17. Loginon

17. LOGINON: FOOTNOTES

1 Ethiope, Ethiopia; science, wisdom.

2 esclave, slave.

3 marcis, marks (unit of currency); wele, well; dyse, dice.

4 rever, river.

5 wanne, won; tother, other.

6 ellis, else.

7 badde, bade.

8 leeser, loser.

12 oon, one.

15 salewed, saluted.

16 herde, heard.

20 wyse, way.

21 wille, wishes.

23 renneth, runs.

27 herde, heard.

31 dede, did.

36-37 lacchessinge, lacking.

37 seyne, have said.

39 and2, if.

40 peas, peace.

41 rightwosly, righteously.

42 dyssymule, dissemble.

43 paradys, paradise; suffysaunce, sufficiency.

45 leese, lose.

55 dyspreyse, denounce; aventures, risks.

57 sewe, pursue; sleeth, slays.

60 yghen, eyes; mennys, men's.

61 of his fautes, for his faults.

62 yelde accomptes, yield accounts; emplye, employ.

65 attemperaunce, temperance; levynge, living.

67 moche pensyfe, very pensive.

68 to moche, too much; lothe, loath.

71 dreede, dread; veyneglorye, vainglory; begyled, beguiled.

73 connynge, cleverness.

74 proufyte, profit.

75 doutes, respects.

76 here, their; fouteyns, fountains.

81 dyspence, dispense.

82 wexe, become.

84 oughte, anything; repreve, reprove.

85 conne, give.

86 descover, reveal.

87 seeche, seek.

89 wrothe, angry.

92 here, hear.

93 mery, merry.

94 forgefe, forgive.

97 slough, slothful.

98 lowe, praise.

100 meeke him, make himself meek.

103 werste, worst.

105 wenyth, believes.

108 ypocrite, hypocrite.

110 negarde, niggard; drawe, withdraws.

113 solycitude foryever, forever solicitous.

114 puyssaunce, puissance.

116 debonerly, debonairly.

117 meove, stimulate; conne, give.

121 Yef, If.

122 science, learning.

124 febler, feebler.

131 quyte, requite.

135 lyth, lies.

139-40 deboneyretee, debonairity.

141 lese, lose.

143 bere, bear; here, it.

149 predycacioun, predication.

154 mekenesse, meekness.

155 thu semest, seems to you; to, too.

156 wotest, know.

162 parfyte, perfect (complete).

170 meke himself, make himself meek.

171 here, their.

172 wote, know.

174 wole, will.

178 leven, live; deyen, die.

182 entered, interred.

184 deyeden, died; nyghe, near.

188 beere, bear; meete, food.

189 wote, know.

194 encresed, increased.

195 and, if.

201 ware, aware of.

208 leste, least.

212 prouffytable, profitable.

217 prayoure, prayer.

218 see, sea.

220 levynge, living.

222 gothe, goes.

225 herken, hearken.

226 lowable, praiseworthy.

228 cheese, choose.

231 remeve hilles, remove hills.

235 tone, one.

236 tother, other.

239 werre, war.

240 mannes, man's.

244 covetyse, covetousness.

248 bereth, bears.

249 salewinge, saluting.

17. LOGINON: EXPLANATORY NOTES

ABBREVIATIONS: B = Dicts and Sayings of the Philosophers, ed. Bühler (1941); CA = Gower's Confessio Amantis; CT = Chaucer's Canterbury Tales; G = Pierpont Morgan Library MS G.66; MED = Middle English Dictionary; OED = Oxford English Dictionary; S = Scrope, Dicts and Sayings of the Philosophers, ed. Schofield (1936).

These explanatory notes cannot hope to provide a complete accounting for the source of every proverbial statement in Dicts and Sayings. That task would be a separate book in its own right. Instead, I have attempted to contextualize this rather heterogeneous body of lore by identifying the people and places named in the text, as well as noting points that may be of interest to students and general readers. Those interested in tracing the source of particular quotations should begin by consulting Whiting's Proverbs, Sentences, and Proverbial Phrases From English Writings Mainly Before 1500. Readers are also invited to consult the thorough notes to Knust's Bocados de Oro, the Spanish translation of the original Arabic ancestor of Dicts and Sayings.

1 Loginon. Known in Arabic lore as Loqman: "The name is famous in Arabian tradition in connection with proverbial literature. There are three distinct personages; this Loqman appears to be Loqman the Sage, who is reputed to have been an Aybssinian freedman living at the time of David in the district of Elah and Midian. His grave was said to be at Ramlah in Judea with the 70 prophets stoned to death by the Jews in one day. He is supposed to have left a volume of proverbs or exempla" (S, p. 213n88).

Dystay. See the explanatory note for Alexander, line 102.

2 Davyd the Prophete. The author of Dicts and Sayings plays fast and loose with chronology at many points, but this is an especially striking case: Loginon is placed in the time of David the Prophet, later King David of Israel, who would have lived around 1000 BC. The story of David's youth as God's anointed one, along with the famous story of David and Goliath, is recounted in 1 Kings (1 Samuel) 17.

45 Davyd. See the explanatory note for Loginon, line 2.

104-05 And there shal be grete dyscorde betwene his wordes and his dedes, for yf the tunge seye oon thinge, his herte shal thenke anothir. See also Zedechye, lines 80-82; Pythagoras, lines 72-73; and The Last Philosophers, lines 304-05. For other manifestations of this maxim, see Whiting W642.

120-21 He wole do to none othir man othirwyse thanne he wolde that shulde be done to him. The Golden Rule makes another appearance. See Whiting D274.

146 Sone, ho that hathe mercy upon othir, othir shull have mercy on him. This line presents still another variation on the Golden Rule. See Whiting D274.

182 Kardnalle. I have been unable to identify this location.

mesquitte. That is, a mosque. Mesquita was an early modern word for mosque, from the Spanish mezquitav (OED).

17. LOGINON: TEXTUAL NOTES

146 And. G: nd preceded by a blank space for a capital A.

151 is he. So G. B: he is.

153 And. G: nd preceded by a blank space for a capital A.

154 ff. From this point the text is badly disarranged in G. I have followed B in restoring the proper order. See B's introduction (p. xxxviii, n3), which explains the correct ordering of the MS. See also Bühler, "Speculations on the Collation of a Lost Manuscript."

167 angre. So G. B: angree.

206 impossyble. So G. B: impossible.

 
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Loginon was borne in Ethiope, and lerned his science in the lande of Dystay in
the tyme of Davyd the Prophete, and was an esclave boughte of a Jewe for thirty
marcis. And his maistir loved wele for to pleye at the dyse, and before his gate
ranne a rever; and as his maistir and anothir man upon a daye played at the dyse,
thei made [fol. 56r] suche a wager that hosoever wanne it shulde do whatsomever the tother
wolde commaunde him, or ellis he shulde drynke alle the watir that passed by the
gate. And so it happened that his maister loste, and thanne the tothir badde him
that he shulde fulfille his commaundemente, and the leeser aunsuerd and seide
that he was redy for to abide his jugemente. And thanne he seide unto him: "Thu
shalte geve me alle that ever thu arte worthe, or ellis thu shalt drynke all the watir
in this ryvere." And thanne he that hadde loste desired of the tothir that he
myghte have oon daye of respite, and the tothir graunted him. And so he aboode
in his hous in grete thought how he myght do and escape oute of this grete perylle.
And as he was thus in his thoughte, his servaunte Loginon come inne at the gate,
whiche broughte inne on his necke a grete burdeyne of woode, and salewed his
maistir, his maister havynge so grete thoughte that he herde nat Loginon. Wher-
fore Loginon seide unto him: "Shewe me, maistir, the cause of thi sorowe, and I
shal shewe thee the beste remedye that I can." And thanne his maistir tolde him
alle the case how it was. Thanne Loginon seide unto him that he shulde nat be
abasshed in any wyse, and he wolde geve him counsell, seyenge to him in this wyse:
"Maistir, thu shalte aske of him whedir he wille that thu shalt drynke alle the watir
that is conteyned at this tyme in the ryvere, or ellis alle the watir that contynuelly
renneth therinne. And I knowe wele he wole aunsuere thee that thu shalte drynke
no more but that is conteyned withinne at that tyme. And whanne he hathe seide
so, thu shalte bidde him stoppe the revere that it shulde renne no more, and
thanne thu shalt be redy for to drynke alle the watir that is conteyned withinne the
same. And thus thu shalt save thi cause." And whanne the maistir herde the coun-
sell of his servaunt Loginon, he helde it right good and was gretely comforted. And
in the same maner he seide on the morne to him whiche hadde wonne the wager,
and by this maner he eskaped oute of that perylle. And from thens forwarde, he
made Loginon free, whiche before was bonde, and dede moche good unto him,
and was taken aftirwarde for right a wyse man. And oon of his fellawes in tyme
passed fonde him and asked him a questyon and seide: "Arte nat thu he that was
wonte somtyme to kepe sheepe with me?" He aunsuerd and seide: "Yes." "How
maye this be," quod the tothir man, "that thu arte [fol. 56v] sette nowe in suche degree?"
"I shal telle thee," quod Loginon. "By true seyenge and to be true, and nat lacches-
singe anythinge that was profitable." And somme seyne that there appered a voyce
unto him, whiche seide: "Wilte thu be a grete lorde upon the erthe?" He aunsuerd
and seide: "Yf God wille that it be so, I shal obbeye it; but and He wole geve me
choise to my pleasaunce, I wolde have peas." And thanne somme asked him whi
he wolde nat be a kinge. He aunsuerd and seide: "For if I juge rightwosly, I myght
nat eschewe the hate of many folkes, and yf I shulde dyssymule, I shulde drawe me
awey from the getynge of paradys. I love bettir," quod he, "to have suffysaunce in
my povertee in this worlde, and for to gete the blessednesse of the tother worlde,
thanne for to leese it for to be made highe in this worlde." And Davyd was in a
place where many men speken, among whiche Loginon helde his peas. Thanne
Davyd asked him: "Why spekest nat thu as thees othir done?" He aunsuerd and
seide: "For there is no good spekinge but of God, nor good scilence but to thenke
on God." And that Jewe that was maistir to Loginon gafe hym many goode thinges,
the whiche he gave awey in almes, and lente it to the poure and needy folkes
withouten any usurye. And by him the goodnesse of oure Lorde was gretely mul-
tiplyed. And somme seyne that he lefte alle his ricchesses and became a recluse in
a temple, and there he duelled solitarily unto his ende, and preched many goode
thingis to his sone, seyenge: "Sone, do abstynence and refreyne thi wille, for yf thu
dyspreyse the worlde and the dyvers aventures that fallen dailly therinne, in
doyenge suche dedes that God hathe defended, thu desirest nothinge but the deth;
but enforce thiself to eschewe the evell and sewe the goode, for the good sleeth and
destroieth the evell." And seith: "Sone, loke thu speke alleweies of God, and God
wole put in thi mouthe goode wordes. Sone, loke thu sette allewey thi dedes before
thyne yghen, and othir mennys dedes behynde thee. Sone, yf thu see any synner,
loke thu repreeve him nat of his fautes, but thenke on thyne owen, of the whiche
thu shalte oonly yelde accomptes. Also, sone, emplye nat thi courage in the love of
this worlde, whiche is nat but oonly a passing of tyme and also deceyveth hem that
trusten in hit. Also, sone, suffyce of a litel, and coveyte nat the goodes of othir men.
Sone, sette attemperaunce in thi levynge, and loke thu be fulfilled of wysedom, and
be conversaunte amonge wyse men, and be suche meanes thu [fol. 57r] shalt gete wysdame.
Also, sone, loke thu be humble, moche pensyfe, and of fewe wordes but thei be
true. Laugh nat to moche, and be no mocker nor dyspreiser of othir folkes. Be lothe
to speke, for I have ofter repented me for moche spekinge thanne ever I dede for
holdynge my peas. Sone, beware that the cok be none erlier awaked thanne thu.
Sone, dreede God, and kepe thee from veyneglorye. Sone, loke thu be nat begyled
to beleeve that thinge that is nat in thee, though so be that men wole put it unto
thee by flaterye. Sone, if thu have any connynge, and thu dispose it nat to thee
wele, it shal do thee more harme thanne proufyte. Sone, the more that oon know-
eth God, the more he doutes Him. Sone, lerne good and teeche it to othir, for the
doctours and here techinges bene likened to quyk spryngynge founteyns whiche
serven the people contynuelly and yet bene thei alleweye fulle. And knowe right
wele, sone, yf a fool speke, he wole make himself mocked by his mysruled lan-
guage. And yf he holde his peas, he wole thenke evel. And yf he do any dede, it
shal nat be good and yet he shal lose his tyme. Yf he sette himself for to studye, he
shal lose his dyspence and shal nat profite him, and he shal be in dyspeire. And yf
he have any good gowne, he wole wexe proude. And yf he aske anythinge, he wole
aske it hatefully. And yf any man desire anythynge of him, he wole seye naye. And
yf he geve a man oughte, he wole repreve him for it. And yf a man geve him
oughte, he wole never conne him thanke. And yf any man telle him his counsell,
he wole soone descover it. And he wole holde every man suspecte; and though he
have but a litil powere, yet he wole secretely seeche occasyone for to do evel. And
yf he be a man of powere, he wole entreete his subjectes by violence. And yf oon
fellaship with him, he shal soone fynde him wrothe. And yf men flee fro him, he
wole followe aftir. And yf oon correcte him, he wole do nought; and yet he shal
haate him that correcteth him, and his felawes shulle haate him. And yf he speke,
he wole needis be herde; and yf othir men speeke, he wole nat here hem. And
whanne he is mery, it is oute of mesure; and whanne he is wrothe in lykewyse. And
yf a man praye him to forgefe anothir, he wole nat in any wyse, for he loveth bettir
decepcioun thanne trouthe. And there shal no man putte him oute of his op-
pynyon, and alleweyes his oppynyons shull be unresonable. And that he [fol. 57v] dothe
evell, he holdes it for goode. And he is comounly slough and necligente. And yf it
happen that he acorde with anythinge that pleasith him, he wole lowe it and com-
mende it gretly; and yf it be contrarye to his wille, he wole gretely blame it and
repreve it. Yf he studye or speke with wyse men, he wole nat meeke him in no wyse,
nor wole nat gladly heere hem. And yf he be with gretter fooles thanne he is, he
wole dispreyse hem and mocke hem; he wole commaunde hem to do wele, and he
wole do werste himself; he wole bydde hem seye truly and he wole lye alweye
himself. And there shal be grete dyscorde betwene his wordes and his dedes, for
yf the tunge seye oon thinge, his herte shal thenke anothir. He wenyth that this
worlde be the tothir worlde. And yf a man be riche, he wole calle him usurere. And
yf a man be poure, he wole nat sette by him. And yf a man do wele, he wole seye
that he is an ypocrite. And yf a man do evell, he wole defame him. And yf oon geve,
he wole calle him a wastour of goodes; and yf oon gefe nat, he wole calle him a
negarde. And yf a man be debonaire, he wole calle him a beest. And yf a man drawe
from his companye, he wole seye that he dothe it for pryde. But the wyse man is
even contrarye to alle thees condyciouns, for he is constaunte, abydinge juste,
solycitude foryever, and humble, and can wel speke in tyme and holde his peas in
tyme. He can and dothe wel. He hath mesure and puyssaunce. He is liberall to hem
that wole aske him. A wyse speker, undirstandinge wele the wordes of othir men
and his owen wordes, he wole shewe debonerly to othir men; and whanne he wole
teche, he wole meove goode questyons. And yf a man do him good, he wole conne
him moche thanke. Ho that wole shewe him his counsell, he wil kepe it secrete and
trusteth right wele in othir men. And whanne he geveth, he wil geve it gladly with-
oute reprovynge. He wole do to none othir man othirwyse thanne he wolde that
shulde be done to him. Yef he be ryche, he wole never be more proude. Wheder
he be ryche or poure he wole nat forgete God. He profytes alleweye in science. He
beleeveth him that wole teche him. He wole never be wrothe with him that is
gretter thanne he, and he wil never dyspreise him that is febler thanne he. He wole
never aske anythinge that he hath no right to. He is resonable in his ansuers, and
he wil seye nothinge but yf he knowe that he seithe trouthe. He wil nat hyde his
cunnynge; and the more that he fellashepith with men, the more thei love him. He
wil constreyne [fol. 58r] his wille to trouthe, whedir it wil or nat. He wil correcte himself
in techinge of othir. He is lightly turned to do wel. Yf he beere any witnesse,
it shal be true. Yf he shal be a juge, he shal do rightwosly in alle thinges that longen
to trouthe. Yf oon do him good, he wol quyte him ageyne with the same. He wil nat
coveyte anothir mannes thinge. He taketh himself straunge in this worlde and
hathe no grete thought but oonly upon his departynge. He dothe wele and com-
maundeth othir to do the same. He defendeth men to do evel, and he wil kepe
himself from the same dede. And that thinge that lyth in his herte, the tunge shal
shewe the same. And his wordes and his dedes shulle accorde. Sone, undirstonde
wysedame and alle the propirtees that longen to it. And excercyse thee therinne
withoute thenkinge on othir thinges, for whanne thu haste goten it, thu shalt be
ever in joye. And knowe right wele that it is nat goten but oonely with deboneyr-
etee and by wele kepinge of his tunge, and to kepe it more surely thanne his golde
or his thresoure. Sone, loke thu lese nat thyne owen thinges for kepinge of othir
mennys thinges, for thi propre thinges bene thi dedes, the whiche thi soule shal
bere with here. And the othir ricchesses that leeven behynde aftir thi dethe shulle
be to othir folkes." And seith: "Sone, worship sapience and hyde it nat fro hem that
desiren to have it and lerne it; and to hem that dyspreise it, loke thu shewe it nat."
And seith: "Sone, ho that hathe mercy upon othir, othir shull have mercy on him.
Sone, suffice thee with that thu haste, withoute coveitynge any good of othir
mennys and that also thu knowest wele that thu mayste nat have." And seith:
"Sone, resceyve wele and paciently the wordes of correccioun, and of predycacioun,
though so be that thei be grevous and harde." And seith: "He is unhappy that
hereth and nought undirstandeth; and yet is he more unhappy that hereth and
undirstandeth and profyteth nat therwith. Sone, loke thu fellaship with hem that
bene loved with God." And seith: "Sone, yelde graces to God for the goode dedes
that He hath done to thee, and resceive hem in mekenesse. [fol. 63v] Sone, yf thu haste
done anythinge that thu semest is good, yet gefe nat thiself to grete laude therinne,
for thu wotest never wheder God hathe resceived thi dede with good wille or not,
for in alle werkes there bene comounly somme thinges in the contrarye, and the
adversitee of the werkes bene the proude areysed thoughtes. Sone, coveyte not the
delytes of this world, but oonely suche as maye make thee nyghe unto God." And
seithe: "Sone, comforte thee in God, love His obbeysaunce, and have hem in haate
that displeasen Him. Sone, there is nothinge more acceptable thanne good witte,
and the good witte is parfyte in ten condyciouns, that is to seye: firste, in a man
that preyseth nat himself; the secunde, in wele doynge; the thridde, to holde him
contente with these thinges that bene necessarie to his lyfe; the fourthe, to geve his
goodes for the love of God; the fyfthe, willynge to do worship; the sexte, to kepe
himself that he do no shamefull thinges; the seventhe, to lerne connynge alle daies
of his lyfe; the eighte, for to kepe himself from angre; the nyneth, that he geve his
love to all hem that desire to have it; the tenthe, to holde himself wors thanne othir
men. For the people bene of two maners, for somme bene goode and somme bene
evell, wherfore a man shulde meke himself to bothe - to the goode for that
entente that thei wolde make him as oon of here fellawes; to the evell for because
thei wote nat whedir the goodnesse be hidde withinne hem, and that thei wole nat
shewe it for veyneglorye. And in doynge thes thinges a man maye be taken for a
wyse man. Sone, worship God and praye Him that He wole kepe thee frome an
evel wyfe, and that He wole teche her, for there is thanne none othir remedye."
And seithe: "Shewe to other the good that thu haste lerned, and fellaship nat with
evell folkes, leste thu be oon of hem. And truste nat upon that hous where that men
leven todaye and deyen tomorowe." And seith: "Sone, enhabite thiself alweye
amonge wyse men, for God lighteneth alweye ther hertes in wordes of wysedome,
in lyke wyse as the goodes that growen on the erthe bene made moyste with reyne
and with dew." And somme [fol. 64r] seyne that Luginon is buryed in a towne whiche is
called Kardnalle, betwene the mesquitte and the market, and there bene entered
seventy prophetes that deyed aftir Loginon, whiche the children of Israel helde so
longe in hostage that thei deyeden for hunger. And whanne Loginon was nyghe
the dethe, he beganne to wepe. Thanne his sone asked him yf he wepte for because
he shulde deye or for the sorowe that he hadde for to leve the worlde. He aunsuerd
and seide: "I weepe for none of thes two thinges, but I weepe for I have to go
aweye, of whiche I sawe never the commynge ageyne, and yet I beere but litil meete
with me and am charged with a gret burdeyne and wote never whedir I shal be
dyscharged or not whanne I come to the ende of my weye." And seide to his sone:
"Thu oughtest to drede God nat oonly for to be worshipped of the people. Sone,
whanne thu comest in a place where thei speke of God, abyde there, for yf thu be
a foole, thu mayste amende and become wyse, and yf thu be wyse, thi wysedame
shal be encresed, and yf God sende hem any good, thu shalt have thi parte. But
and thu haunte thes places where men speke nat of God, even in the contrarye, it
shal falle to thee." And seith: "Sone, loke thu be aferde of the vengeaunce of oure
Lorde as moche as thu mayste, and drede Him and consydre His grete puys-
saunce." And seith: "Lyke as by large gevynge to his enemye maketh him his
frende, in lyke wyse a man shal by his pryde make of his frende his enemye." And
seith: "The speche sheweth the wysedome of a man, and therfore a man shulde be
wele ware what he seithe." And seith: "A true man shal reste him, and the rewarde
of a lyer is that whatsomever he seithe, no man wole beleeve him." And seithe:
"Telle nothinge to that man that wil nat beleeve thee, and aske nothinge whiche
thu knoweste wel shal nat be geven thee, nor loke thu promyse nothinge but that
thu mayste and wilt do it - namely at thyne owen requeste - and loke thu take
nat upon thee that is impossyble, for to be done or for to be hadde." And seith:
"Thu shuldest of alle thinges flee the companye of a lyere, and yf thu mayste nat
eschewe him yet at the leste weye beleeve nothinge that he telleth thee." And seith:
"Sone, loke thu sette thee not downe in the highest place, for it were bettir that
men sette thee in an higher place thanne for to take thee oute of an highe place
and sette thee in a lower." And seith: "Sone, oones I commaunde thee yet that thu
drede [fol. 64v] God above alle thinges, for it is a rightful thinge and a prouffytable unto
thee; and loke that alle thy thoughtes be allewey in Him, and in lyke wyse thy
wordes, for the spekinge and the thenkinge on God surmounteth alle other wordes
and thoughtes, lyke as Himself surmounteth alle other creatures; and therfore men
shulde obbeye Him natwithstondinge any commaundemente that maye constreyne
any man to the contrarye. Sone, make prayoure thi jugemente, for prayoure is as
a shippe that is in the see, for yf it be good, it shal be saved and thei that bene
withinne it, and yf it be evel, it wil perisshe, and alle hem that bene withinne it."
And seith: "A man maye lightly fynde his levynge and thinges necessarye for him
in this worlde that dureth but litil with the creatures, but a man shulde purvey him
of suche thinges as bene necessarye for to carye away with him whanne he gothe
hens and shal departe oute of this worlde." And seith: "How maye a man chaunge
the willes of othir men that maye nat refreyne his owen propre wille?" And seith:
"Good wille is oon of the goodnesses that God is served with, and for to herken
suche thinges as bene lowable, God is wele agreed therwith. And goodely aunsuers
bene gretly for to be allowed." And seith: "Yf thu shuldest sende any man for to
cheese a thinge, sende a wyse man; and yf thu canste nat fynde him, thanne go
thiself." And seith: "Beleeve nat that man that wole lye to thee for othir men, for
he wole lye in lyke wyse to othir men on thee. And it is a more light thinge to
remeve hilles from oon place to anothir thanne to make him undirstonde that
hathe none undirstondinge." And seith: "Loke thu do not that thinge that thu wilt
thenke shame that anothir man shulde do it. And yet alleweyes have more shame
to dysplease God thanne the people." And seith: "There bene two maner of
paciences in this worlde, wherof the tone is he that endureth pacientely alle thinges
that falle unto him, and the tother is he that can refreyne his wille." And seith:
"There bene thre maner of people whiche bene nat knowen but in thre maners,
that is for to seye: the paciente maye nat be knowen but in his adversitee or in his
wrathe, the worshipful man is nat knowen but in werre or in bataille, and the
frende is nat knowen but in a mannes necessitees." And seith: "Over alle maners
and condycions the worste bene thees as follewith heraftir: oon is to have his
frende in suspescyoun, [fol. 65r] anothir in dyscoverynge of secreete thinges, also to put
truste in every man, further in spekinge moche of thinges that bene nat profitable,
and also to be in daungier of evell folkes for any covetyse of worldly goodes." And
seithe: "The thoughte is the myrroure of man wherinne he maye see his beautee
and his foullenesse." And seith: "Loke thu beware that thu be nat full of sus-
pescyon, for suspescyon putteth aweye the love of folkes." And seithe: "A man
withoute wytte and lernynge is lyke as a tree that bereth no fruyte." And seith: "To
be joyeful, salewinge every man with good wille, to be liberall in gevynge and res-
ceyvenge, and with a good wille to forgeve his evel wille to hem that have deserved
it, maketh a man to be loved of every man."


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