Homily 1, First Sunday in Advent

HOMILY 1, FIRST SUNDAY IN ADVENT: FOOTNOTES

1 Latin rubric (Mark 1:1–8): The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. As it is written in Isaias the prophet: Behold I send my angel before thy face, who shall prepare the way before thee. A voice of one crying in the desert: Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight his paths. John was in the desert [baptizing, and preaching the baptism of penance, unto remission of sins. And there went out to him all the country of Judea, and all they of Jerusalem, and were baptized by him in the river of Jordan, confessing their sins. And John was clothed with camel’s hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins; and he ate locusts and wild honey. And he preached, saying: There cometh after me one mightier than I, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to stoop down and loose. I have baptized you with water; but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost.]

2 They both say the same thing with many [different] letters

HOMILY 1, FIRST SUNDAY IN ADVENT: EXPLANATORY NOTES

Abbreviations: CT: Chaucer, Canterbury Tales; MED: Middle English Dictionary; NHC: Northern Homily Cycle; NIMEV: The New Index of Middle English Verse, ed. Boffey and Edwards; ON: Old Norse; Small: English Metrical Homiles, ed. Small; Whiting: Whiting, Proverbs, Sentences and Proverbial Phrases from English Writings Mainly Before 1500. For manuscript abbreviations (ED, A, D, G, L, V), see the Introduction.

The liturgical year begins with the four Sundays of the Advent season, which culminate in the Nativity. The celebration of Advent was instituted towards the end of the fifth century, and the Latin word adventus (“coming"), which gives its name to the season, was first under­stood as referring specifically to the birth of Christ but later taken in the wider sense of the coming of Christ in general. The texts for the First, Third, and Fourth Sundays appropri­ately center on the life and preaching of John the Baptist, who prophesied Jesus’ coming, and who also baptized him in the river Jordan. In the preceding Ratio, the poet has identified the season as one of joyful anticipation, as Christians prepare to welcome Jesus with “honor and mirth"; for the medieval church, however, the Advent season was also a time of fasting and repentance, hence the further appropriateness of John the Baptist as a preacher of repentance. Despite the ostensible cheer, all four of the Advent texts introduce a consid­erable element of darkness, especially that for the Second Sunday, which looks ahead to Judgment Day at the end of time. The First Sunday in Advent is that which is closest in date to the Feast of Saint Andrew (November 30).

NIMEV 2996, 4226. Manuscripts: ED: fols. 17r–18v; A: fols. 3r–7r; G: fols. 8r–11v; D: fols. 40r–42v; L: fols. 1v–3r.

1 Sayn Mark. The Gospel passage from Mark was not widely used for the First Sunday in Advent during this period. The missals for both Sarum and York, for instance, employ Matthew 21:1–9, which chronicles Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem, and later versions of NHC itself substitute the Matthew text for that of Mark. This lends support to the idea that NHC was originally composed by Augustinian canons who generally show more flexibility than other clergy in their choice of Gospel pericopes (see Heffernan, “Authorship," p. 304, and Spencer, English Preaching, p. 23).

14 Malachye. An allusion to Malachias 3:1: “Behold I send my angel, and he shall prepare the way before my face."

45–46 This es the strenthe of our Godspel, / That man with Englis tung mai telle. The poet reg­ularly indicates the conclusion of the Gospel paraphrase with this formula or an­other very similar.

65 Cristes messagers. The importance and worthiness of the office of preacher is a frequent theme. Nonetheless, as will be seen, the poet also speaks often and colorfully of preachers who do not behave in a manner that is consonant with their office. See, for example, the sermons for Septuagesima and the Third Sunday in Lent (Homilies 14 and 20). The Fourth Lateran Council of 1215 was respon­sible for placing a heightened emphasis on the duties of priests with regard to their parishioners, and the consequent necessity for priests to be sufficiently well educated to carry out these duties (Boyle, “Fourth Lateran," pp. 30–31).

79 lyhted doun. The poem appropriates a favorite pun often used by writers on the Annunciation, where the Holy Spirit “alighted" in Mary, thus making her lumi­nous with his light, and at the same time making her light (less encumbered, less heavy of heart). Compare Chaucer’s wordplay where, in the Prologue to The Prioress’ Tale, we read of “the Goost that in th’alighte, / Of whos vertu, whan he thyn herte lighte" (CT VII[B2]470–71).

80 maiden. The two primary meanings of the term are surely in force here, as Mary is both a young woman and a virgin (MED).

81 And schop him bodi. A reference to the central Christian doctrine of the Incar­nation, the belief that Jesus, who, through the power of the Holy Spirit, was born from the Virgin Mary, was both God and a human being.

84 al an. This phrase expresses the idea that Christ, in his holiness (sinlessness) remains all one with God, though separate in accordance with Trinitarian hypostatic theory (different but one in the same). Sin “is moder of divisioun," Gower writes (Confessio Amantis, Prol.1030; see also Prol.849–53 and 1009–10), a principle at work here by contrast as the fiend, who is separated from God, tries to trick Jesus the man into sin (division) and thereby hurl him into his prison (line 104).

92 Als fisce is tan wit bait and hoc. Proverbial. See Whiting F230, which lists, among others, occurrences in Aelfric, Cursor Mundi, and Lydgate. This was a very popular image in sermons. Though the idea can be traced back to Origen, it was given its most famous form by Gregory of Nyssa in the fourth century, who described how “the Deity was hidden under the veil of our nature, that so, as with ravenous fish, the hook of the Deity might be gulped down along with the bait of flesh, and thus, life being introduced into the house of death, and light shining in darkness, that which is diametrically opposed to light and life might vanish" (Great Cate­chism 24, in Select Library, p. 494). John of Damascus (in De Fid. 3.27) uses the same simile in the eighth century, and Henry notes that the familiar image is portrayed “in Herrad of Landsburg’s drawing of Leviathan swallowing the hook of the Cross concealed by the bait of Christ’s body" (Henry, “‘Pater Noster,’" p. 111).

103 ithenlye. MED: from ON iðinn, “diligent." The only citations in MED come from NHC and Cursor Mundi. Small notes several Scottish dialect variants of this word: “ithand, ythen, eident," which further signal its Northern origin (p. 176).

122 He herid hel. The Harrowing of Hell was the medieval English term for Christ’s descent into hell following his death, understood as the moment when he tri­umphed over Satan and led forth a victorious procession of those who had lived justly but had died before they could be redeemed by Christ. This popular belief, to which the mystery plays often devoted an entire episode, was developed in post-biblical times from images scattered throughout the New Testament (see, for example, Matthew 12:40 and 27:52–53).

128 ro. Small notes the derivation of ro from ON , “peace" (p. 176).

159 Werldes welthe. Although most of the NHC exempla have been taken from collec­tions like the Vitae Patrum, this is one of several whose source is actually biblical:
And one of the Pharisees desired him to eat with him. And he went into the house of the Pharisee, and sat down to meat. And behold a woman that was in the city, a sinner, when she knew that he sat at meat in the Pharisee’s house, brought an alabaster box of ointment; And standing behind at his feet, she began to wash his feet, with tears, and wiped them with the hairs of her head, and kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment. And the Pharisee, who had invited him, seeing it, spoke within himself, saying: This man, if he were a prophet, would know surely who and what manner of woman this is that toucheth him, that she is a sinner. And Jesus, answering, said to him: Simon, I have somewhat to say to thee. But he said: Master, say it. A certain creditor had two debtors, the one owed five hundred pence, and the other fifty. And whereas they had not wherewith to pay, he forgave them both. Which therefore of the two loveth him most? Simon answering, said; I suppose that he to whom he forgave most. And he said to him: Thou hast judged rightly. And turning to the woman, he said unto Simon: Dost thou see this woman: I entered into thy house, thou gavest me no water for my feet; but she with tears hath washd my feet, and with her hairs hath wiped them. Thou gavest me no kiss; but she, since she came in, hath not ceased to kiss my feet. My head with oil thou didst not anoint; but she with ointment hath anointed my feet. Wherefor I say to thee: Many sins are forgiven her, because she hath loved much. But to whom less is forgiven, he loveth less. And he said to her: Thy sins are forgiven thee. (Luke 7:36–48, with synoptic parallels at Mark 14:3–9 and Matthew 26:6–13)
Luke’s account does not name the penitential sinner as Mary Magdalene, but Gregory the Great preached a homily in 591 fusing together three Marys taken from different elements of scriptural tradition as found in the Gospels: Mary Magdalene (the woman healed of demonic possession by Christ who became his disciple and bore witness to his resurrection), Mary of Bethany (the sister of Martha and Lazarus), and the unnamed sinner who anointed Christ’s feet at the house of Simon the Pharisee. The composite figure thus created became one of the most popular saints of the later Middle Ages: Bede’s Martyrology (c. 720) provides the first evidence for the cult of Mary Magdalene in the West, and by the eleventh century the signs of devotion to her were everywhere (see Jansen, Making of the Magdalen, p. 35). Mary Magdalene was especially significant as a figure for repentance, as seen, for example, in the illustration of her found in the Biblia Pauperum (Henry, “‘Pater Noster,’" pp. 101–11).

189 Simonde was mesel. Luke does not say that Simon was a leper, but he is so identified in Matthew 26:6 and Mark 14:3.

205 blotned. Small notes: “From blote, to dry, hence the well known word ‘bloater,’ a herring dried in smoke" (p. 176).

207–10 The idea that Mary’s ointment is the same as that which she used in her earlier sinful life is (to the best of my knowledge) original to NHC. The ointment has an extended legendary history after the anointing of Christ: King Bademagu offers to heal Lancelot’s wounds by applying the ointment of the Three Marys in Chrétien de Troyes’ Knight of the Cart (p. 211). The ointment also makes an appearance in Le Mort Ayneri de Narbonne, a chanson de geste that is part of the William of Orange Cycle.

275–80 blast of bem . . . he sal thaim flem. The extended rhyme over these six lines on the eschaton helps to hold the apocalyptic imagery apart from the text, emphasizing the innate power of the last things. These images, of course, have their scriptural basis in Apocalypse, particularly 20:11–15.

281–84 Here the poet alludes to his next homily, on the signs that will precede Judgment Day as foretold by Jesus in the Gospel of Luke. See Second Sunday in Advent for this text.

HOMILY 1, FIRST SUNDAY IN ADVENT: TEXTUAL NOTES

1 Sayn. MS: ayn. Space for capital letter left blank.

11 thee. So A. MS omits.

41 in water. MS: in written at end of line, with a caret before water to indicate point of insertion.

51 falles to a mihty king. MS: falles mihty to king, with a caret before and after mihty to in­dicate repositioning of to. MS also omits a, which I have supplied from A.

57 witnes. So A, G. MS: wittes.

73 us. So A. MS omits.

76 Cristes tocuminges thre. Small has added poyntis to this line, enclosed in square brack­ets, following tocuminge, but without indicating the source of this emendation in his notes. He has in fact taken it from G, the source of most of his emen­dations, but I see no reason to follow him here as ED makes sense without the emendation and is close to the reading in A: Of iesu cristis comynges thre. The idea of Christ’s three appearances was an expansion of the original idea of Christ’s “advent" or birth, to include the idea of a triple coming: the birth of Christ, the Second Coming (Last Judgment), and the coming of the Kingdom of Heaven, i.e., the kingdom “within" (New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia, p. 55).

106 other. So A. MS: oþe.

112 fisc. MS: fisic.

128 al. MS: fra canceled following.

133 Nou. MS: ou. Space for capital letter left blank.

142 siker. So A. MS: sike.

147 beginne. So A. MS: biginnig.

159 Werldes. MS: erldes. Space for capital letter left blank.
MS: Notanda relatio is written in red letters at the edge of the left margin. There is also a cross just to the left of the space left for the capital letter W (not written), which is the scribe’s customary method for noting the beginning of the exemplum.

166 hir. MS: hio.

173 nane. So A. MS: man.

180 That burd. So A. MS: þar brd.

200 grete. So A. MS: grete (?). Small transcribes this word as grede, and this is a pos­si­ble reading. However, I think it more likely that the t of grete has been care­lessly written, with a more curved ascender than in the case of the other three rhyming words. A d seems unlikely, given both the meaning of grede (“to yell" or “cry out") and the fact that lines 199, 201, and 202 all end in -ete.

211 This. MS: his. Space for capital letter left blank.

216 this. MS: his.

220 thoght. So A. MS omits.

221 said. MS: said said, with second occurrence canceled.

232 thaim. So A. MS omits.

234 stez. The MED lists this, along with the slightly more usual spelling stece, as the only occurrence of this word, meaning “force, compulsion." A: strife. G: stryue.

239 Thou havis. MS: Þou hauid. A: has. Small emends or misreads Þou as You, and leaves havid unaltered. That Þou is intended is confirmed by A’s reading, as well as by the use of the second person singular pronoun throughout this passage. I have accordingly adjusted the ending of havid to conform with the second person singular as ordinarily written in ED.

243 this. MS: þit.

247 Thou. MS: Þou. Once again Small has transcribed this as “You," which is clearly wrong.

271 us. MS: til canceled before.
 
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Homily 1, First Sunday in Advent

Inicium Evangelii Jhesu Cristi filii Dei, sicut scriptum est in Ysaya Propheta. Ecce mitto angelum meum ante faciem tuam qui preparabit viam tuam ante te. Vox clamantis in deserto parate viam Domini, rectas semitas facite eius. Fuit Johannes in deserto et cetera.1
 




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   Sayn Mark byginnes his Godspel
Wit wordes that I wil you tel
And tas witnes of Ysaye
That spekes of Crist in prophecye.
This Ysaye than spekes ful even,
In the Fader nam of hevin,
Til Crist of Sayn Johan the Baptiste,
That bodword broht of him that Crist.
“I send,” he says, “My messager
Bifor thi face thi word to ber,
That sal graithe bifor thee the way,
Wit word that he of thee wil say.”
Thir wordes says God Almihty,
Thoru the prophet Malachye,
And als than spekis Ysaie
Of Sayn Jon ful openlye
Thai scheu bathe an wit sere letter,2
Forthi bers us trow thaim the better.
Thay tald hou Sayn Jon the Baptist
Suld graythe the gates bifor Criste,
For Sayn Jon was in wildernes,
And baptized folk in forgifnes
Of sin, and kend thaim the way
Tilward that blis that lastes ay.
For mikel folk of a contré
That our Godspelles kalles Judé
And of Jerusalemes cité,
Com of Sain Jon baptized to be;
Thai schraf thaim of thair sines clen,
And Sayn Jon baptized thaim biden.
In strang penance his life he ledde,
Wit camel hare was he cledde,
Wod hony and froit he ete,
And taht the folk thair sine to bete,
And said, “A stither gom than I,
Efter me sal com in hy,
That es so menscful and mihty,
That I meself es noht worthi
To les the thuanges of his schon,
Sa mikel god thoru him bes don.
For I in water bapptiz you,
Bot apon him aw ye to trow,
For he sal wit the Hali Gaste
Baptiz you and your sinnes waste.”
This es the strenthe of our Godspel,
That man with Englis tung mai telle.

   In this Godspel als think me,
Tua thinges may we gastli se.
The first es worsip and louing
Of Jhesu Cristes tocoming.
For it falles to a mihty king,
That messagers word of him bring
Ar he com tille his biging,
Als Sain Jon broht of Crist tithing,
Of quaim Ysay the prophet
Bers witnes wit wordes suet;
And Sain Mark settes his witnes,
In our Godspel als wel worthé es.
The tother thinge that we may se,
In our Godspel als think me,
Than es the gret derworthines
Of precheours that bers witnes
Of this tocom and mas it couthe,
Wit word that comes of thair mouthe;
For thai er Cristes messagers,
Til al that thair sarmoun heres.
Thay telle the folk on quat maner
That mankind was to Godd sa der
That he send his Son us to,
Our aller nedes forto do
That was our Lauerd Crist Jesus,
That was send todey for us.
Forthi bird us in his cuming,
Welcum him als worthi king,
For in hali bok find we
Of Cristes tocuminges thre.
The first was quen he com to tak
Fleis and blod for mannes sak.
He lyhted doun ful mekeli
Into the maiden wamb Mary,
And schop him bodi of hir fleyse,
And dubbed him wit our liknes,
And welk in werld als sinful man,
Bot sinles was he al an;
Wit our licnes bigiled he
The fend that his manhed moht se,
Bot pride made the fend sa blind,
That his Godhed moht he noht find.
He wend that Crist war noht bot man,
And thoru his Godhed was he tan.
Cristes Godhed the fend tok
Als fisce is tan wit bait and hoc;
For his Godhed in fleis was felid
Als hok in bait, quare thoru he telid
The fend that telid our fadir Adam,
And broht mankind in mikel blam;
Haved Satenas wist witerlye
That Criste havid ben Godd almihtye,
For al this werld havid he noht gert,
The Jowes sting him to the hert.
Bot for he sau him noht bot man,
Godhed in him wend he war nan,
Forthi he fanded ithenlye,
To harl him intil his balye.
He wend wel wit him to fare,
Als he havid don with other are;
For quen Crist suelt apon the tre,
His sauel gern spied he,
Yef he moht se or find tharinne,
Any filth or spotte ofe sinne.
And for he fand tharin riht nan,
Als fisc wit hok was he tan.
The fendes miht that was ful stithe,
That he was won bifor to kithe,
Was alle taken in Cristes hand,
That him in hel sa harde band,
That nevermar sal he wend
Out of helle, bot ay thar lend.
And Crist reft him than mani man,
That he fra Crist bifor havid tan.
For son, quen Crist on rod was slain,
He herid hel als mihti thain,
And broht thaim al that war his,
Mihtfullik intill his blis;
His Godhed and his sauel samen,
Broht thaim al fra pin to gamen.
Thus com ur Lauerd Crist us to
To bring us al til rest and ro;
Forthi beres man that ese mad hale,
And blisfully bette of his bale,
Welcom Crist that com to bring
Us til his blis als mighti King.

   Nou se ye qui and for quas sake,
Crist com til us our kind to take.
His first com was bodilye,
Bot another est gastilye:
That es quen Crist gifes us wille
His comandmenz to fulfille.
For son, quen we haf wil to do
Al that the precheour says us to,
And feles our hert in charité
Forsothe ful siker mai we be,
That Crist es comen intil our hertes
Gastli, that us til godnes ertes,
Of usself haf we noht bot sin,
Bot quen Crist wirkes us witin,
Than at the first beginne we,
God Cresten men to be,
That may ye se aperteli,
Wit mani ensaumpel witerly,
Namly bi Mari Maudelayn,
That lang haved in sin lain;
Quen Crist com gastly til hir hert,
Ris of hir sinne son he hir gert,
For son, quen scho havid hir tanne
To Crist, scho wex a god womman,
Of hir wil ik aperteli telle,
Yef ye will list and lithe mi spel.

   Werldes welthe gert Marie wede,
Quil scho was yong in hir fairhede.
Scho gaf hir hert til sinful play,
And kest hir maidenhed awaiy,
For rifli gers werldes win
Thir fair wimmen fal in sin.
Scho lived hir lif in licherye,
Ai til Crist haved of hir mercie;
He com til hir hert gastelye,
And gert hir leve al hir folie.
Sco umthot hir quat scho haved tint,
And igain sin gan scho stint.
Hir rewed of hirself ful sare,
And haved for hir sin slic kare
That nane that hers spek of Marie
Thar haf wanhop of Godes mercie;
For do man never sa mikel sin,
And he wil his sin blin,
Godd of hevin es ai redi,
For to haf of him mercie.
That was sen in the Maudelayn,
That burd mak sinful man ful fain.
Sain Louk the god Godspeller,
Telles us on quat maner,
That this ilc sinful Marye,
Gat forgifnes and mercie.
He sais that in that ilk toun,
Woned a man that hiht Symoun,
Thar Mary woned that tim that scho
Hafd will penanz forto do.
This ilk Simonde was mesel,
Bot Crist hafd gifen him his hel;
He hafd inoh quarof to lif,
And almous to the pouer gif.
Fel auntour that he prayd Crist
To eet wit him at his biwist,
And Crist that seknes fra him kest,
Com and eet wit him als gest;
And son, quen Mari herd telle,
That Crist sudd to the meet thar duelle,
Sco com thar Crist himselven sete,
And sua sar than gun scho grete,
That wit teres sco wes his fete,
That scho of hir eyen lete.
Scho wiped his feet wit hir hare,
And kissed thaim wit suetli suare,
And blotned thaim wit smersles suete,
That al feled suetnes that thar sete.
Scho havid boht this oinment
To smer hir auen bodi gent,
To mak suet smelland hir bodye,
Quil scho haunted hir folye.
   This Symond, of quaym I spak are,
Biheld this womman lufli fare,
And thoht that yef Crist war prophet,
Him bird wit qua handeles his fet;
Als qua say, him bird wit that scho
War noht worthi this dede to do,
For sin mas hir unworthi,
To nehe him that sud be hali.
And als Symond thoht this,
Crist wist quat he thoght, iwis,
And said, “Symond, tak yem to me,
Ik haf sumthing to spek wit thee.”
Simond ansuerd and said him tille,
“Sai on, Maister, quat es thi wille.”
And Crist sette him ensaumpel than,
And said it was a riche man,
This riche man havid dettours fel,
And sum war fals and sum war lele.
A man haht him fifty penis,
Another an honderet or the prise,
And nauther haved penis forto yeld,
And he kid thaim curtaysi and beld,
And forgaf thaim thair dette bathe,
Witouten stez, witouten schathe:
Quether of thir tua lufd him mar?
And Symond ansuerd Crist ful yar,
And said, “He quaym he mar forgafe,
Wit riht mar lufe sudd til him hafe.”
And Crist said, “Thou havis demid riht,
For thus fars dette of sinful pliht;
I com hider in als uncouthe man,
Water to min fet bedd thou nan.
And this womman havis wasced mi fet,
Wit salt teres that sco gret,
And hir hevid havis scho mad al bare,
And wiped min fet wit hir hare;
Thou kissed me noht sin I com ine,
To kis min fet can scho noht blin;
Forthi es hir forgiven hir sin,
For mikel luf that scho kidd herin.
The les that man luves me,
The les sin mai him forgiven be,
Bot for hir luf es til me lele
I forgif hir sinnes ful fele.
Ga,” he said, “womman, in pes,
For al thi sinnes forgiven es.”
This tal haf I tald you,
To scheu on quat maner and hou,
That quen Crist cumes intil our hertes,
To lef our sin he us ertes,
And gers us ask him forgivenes,
Of al our sinnes mar and les.
   His first tocom was bodili
Quen he was born of our Lefdi,
For than he com in fles and bane
For to hel sinful man;
His other com es gastilye,
Til our hert, quen we lef folye,
For of usself haf we bot sin,
Of him comes al our welth and win,
For quen he cumes gastlic us to,
Than haf we wil us god to do.
   Nou haf ye herd twifald tocom,
The thred sal be on Day ofe Dom,
Quen we sal ris thoru blast of bem
And Crist sal cum al folc to dem.
To god men sal he be quem,
And to the wik ful grisli sem;
Igain thaim sal he be sa brem,
That of his land he sal thaim flem.
Of this tocom tel I noht nou,
For Crist himselven telles hou
He sal cum than, and wit quat miht,
In our Godspel todai sefniht,
And qua sa wil that Godspel her,
Than mai ye se on quat maner
Crist sal cum to dem us alle,
For igain him may we noht calle;
Forthi red I we al pray
That he be til us quem that day,
And bring us til his mikel blis,
That til rihtwis men graithed es.
Amen, say we al samen,
Thar bes joy and endles gamen. Amen.
(see note); (t-note)

takes; Isaias

justly
In the name of the Father of heaven
To Christ about Saint John the Baptist
announcement


prepare; (t-note)

These
(see note)
also


Therefore we ought to believe

prepare the way for


showed
Toward; forever
many
Judea


confessed
at once
severe
hair; clothed
Wild
taught; amend
stronger man
soon
full of honor

To untie the thongs of his shoes
much
(t-note)
ought; believe

dispel
(see note)


as I think
Two; spiritually see
praise
coming
is appropriate; (t-note)

Before; home

whom

(t-note)

other

preciousness

coming; make it known

(see note)
To all who
what
so dear to God

All of our


Therefore we ought; (t-note)


Of Christ’s three appearances; (t-note)
when
Flesh; sake
humbly; (see note)
virgin; (see note)
created; (see note)
made himself
walked
all one; (see note)

fiend (i.e., the devil); human nature

divine nature might
believed; nothing
caught

As fish is taken; hook; (see note)
concealed
deceived
who deceived
much
Had; known certainly

made
Jews
he (Satan) saw
thought
attempted busily; (see note)
thrust; dominion (custody)
act
others before; (t-note)
died; cross
soul eagerly



(t-note)
so strong
accustomed; show

bound
escape
dwell
then deprived him of
taken
at once; rood (cross)
harrowed; warrior; (see note)
all who belonged to him

soul together
pain; joy

peace; (see note); (t-note)
ought man, who is made whole
and blissfully healed of his torment



why; whose; (t-note)
nature
appearance
is spiritual




fills
Truly; sure; (t-note)
into
Spiritually; draws
ourselves

(t-note)
Good Christian
openly
certainly
Magdalene


Rise up from; soon; made
she
became
I will openly speak
hear my tale

made Mary mad; (see note); (t-note)



frequently worldly pleasure makes
These
lechery
Always; (t-note)


reflected; lost
against; cease
repented; sorrowfully
such
hears; (t-note)
Need have despair

If; cease



ought; glad; (t-note)
Luke
what
same


Dwelled; was called
Where
Had [the] will to do penance
leper; (see note)
health
enough [wealth] with which
alms; poor
It happened
home



meal
She came to where
so ruefully she began to cry out; (t-note)
tears; washed


pleasant words
dried; ointment; (see note)

bought; (see note)
anoint; own; beautiful


earlier; (t-note)
this woman’s lovely behavior

He ought to know who
In other words
(t-note)
makes
approach
as
certainly; (t-note)
heed; (t-note)





many debtors
loyal
owed; pence
or the equivalent
neither; give
showed; help; (t-note)

Voluntarily; harm; (t-note)
Which of those two loved
readily

should
have judged; (t-note)
So it fares with the debt of a sinful condition
unknown
offered
(t-note)
she wept


since; (t-note)
cease

showed herein
less

loyal
many
Go




leave; leads


coming
Lady (i.e., Virgin Mary)
bone
heal
second coming; spiritual
abandon
nothing but
joy
(t-note)

of two appearances
third; Judgment Day
trumpet; (see note)
judge
agreeable
wicked; gruesome
Against; fierce
banish
(see note)


in a week’s time




advise


just; prepared
together
mirth

Go To Homily 2, Second Sunday in Advent