5.- As other international modern traditions, the canon of Spanish Arthurian literature has always welcomed and debated all types of ideas and ways of thinking: those haunting or obsessing a given writer or his or her society during a given period of time: feminism, utopia, the role of legend and myth in modern societies, aestheticism, commitment, ecology, materialism, spiritual values, oppression and revolution, passion and eroticism, etc.

      6.- It is also very irreverent toward the codified versions of the legends. It displays revolutionary innovations and very high levels of original treatment and demystification.

      7.- There is a very strong tendency to transport and locate Arthurian characters and motifs in Spain. To naturalize them and make them seem and sound less exotic, i.e., more or fully Spanish. This is very clear within Galician writers, a region of Spain that has always striven to emphasize its supposedly but non-factual Celtic origins.

      8.- In modern Spain, Merlin is also the most popular Arthurian character, his love story with Vivien/Nimue especially, which has given rise to all kinds of versions and interpretations.

      9.- Arthurian literature translated into Spanish are much more abundant, popular and important than original Arthurian works in Spanish. Frequently, native productions are very intellectual and directed to a limited audience. And, of course, out-of-print. Consequently, the original canon is not enough to feed such an avid interest or need for myth and fantasy. Popular bestselling translations fill the gap with the help of audiovisual formats such as comic strips, cinema and television.

      10.- This comprehensive canon of mine comprises all the four main languages of Spain: Spanish or Castilian, Catalan, Galician and Basque. But the task is not finished. Even within its present limits, I am positive there must be some more Spanish Arthurian poems or short stories waiting to be found and compiled. But I also believe that it should be enlarged to hold the modern Arthurian literature of Portugal in order to reproduce the medieval unity in modern times.

      11.- And after covering the whole of the Iberian peninsula, the canon should be opened again to include the modern Arthurian production of Spanish America and Brazil, another very demanding field of research.

      12.- A new interest in these neglected modern Arthurian traditions may constitute a perfect new direction in Arthurian Studies for this new twenty-first century we have just started.


    Clearly, this listing of modern Arthurian literature is not enough. Not enough because new entries are very likely to be found without much difficulty, and because its limits can very easily be broken down. Consequently, new listings can and should be added to this first effort. For example, the following ones:

      - A full listing of the medieval and classical Spanish Arthurian literature from the beginnings in the twelfth century to the early seventeenth century, when Don Quixote Parts 1 & 2 was published.

      - A possible listing including Arthurian production, if any, between 1616 and 1868, the year of the comeback of the Matter of Brittany to the literature of Spain thanks to Tennyson and José Zorrilla and his Los encantos de Merlín.

      - The medieval and modern Arthurian tradition of the other Iberian nation: Portugal, in order to fully understand the Arthur of the Iberians.

      - Latin American Arthurian literary output in Spanish and Portuguese. No canon of modern Arthurian literature in the languages of Spain and Portuguese can avoid setting sail and crossing the Atlantic ocean, in order to include writers and works such as: Germán Arciniegas (Colombia): El estudiante de la mesa redonda (1932) [novel - Spanish]; Agustín Yáñez (Mexico): Melibea, Isolda y Alda en tierras cálidas (1946) [short novel - Spanish]; Joao Guimaraes (Brasil): Grande sertao: veredas (1958) [novel - Portuguese]; Giovanni Quessep (Colombia): Muerte de Merlín (1985) [Book of poems - Spanish]; Germán Espinosa (Colombia): El Píxide (1988) [short story - Spanish].

      - Arthur in translation in Spain, Portugal and Latin America: from the medieval translations of French romances, to modern translations of medieval works, and the popular reception of modern Arthurian classics such as John Steinbeck, Stephen R. Lawhead, Thomas A. Barron, Bernard Cronwell, James Mallory, Rosalind Miles, among many others, in translation.

      - Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American scholarship and published research on Arthurian subject matters: on the one hand, focusing on their own national traditions; and on the other, presenting a more international scope within the field of Arthurian culture and literature in general.

      - International bibliography on the Arthur of the Iberians and Iberian Americans.


      I wish to thank Carlos Herrero of the University of Valladolid, Spain, and Micaela Muñoz, of the University of Zaragoza, Spain, promoters of my Doctoral Dissertation entitled: Alfred Tennyson y la literatura artúrica española de los siglos XIX y XX: traducción, manipulación e intertextualidad (University of Zaragoza. May 2001).

      I also wish to thank Alan Lupack of The Camelot Project for hosting this listing of mine and for his interest and encouragement in my research (January 2003).


1. Original writers mentioned in the listing in alphabetical order:
Anselmi, Luigi (1954- )
Aranda, Vicente (1926- )
Blasco Ibáñez, Vicente (1887-1928)
Buñuel, Luis (1900-1985)
Cabana, Darío Xohán (1952- )
Cabanillas, Ramón (1876-1956)
Carré, Leandro (1888-1976)
Carvalho Calero, Ricardo
Cunqueiro, Álvaro (1911-1981)
De Riquer, Alexandre (1856-1920)
Díaz-Mas, Paloma (1954- )
Fuster, Jaume (1945-1998)
González Reigosa, Carlos (1958- )
Jarnés, Benjamín (1888-1949)
Mangrané, David (1910-1985)
Matute, Ana María (1926- )
Méndez Ferrín, Xosé Luís (1938- )
Moleón Viana, Miguel Ángel (1965- )
Montes, Graciela
Morera i Galicia, Magí
Ojea, José
Palacio Valdés, Armando (1853-1938)
Pardo Bazán, Emilia (1851-1921)
Pérez Galdós, Benito (1843-1920)
Perucho, Joan (1920- )
Sánchez-Cutillas, Carmelina (1927- )
Sarrionandia, Joseba (1958- )
Torrente Ballester, Gonzalo (1910-1990)
Vázquez Montalbán, Manuel (1939- )
Viura, Xavier (1882-1948)
Zanné, Jeroni (1873-1934)
Zorrilla, José (1817-1893)
2. Translators mentioned in the listing in alphabetical order:
D'Ax, Anna (1902-?)
De Arana, Vicente (1848-1890)
De Cuenca, Luis Alberto
Lleonart, Joseph
Lope, Gisbert
Maragall, Joan
Morales, María Luz
Paolantonio, Jorge
Pena, Joaquim (1873-1944)
Ribera, Antoni
Rivero, Antonio
Sainero, Ramón
Sanjurjo, Carmela Eulate
Viura, Xavier (1882-1948)
Zanné, Jeroni (1873-1934)