Havelok the Dane

HAVELOK THE DANE: NOTES

We have used the Laud MS (L) as base text, with occasional reference to the fragments found in C. Abbreviations: C: Cambridge Add. 4407; L: MS Laud 108; F&H: French and Hale; Ho: Holthausen; Ma: Madden; Sa: Sands; Si: Sisam; Sk: Skeat; Sm: Smithers1-26 As in the other Middle English romances in this volume, Havelok begins with a formal exhortation to its audience. The convention, according to Sm derives from Old French epics and romances and consists of four parts: an exhortation to listen, a statement of subject, praise of the hero, and a prayer. Sa, on the other hand, links the poem to its cultural milieu: "Its Latin subtitle Incipit vita Hauelok quondam rex anglie et denemarchie must have matched some sort of popular realization that Englishmen of the North were in blood half-Scandinavian and that they just before the Conquest had actually been part of a dual kingdom of England and Denmark" (p. 55).

20 Benedicamus Domino. "Let us bless the Lord." This is a verse in the Mass not often used in literature. The only other literary example known to Sm occurs in Philippe de Thaün's Bestaire, in which a pearl is a symbol of Christ.

27-86 Sm notes these lines as an extensive example of a traditional eulogy of kings such as William the Conqueror and Henry I found in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

28 That refers to the king; thus, construe lines 27-30 as "It was a king in former days who in his time made good laws and upheld them; young people loved him, old people loved him." Note the inverted sentence structure that emphasizes the object "him" twice by giving it syntactical priority.

31 Dreng and thayn are synonyms for a king's vassals, though connotations may be distinct in other contexts, as Sa suggests when he defines a dreng in Northumbria at this time as "a tenant with military obligations" (p. 59).

46 Wel fifty pund, I wot, or more. This line is supplied by Ma and F&H. It does not appear in Sm. Ma conjectures this line and indicates that other such liberties have been taken in his edition, many of which Sk follows.

48 In a male with or blac. F&H read with as hwit and translate the term as white; the reversal of letters appears in other words, but is not consistent throughout the MS. F&H read the prolific h's as "mannerisms in spelling," but it is more likely that the h's signify aspiration and point to pronunciation for this dialect. F&H reckon the dialect to be North Midlands with strong Norse influence. Referring to the pouch as "with or black" could mean "white or off-white (pale)," which is a common meaning in ME for "bl~c." See MED blak n. 6. See also note to line 311.

64 Was non so bold louerd to Rome. L: non so bold lond to rome. Sm emends lond to louerd for the sake of sense. Sk emends to: Was non so bold [þe] lond to rome, which makes sense too.

65 upon his bringhe. L: upon his bringhe. Sm emends to upon his londe bringhe ostensibly to connect the king's political expertise more definitively to his realm as well as to regularize the meter. Sk reads: That durste upon his [menie] bringe.

66 Hunger ne here. As noted by Sm, hunger ne here is an Old English alliterative phrase used three times by Wulfstan, an Old English writer of homilies.

69 The. L: Þe. F&H: Þei. "They hid themselves and kept themselves still."

74 his soule hold. Sm notes this as an unusual expression which occurs in Ywain and Gawain (line 887) where it refers to the widow's concern for the soul of her dead husband: Upon his sawl was sho ful helde. Athelwold's loyalty to his own soul is not narcissistic, but virtuous.

79 The source for the passage is Psalm 146:9: "The Lord preserveth the stranger; he relieveth the fatherless and widow, but the way of the wicked he turneth upside down."

85 Bute it were bi hire wille. This distinguishes rape, which is punishable by medieval English law, from consensual sexual relations, though the issue is complicated in jurisprudence. The most complete articulation of rape laws is found in the Statutes of Westminster in the thirteenth century. Over time secular legislation conflated rape with abduction, shifting it from a crime done to a woman's body to a crime done against the peace of the king.

86 As F&H note "even up to the time of the Commonwealth, mutilation was a legal punishment; it was occasionally forbidden, but continued to be practiced" (p. 77). Public punishment such as flogging, drawing and quartering, and various forms of mutilation often depicted graphically by romancers were thought to be a deterrent to crime in real life.

87-90 Sm notes the recurrence of these four lines in the account of King Arthur in the Anonymous Short English Metrical Chronicle of England. He surmises that Havelok was the source for the chronicle repetition and not vice versa.

89 folc ut lede. The sense of folc is "army."

92 And lete him knawe of hise hand dede. L: And lete him of hise hand dede. Sm notes that this is the "sole example" of the use of hand-dede in post-Conquest English. A relatively ancient word, it implied "violence" and sometimes "criminal violence," or could mean "the actual perpetrator of a crime" and in Middle Dutch "one who perpetrates a criminal or violent act." In Havelok the "imputation is of violence" (p. 86). Both Sm and Sk add a verb to this line after him, but disagree on what it should be. Sk, followed by F&H and Sa, adds knawe, as do we; Sm adds shewe.

94 To the victor belong the spoils. The victorious army carried off plunder, particularly valuable horses and armor. As F&H note, "the practice was deplored by moralists as unchristian, but is a matter of course in the romances" (p. 78).

109 held. L: hel. The emendation is universal.

115 wel wiste. L: we wiste. The emendation maintains the gravity of Athelwold's perception. The ending consonant is frequently omitted for wel in the MS.

120 Hw shal now my douhter fare. L: W shal nou mi douhter fare. F&H add the consonant presumably to clarify the question.

135 Therafter stronglike quaked. F&H note the frequency with which the poet or scribe omits pronouns. They supply them in their edition as does Sk and Ho; Sm frequently does not. Sa regularizes as much as possible.

137 On the dying of a king F&H write: "When a king was dying, the great nobles hastened to the capital, either out of sympathy or a wish to maintain order and look after their interests in arranging for a successor. The romancers made a conventional scene of this" (p. 79). It is important to note that King Athelwold has no male heir to maintain the peace he has established.

139 Roxburgh, a fort on the Scottish border, was often contested by opposing armies and changed hands frequently. Dover, on the southeast coast of England, is famous for its "white cliffs." Traveling from Roxburgh to Dover would mean traversing the whole length of England. See also line 265.

142 ther he lay. L: þe he lay. Sm and F&H supply the missing consonant. The omission of consonants in various words is a frequent occurrence throughout the MS and unrelated to the common practice of abbreviation.

154 That He wolde turnen him. L: Þat he turned him. The subjunctive verb - wolde - is supplied by all editors.

158 Winchester was the Anglo-Saxon capital of England before the center of government was relocated in London. Important legislation in the poem, however, is enacted in Lincoln, the probable home of the poet.

160 thank kan I you. L: þank kan you. This is an example of the omission of pronouns by the poet and/or scribe.

174 that she be wman of helde. L: þat she wman of helde.

175 And that she mowe hir yemen. L: And þa she mowe yemen. Sk's emendation. F&H emend to: And tha[t] she mowe [hit] yemen, followed by Sa. Sm conjectures that the author wrote something like: and þat she mowe hir-selwe welde.

177 Bi Crist and bi Seint Jon. L: Bi Crist and bi seint Jon. Sm: Bi Jesu Crist and bi seint Johan. We have followed F&H here by returning to the MS reading.

185 A wol fair cloth. L: A wol fair cloþ. F&H: A wel fair cloth. Sm: A wol fair cloth. Sa: a well fair cloth; Sk: a wel fair cloth; Ho: a wel fair cloth. Though a majority of editors read the adjective to describe the beauty of the cloth, it could also modify wool as the cloth's base fabric. Also, there is a distinct rendering of th for the þ in L.

187-88 The missal contains the order of service used in the mass, the principal Christian liturgical rite; the chalice contains the wine used in communion; and the paten holds the bread wafer, called the "Host" (from Latin hostia, "victim"). After the bread and wine are consecrated, they are placed on a white linen cloth, the "corporal." All of this "messe-gere" is holy by virtue of its use in the sacred re-enactment of Christ's death that is the Eucharist. Hence, swearing an oath by these instruments is a serious matter.

188 F&H gloss corporaus as fine linen cloth. We have placed emphasis on its purpose rather than its fabric by glossing the term as communion cloth.

195 Gon and speken. L: Gon and speken. F&H: Don and speken. Ho: Gon and speken; Sk: Don and speken; Sm and Ho agree with the MS reading as do we.

199 beste man. L: beste man; Sk: hexte man; F&H: hexte; Sm: heste.

213-17 Self-flagellation was thought to be an appropriate penance in general, though there is some dispute about whether it was more often a feature of dramatic representation than a realistic feature of life. Frederick Paxon, who charts the development of bedside rites for the dying in Christianizing Death: The Creation of a Ritual in Process in Early Medieval Europe (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990), con-cludes that the earlier focus on the fate of the dying person's soul was replaced with a Germanic/Celtic concern with the needs of the dying person. However, according to the medieval chronicler William of Malmesbury, Henry I confessed, beat his breast, was absolved three times, and received unction before he died.

221-22 So mikel men micte him in winde, / Of his in arke ne in chiste. "So much [as a shroud] to wind him in among his possessions, neither in trunk nor chest," since he had already given away so much in his will.

226 ofte swngen. L: ofte swngen. Ho: ofte swngen; Sk: ofte swungen; Sm: ofte swungen.

228 Louerde. L: Loude. Preceded by in manus tuas, this is a partial quotation of Jesus at the point of death (Luke 23:46): "Into thy hands [I commend my spirit]."

239 The "bower" and "hall" were two fundamental units of a castle or noble dwelling that persisted in some form throughout the Middle Ages. The hall was an open, public space used for dining, entertaining, or convening of nobles; the bower was a relatively more secluded area used for sleeping. The bower, it should be noted, was not necessarily a more private place. Yet the association of bower with ladies and hall with knights is appropriate; while one could find either sex in either place, the bower is associated more with the more intimate love of women, the hall with the masculine world of celebrating achievements and swearing loyalties to comrades. Compare with Beowulf, where the king and queen retire to the burgh while Beowulf and the retainers sleep on and around the same benches where they have feasted.

245 F&H note the subject shift from God to Athelwold's soul in this line. The effect glorifies the king in that God himself should lead his soul into heaven. The attention to the king's soul in line 74 is underscored here.

256 that god thoucte. L: þat god thoucte. F&H: þat god him thoucte.

263 F&H note the use of itinerant justices in Saxon times: "They seem not to have held permanent commission, but to have been appointed in emergencies. Their function was to mitigate the injustice of local courts, which might be dominated by powerful nobles" (p. 84).

265 Sm comments on the significance of the road from Dover to Roxburgh: "The mention of Dover and Roxburgh as marking the extreme limits of England, as in [line] 139, is here in a context of peace-keeping and the king's peace. This is why the AN [Anglo-Norman] Le Petit Bruit names a road from en long de Rokesburg jekis a Dover as one of les quatre royales chemyn parmy Engleterre - the four royal roads were under the king's peace. . ." (p. 99).

266 Schireves he sette, bedels, and greyves (Sheriffs, beadles, and reeves). The sheriff, or "shire-reeve," enforced law and order in the shire (county); the beadle was a sort of church police officer; and the grave or "greyve," according to the OED, was a steward placed in charge of property, a reeve. In certain parts of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, each of a number of administrative officials formerly elected by the inhabitants of a township served this function for a town.

269 Outside the walled cities, protection was difficult and travel hazardous because of marauding thieves. Establishing peace in a violent environment is thus an extra-ordinary achievement.

282 Of alle thewes was she wis. L: Of alle þewes wshe wis.

285 The sense here is prophetic, i.e., that many a tear would be wept for Goldeboru's sake.

286 Quanne the Erl Godrich him herde (When the Earl Godric heard). "Him" is a reflexive pronoun that would normally be dropped in modern English.

287 hw wel she ferde. L: hw we she ferde.

288 hw chaste. L: w chaste.

292 Wether (whether) functions as an interrogative particle, which signals that a question is coming.

296 Datheit (Curses) is said to be a contraction for odium Dei habit.

305 Note the recurrence of the verb yeme here. In lines 190 and 206, the dying Athelwold made Godrich promise to "yeme" her "well"; by saying that he has "yemed" her "too softe," Godrich creates perhaps an unconscious double meaning. He is obviously saying (and in his state of jealousy and malice he would naturally mean), "She has grown up to be too pampered," but of course he is to blame because it is he who has not followed the king's dying wish that he guard her "wel."

311 This is perhaps another way of saying, "As long as I have a head on my shoulders." Note that "blake" here probably means "white" (compare French blanc or more likely OE blac meaning "pale"). See lines 48 and 2165 for a possibly similar usage.

317 Contrast this sort of fasting with King Arthur's refusal to sit down and feast until he had seen some marvel in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

322 There may be a pun on fede, which as a noun can mean "hostility." In its verbal form, to "feed" or "keep," it has a range of meanings both positive and negative. Godrich is probably not interested in comforting or nurturing Goldeboru. Rather, he misconstrues his duties to protect those who cannot protect themselves and holds her captive instead.

328 Of Goldeboru. L: Of Goldeb.

334 sho mote. L: sho mo.

352 He refers to deth in line 354.

353 kaysere. A Germanic form of the Latin caesar.

354 Deth him tok than he best wolde. L: Deth him tok than he bes wolde.

360 Chanounes gode and monkes bothe. A canon might be a priest of a cathedral church or a member of a particular religious community.

360-61 Sm prefers to maintain the end rhyme in this couplet: Chanounes gode and monkes baþe / Him for to wisse and to raþe. To do that he has emended boþe to baþe and rede to raþe. There are other such emendations. See lines 693-94 and 1680-81. Sk: bethe / rede; Ho: bothe / rothe. We follow F&H in retaining the MS reading bothe / rede.

373 under mone. In other words, "in the whole world." Medieval writers often distinguished between events below and above the moon, as everything beneath the moon's sway was thought to be subject to Fortune.

392 shalt wel yeme. L: shalt we yeme.

393 That hire kin be ful wel queme. The reading here depends on whether the third word in the line should read "kin" ("their relations will indeed be pleased") or is actually a scribal error for "kind" ("type," "nature," "rank"). Sa suggests "that it indeed quite befits their rank" (p. 68).

410 Havelok, that was the eir. L: Havelok that was the eir. F&H follow Ho's emendation here: Havelok, that was the brother, presumably to preserve the end rhyme.

425 For writers of the Middle Ages, Judas, the arch traitor of Christ in the Gospels, was the archetype of treachery and betrayal. Both Godard and Godrich are called by this arch traitor's name, though Godard is called Satan in line 2512. See line 319.

436 made mone. L: maude mone; Sm: maude mone; F&H: made mone; Sk: made mone; Ho: made mone.

456 Seyden he, "we wolden more. L: Seyden he wolden more. Sm: Seyden he he wolden more. F&H: Seyden hi, we wolden more; Ho: Seyden thei withuten more; Sk: Seyden he wolden have more.

476 Havelok it saw and therbi stod. L: Havelok it saw and þe bi stod.

481 But the knave. L: But þe kave.

484 Note the pathetic and very ironic scene here: the boy, to save his life, offers feudal homage (manrede) to a lord whose last thought is to protect the child.

489 Ayen thee, louerd, sheld ne spere. L: Ayen þe, louerd, shel ne spere.

496 Hwan the devel herde that. L: Hwan þe devel hede þat.

502 witdrow. L: þitdrow. F&H: witdrow. Sm: þit-drow. Ho: þith-drow. Sk: wit-drow. Ma: þit-drow.

503 Avelok. This is the French name to which Havelok is etymologically linked according to Sa. It equates with OE Anlaf, a Scandinavian form of Olaf. Sa suggests a historical connection to Olaf Sictricson (p. 57).

512 He may me waiten. L: He may waiten.

520 drench. L: drench. Sm: drenth. F&H: drenched. Ho: drenched. Sk: drenched. We have returned to the MS reading.

534 thou sest. L: þou se.

536 Al wile I taken. L: Al wile taken.

546 The line following this numbered line - He thriste in his muth wel faste - is supplied by C and not counted in the line numbering. Sa, Sm, and F&H add the line without counting it. Sk and Ho omit the line altogether.

552 he yede. Sm emends to heþede. "In the sentence as it stands, a past participle is required; and the final -e of hethede (if this word is one) is presumably an error. But a rhyme on the unstressed ending of the past participle would be unparalleled in Hav" (p. 105).

553 forth lede. L: forth. F&H: forth lede. Sk: forth lede. Ho: forth lede. Sm: forth lede.

558 Ant bar him. L: Ant bar him. Sk: And bar him. Ho: And bar him. F&H: Ant bar him.

561 Al so thou wit mi lif save. L: Also þou wit my lif have. Sm: Also þou wilt mi lif have save. Ho: Also þou wilth mi lif save.

564 Ynow means literally "enough," but this typical Middle English stock phrase often understates the situation.

566 Hwan Dame Leve herde that. L: Hwan dame herde þat. The inclusion of Grim's wife's name adds another foot to the meter and renders her identity clear.

583 wost that hoves me. L: wost þat hoves me. F&H and Sm: wost þat bi hoves me. Ho: wost that it bi hoveth me. Sk: wost that so bihoves me.

594-95 Al so lith was it therinne / So ther brenden cerges inne. "It was as light in there as if candles were burning there." Al so / so are correlatives that connect or compare two statements.

601 For man shal god wille have. F&H suggest a meaning for this line: "People are naturally kind" (p. 97).

605 kynmerk. A king's birthmark attests to royal birth. Sm notes only one other example of the word (slightly modified) in the ME Emaré, lines 503-04: "A fayr chyld borne and a godele; / Hadde a dowbyll kyngus marke."

611 Al Denemark and Engeland. Grim's prophesy is fulfilled by the poem's end not only by Havelok's reappropriation of his homeland and his victory over Godrich and marriage to Goldeboru, but also by the marriages of Grim's daughters to Englishmen of noble rank.

621 cherles often means "villeins," non-free peasants bound to work the land, donating a portion of their produce and labor to the lord of the manor. Because the basic definition of "cherle" is a person from the lowest orders of society, the word is often used as an insult (e.g., line 683), or here, as a label of self-abasement.

645-46 Pastees (pasties) are meat pies; flaunes, custard, or cheese pies. These are dishes that were an integral part of a professional cook's repertoire. Terence Scully explains in The Art of Cookery in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1995): "What the professional cook dealt with from day to day in the thirteen and fourteen hundreds were menus consisting of well-rounded meals of soups, stews, pies, torts, flans, biscuits, roasts, sauces, jellies and 'desserts"' (p. 3).

667 That was of Denemark a stiward. L: Þat was Denemk a stiward. The preposition in is inserted by F&H. Sk, Ho, and Sm prefer of.

675 Yif me gold and other fe. L: Yif me gold other fe.

677 Villeins (peasants) could be released by their lords and become equals of freeborn men in the eyes of the law.

686 Shaltu have non other mede. L: Shal have non other mede. F&H: Shaltu have. Sk: Shaltu have. Ho: Shaltu have.

691 hethen. L: ethen. F&H's emendation.

693 that wicke man. L: þa wicke man. F&H and Sm emend to provide distinction for the demonstrative adjective.

694-95 shal me to rede . . . he wile bethe. The end rhyme in this couplet has been emended by Sm as follows: And þoucte, wat shal me to raþe / Wite him on live he wile us baþe. F&H follow L, supplying [us] before beþe. We have returned to the MS despite the loss of rhyme.

702 Hors and swin, geet with berd. L: Hors and swin with berd. F&H and Sm add "goats," presumably because neither swine nor horses have beards.

709 Sa suggests the reading "'So that it [should] fear neither sound nor inlet;' sond can also be 'sand' with the extended meaning 'shoal water;' but 'sound' seems more appropriate and is quite possible orthographically" (p. 76). F&H translate sond and krike as bodies of water. Since Grim has just finished placing pitch in the seams of his boat, it is likely that this line refers to the craft's water worthiness. It is sound because it does not creak or leak, for that matter.

723 Ne were it nevere. L: Ne were neuere.

725 "Bise" appears in Old French works as a common word for the North Wind (see, e.g., Pelerinage de Charlemagne, line 354). According to the MED, Havelok is the only Middle English romance in which this term appears.

732 Als ye shulen now forthward lere. L: Als ye shulen now forthwar here. Skeat's emendation.

734-35 The Humber River, now the center of the modern county of Humberside, divides what is considered northern England (Yorkshire and northward to the Scottish border) from the English midlands (Lincolnshire south to London). Lindsay is still a division of the county of Lincoln.

745 The place took its name from Grim (i.e., the present port of Grimsby in Humberside). This line reflects a popular local legend of a fisherman by the name of Grim who founded a town that bears his name. Reputedly the legendary Grim, like the Grim of the poem, befriended an exiled prince. Sm's edition depicts a twelfth-century town seal with three names and figures inscribed on it - Grym, Habloc, and Goldeboru. Robert Mannyng of Brunne tells of a stone that was allegedly thrown by Havelok against his enemies and indicates the chapel where he and Goldeboru were married (p. 78). For an interesting interpretation of Grim, see Maldwyn Mills, "Havelok and the Brutal Fisherman."

754-60 For an interesting interpretation of the catalogue of fish see Roy Michael Liuzza, "Representation and Readership in the ME Havelok." Liuzza sees the emphasis on fish as "part of a system of exchange in which money rather than chivalric honor is the source of value" (p. 510). Such exchange systems lend Havelok a realism that few romances of the time can claim.

765 Forbar he neyther tun. L: Forbar he neyþe tun.

772 A lamprey is an eel-like fish with a mouth like a sucker, pouch-like gills, seven spiracles or apertures on each side of the head, and a fistula or opening on the top of the head (OED). F&H's note on the lamprey is interesting in relation to this rather unappetizing description: "A 'great' lamprey weighed as much as five pounds, and sold for three shillings. . . . It was highly prized as a delicacy. Henry I is said to have brought on a fatal illness by partaking too freely of lamprey" (p. 104). His cooks must have prepared the lamprey properly, i.e., soaked it to its death in wine before cooking, then serving it in a gelatinous galantine sauce.

773 Ful wel. L: Ful we.

776 wol wel sold. L: wol wel sold. F&H: al wel sold. Sm: wol wel sold. Grim seems to be selling wool without mention of his keeping sheep, the reason perhaps that F&H emend wol to al. Sheep are mentioned in line 782, however.

785 In the se weren he ofte setes. L: In the se weren he offte setes. F&H: Þat in the se he ofte setes. Sm: In the se-weres he ofte setes. Kevin Gosling in "Sewere in Havelok 784," Notes and Queries 34 (1987), 151, suggests that this is a compound based on an ON borrowing in the poet's Lincolnshire dialect. ON ver means "station for taking eggs, fishing, catching seals, etc." Sewere would then mean "inshore fishing ground." The MS, however, clearly depicts an abbreviation mark above the final -e in sewer' (se weren) rendering verbal force to the suffix. Sm fills in the abbreviation with s. We have emended.

791-811 Havelok's insatiable appetite reflects his regal deprivation. Only when he comes fully into his royal estate can his nature be satisfied. His vast appetite becomes a comic send up on his political displacement rather than a sign of gluttony or avarice. In his effort to win his own bread he becomes a lord at all degrees. See also lines 828 ff.; 911-26; and, in the conclusion, line 2986, where his having been fed is deemed a key component of his biographical summary. See note to line 1726.

807 woth. Sk emends to wot.

819 ilk del. L: il del. F&H's emendation.

821 ferthinges nok. A farthing from medieval to quite modern times was worth a quarter of a penny. A "corner" of a farthing would be a very little bit; the idiom reflects the illegal practice of clipping off bits of coins for the silver, which might, when collected, be sold as bullion.

850 nouth a slo. An expression referring to a sloeberry, a fruit of a blackthorn tree used as a metaphor for "something of little value," an "insignificant amount," or to mean "not at all," to "care nothing for."

858 sheres. L: shres.

861 Havede he neyther. L: Havede neþer.

862 other wede. L: oþe wede.

864 he cam ther. L: he cam þe.

870 Poure that on fote yede. This line, supplied by Sk, repeats line 101 and fills in the rhyme scheme.

875 Ther the erles mete he tok. This line is supplied by Ma and Sk. Both F&H and Sm agree.

882 on the brigge. L: on þe bigge.

897 Plaice is a type of European flatfish, often preferred over other species such as salmon, mackerel, and turbot. It is still quite a popular dish in the British Isles.

903 Presumably, Havelok was carrying the load on his head.

908 Wel is set the mete thu etes. Echoes the proverb in line 1693: wel is him that god man fedes. Here the earl's cook sees an opportunity he cannot refuse.

911 Havelok, as orphaned king's son and kitchen knave, has been referred to as a "male Cinderella." He joins the ranks of a long tradition of male Cinderellas and their stories including a number of Arthurian knights and Horn. See Donald G. Hoffman, "Malory's Cinderella Knights and the Notion of Adventure," Philological Quarterly 67 (1988), 145-56. For gender politics in these tales, see Eve Salisbury, "(Re)dressing Cinderella," in Retelling Tales, ed. Alan Lupack and Thomas G. Hahn (Rochester: D. S. Brewer, 1997), 275-92. Kitchen drudgery prepares the hero for his future role as king. Analogous to Cinderella's shoe, Havelok's kynmark is a hidden sign of nobility, both of character and of class.

934 filde ther. L: filde þe.

937 Al him one. L: A him one.

939 Ne fro brigge. L: Ne fro bigge.

940 The turves were pieces of turf or peat moss cut from the ground and stacked to dry, then used as fuel. Star grass, a name given locally to various coarse seaside grasses and sedges, according to the OED, was used for kindling.

952 ne wolde with. L: ne wode with. The emendation makes an important distinction between an intransitive subjunctive verb and a noun connoting madness.

961 mikel. L: mike.

965 unride. See Sk's extended discussion of the term as indicative of a large, cumbersome or rough garment; of the body, a deep, wide wound; of metal, something great; of politics, something unwieldy; of sound, something loud or tremendous (p. 164).

966 That was ful. L: Þat ful. Adding an intransitive verb is followed universally.

971 dones. He "dons" them, i.e., puts them on.

983 Havelok's height recalls the biblical King Saul, who was taller than the men around him and admired for his physical beauty. Nobility was presumed to inhere in such men, though giants were often portrayed as outlaws or Philistines (such as Goliath) in Scripture and medieval romance.

988 als he was long. L: al he was long.

998 With hire ne wolde he leyke. L: Þit hire ne wold leyke. Sm: Wit hire. F&H: With hore. Hire could refer to a woman who prostitutes herself for hire, or who is at least a woman of sexual experience. Given the economies of exchange in the poem, sex is another mode of negotiation. The OE hóre originally meant adultery, but gradually became more closely associated with female sexuality, perhaps in part because hire is a feminine possessive pronoun. Sm rejects the emendation to hore on grounds that it is "paleologically very improbable" (p. 119).

1009 Mani with ladde, blac and brown. Black could refer to peasants; brown, as F&H suggest (p. 112), can mean "persons of all ranks" or "peasants," since peasant complexions are often described as black or brown, noble faces as red or white. Thus, this phrase may mean "people of every rank" or "the lower classes." See also line 2847, where the metaphor is clearly political, as people of all ranks swear manrede to Goldeboru. But see also the note to line 1909, where the idiom "broune or blake" may refer to "dark or fair" complexion, with broune meaning dark and blake meaning pale or fair.

1024 And pulten with a mikel ston. The sport, analogous to shotput, was popular among Germanic peoples, though it is also found in the legends of other cultures. Robert Mannyng of Brunne in Lincolnshire claimed that the stone Havelok throws was preserved in a Lincoln castle in his day (c. 1338). Such chronicle accounts encourage historical identification. (See also lines 1032-37).

1037-39 F&H make a distinction between chaumpioun and kempe. While the former means "competent athlete, man of valor," the latter means "outstanding performer among many good ones" (p. 113).

1080 his douther yeve. L: his douthe yeve.

1095 Onlepi foru. The aristocratic Godrich imagines Havelok incapable of ever becoming landed by any means.

1102 erthe stoc. L: erthe shop. While the MS reads shop (created), the word neither rhymes nor fits the meaning. Both F&H and Sa substitute stoc, which F&H gloss as "shut fast"; Satan resides in hell, the center of the earth in medieval belief.

1120 Whether simply introduces a question here. See note to line 292.

1149 With dintes swithe hard and strong. This line is supplied by Sk.

1158 hire, fals and slike. L: hire and slike. F&H: hire fals and slike. Sm: fel and slike.

1173 Ther weren penies thicke tolde. "There were pennies thickly counted," i.e., a lot of them. Mass pennies were given as an offering for the nuptial ceremony.

1175 He ys hire yaf and she is tok. L: she as tok. F&H emend as to is, and gloss ys as them. Their note is helpful here: "Part of the money was the clerk's fee, part was a symbol that the wife was endowed with the husband's worldly goods . . . and part might be payment for the wife's virginity" (p. 118). According to Christopher Brooke in The Medieval Idea of Marriage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989): "Each partner is to rehearse his and her consent; the woman's dower is to be confirmed, and some pennies set aside to be distributed among the poor. . . . Marriage from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries and beyond was a public event, rather than private or clandestine, accompanied by the publication of banns and witnessed by parish or community members" (p. 249). The money is taken by the bride as part of her dowry.

1202 ay the rith sti. L: ay þe rith; F&H and Sm add sti.

1204 Thanne he komen there thanne was Grim ded. "Thanne. . . thanne" is a correlative construction linking the clauses: "When they arrived there, [then] Grim was dead." The second "thanne" is best left untranslated in modern English.

1247 Wesseyl ledden he fele sithe. "They drank healths (toasted) many times." "Wessail" derives from OE wes hael - "be healthy; to your health."

1251 That she were. L: Þat shere. Sk's emendation, followed by Sm, F&H, and Sa.

1306 That ich fley over the salte se. This line could mean: "That I fled over the salty sea" or "That I flew over the salty sea." Given the context, it is a little more likely that "fley" means "fled."

1316 Earlier editors suggest that at least two lines are missing here. Presumably, the first would have a final word rhyming with joye of line 1315, while the next would rhyme with trone in what is now numbered as 1316.

1337 Nim in wit lithe to Denemark. L: Nim in witl þe to Denemak. F&H: Nimen we to Denemark baþe. Sa: Nimen wit to Denemark bathe, where wit means "we too." Sm: Nim in wit liþe to Denemark baþe. Sm's note on this line is useful: "As an emendation l[i]the has the advantage of preserving the l in MS witl as well as the MS the. . . . If lithe is interpreted as 'journey' in line 1337, it is necessary to take wit as the dual 'we two' and to emend nim to nime. . . . The line would translate to 'Let's both make the journey to Denmark"' (p. 127).

1343 thin hond. L: þin hon.

1349 Thou maght til he aren quike. Sm emends til to tel because there is "no known word corresponding in form to til that would fit this context" (p. 128). See John Wilson, "Havelok the Dane, line 1349: 'til,"' Notes and Queries 36 (1989), 150-51.

1370 He hath mi lond. L: He mi lond. Sm: He haldes mi lond. Our emendation agrees with that of F&H.

1377 And late me wel. L: And late wel.

1397 he kalde. L: he kade.

1399 and Huwe Raven. L: h aven. In the Dictionary of British Surnames, Percy H. Reaney lists Raven as having derived from ON Hrafn or OE Hraefn or as a nickname from the bird. The surname may also indicate a link to Norse mythology. The trickster god Odin kept two ravens - Huginn and Manimen - to act as advisors and messengers. Rede, also Read, Reade, Reed, Red, Redd or Reid, he conjectures, indicates OE redd "red" of complexion or hair (p. 292). The closest Reaney comes to Willam Wenduth is William Wende, a thirteenth-century listing, derived from OE wende meaning "dweller by the bend" (p. 375).

1410 lime he hus. L: lime hus.

1429 Havede he ben slayn. L: Havede ben.

1445-64 At this point in the MS, a whole leaf has been cut away. Ma surmises that approximately 180 lines are missing. The gist of the section, says Sa, "probably was that the three sons agree to follow Havelok; and all the men, together with Goldeboru, sail for Denmark. Ashore, Havelok, William, and Roberd, disguised as peddlers, meet the Danish earl Ubbe and ask permission to sell their wares. Line 1625 opens in the middle of Havelok's plea" (p. 95). F&H's synopsis varies somewhat: "The three sons agree, and exchange some of their property for a peddlar's wares and a fine ring. They sail to Denmark and moor the boat; Hugh Raven remains in it. The others disembark and on the shore meet Ubbe, a Danish earl, who is out riding with his retinue near a town and castle. Havelok asks permission to sell his wares" (p. 127).

1632-34 The jewel in the ring was worth a hundred pounds, an enormous amount of money in the Middle Ages.

1635 He was ful wis that first yaf mede. Proverbial. See Bartlett Jere Whiting, Proverbs, Sentences, and Proverbial Phrases from English Writings Mainly before 1500 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968), p. 226; entry G78: "He was full wise that first gave gift." Whiting cites similar passages in Tristrem 19.626-27, Gower's Confessio Amantis V.4720 and V.4798; and Wyntoun VI. 199,6450.

1644 ilk del. L: il del.

1660 ful wel rede thee. L: ful wel rede þ.

1680-81 Sm ends the couplet for the sake of the meter and the end rhyme: Loke that ye comen baþe / For ich it wile and ich it raþe. Compare lines 694-95 and lines 360-61.

1685 he yede. L: he yde.

1686 red. Sense uncertain. Perhaps red means "of ruddy complexion" or "sanguine of disposition"; but more likely the sense is "wise," or "well-advised," or "well-counselled."

1698 for to shewe. Sm: for to shawe. F&H: forto shewe.

1722 Thanne were set and bord leyd. F&H and Sm add a pronoun: Thanne he were set and bord leyd. The table is the subject, however.

1726 The types of fowl on the menu - cranes and swans - were more common for a medieval feast than they might be now. Cranes, as many other wild fowl, were roasted over an open flame often with a special basting sauce to keep them moist. Presentation was just as important as the dish itself. Swans, peacocks, and other birds of extraordinary plumage underwent an elaborate skinning procedure so that they could be served inside their own skin replete with feathers. The idea was to present the dish as if it were still alive. Food often took on symbolic significance in the Middle Ages. See Robert W. Hanning. For the appetites of medieval romance heroes see Susan E. Farrier, "Hungry Heroes in Medieval Literature," in Food in the Middle Ages: A Book of Essays, ed. Melitta Weiss Adamson (New York: Garland, 1995), 145-59.

1728 Pyment. Meaning spiced wine, pyment differs from claré, which is spiced wine mixed with honey, not to be confused with the modern claret, a fine red wine.

1731 Ale is considered a lowly drink, unfit for even a page at such a feast, at least in this poem. In general, however, beer and ale were served and consumed as regular table beverages, preferable even to water. Andrewe Boorde, writing in the mid-fifteenth century, says: "Ale for an Englysshe man is a naturall drynke" (as quoted in Terence Scully, The Art of Cookery in the Middle Ages [Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1995], p. 153.)

1736 the kilthing deyled. L: the kilþing deled. Sm: the kilþing deyled. F&H: the ilk þing deled. We concur with Sm's emendation. Sm rejects Sk's "violent emendation," of kilthing to ilk thing. For Sm it represents "a re-writing that offers no means of accounting for the alleged corruption" (p. 132). Instead, Sm chooses to retain the integrity of the line.

1740 Ilk man. L: Il man. Sm: Il man. F&H: Ilk man. Since the distinction is important, we have followed F&H's emendation.

1744 bes mikel wo. L: bes mike wo.

1749 greyves. Not to be confused with shin armor, this term refers to the house of the grave, i.e., the night watchman's place of residence. (See note to line 266.)

1753 Havelok wel yemen. L: Havelok wel ymen.

1761 With mikel love. L: with mike love.

1773 bi Seint Austin. This could refer to either Augustine, Bishop of Hippo and author of a number of widely read works in the Middle Ages including Confessions, or Augustine of Canterbury, the first Archbishop of Canterbury.

1785 In feteres and ful faste festen. Notice how the alliteration in this line underscores Bernard's oath.

1794 barre. The sliding beam that secures the door.

1798 Comes swithe unto me. Armed with his cross beam, Havelok's command strangely echoes Christ's "come unto me." Here the true lord calls with a grim irony; his cross piece will be their death. It is noteworthy that Havelok's "kynmerk" (birthmark) on his shoulder is a cross. See note to lines 2037-45, where his wounds make him more kin of Christ than kin of Cain.

1804 And with him comen. L: And with comen. The thorn has been replaced by th in L.

1827 Havelok let the barre fleye. L: Have le barre fleye.

1829 That havede he nevere schrifte of prest. In other words, he was killed so fast that he did not have time to give his confession to a priest or receive the last rites (quite an understatement).

1840 bere beyte. Bear baiting was a cruel sport enjoyed by lovers of violence in England until it was officially banned in 1835. The bear was lugged (chained by his neck or hind leg to a log or something more secure), and dogs were turned loose on the creature. The dogs were often killed or mauled and the bear seriously torn. Detailed accounts may be found in Joseph Strutt, The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England, from the Earliest Period . . . Illustrated by Reproductions from Ancient Paintings, 1801; rpt. London: Thomas Tegg, 1834, rev. in a new edition, much enlarged and corrected by J. Charles Cox (London: Methuen & Co., 1903). See especially pp. 204-08 in Cox's revised edition. Though officially banned in 1835 the sport continued illegally for a couple more decades, the last recorded entertainment being in West Derby in 1853. Sometimes the bear was blinded and whipped to add to the sport.

1884 louerd wreke be. L: louerd wreke.

1890 Romance heroes occasionally use clubs as weapons, though not always with comic effect as in this scene, but rather as a serious demonstration of knightly potential (e.g., Sir Degaré, Sir Perceval).

1909 of the broune and of the blake. Sa glosses as "Of the brown and of the fair." Blake comes from OE bl~c, meaning white. See also lines 1008, 2181, and 2249.

1911 Als here wombes. L: Als hee wombes.

1941 or shame seyde. L: or same seyde. F&H: or shame seyde. Sm: or same seyde.

2009 leye o tooth. L: leye othe. Si's emendation, followed by F&H and Sa.

2029 Griffin Galle. L: Giffin Galle. Griffin, a name probably of Breton origin, was used as a nickname for the Middle Welsh Gruffydd. Galle was a well-known surname in Lincolnshire in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Sm notes that there are other examples combined with "Christian names such as Walter or Arnald. . . . But in Havelok, the combination of this surname of Celtic origin with the non-English Griffin is striking" (p. 136). In the Dictionary of British Surnames, second ed. (London: Routledge & Kegan, Paul, 1977), Percy H. Reaney comments: "The name in England is found in the counties bordering Wales and also in Lincolnshire where it was of Breton origin. In Brittany where the name was common, it was applied to immigrants from France" (p. 139).

2030 mouthe ageyn so. L: mouthe agey so.

2036 Wel is set the mete he etes. L: We is set þe mete he etes. This proverb appears earlier in a variant form in line 908.

2037-45 The beholding of the young lord's wounds is perhaps another allusion to the hero's miraculously redemptive role as opponent to "Kaym kin" (line 2045). See note to line 1798.

2055 that we so. L: þat we so.

2060 A palfrey was a small saddle-horse used for riding, usually for women or ecclesiastics, and never for war. It would be humiliating for a knight to ride to combat or tournament or even to his execution on a palfrey.

2070 Moucte wayte thee to slo. L: Movcte wayte þe slo.

2072 I shal lene thee a bowr. See note to line 239.

2124 lith was thare. L: lith wa þare. Sm: lith was þore.

2140 shuldre swithe brith. L: shuldre swe brith. Sk's emendation, followed by F&H and Sa.

2143 Sa remarks that the line means: "'That it was a mark of kingship that they saw'; the word kunrik is probably an error for kynemerk of line 604" (p. 108). Sm, on the other hand, rejects Sk's emendation on the grounds that kunrik is not a noun, but an adjective meaning "of exalted birth" (p. 137).

2145 F&H note the widespread belief that precious stones gave off light at night. The fifteenth-century Peterborough Lapidary entry for carbuncle is as follows:
Carbuncculus is a precios stone, & he schineth as feyre whose chynyngis not overcom by nyght. It chineth in derk places, & it semeth as it were a feyr; & ther bene xii kyndes ther-of, & worthyest ben tho that schynen & send owte leemes as feyre, as Ised. Also it is seyd that the carbunocyl is cleped so in grek, & it is gendryd in libia amonge the tregodites. Of this carnuncul ther is xii maneris of kendes of carbuncles. But thoo ben best that han the coleour of fire & tho ben closed in a wyght veyne. The best carbucul hathe this propirtie: if it is throwene. In the feyre it is qwent as it were amonges dede colis. (English Mediaeval Lapidaries, ed. Joan Evans and Mary Ser-jeantson, EETS o.s. 190 [London: Oxford University Press, 1933; rpt. 1960], p. 82).
2195 knithes, burgeys, sweynes. L: Knighes bugeys sweynes.

2229 that sori fend. L: þat sor fend.

2249 Bothe brune and the blake. See note to line 1009.

2250 Gamen here literally means "fun," "sport," but in a cheerful, jesting way means "ritual [of homage]."

2274 He here refers to Ubbe in the next line.

2287 That com of Adam and of Eve. I.e., that was born of the human race started by Adam and Eve - in other words, everyone.

2298 Us for to yemen. L: for to yemen. F&H: Men for to yemen. Sm: Us for to yemen. Since Ubbe is speaking, his designation of group and self-inclusion make sense.

2310 evere wolde his. L: evere wode his.

2311 That dide he hem o boke swere. L: Þat dide hem o boke swere.

2327 Note the reference to romance reading in the context of leisure. Some medieval medical authorities considered reading a good story for the sake of pleasure and the release of emotion and laughter a sound measure for good health. See Glending Olson, Literature as Recreation in the Middle Ages (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982).

2331 Bull and boar-baiting were common medieval pastimes. A bull or boar was tied to a stake or set in a pit, and dogs were let loose to annoy and irritate the larger animal. See note to line 1840.

2336 so mikel yeft of clothes. L: so mike yeft of cloþes.

2352 ilker twenti knihtes. L: ilker twent knihtes.

2370 Half hundred. L: hal hundred.

2389 cavenard. Sk refers to the term as an error for caynard, a term for a scoundrel (see Chaucer's Wife of Bath CT III[D] 235). Sa emends to caynard.

2404 that he ther thrette. L: þat þer þrette.

2432 And everilk fot of hem he slowe. Fot here stands for person - thus, a synecdoche, in which a part of something stands for a whole.

2450 Hise nese went unto the crice. He is bound on his steed face down and backwards, with his nose in the cleft between the horse's buttocks.

2453 he havede ful. L: he have ful.

2458-59 And swithe wikke clothes, / For al hise manie grete othes. F&H as follows: Wan he
was brouth so shamelike / Biforn the king, (the fule swike!).
We have returned to the MS reading.

2470 As F&H explain (p. 158), the wall would have been lined with benches.

2478 At this foule mere tayl. Just as riding a palfrey would humiliate a knight, so too would riding a mare. Even more humiliating would be being tied to its befouled tail. F&H note: "Criminals drawn to the gallows were placed on hurdles or a cowhide that they should not be battered to death on the way. The 'foule mere' was an added humiliation, since a knight was usually allowed to ride to his death on a charger. The traces of harness may have been attached to the nail in line 2479. Chains were used to hang for a long time" (p. 158).

2479 Thoru his fet. L: Þoru is fet.

2483 ilk. L: il. Sk's emendation, followed by F&H and Sa. So too in line 2514.

2492 But that he sholde. L: Þat he sholde. F&H and Sm concur on the emendation.

2502 That ne flow him. L: That ne flow everil del.

2514 ilk. L: il.

2515 A traitor's estates were confiscated by the Crown.

2518 sayse. The appropriate definition of the term here is: "To put in legal possession of."

2519 F&H conjecture the absence of approximately twenty lines: "The copyist omitted a passage, probably about twenty lines long, in which the journey to England is described. The French poems contribute little information; they mention, however, that the expedition disembarks at Grimsby and sends Godrich a demand that he restore England to its rightful owners" (p. 160). Sm and Sa are silent on this alleged omission.

2521 monekes blak. The poet may be referring to the Grimsby Abbey monks - Augustinians, founded by Henry I, chartered by Henry II, given to Henry VII, and torn down for a farmhouse. But "black monks" generally refers to Benedictines. Augustinian (Austin) friars were a mendicant order that arrived in England in 1248. Ma's early speculation dated the founding of the house of Austin friars in 1293.

2556 That is repeated here from line 2555 for intensifying purposes.

2557 yboren, so. L: ye ber so. Sk's emendation.

2597 For shal I. L: For shal.

2615 Grethet als men mithe telle a pund. "As men might count out a pound." F&H suggest counting out a pound penny by penny (the only way to make change) would have taken quite a long while. But this meaning, which they accept, does not seem to make sense here, except vaguely as "matter-of-factly" (p. 163).

2629 nevere thethen. L: nevere þeþe.

2654 Godrich him. L: G-him.

2663 To the fet right there adune. Supplied by Ma's edition and followed by Sk. It echoes line 1905.

2711 ok. L: hok.

2797 Kristes. L: Kistes.

2840 And led him til. L: And him til. Sm: And led huntil. F&H: And led him til. Sa follows L.

2867 bi Seint Davy. St. David, the sixth-century patron saint of Wales whose cult, most evident in the city of the same name, nonetheless spread to other ecclesiastical centers (Sherborne, Glastonbury, and Salisbury). Sm finds it curious that this particular saint should be invoked in this particular English poem and wonders how the poet came to know St. David. The answer, he says, is "to be sought in certain Welsh connections of the cathedral and the monastic community of Lincoln. The prominent Welsh writer and churchman Giraldus Cambrensis, who wrote a Vita of St. David, had withdrawn from court life after 1194 to go and study at Lincoln under William of Leicester (then Chancellor of Lincoln), and was there from at least 1196 to 1198. . . . It does not necessarily follow that the author of Havelok had read Gerald's Vita (or any other). But it does seem likely that he was in some fashion exposed to the ecclesiastical interest in St. David at Lincoln, and therefore he may have lived in Lincoln (as is also suggested by the signs that he knew the city at first hand)" (pp. 154-55).

2888 was in god time. L: was god time.

2905 ich ne havede. L: ich ne have.

2909 ilk del. L: il del.

2933 This line has spawned two theories: (1) that the exemplar of L was a minstrel's copy and (2) that the original poet was probably himself a minstrel. See John C. Hirsh "Havelok 2933: A Problem in Medieval Literary History," Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 78 (1977), 339-47.

2983 Him stondes wel that god child strenes. Proverbial. See Whiting, Proverbs, Sentences, and Proverbial Phrases, C224, p. 83.

2993 Have ich seyd. L: Have ich sey.

2997 A Pater Noster (Our Father) is the Lord's Prayer.

 
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Herkneth to me, gode men -
Wives, maydnes, and alle men -
Of a tale that ich you wile telle,
Wo so it wile here and therto dwelle.
The tale is of Havelok imaked:
Whil he was litel, he yede ful naked.
Havelok was a ful god gome -
He was ful god in everi trome;
He was the wicteste man at nede
That thurte riden on ani stede.
That ye mowen now yhere,
And the tale you mowen ylere,
At the biginnig of ure tale,
Fil me a cuppe of ful god ale;
And wile drinken, her I spelle,
That Crist us shilde alle fro helle.
Krist late us hevere so for to do
That we moten comen Him to;
And, witthat it mote ben so,
Benedicamus Domino!
Here I schal biginnen a rym;
Krist us yeve wel god fyn!
The rym is maked of Havelok -
A stalworthi man in a flok.
He was the stalwortheste man at nede
That may riden on ani stede.
 
It was a king bi are dawes,
That in his time were gode lawes
He dede maken and ful wel holden;
Hym lovede yung, him lovede holde -
Erl and barun, dreng and thayn,
Knict, bondeman, and swain,
Wydues, maydnes, prestes and clerkes,
And al for hise gode werkes.
He lovede God with al his micth,
And Holy Kirke, and soth ant ricth.
Ricthwise men he lovede alle,
And overal made hem for to calle.
Wreieres and wrobberes made he falle
And hated hem so man doth galle;
Utlawes and theves made he bynde,
Alle that he micte fynde,
And heye hengen on galwe-tre -
For hem ne yede gold ne fee!
In that time a man that bore
Wel fifty pund, I wot, or more,
Of red gold upon hiis bac,
In a male with or blac,
Ne funde he non that him misseyde,
Ne with ivele on hond leyde.
Thanne micthe chapmen fare
Thuruth Englond wit here ware,
And baldelike beye and sellen,
Overal ther he wilen dwellen -
In gode burwes and therfram
Ne funden he non that dede hem sham,
That he ne weren sone to sorwe brouth,
And pouere maked and browt to nouth.
Thanne was Engelond at hayse -
Michel was swich a king to preyse
That held so Englond in grith!
Krist of hevene was him with -
He was Engelondes blome.
Was non so bold louerd to Rome
That durste upon his bringhe
Hunger ne here - wicke thinghe.
Hwan he fellede hise foos,
He made hem lurken and crepen in wros -
The hidden hem alle and helden hem stille,
And diden al his herte wille.
Ricth he lovede of alle thinge -
To wronge micht him noman bringe,
Ne for silver ne for gold,
So was he his soule hold.
To the faderles was he rath -
Wo so dede hem wrong or lath,
Were it clerc or were it knicth,
He dede hem sone to haven ricth;
And wo dide widuen wrong,
Were he nevre knicth so strong,
That he ne made him sone kesten
In feteres and ful faste festen;
And wo so dide maydne shame
Of hire bodi or brouth in blame,
Bute it were bi hire wille,
He made him sone of limes spille.
He was the beste knith at nede
That hevere micthe riden on stede,
Or wepne wagge or folc ut lede;
Of knith ne havede he nevere drede,
That he ne sprong forth so sparke of glede,
And lete him knawe of hise hand dede,
Hu he couthe with wepne spede;
And other he refte him hors or wede,
Or made him sone handes sprede
And "Louerd, merci!" loude grede.
He was large and no wicth gnede.
Havede he non so god brede
Ne on his bord non so god shrede,
That he ne wolde thorwit fede
Poure that on fote yede,
Forto haven of Him the mede
That for us wolde on Rode blede -
Crist, that al kan wisse and rede
That evere woneth in any thede.
 
The king was hoten Athelwold.
Of word, of wepne, he was bold.
In Engeland was nevre knicth
That betere held the lond to ricth.
Of his bodi ne havede he eyr
Bute a mayden swithe fayr,
That was so yung that sho ne couthee
Gon on fote ne speke wit mouthe.
Than him tok an ivel strong,
That he wel wiste and underfong
That his deth was comen him on
And saide, "Crist, wat shal I don?
Louerd, wat shal me to rede?
I wot ful wel ich have mi mede.
Hw shal now my douhter fare?
Of hire have ich michel kare;
Sho is mikel in my thouth -
Of meself is me rith nowt.
No selcouth is thou me be wo:
Sho ne can speke ne sho kan go.
Yif scho couthe on horse ride,
And a thousande men bi hire syde,
And sho were comen intil helde
And Engelond sho couthe welde,
And don hem of thar hire were queme,
And hire bodi couthe yeme,
Ne wolde me nevere ivele like,
Ne though ich were in heveneriche."
 
Quanne he havede this pleinte maked,
Therafter stronglike quaked.
He sende writes sone onon
After his erles evereichon;
And after hise baruns, riche and poure,
Fro Rokesburw al into Dovere,
That he shulden comen swithe
Til him, that was ful unblithe,
To that stede ther he lay
In harde bondes nicth and day.
He was so faste wit yvel fest
That he ne mouthe haven no rest,
He ne mouthe no mete hete,
Ne he ne mouchte no lythe gete,
Ne non of his ivel that couthe red -
Of him ne was nouth buten ded.
 
Alle that the writes herden
Sorful and sori til him ferden;
He wrungen hondes and wepen sore
And yerne preyden Cristes hore -
That He wolde turnen him
Ut of that yvel that was so grim.
Thanne he weren comen alle
Bifor the king into the halle,
At Winchestre ther he lay,
"Welcome," he sayde, "be ye ay!
Ful michel thank kan I you
That ye aren comen to me now."
Quanne he weren alle set,
And the king aveden igret,
He greten and gouleden and gouven hem ille,
And he bad hem alle been stille
And seyde that greting helpeth nouth,
"For al to dede am ich brouth.
Bute now ye sen that I shal deye,
Now ich wille you alle preye
Of mi douther, that shal be
Yure levedi after me,
Wo may yemen hire so longe,
Bothen hire and Engelonde,
Til that she be wman of helde
And that she mowe hir yemen and welde?"
He answereden and seyden anon,
Bi Crist and bi Seint Jon,
That th erl Godrigh of Cornwayle
Was trewe man wituten faile,
Wis man of red, wis man of dede,
And men haveden of him mikel drede -
"He may hire altherbest yeme,
Til that she mowe wel ben quene."
 
The king was payed of that rede.
A wol fair cloth bringen he dede,
And thereon leyde the messebok,
The caliz, and the pateyn ok,
The corporaus, the messe-gere.
Theron he garte the erl swere
That he sholde yemen hire wel,
Withuten lac, wituten tel,
Til that she were twelf winter hold
And of speche were bold,
And that she couthe of curteysye,
Gon and speken of lovedrurye,
And til that she loven muthe
Wom so hire to gode thoucte;
And that he shulde hire yeve
The beste man that micthe live -
The beste, fayreste, the strangest ok;
That dede he him sweren on the bok,
And thanne shulde he Engelond
Al bitechen into hire hond.
 
Quanne that was sworn on his wise,
The king dede the mayden arise,
And the erl hire bitaucte
And al the lond he evere awcte -
Engelonde, everi del -
And preide he shulde yeme hire wel.
 
The king ne moucte don no more,
But yerne preyede Godes ore,
And dede him hoslen wel and shrive,
I wot fif hundred sithes and five,
And ofte dede him sore swinge
And wit hondes smerte dinge
So that the blod ran of his fleys,
That tendre was and swithe neys.
He made his quiste swithe wel
And sone gaf it everil del.
Wan it was goven, ne micte men finde
So mikel men micte him in winde,
Of his in arke ne in chiste,
In Engelond, that noman wiste;
For al was yoven, faire and wel,
That him was leved no catel.
 
Thanne he havede been ofte swngen,
Ofte shriven and ofte dungen,
"In manus tuas, Louerde," he seyde,
Her that he the speche leyde,
To Jesu Crist bigan to calle
And deyede biforn his heymen alle.
Than he was ded, there micte men se
The meste sorwe that micte be:
Ther was sobbing, siking, and sor,
Handes wringing and drawing bi hor.
Alle greten swithe sore,
Riche and poure that there wore,
And mikel sorwe haveden alle -
Levedyes in boure, knictes in halle.
Quan that sorwe was somdel laten
And he haveden longe graten,
Belles deden he sone ringen,
Monkes and prestes messe singen;
And sauteres deden he manie reden,
That God self shulde his soule leden
Into hevene biforn his Sone,
And ther wituten hende wone.
Than he was to the erthe brouth,
The riche erl ne foryat nouth
That he ne dede al Engelond
Sone sayse intil his hond,
And in the castels leth he do
The knictes he mighte tristen to,
And alle the Englis dede he swere
That he shulden him ghod fey beren:
He yaf alle men that god thoucte,
Liven and deyen til that him moucte,
Til that the kinges dowter wore
Twenti winter hold and more.
 
Thanne he havede taken this oth
Of erles, baruns, lef and loth,
Of knictes, cherles, fre and thewe,
Justises dede he maken newe
Al Engelond to faren thorw
Fro Dovere into Rokesborw.
Schireves he sette, bedels, and greyves,
Grith sergeans with longe gleyves,
To yemen wilde wodes and pathes
Fro wicke men that wolde don scathes,
And forto haven alle at his cri,
At his wille, at hise merci,
That non durste ben him ageyn -
Erl ne barun, knict ne sweyn.
Wislike for soth was him wel
Of folc, of wepne, of catel:
Sothlike, in a lite thrawe
Al Engelond of him stod awe -
Al Engelond was of him adrad,
So his the beste fro the gad.
 
The kinges douther bigan thrive
And wex the fairest wman on live.
Of alle thewes was she wis
That gode weren and of pris.
The mayden Goldeboru was hoten;
For hire was mani a ter igroten.
 
Quanne the Erl Godrich him herde
Of that mayden - hw wel she ferde,
Hw wis sho was, hw chaste, hw fayr,
And that sho was the rithe eyr
Of Engelond, of al the rike;
Tho bigan Godrich to sike,
And seyde, "Wether she sholde be
Quen and levedi over me?
Hwether sho sholde al Engelond
And me and mine haven in hire hond?
Datheit hwo it hire thave!
Shal sho it nevere more have.
Sholde ic yeve a fol, a therne,
Engelond, thou sho it yerne?
Datheit hwo it hire yeve
Evere more hwil I live!
She is waxen al to prud,
For gode metes and noble shrud,
That hic have yoven hire to offte;
Hic have yemed hire to softe.
Shal it nouth ben als sho thenkes:
Hope maketh fol man ofte blenkes.
Ich have a sone, a ful fayr knave;
He shal Engelond al have!
He shal king, he shal ben sire,
So brouke I evere mi blake swire!"
Hwan this trayson was al thouth,
Of his oth ne was him nouth.
He let his oth al overga.
Therof he yaf he nouth a stra,
Bute sone dede hire fete,
Er he wolde heten ani mete,
Fro Winchestre ther sho was,
Also a wicke traytur Judas,
And dede leden hire to Dovre,
That standeth on the seis oure,
And therhinne dede hire fede
Pourelike in feble wede.
The castel dede he yemen so
That non ne micte comen hire to
Of hire frend, with to speken,
That hevere micte hire bale wreken.
 
Of Goldeboru shul we now laten,
That nouth ne blinneth forto graten
Ther sho liggeth in prisoun.
Jesu Crist, that Lazarun
To live broucte fro dede bondes,
He lese hire wit Hise hondes!
And leve sho mote him yse
Heye hangen on galwe tre
That hire haved in sorwe brouth,
So as sho ne misdede nouth.
 
Say we now forth in hure spelle!
In that time, so it bifelle,
Was in the lond of Denemark
A riche king and swythe stark.
The name of him was Birkabeyn;
He havede mani knict and sweyn;
He was fayr man and wict,
Of bodi he was the beste knicth
That evere micte leden uth here,
Or stede on ride or handlen spere.
Thre children he havede bi his wif -
He hem lovede so his lif.
He havede a sone, douhtres two,
Swithe fayre, as fel it so.
He that wile non forbere,
Riche ne poure, king ne kaysere,
Deth him tok than he best wolde
Liven, but hyse dayes were fulde,
That he ne moucte no more live,
For gold ne silver ne for no gyve.
 
Hwan he that wiste, rathe he sende
After prestes, fer an hende -
Chanounes gode and monkes bothe,
Him for to wisse and to rede,
Him for to hoslen an for to shrive,
Hwil his bodi were on live.
 
Hwan he was hosled and shriven,
His quiste maked and for him gyven,
Hise knictes dede he alle site,
For thoru hem he wolde wite
Hwo micte yeme his children yunge
Til that he kouthen speken wit tunge,
Speken and gangen, on horse riden,
Knictes and sweynes by here siden.
He spoken theroffe and chosen sone
A riche man that under mone,
Was the trewest, that he wende -
Godard, the kinges owne frende -
And seyden he moucthe hem best loke
Yif that he hem undertoke,
Til hise sone mouthe bere
Helm on heved and leden ut here,
In his hand a spere stark,
And king been maked of Denemark.
He wel trowede that he seyde,
And on Godard handes leyde;
And seyde, "Here biteche I thee
Mine children alle thre,
Al Denemark and al mi fe,
Til that mi sone of helde be,
But that ich wille that thou swere
On auter and on messe gere,
On the belles that men ringes,
On messe bok the prest on singes,
That thou mine children shalt wel yeme,
That hire kin be ful wel queme,
Til mi sone mowe ben knicth.
Thanne biteche him tho his ricth:
Denemark and that ther til longes -
Casteles and tunes, wodes and wonges."
 
Godard stirt up and swor al that
The king him bad, and sithen sat
Bi the knictes that ther ware,
That wepen alle swithe sare
For the king that deide sone.
Jesu Crist, that makede mone
On the mirke nith to shine,
Wite his soule fro helle pine;
And leve that it mote wone
In heveneriche with Godes Sone!
 
Hwan Birkabeyn was leyd in grave,
The erl dede sone take the knave,
Havelok, that was the eir,
Swanborow, his sister, Helfled, the tother,
And in the castel dede he hem do,
Ther non ne micte hem comen to
Of here kyn, ther thei sperd were.
Ther he greten ofte sore
Bothe for hunger and for kold,
Or he weren thre winter hold.
Feblelike he gaf hem clothes;
He ne yaf a note of hise othes -
He hem clothede rith ne fedde,
Ne hem ne dede richelike bebedde.
Thanne Godard was sikerlike
Under God the moste swike
That evre in erthe shaped was.
Withuten on, the wike Judas.
Have he the malisun today
Of alle that evre speken may -
Of patriark and of pope,
And of prest with loken kope,
Of monekes and hermites bothe,
And of the leve Holi Rode
That God himselve ran on blode!
Crist warie him with His mouth!
Waried wrthe he of north and suth,
Offe alle men that speken kunne,
Of Crist that made mone and sunne!
Thanne he havede of al the lond
Al the folk tilled intil his hond,
And alle haveden sworen him oth,
Riche and poure, lef and loth,
That he sholden hise wille freme
And that he shulde him nouth greme,
He thouthe a ful strong trechery,
A trayson and a felony,
Of the children for to make -
The devel of helle him sone take!
 
Hwan that was thouth, onon he ferde
To the tour ther he woren sperde,
Ther he greten for hunger and cold.
The knave, that was sumdel bold,
Kam him ageyn, on knes him sette,
And Godard ful feyre he ther grette.
And Godard seyde, "Wat is yw?
Hwi grete ye and goulen now?"
"For us hungreth swithe sore" -
Seyden he, "we wolden more:
We ne have to hete, ne we ne have
Her inne neyther knith ne knave
That yeveth us drinke ne no mete,
Halvendel that we moun ete -
Wo is us that we weren born!
Weilawei! nis it no korn
That men micte maken of bred?
Us hungreth - we aren ney ded!"
Godard herde here wa,
Ther-offe yaf he nouth a stra,
But tok the maydnes bothe samen,
Al so it were up on hiis gamen,
Al so he wolde with hem leyke
That weren for hunger grene and bleike.
Of bothen he karf on two here throtes,
And sithen hem al to grotes.
Ther was sorwe, wo-so it sawe,
Hwan the children by the wawe
Leyen and sprawleden in the blod.
Havelok it saw and therbi stod -
Ful sori was that sely knave.
Mikel dred he mouthe have,
For at hise herte he saw a knif
For to reven him hise lyf.
But the knave, that litel was,
He knelede bifor that Judas,
And seyde, "Louerd, mercy now!
Manrede, louerd, biddi you:
Al Denemark I wile you yeve,
To that forward thu late me live.
Here hi wile on boke swere
That nevremore ne shal I bere
Ayen thee, louerd, sheld ne spere,
Ne other wepne that may you dere.
Louerd, have merci of me!
Today I wile fro Denemark fle,
Ne neveremore comen agheyn!
Sweren I wole that Bircabein
Nevere yete me ne gat."
Hwan the devel herde that,
Sumdel bigan him for to rewe;
Withdrow the knif, that was lewe
Of the seli children blod.
Ther was miracle fair and god
That he the knave nouth ne slou,
But for rewnesse him witdrow -
Of Avelok rewede him ful sore,
And thoucte he wolde that he ded wore,
But on that he nouth wit his hend
Ne drepe him nouth, that fule fend!
Thoucte he als he him bi stod,
Starinde als he were wod,
"Yif I late him lives go,
He micte me wirchen michel wo -
Grith ne get I neveremo;
He may me waiten for to slo.
And if he were brouct of live,
And mine children wolden thrive,
Louerdinges after me
Of al Denemark micten he be.
God it wite, he shal ben ded -
Wile I taken non other red!
I shal do casten him in the she,
Ther I wile that he drench be,
Abouten his hals an anker god,
Thad he ne flete in the flod."
Ther anon he dede sende
After a fishere that he wende
That wolde al his wille do,
And sone anon he seyde him to:
"Grim, thou wost thu art my thral;
Wilte don my wille al
That I wile bidden thee?
Tomorwen shal maken thee fre,
And aucte thee yeven and riche make,
Withthan thu wilt this child take
And leden him with thee tonicht,
Than thou sest the monelith,
Into the se and don him therinne.
Al wile I taken on me the sinne."
Grim tok the child and bond him faste,
Hwil the bondes micte laste,
That weren of ful strong line.
Tho was Havelok in ful strong pine -
Wiste he nevere her wat was wo!
Jhesu Crist, that makede go
The halte and the doumbe speken,
Havelok, thee of Godard wreke!
Hwan Grim him havede faste bounden,
And sithen in an eld cloth wnden,
He thriste in his muth wel faste
A kevel of clutes ful unwraste,
That he mouthe speke ne fnaste,
Hwere he wolde him bere or lede.
Hwan he havede don that dede,
Hwat the swike him havede he yede
That he shulde him forth lede
And him drinchen in the se -
That forwarde makeden he -
In a poke, ful and blac,
Sone he caste him on his bac,
Ant bar him hom to hise cleve,
And bitaucte him Dame Leve
And seyde, "Wite thou this knave,
Al so thou wit mi lif save!
I shal dreinchen him in the se;
For him shole we ben maked fre,
Gold haven ynow and other fe:
That havet mi louerd bihoten me."
 
Hwan Dame Leve herde that,
Up she stirte and nouth ne sat,
And caste the knave so harde adoun
That he crakede ther his croune
Ageyn a gret ston ther it lay.
Tho Havelok micte sei, "Weilawei,
That evere was I kinges bern -
That him ne havede grip or ern,
Leoun or wlf, wlvine or bere,
Or other best that wolde him dere!"
So lay that child to middel nicth,
That Grim bad Leve bringen lict,
For to don on his clothes:
"Ne thenkestu nowt of mine othes
That ich have mi louerd sworen?
Ne wile I nouth be forloren.
I shal beren him to the se -
Thou wost that hoves me -
And I shal drenchen him therinne;
Ris up swithe an go thu binne,
And blow the fir and lith a kandel."
Als she shulde hise clothes handel
On for to don and blawe the fir,
She saw therinne a lith ful shir,
Al so brith so it were day,
Aboute the knave ther he lay.
Of hise mouth it stod a stem
Als it were a sunnebem;
Al so lith was it therinne
So ther brenden cerges inne.
"Jesu Crist!" wat Dame Leve,
"Hwat is that lith in ure cleve?
Ris up, Grim, and loke wat it menes!
Hwat is the lith, as thou wenes?"
He stirten bothe up to the knave
For man shal god wille have,
Unkeveleden him and swithe unbounden,
And sone anon him funden,
Als he tirveden of his serk,
On hise rith shuldre a kynmerk,
A swithe brith, a swithe fair.
"Goddot!" quath Grim, "this ure eir,
That shal louerd of Denemark!
He shal ben king, strong and stark;
He shal haven in his hand
Al Denemark and Engeland.
He shal do Godard ful wo;
He shal him hangen or quik flo,
Or he shal him al quic grave.
Of him shal he no merci have."
Thus seide Grim and sore gret,
And sone fel him to the fet,
And seide, "Louerd, have mercy
Of me and Leve, that is me bi!
Louerd, we aren bothe thine -
Thine cherles, thine hine.
Louerd, we sholen thee wel fede
Til that thu cone riden on stede,
Til that thu cone ful wel bere
Helm on heved, sheld and spere.
He ne shall nevere wite, sikerlike,
Godard, that fule swike.
Thoru other man, louerd, than thoru thee
Shal I nevere freman be.
Thou shalt me, louerd, fre maken,
For I shal yemen thee and waken -
Thoru thee wile I fredom have."
Tho was Haveloc a blithe knave!
He sat him up and cravede bred,
And seide, "Ich am ney ded,
Hwat for hunger, wat for bondes
That thu leidest on min hondes,
And for kevel at the laste,
That in my mouth was thrist faste.
I was ther with so harde prangled
That I was ther with ney strangled!"
"Wel is me that thou mayth hete!
Goddoth!" quath Leve, "I shal thee fete
Bred an chese, butere and milk,
Pastees and flaunes - al with swilk
Shole we sone thee wel fede,
Louerd, in this mikel nede.
Soth it is that men seyt and swereth:
'Ther God wile helpen, nouth ne dereth.'"
 
Thanne sho havede brouth the mete,
Haveloc anon bigan to ete
Grundlike, and was ful blithe.
Couthe he nouth his hunger mithe.
A lof he het, I woth, and more,
For him hungrede swithe sore.
Thre dayes ther biforn, I wene,
Et he no mete - that was wel sene!
Hwan he havede eten and was fed,
Grim dede maken a ful fayr bed,
Unclothede him and dede him therinne,
And seyde, "Slep, sone, with muchel winne!
Slep wel faste and dred thee nouth -
Fro sorwe to joie art thu brouth."
Sone so it was lith of day,
Grim it undertok the wey
To the wicke traitour Godard
That was of Denemark a stiward
And saide, "Louerd, don ich have
That thou me bede of the knave:
He is drenched in the flod,
Abouten his hals an anker god -
He is witerlike ded.
Eteth he nevremore bred:
He lith drenched in the se.
Yif me gold and other fe,
That I mowe riche be,
And with thi chartre make fre;
For thu ful wel bihetet me
Thanne I last spak with thee."
Godard stod and lokede on him
Thoruthlike, with eyne grim,
And seyde, "Wiltu ben erl?
Go hom swithe, fule drit-cherl;
Go hethen and be everemore
Thral and cherl als thou er wore -
Shaltu have non other mede;
For litel I do thee lede
To the galwes, so God me rede!
For thou haves don a wicke dede.
Thou mait stonden her to longe,
Bute thou swithe hethen gonge!"
 
Grim thoucte to late that he ran
Fro that traytour, that wicke man,
And thoucte, "Wat shal me to rede?
Wite he him on live he wile bethe
Heye hangen on galwe tre.
Betere us is of londe to fle,
And berwen bothen ure lives,
And mine children and mine wives."
Grim solde sone al his corn,
Shep with wolle, neth with horn,
Hors and swin, geet with berd,
The gees, the hennes of the yerd -
Al he solde that outh douthe,
That he evre selle moucte;
And al he to the peni drou.
Hise ship he greythede wel inow;
He dede it tere an ful wel pike
That it ne doutede sond ne krike;
Therinne dide a ful god mast,
Stronge kables and ful fast,
Ores gode an ful god seyl -
Therinne wantede nouth a nayl,
That evere he sholde therinne do.
Hwan he havedet greythed so,
Havelok the yunge he dede therinne,
Him and his wif, hise sones thrinne,
And hise two doutres that faire wore.
And sone dede he leyn in an ore,
And drou him to the heye see,
There he mith altherbeste fle.
Fro londe woren he bote a mile,
Ne were it nevere but ane hwile
That it ne bigan a wind to rise
Out of the north men calleth "bise,"
And drof hem intil Engelond,
That al was sithen in his hond,
His, that Havelok was the name;
But or he havede michel shame,
Michel sorwe and michel tene,
And yete he gat it al bidene;
Als ye shulen now forthward lere,
Yf that ye wilen therto here.
 
In Humber Grim bigan to lende,
In Lindeseye, rith at the north ende.
Ther sat his ship upon the sond;
But Grim it drou up to the lond;
And there he made a litel cote
To him and to hise flote.
Bigan he there for to erthe,
A litel hus to maken of erthe,
So that he wel thore were
Of here herboru herborwed there.
And for that Grim that place aute,
The stede of Grim the name laute,
So that Grimesbi it calleth alle
That theroffe speken alle;
And so shulen men callen it ay,
Bitwene this and Domesday.
 
Grim was fishere swithe god,
And mikel couthe on the flod -
Mani god fish therinne he tok,
Bothe with neth and with hok.
He tok the sturgiun and the qual,
And the turbut and lax withal;
He tok the sele and the hwel -
He spedde ofte swithe wel.
Keling he tok and tumberel,
Hering and the makerel,
The butte, the schulle, the thornebake.
Gode paniers dede he make,
On til him and other thrinne
Til hise sones to beren fishe inne,
Up o londe to selle and fonge -
Forbar he neyther tun ne gronge
That he ne to yede with his ware.
Kam he nevere hom hand-bare,
That he ne broucte bred and sowel
In his shirte or in his cowel,
In his poke benes and korn -
Hise swink he havede he nowt forlorn.
And hwan he took the grete lamprey,
Ful wel he couthe the rithe wei
To Lincolne, the gode boru;
Ofte he yede it thoru and thoru,
Til he havede wol wel sold
And therfore the penies told.
Thanne he com thenne he were blithe,
For hom he brouthe fele sithe
Wastels, simenels with the horn,
His pokes fulle of mele and korn,
Netes flesh, shepes and swines;
And hemp to maken of gode lines,
And stronge ropes to hise netes,
In the se weren he ofte setes.
 
Thusgate Grim him fayre ledde:
Him and his genge wel he fedde
Wel twelf winter other more.
Havelok was war that Grim swank sore
For his mete, and he lay at hom -
Thouthe, "Ich am now no grom!
Ich am wel waxen and wel may eten
More than evere Grim may geten.
Ich ete more, bi God on live,
Than Grim an hise children five!
It ne may nouth ben thus longe.
Goddot! I wile with hem gange
For to leren sum god to gete.
Swinken ich wolde for my mete -
It is no shame for to swinken!
The man that may wel eten and drinken
Thar nouth ne have but on swink long -
To liggen at hom it is ful strong.
God yelde him, ther I ne may,
That haveth me fed to this day!
Gladlike I wile the paniers bere -
Ich woth ne shal it me nouth dere,
They ther be inne a birthene gret
Al so hevi als a neth.
Shal ich nevere lengere dwelle -
Tomorwen shal ich forth pelle."
 
On the morwen, hwan it was day,
He stirt up sone and nouth ne lay,
And cast a panier on his bac,
With fish giveled als a stac.
Al so michel he bar him one,
So he foure, bi mine mone!
Wel he it bar and solde it wel;
The silver he brouthe hom ilk del,
Al that he therfore tok -
Withheld he nouth a ferthinges nok.
So yede he forth ilke day
That he nevere at home lay -
So wolde he his mester lere.
Bifel it so a strong dere
Bigan to rise of korn of bred,
That Grim ne couthe no god red,
Hw he sholde his meiné fede;
Of Havelok havede he michel drede,
For he was strong and wel mouthe ete
More thanne evere mouthe be gete;
Ne he ne mouthe on the se take
Neyther lenge ne thornbake,
Ne non other fish that douthe
His meyné feden with he mouthe.
Of Havelok he havede kare,
Hwilgat that he micthe fare.
Of his children was him nouth;
On Havelok was al hise thouth,
And seyde, "Havelok, dere sone,
I wene that we deye mone
For hunger, this dere is so strong,
And hure mete is uten long.
Betere is that thu henne gonge
Than thu here dwelle longe -
Hethen thou mayt gangen to late;
Thou canst ful wel the ricthe gate
To Lincolne, the gode boru -
Thou havest it gon ful ofte thoru.
Of me ne is me nouth a slo.
Betere is that thu thider go,
For ther is mani god man inne;
Ther thou mayt thi mete winne.
But wo is me thou art so naked,
Of mi seyl I wolde thee were maked
A cloth thou mithest inne gongen,
Sone, no cold that thu ne fonge."
 
He tok the sheres of the nayl
And made him a covel of the sayl,
And Havelok dide it sone on.
Havede he neyther hosen ne shon,
Ne none kines other wede:
To Lincolne barfot he yede.
Hwan he cam ther, he was ful wil -
Ne havede he no frend to gangen til.
Two dayes ther fastinde he yede,
That non for his werk wolde him fede.
The thridde day herde he calle:
"Bermen, bermen, hider forth alle!"
Poure that on fote yede
Sprongen forth so sparke on glede,
Havelok shof dun nyne or ten
Rith amidewarde the fen,
And stirte forth to the kok,
Ther the erles mete he tok
That he bouthe at the brigge:
The bermen let he alle ligge,
And bar the mete to the castel,
And gat him there a ferthing wastel.
Thet other day kepte he ok
Swithe yerne the erles kok,
Til that he say him on the brigge,
And bi him many fishes ligge.
The herles mete havede he bouth
Of Cornwalie and kalde oft:
"Bermen, bermen, hider swithe!"
Havelok it herde and was ful blithe
That he herde "bermen" calle.
Alle made he hem dun falle
That in his gate yeden and stode -
Wel sixtene laddes gode.
Als he lep the kok til,
He shof hem alle upon an hyl -
Astirte til him with his rippe
And bigan the fish to kippe.
He bar up wel a carte lode
Of segges, laxes, of playces brode,
Of grete laumprees and of eles.
Sparede he neyther tos ne heles
Til that he to the castel cam,
That men fro him his birthene nam.
Than men haveden holpen him doun
With the birthene of his croun,
The kok stod and on him low,
And thoute him stalworthe man ynow,
And seyde, "Wiltu ben wit me?
Gladlike wile ich feden thee:
Wel is set the mete thu etes,
And the hire that thu getes!"
 
"Goddot!" quoth he, "leve sire,
Bidde ich you non other hire,
But yeveth me inow to ete -
Fir and water I wile you fete,
The fir blowe and ful wele maken;
Stickes kan ich breken and kraken,
And kindlen ful wel a fyr,
And maken it to brennen shir.
Ful wel kan ich cleven shides,
Eles to turven of here hides;
Ful wel kan ich dishes swilen,
And don al that ye evere wilen."
Quoth the kok, "Wile I no more!
Go thu yunder and sit thore,
And I shal yeve the ful fair bred,
And made the broys in the led.
Sit now doun and et ful yerne -
Datheit hwo the mete werne!"
 
Havelok sette him dun anon
Al so stille als a ston,
Til he havede ful wel eten;
Tho havede Havelok fayre geten.
Hwan he havede eten inow,
He kam to the wele, water up drow,
And filde ther a michel so -
Bad he non ageyn him go,
But bitwen his hondes he bar it in,
Al him one, to the kichin.
Bad he non him water to fett,
Ne fro brigge to bere the mete.
He bar the turves, he bar the star,
The wode fro the brigge he bar,
Al that evere shulden he nytte,
Al he drow and al he citte -
Wolde he nevere haven rest
More than he were a best.
Of alle men was he mest meke,
Lauhwinde ay and blithe of speke;
Evere he was glad and blithe -
His sorwe he couthe ful wel mithe.
It ne was non so litel knave
For to leyken ne for to plawe,
That he ne wolde with him pleye.
The children that yeden in the weie
Of him he deden al here wille,
And with him leykeden here fille.
Him loveden alle, stille and bolde,
Knictes, children, yunge and holde -
Alle him loveden that him sowen,
Bothen heye men and lowe.
Of him ful wide the word sprong,
Hw he was mikel, hw he was strong,
Hw fayr man God him havede maked,
But on that he was almest naked:
For he ne havede nouth to shride
But a kovel ful unride,
That was ful and swithe wicke;
Was it nouth worth a fir-sticke.
The cok bigan of him to rewe
And bouthe him clothes al spannewe:
He bouthe him bothe hosen and shon,
And sone dide him dones on.
Hwan he was clothed, osed, and shod,
Was non so fayr under God,
That evere yete in erthe were,
Non that evere moder bere;
It was nevere man that yemede
In kinneriche that so wel semede
King or cayser for to be,
Than he was shrid, so semede he;
For thanne he weren alle samen
At Lincolne at the gamen,
And the erles men woren al thore,
Than was Havelok bi the shuldren more
Than the meste that ther kam:
In armes him noman nam
That he doune sone ne caste.
Havelok stod over hem als a mast;
Als he was heie, als he was long,
He was bothe stark and strong -
In Engelond non hise per
Of strengthe that evere kam him ner.
Als he was strong, so was he softe;
They a man him misdede ofte,
Neveremore he him misseyde,
Ne hond on him with yvele leyde.
Of bodi was he mayden clene;
Nevere yete in game, ne in grene,
With hire ne wolde he leyke ne lye,
No more than it were a strie.
In that time al Hengelond
Th'erl Godrich havede in his hond,
And he gart komen into the tun
Mani erl and mani barun,
And alle that lives were
In Englond thanne wer there,
That they haveden after sent
To ben ther at the parlement.
With hem com mani chambioun,
Mani with ladde, blac and brown,
And fel it so that yungemen,
Wel abouten nine or ten,
Bigunnen the for to layke.
Thider komen bothe stronge and wayke,
Thider komen lesse and more
That in the boru thanne weren thore -
Chaunpiouns and starke laddes,
Bondemen with here gaddes,
Als he comen fro the plow.
There was sembling inow;
For it ne was non horse-knave,
Tho thei sholden in honde have,
That he ne kam thider, the leyk to se.
Biforn here fet thanne lay a tre,
And pulten with a mikel ston
The starke laddes, ful god won.
The ston was mikel and ek gret,
And al so hevi so a neth;
Grundstalwyrthe man he sholde be
That mouthe liften it to his kne;
Was ther neyther clerc ne prest,
That mithe liften it to his brest.
Therwit putten the chaumpiouns
That thider comen with the barouns.
Hwo so mithe putten thore
Biforn another an inch or more,
Wore he yung, wore he hold,
He was for a kempe told.
Al so the stoden and ofte stareden,
The chaumpiouns and ek the ladden,
And he maden mikel strout
Abouten the altherbeste but,
Havelok stod and lokede thertil,
And of puttingge he was ful wil,
For nevere yete ne saw he or
Putten the stone or thanne thor.
Hise mayster bad him gon therto -
Als he couthe therwith do.
Tho hise mayster it him bad,
He was of him sore adrad.
Therto he stirte sone anon,
And kipte up that hevi ston
That he sholde putten withe;
He putte at the firste sithe,
Over alle that ther wore
Twelve fote and sumdel more.
The chaumpiouns that put sowen;
Shuldreden he ilc other and lowen.
Wolden he nomore to putting gange,
But seyde, "Thee dwellen her to longe!"
This selkouth mithe nouth ben hyd:
Ful sone it was ful loude kid
Of Havelok, hw he warp the ston
Over the laddes everilkon,
Hw he was fayr, hw he was long,
Hw he was with, hw he was strong;
Thoruth England yede the speche,
Hw he was strong and ek meke;
In the castel, up in the halle,
The knithes speken therof alle,
So that Godrich it herde wel:
The speken of Havelok, everi del -
Hw he was strong man and hey,
Hw he was strong, and ek fri,
And thouthte Godrich, "Thoru this knave
Shal ich Engelond al have,
And mi sone after me;
For so I wile that it be.
The King Athelwald me dide swere
Upon al the messe gere
That I shude his douther yeve
The hexte that mithe live,
The beste, the fairest, the strangest ok -
That gart he me sweren on the bok.
Hwere mithe I finden ani so hey,
So Havelok is, or so sley?
Thou I southe hethen into Inde,
So fayr, so strong, ne mithe I finde.
Havelok is that ilke knave
That shal Goldeboru have!"
This thouthe with trechery,
With traysoun, and wit felony;
For he wende that Havelok wore
Sum cherles sone and no more;
Ne shulde he haven of Engellond
Onlepi foru in his hond
With hire that was therof eyr,
That bothe was god and swithe fair.
He wende that Havelok wer a thral,
Therthoru he wende haven al
In Engelond, that hire rith was.
He was werse than Sathanas
That Jhesu Crist in erthe stoc.
Hanged worthe he on an hok!
 
After Goldeboru sone he sende,
That was bothe fayr and hende,
And dide hire to Lincolne bringe.
Belles dede he ageyn hire ringen,
And joie he made hire swithe mikel;
But netheless he was ful swikel.
He saide that he sholde hire yeve
The fayreste man that mithe live.
She answerede and saide anon,
By Crist and bi Seint Johan,
That hire sholde noman wedde
Ne noman bringen hire to bedde
But he were king or kinges eyr,
Were he nevere man so fayr.
 
Godrich the erl was swithe wroth
That she swor swilk an oth,
And saide, "Whether thou wilt be
Quen and levedi over me?
Thou shalt haven a gadeling -
Ne shalt thou haven non other king!
Thee shal spusen mi cokes knave -
Ne shalt thou non other louered have.
Datheit that thee other yeve
Everemore hwil I live!
Tomorwe ye sholen ben weddeth,
And maugre thin togidere beddeth.
Goldeboru gret and yaf hire ille;
She wolde ben ded bi hire wille.
On the morwen hwan day was sprungen
And day-belle at kirke rungen,
After Havelok sente that Judas
That werse was thanne Sathanas,
And saide, "Maister, wilte wif?"
"Nay," quoth Havelok, "bi my lif!
Hwat sholde ich with wif do?
I ne may hire fede ne clothe ne sho.
Wider sholde ich wimman bringe?
I ne have none kines thinge -
I ne have hws, I ne have cote,
Ne I ne have stikke, I ne have sprote,
I ne have neyther bred ne sowel,
Ne cloth but of an hold whit covel.
This clothes that ich onne have
Aren the kokes and ich his knave!"
Godrich stirt up and on him dong,
With dintes swithe hard and strong,
And seyde, "But thou hire take
That I wole yeven thee to make,
I shal hangen thee ful heye,
Or I shal thristen uth thin heie."
Havelok was one and was odrat,
And grauntede him al that he bad.
 
Tho sende he after hire sone,
The fayrest wymman under mone,
And seyde til hire, fals and slike,
That wicke thrall that foule swike:
"But thu this man understonde,
I shall flemen thee of londe;
Or thou shal to the galwes renne,
And ther thou shalt in a fir brenne."
Sho was adrad for he so thrette,
And durste nouth the spusing lette;
But they hire likede swithe ille,
Sho thouthe it was Godes wille -
God that makes to growen the korn,
Formede hire wimman to be born.
Hwan he havede don him, for drede,
That he sholde hire spusen and fede,
And that she sholde til him holde,
Ther weren penies thicke tolde
Mikel plenté, upon the bok -
He ys hire yaf and she is tok.
He weren spused fayre and well,
The messe he dede, everi del
That fel to spusing, an god clek -
The erchebishop uth of Yerk,
That kam to the parlement,
Als God him havede thider sent.
 
Hwan he weren togidere in Godes lawe,
That the folc ful wel it sawe,
He ne wisten what he mouthen,
Ne he ne wisten what hem douthe,
Ther to dwellen, or thenne to gonge.
Ther ne wolden he dwellen longe,
For he wisten and ful wel sawe
That Godrich hem hatede - the devel him hawe!
And if he dwelleden ther outh -
That fel Havelok ful wel on thouth -
Men sholde don his leman shame,
Or elles bringen in wicke blame,
That were him levere to ben ded.
Forthi he token another red:
That thei sholden thenne fle
Til Grim and til hise sone thre -
Ther wenden he altherbest to spede,
Hem forto clothe and for to fede.
The lond he token under fote -
Ne wisten he non other bote -
And helden ay the rith sti
Til he komen to Grimesby.
Thanne he komen there thanne was Grim ded -
Of him ne haveden he no red.
But hise children alle fyve,
Alle weren yet on live,
That ful fayre ayen hem neme
Hwan he wisten that he keme,
And maden joie swithe mikel -
Ne weren he nevere ayen hem fikel.
On knes ful fayre he hem setten
And Havelok swithe fayre gretten,
And seyden, "Welkome, louered dere!
And welkome be thi fayre fere!
Blessed be that ilke thrawe
That thou hire toke in Godes lawe!
Wel is hus we sen thee on live.
Thou mithe us bothe selle and yeve;
Thou mayt us bothe yeve and selle,
With that thou wilt here dwelle.
We haven, louerd, alle gode -
Hors, and neth, and ship on flode,
Gold and silver and michel auchte,
That Grim ure fader us bitauchte.
Gold and silver and other fe
Bad he us bitaken thee.
We haven sheep, we haven swin;
Bileve her, louerd, and al be thin!
Tho shalt ben louerd, thou shalt ben syre,
And we sholen serven thee and hire;
And hure sistres sholen do
Al that evere biddes sho:
He sholen hire clothes washen and wringen,
And to hondes water bringen;
He sholen bedden hire and thee,
For levedi wile we that she be."
Hwan he this joie haveden maked,
Sithen stikes broken and kraked,
And the fir brouth on brenne;
Ne was ther spared gos ne henne,
Ne the hende ne the drake:
Mete he deden plenté make;
Ne wantede there no god mete,
Wyn and ale deden he fete,
And hem made glade and blithe;
Wesseyl ledden he fele sithe.
On the nith als Goldeboru lay,
Sory and sorwful was she ay,
For she wende she were biswike,
That she were yeven unkyndelike.
O nith saw she therinne a lith,
A swithe fayr, a swithe bryth -
Al so brith, all so shir
So it were a blase of fir.
She lokede noth and ek south,
And saw it comen ut of his mouth
That lay bi hire in the bed.
No ferlike thou she were adred!
Thouthe she, "What may this bimene?
He beth heyman yet, als I wene:
He beth heyman er he be ded!"
On hise shuldre, of gold red
She saw a swithe noble croiz;
Of an angel she herde a voyz:
 
"Goldeboru, lat thi sorwe be!
For Havelok, that haveth spuset thee,
He, kinges sone and kinges eyr,
That bikenneth that croiz so fayr
It bikenneth more - that he shal
Denemark haven and Englond al.
He shal ben king strong and stark,
Of Engelond and Denemark -
That shal thu wit thin eyne seen,
And tho shalt quen and levedi ben!"
 
Thanne she havede herd the stevene
Of the angel uth of hevene,
She was so fele sithes blithe
That she ne mithe hire joie mythe,
But Havelok sone anon she kiste,
And he slep and nouth ne wiste
Hwat that aungel havede seyd.
Of his slep anon he brayd,
And seide, "Lemman, slepes thou?
A selkuth drem dremede me now -
 
Herkne now what me haveth met.
Me thouthe I was in Denemark set,
But on on the moste hil
That evere yete cam I til.
It was so hey that I wel mouthe
Al the werd se, als me thouthe.
Als I sat upon that lowe
I bigan Denemark for to awe,
The borwes and the castles stronge;
And mine armes weren so longe
That I fadmede al at ones,
Denemark with mine longe bones;
And thanne I wolde mine armes drawe
Til me and hom for to have,
Al that evere in Denemark liveden
On mine armes faste clyveden;
And the stronge castles alle
On knes bigunnen for to falle -
The keyes fellen at mine fet.
Another drem dremede me ek:
That ich fley over the salte se
Til Engeland, and al with me
That evere was in Denemark lyves
But bondemen and here wives;
And that ich com til Engelond -
Al closede it intil min hond,
And, Goldeborw, I gaf thee.
Deus! lemman, what may this be?"
Sho answerede and seyde sone:
"Jesu Crist, that made mone,
Thine dremes turne to joye . . .
That wite thu that sittes in trone!
Ne non strong, king ne caysere
So thou shalt be, fo thou shalt bere
In Engelond corune yet.
Denemark shal knele to thi fet;
Alle the castles that aren therinne
Shaltou, lemman, ful wel winne.
I woth so wel so ich it sowe,
To thee shole comen heye and lowe,
And alle that in Denemark wone -
Em and brother, fader and sone,
Erl and baroun, dreng and thayn,
Knightes and burgeys and sweyn -
And mad king heyelike and wel.
Denemark shal be thin evere ilc del -
Have thou nouth theroffe douthe,
Nouth the worth of one nouthe;
Theroffe withinne the firste yer
Shalt thou ben king of evere il del.
But do now als I wile rathe:
Nim in wit lithe to Denemark bathe,
And do thou nouth on frest this fare -
Lith and selthe felawes are.
For shal ich nevere blithe be
Til I with eyen Denemark se,
For ich woth that al the lond
Shalt thou haven in thin hond.
Prey Grimes sones alle thre,
That he wenden forth with the;
I wot he wilen the nouth werne -
With the wende shulen he yerne,
For he loven thee hertelike.
Thou maght til he aren quike,
Hwore-so he o worde aren;
There ship thou do hem swithe yaren,
And loke that thou dwelle nouth -
Dwelling haveth ofte scathe wrouth."
 
Hwan Havelok herde that she radde,
Sone it was day, sone he him cladde,
And sone to the kirke yede
Or he dide any other dede,
And bifor the Rode bigan falle,
"Croiz" and "Crist" bi to kalle,
And seyde, "Louerd, that all weldes -
Wind and water, wodes and feldes -
For the holy milce of you,
Have merci of me, Louerd, now!
And wreke me yet on mi fo
That ich saw biforn min eyne slo
Mine sistres with a knif,
And sithen wolde me mi lyf
Have reft, for in the se
Bad he Grim have drenched me.
He hath mi lond with mikel unrith,
With michel wrong, with mikel plith,
For I ne misdede him nevere nouth,
And haved me to sorwe brouth.
He haveth me do mi mete to thigge,
And ofte in sorwe and pine ligge.
Louerd, have merci of me,
And late me wel passe the se -
Though ihc have theroffe douthe and kare,
Withuten stormes overfare,
That I ne drenched therine
Ne forfaren for no sinne,
And bringe me wel to the lond
That Godard haldes in his hond,
That is mi rith, everi del -
Jesu Crist, thou wost it wel!"
 
Thanne he havede his bede seyd,
His offrende on the auter leyd,
His leve at Jhesu Crist he tok,
And at his swete moder ok,
And at the Croiz that he biforn lay;
Sithen yede sore grotinde awey.
 
Hwan he com hom, he wore yare,
Grimes sones, for to fare
Into the se, fishes to gete,
That Havelok mithe wel of ete.
But Avelok thoughte al another:
First he kalde the heldeste brother,
Roberd the Rede, bi his name,
Wiliam Wenduth and Huwe Raven,
Grimes sones alle thre -
And seyde, "Lithes now alle to me;
Louerdinges, ich wile you shewe
A thing of me that ye wel knewe.
Mi fader was king of Denshe lond -
Denemark was al in his hond
The day that he was quik and ded.
But thanne havede he wicke red,
That he me and Denemark al
And mine sistres bitawte a thral;
A develes lime he hus bitawhte,
And al his lond and al hise authe,
For I saw that fule fend
Mine sistres slo with hise hend:
First he shar a two here throtes,
And sithen hem al to grotes,
And sithen bad in the se
Grim, youre fader, drenchen me.
Deplike dede he him swere
On bok that he sholde me bere
Unto the se and drenchen ine,
And wolde taken on him the sinne.
But Grim was wis and swithe hende -
Wolde he nouth his soule shende;
Levere was him to be forsworen
Than drenchen me and ben forlorn.
But sone bigan he forto fle
Fro Denemark for to berthen me.
For yif ich havede ther ben funden,
Havede he ben slayn or harde bunden,
And heye ben hanged on a tre -
Havede go for him gold ne fe.
Forthi fro Denemark hider he fledde,
And me ful fayre and ful wel fedde,
So that unto this day
Have ich ben fed and fostred ay.
But now ich am up to that helde
Cumen that ich may wepne welde,
And I may grete dintes yeve,
Shal I nevere hwil ich lyve
Ben glad til that ich Denemark se!
I preie you that ye wende with me,
And ich may mak you riche men;
Ilk of you shal have castles ten,
And the lond that thor til longes -
Borwes, tunes, wodes, and wonges.
 
[Approximately 180 lines are missing here; see note]
 
"With swilk als ich byen shal.
Ther of biseche you now leve
Wile ich speke with non other reve
But with thee, that justise are,
That I mithe seken mi ware
In gode borwes up and doun,
And faren ich wile fro tun to tun."
A gold ring drow he forth anon -
An hundred pund was worth the ston -
And yaf it Ubbe for to spede.
He was ful wis that first yaf mede;
And so was Havelok ful wis here:
He solde his gold ring ful dere -
Was nevere non so dere sold
Fro chapmen, neyther yung ne old.
That sholen ye forthward ful wel heren,
Yif that ye wile the storie heren.
 
Hwan Ubbe havede the gold ring,
Havede he yovenet for no thing,
Nouth for the borw evere ilk del.
Havelok bihel he swithe wel,
Hw he was wel of bones maked,
Brod in the sholdres, ful wel schaped,
Thicke in the brest, of bodi long -
He semede wel to ben wel strong.
"Deus!" hwat Ubbe, "Qui ne were he knith?
I woth that he is swithe with!
Betere semede him to bere
Helm on heved, sheld and spere,
Thanne to beye and selle ware -
Allas, that he shal therwith fare!
Goddot! Wile he trowe me,
Chaffare shal he late be."
Netheles he seyde sone:
"Havelok, have thi bone!
And I ful wel rede thee
That thou come and ete with me
Today, thou and thi fayre wif
That thou lovest al so thi lif.
And have thou of hire no drede -
Shal hire no man shame bede.
Bi the fey that I owe to thee,
Ther of shal I me self borw be."
 
Havelok herde that he bad,
And thow was he ful sore drad
With him to ete, for hise wif;
For him wore levere that his lif
Him wore reft, than she in blame
Felle or lauthe ani shame.
Hwanne he havede his wille yat,
The stede that he onne sat
Smot Ubbe with spures faste,
And forth awey, but at the laste,
Or he fro him ferde,
Seyde he, that his folk herde:
"Loke that ye comen bethe,
For ich it wile and ich it rede."
 
Havelok ne durste, the he were adrad,
Nouth withsitten that Ubbe bad.
His wif he dide with him lede -
Unto the heye curt he yede.
Roberd hire ledde, that was red,
That havede tholed for hire the ded
Or ani havede hire misseyd,
Or hand with ivele onne leyd.
Willam Wendut was that other
That hire ledde, Roberdes brother,
That was with at alle nedes.
Wel is him that god man fedes!
Than he weren comen to the halle,
Biforen Ubbe and hise men alle,
Ubbe stirte hem ageyn,
And mani a knith and mani a sweyn,
Hem for to se and for to shewe.
Tho stod Havelok als a lowe
Aboven that ther inne wore,
Rith al bi the heved more
Thanne ani that ther inne stod.
Tho was Ubbe blithe of mod
That he saw him so fayr and hende;
Fro him ne mithe his herte wende,
Ne fro him, ne fro his wif -
He lovede hem sone so his lif.
Weren non in Denemark that him thouthe
That he so mikel love mouthe.
More he lovede Havelok one
Than al Denemark, bi mine wone.
Loke now, hw God helpen kan
O mani wise wif and man!
 
Hwan it was comen time to ete,
Hise wif dede Ubbe sone in fete,
And til hire seyde al on gamen,
"Dame, thou and Havelok shulen ete samen,
And Goldeboru shal ete wit me,
That is so fayr so flour on tre.
In al Denemark is wimman non
So fayr so sche, by Seint Johan."
Thanne were set and bord leyd,
And the beneysun was seyd,
Biforn hem com the beste mete
That king or cayser wolde ete:
Kranes, swannes, veneysun,
Lax, lampreys, and god sturgun,
Pyment to drinke and god claré,
Win hwit and red, ful god plenté -
Was ther inne no page so lite
That evere wolde ale bite.
Of the mete forto telle
Ne of the win bidde I nout dwelle;
That is the storie for to lenge -
It wolde anuye this fayre genge.
But hwan he haveden the kilthing deyled
And fele sithe haveden wosseyled,
With gode drinkes seten longe,
And it was time for to gonge,
Ilk man to ther he cam fro,
Thouthe Ubbe, "If I late hem go,
Thus one foure, withuten mo,
So mote ich brouke finger or to,
For this wimman bes mikel wo!
For hire shal men hire louerd slo."
He tok sone knithes ten,
And wel sixti other men
Wit gode bowes and with gleives,
And sende hem unto the greyves,
The beste man of al the toun,
That was named Bernard Brun -
And bad him als he lovede his lif,
Havelok wel yemen and his wif,
And wel do wayten al the nith
Til the other day that it were lith.
Bernard was trewe and swithe with,
In al the borw ne was no knith
That betere couthe on stede riden,
Helm on heved ne swerd bi side.
Havelok he gladlike understod
With mikel love and herte god,
And dide greythe a super riche
Al so he was no with chinche
To his bihove everil del,
That he mithe supe swithe wel.
 
Al so he seten and sholde soupe,
So comes a ladde in a joupe,
And with him sixti other stronge
With swerdes drawen and knives longe,
Ilkan in hande a ful god gleive,
And seyde, "Undo, Bernard the greyve!
Undo swithe and lat us in,
Or thu art ded, bi Seint Austin!"
Bernard stirt up, that was ful big,
And caste a brinie upon his rig,
And grop an ax that was ful god -
Lep to the dore so he wore wod,
And seyde, "Hwat are ye, that ar ther-oute,
That thus biginnen for to stroute?
Goth henne swithe, fule theves,
For, bi the Louerd that man on leves,
Shol ich casten the dore open,
Summe of you shal ich drepen,
And the othre shal ich kesten
In feteres and ful faste festen!
"Hwat have ye seid?" quoth a ladde,
"Wenestu that we ben adradde?
We shole at this dore gonge
Maugre thin, carl, or outh longe."
He gripen sone a bulder ston
And let it fleye, ful god won,
Agen the dore, that it to-rof.
Avelok it saw, and thider drof
And the barre sone ut drow,
That was unride and gret ynow,
And caste the dore open wide
And seide, "Her shal I now abide!
Comes swithe unto me -
Datheyt hwo you henne fle!"
"No," quodh on, "that shaltou coupe;"
And bigan til him to loupe,
In his hond his swerd ut drawe,
Havelok he wende thore have slawe,
And with him comen other two
That him wolde of live have do.
Havelok lifte up the dore tre
And at a dint he slow hem thre.
Was non of hem that hise hernes
Ne lay ther ute ageyn the sternes.
The ferthe that he sithen mette
Wit the barre so he him grette
Bifor the heved that the rith eye
Ut of the hole made he fleye,
And sithe clapte him on the crune
So that he stan ded fel thor dune.
The fifte that he overtok
Gaf he a ful sor dint ok,
Bitween the sholdres ther he stod,
That he spen his herte blod.
The sixte wende for to fle,
And he clapte him with the tre
Rith in the fule necke so
That he smot hise necke on to.
Thanne the sixe weren doun feld,
The seventhe brayd ut his swerd
And wolde Havelok riht in the eye;
And Havelok let the barre fleye
And smot him sone agheyn the brest,
That havede he nevere schrifte of prest
For he was ded on lesse hwile
Than men mouthe renne a mile.
Alle the othere weren ful kene;
A red they taken hem bitwene
That he sholde him bihalve,
And brisen so that wit no salve
Ne sholde him helen leche non.
They drowen ut swerdes, ful god won,
And shoten on him so don on bere
Dogges that wolden him to-tere,
Thanne men doth the bere beyte.
The laddes were kaske and teyte
And umbiyeden him ilkon.
Sum smot with tre and sum wit ston,
Summe putten with gleyve in bac and side
And yeven wundes longe and wide
In twenti stedes and wel mo,
Fro the croune til the to.
Hwan he saw that, he was wod
And was it ferlik hw he stod!
For the blod ran of his sides
So water that fro the welle glides.
But thanne bigan he for to mowe
With the barre, and let hem shewe
Hw he couthe sore smite;
For was ther non, long ne lite,
That he mouthe overtake,
That he ne garte his croune krake,
So that on a litel stund,
Felde he twenti to the grund.
 
Tho bigan gret dine to rise,
For the laddes on ilke wise
Him asayleden with grete dintes,
Fro fer he sto[n]den him with flintes,
And gleyves schoten him fro ferne,
For drepen him he wolden yerne;
But dursten he newhen him nomore
Thanne he bor or leun wore.
 
Huwe Raven that dine herde,
And thowthe wel that men misferde
With his louerd for his wif
And grop an ore and a long knif,
And thider drof al so an hert,
And cham ther on a litel stert
And saw how the laddes wode
Havelok his louerd umbistode,
And beten on him so doth the smith
With the hamer on the stith.
"Allas!" hwat Hwe, "that I was boren!
That evere et ich bred of koren!
That ich here this sorwe se!
Roberd! Willam! Hware ar ye?
Gripeth ether unker a god tre
And late we nouth thise doges fle
Til ure louerd wreke be.
Cometh swithe, and folwes me:
Ich have in honde a ful god ore -
Datheit wo ne smite sore!"
"Ya! leve, ya!" quod Roberd sone,
"We haven ful god lith of the mone."
Roberd grop a staf strong and gret,
That mouthe ful wel bere a net,
And Willam Wendut grop a tre
Mikel grettere than his the,
And Bernard held his ax ful faste
I seye was he nouthe the laste!
And lopen forth so he weren wode
To the laddes ther he stode,
And yaf hem wundes swithe grete;
Ther mithe men wel se boyes bete,
And ribbes in here sides breke
And Havelok on hem wel wreke.
He broken armes, he broken knes,
He broken shankes, he broken thes.
He dide the blod there renne dune
To the fet rith fro the crune,
For was ther spared heved non.
He leyden on hevedes ful god won,
And made croune breke and crake
Of the broune and of the blake.
He maden here backes al so bloute
Als here wombes and made hem rowte
Als he weren kradelbarnes -
So dos the child that moder tharnes.
 
Datheit the recke! For he it servede.
Hwat dide he thore? Weren he werewed.
So longe haveden he but and bet
With neves under hernes set
That of tho sixti men and on
Ne wente ther awey lives non.
 
On the morwen, hwan it was day,
Ilc on other wirwed lay
Als it were dogges that weren henged;
And summe leye in dikes slenget,
And summe in gripes bi the her
Drawen ware and laten ther.
Sket cam tiding intil Ubbe
That Havelok havede with a clubbe
Of hise slawen sixti and on
Sergaunz, the beste that mihten gon.
"Deus," quoth Ubbe, "Hwat may this be?
Betere is I nime miself and se
That this baret on hwat is wold
Thanne I sende yunge or old;
For yif I sende him unto,
I wene men sholde him shame do,
And that ne wolde ich for no thing.
I love him wel, bi Heveneking -
Me wore levere I wore lame
Thanne men dide him ani shame
Or tok or onne handes leyde
Unornelike or shame seyde."
He lep up on a stede lith,
And with him mani a noble knith,
And ferde forth unto the tun,
And dide calle Bernard Brun
Ut of his hus wan he ther cam;
And Bernard sone ageyn nam,
Al to-tused and al to-torn,
Ner al so naked so he was born
And al to-brised, bac and the.
Quoth Ubbe, "Bernard, hwat is thee?
Hwo haves thee thus ille maked,
Thus to-riven and al mad naked?"
"Louerd, merci," quot he sone,
"Tonicht, al so ros the mone,
Comen her mo than sixti theves
With lokene copes and wide sleves,
Me for to robben and to pine,
And for to drepe me and mine.
Mi dore he broken up ful sket,
And wolde me binden hond and fet.
Wan the godemen that sawe,
Havelok and he that bi the wowe
Leye, he stirten up sone onon
And summe grop tre and sum grop ston
And drive hem ut, thei he weren crus,
So dogges ut of milne-hous.
Havelok grop the dore-tre,
And a dint he slow hem thre.
He is the beste man at nede
That everemar shal ride stede -
Als helpe God, bi mine wone
A thousend men his he worth one!
Yif he ne were, ich were now ded -
So have ich don mi soule red!
But it is of him mikel sinne:
He maden him swilke woundes thrinne
That of the altherleste wounde
Were a stede brouht to grunde.
He haves a wunde in the side
With a gleyve ful unride;
And he haves on thoru his arum
Ther of is full mikel harum;
And he haves on thoru his the -
The unrideste that men may se.
And othe wundes haves he stronge,
Mo than twenti, swithe longe.
But sithen he havede lauth the sor
Of the wundes, was nevere bor
That so fauth, so he fauth thanne!
Was non that havede the hernepanne
So hard that he ne dede al to-cruhsse
And al to-shivere and al to-frusshe.
He folwede hem so hund dos hare -
Datheyt on he wolde spare,
That ne made hem everilkon
Ligge stille so doth the ston.
And ther nis he nouth to frie
For other sholde he make hem lye
Ded, or thei him havede slawen,
Or al to-hewen or al to-drawen.
 
"Louerd, havi nomore plith
Of that ich was grethed tonith.
Thus wolde the theves me have reft;
But, God thank, he havenet sure keft!
But it is of him mikel scathe -
I woth that he bes ded ful rathe."
 
Quoth Ubbe, "Bernard, seyst thou soth?"
"Ya, sire, that I ne leye o tooth!
Yif I, louerd, a word leye,
Tomorwen do me hengen heye."
The burgeys that ther bi stode thore
Grundlike and grete othes swore,
Litle and mikle, yunge and holde,
That was soth that Bernard tolde -
Soth was that he wolden him bynde,
And trusse al that he mithen fynde
Of hise in arke or in kiste
That he mouthe in seckes thriste.
"Louerd, he haveden al awey born
His thing, and himself al to-torn,
But als God self barw him wel,
That he ne tinte no catel.
Hwo mithe so mani stonde ageyn
Bi nither-tale, knith or swein?
He weren bi tale sixti and ten -
Starke laddes, stalworthi men,
And on the mayster of hem alle,
That was the name Griffin Galle.
Hwo mouthe ageyn so mani stonde,
But als this man of ferne londe
Haveth hem slawen with a tre?
Mikel joie have he!
God yeve him mikel god to welde,
Bothe in tun and ek in felde:
Wel is set the mete he etes."
Quoth Ubbe, "Doth him swithe fete,
That I mouthe his woundes se,
If that he mouthen holed be;
For if he mouthe covere yet
And gangen wel upon hise fet,
Miself shal dubben him to knith,
Forthi that he is so with.
And yif he livede, tho foule theves,
That weren of Kaym kin and Eves,
He sholden hange bi the necke -
Of here ded datheit wo recke,
Hwan he yeden thus on nithes
Tobinde bothe burgmen and knithes!
For bynderes love ich neveremo -
Of hem ne yeve ich nouht a slo."
 
Havelok was bifore Ubbe browth,
That havede for him ful mikel thouth
And mikel sorwe in his herte
For hise wundes, that we so smerte.
 
But hwan his wundes weren shewed,
And a leche havede knawed
That he hem mouthe ful wel hele,
Wel make him gange and ful wel mele,
And wel a palefrey bistride,
And wel upon a stede ride,
Tho let Ubbe al his care
And al his sorwe over fare,
And seyde, "Cum now forth with me,
And Goldeboru, thi wif, with thee,
And thine serjaunz alle thre,
For now wile I youre warant be:
Wile I non of here frend
That thu slowe with thin hend
Moucte wayte thee to slo
Also thou gange to and fro.
I shal lene thee a bowr
That is up in the heye tour,
Til thou mowe ful wel go
And wel ben hol of al thi wo.
It ne shal nothing ben bitwene
Thi bowr and min, al so I wene,
But a fayr firrene wowe -
Speke I loude or spek I lowe,
Thou shalt ful wel heren me,
And than thu wilt thou shalt me se.
A rof shal hile us bothe o nith,
That none of mine, clerk ne knith,
No sholen thi wif no shame bede
No more than min, so God me rede!"
 
He dide unto the borw bringe
Sone anon, al with joiinge,
His wif and his sergaunz thre,
The beste men that mouthe be.
The first nith he lay ther inne,
Hise wif and his serganz thrinne,
Aboute the middel of the nith
Wok Ubbe and saw a mikel lith
In the bowr thar Havelok lay
Al so brith so it were day.
 
"Deus!" quoth Ubbe, "Hwat may this be?
Betere is I go miself and se
Hwether he sitten now and wesseylen,
Or ani sotshipe to deyle,
This tid nithes also foles;
Than birthe men casten hem in poles
Or in a grip, or in the fen -
Now ne sitten none but wicke men,
Glotuns, revres, or wicke theves,
Bi Crist that alle folk onne leves!"
 
He stod and totede in at a bord
Her he spak anilepi word
And saw hem slepen faste ilkon
And lye stille so the ston;
And saw al that mikel lith
Fro Havelok cam that was so brith.
Of his mouth it com il del -
That was he war ful swithe wel.
"Deus," quoth he, "Hwat may this mene!"
He calde bothe arwe men and kene,
Knithes and serganz swithe sleie,
Mo than an hundred, withuten leye,
And bad hem alle comen and se
Hwat that selcuth mithe be.
Als the knithes were comen alle,
Ther Havelok lay ut of the halle,
So stod ut of his mouth a glem,
Rith al swilk so the sunne-bem,
That al so lith was thare, bi hevene,
So ther brenden serges sevene
And an hundred serges ok
That durste I sweren on a book!
He slepen faste, alle five,
So he weren brouth of live;
And Havelok lay on his lift side,
In his armes his brithe bride:
Bi the pappes he leyen naked -
So faire two weren nevere maked
In a bed to lyen samen.
The knithes thouth of hem god gamen,
Hem for to shewe and loken to.
Rith al so he stoden alle so,
And his bac was toward hem wend,
So weren he war of a croiz ful gent
On his right shuldre swithe brith,
Brithter than gold ageyn the lith,
So that he wiste, heye and lowe,
That it was kunrik that he sawe.
It sparkede and ful brith shon
So doth the gode charbuncle ston
That men see mouthe se by the lith
A peni chesen, so was it brith.
Thanne bihelden he him faste,
So that he knewen at the laste
That he was Birkabeynes sone,
That was here king, that was hem wone
Wel to yeme and wel were
Ageynes uten-laddes here -
"For it was nevere yet a brother
In al Denemark so lich another,
So this man, that is so fayr,
Als Birkabeyn; he is hise eyr."
 
He fellen sone at hise fet.
Was non of hem that he ne gret -
Of joye he weren alle so fawen
So he him haveden of erthe drawen.
Hise fet he kisten an hundred sythes -
The tos, the nayles, and the lithes -
So that he bigan to wakne
And wit hem ful sore to blakne,
For he wende he wolden him slo,
Or elles binde him and do wo.
 
Quoth Ubbe, "Louerd, ne dred thee nowth,
Me thinkes that I se thi thouth.
Dere sone, wel is me
That I thee with eyn se.
Manred, louerd, bede I thee -
Thi man auht I ful wel to be;
For thu art comen of Birkabeyn,
That havede mani knith and sweyn,
And so shalt thou, louerd, have:
Thou thou be yet a ful yung knave
Thou shalt be King of al Denemark -
Was ther inne never non so stark.
Tomorwen shaltu manrede take
Of the brune and of the blake,
Of alle that aren in this tun,
Bothe of erl and of barun,
And of dreng and of thayn
And of knith and of sweyn.
And so shaltu ben mad knith
Wit blisse, for thou art so with."
 
Tho was Havelok swithe blithe,
And thankede God ful fele sithe.
On the morwen, wan it was lith,
And gon was thisternesse of the nith,
Ubbe dide upon a stede
A ladde lepe, and thider bede
Erles, barouns, drenges, theynes,
Klerkes, knithes, burgeys, sweynes,
That he sholden comen anon
Biforen him sone everilkon,
Al so he loven here lives
And here children and here wives.
 
His bode ne durste he non atsitte
That he ne neme for to wite,
Sone hwat wolde the justise;
And bigan anon to rise
And seyde sone, "Lithes me,
Alle samen, theu and fre,
A thing ich wile you here shauwe
That ye alle ful wel knawe.
Ye witen wel that al this lond
Was in Birkabeynes hond
The day that he was quic and ded,
And how that he, bi youre red
Bitauhte hise children thre
Godard to yeme, and al his fe.
Havelok his sone he him tauhte
And hise two douhters and al his auhte.
Alle herden ye him swere
On bok and on messe gere
That he shulde yemen hem wel,
Withuten lac, withuten tel.
 
He let his oth all overgo -
Evere wurthe him yvel and wo!
For the maydnes here lif
Refte he bothen with a knif,
And him shulde ok have slawen -
The knif was at his herte drawen.
But God him wolde wel have save:
He havede rewnesse of the knave
So that he with his hend
Ne drop him nouth, that sori fend!
But sone dide he a fishere
Swithe grete othes swere,
That he sholde drenchen him
In the se, that was ful brim.
Hwan Grim saw that he was so fayr,
And wiste he was the rith eir,
Fro Denemark ful sone he fledde
Intil Englond and ther him fedde
Mani winter that til this day
Haves he ben fed and fostred ay.
Lokes hware he stondes her!
In al this werd ne haves he per -
Non so fayr, ne non so long,
Ne non so mikel, ne non so strong.
In this middelerd nis no knith
Half so strong ne half so with.
Bes of him ful glad and blithe,
And cometh alle hider swithe,
Manrede youre louerd for to make,
Bothe brune and the blake -
I shal miself do first the gamen
And ye sithen alle samen."
 
O knes ful fayre he him sette -
Mouthe nothing him ther fro lette,
And bicam is man rith thare,
That alle sawen that there ware.
 
After him stirt up laddes ten
And bicomen hise men,
And sithen everilk a baroun
That evere weren in al that toun,
And sithen drenges, and sithen thaynes
And sithen knithes, and sithen sweynes;
So that, or that day was gon,
In al the tun ne was nouth on
That it ne was his man bicomen -
Manrede of alle havede he nomen.
 
Hwan he havede of hem alle
Manrede taken in the halle,
Grundlike dide he hem swere
That he sholden him god feyth bere
Ageynes alle that woren on live;
Ther-yen ne wolde never on strive,
That he ne maden sone that oth -
Riche and poure, lef and loth.
Hwan that was maked, sone he sende
Ubbe writes fer and hende,
After alle that castel yemede,
Burwes, tunes, sibbe an fremde
That thider sholden comen swithe
Til him and heren tithandes blithe
That he hem alle shulde telle.
Of hem ne wolde nevere on dwelle,
That he ne come sone plattinde;
Hwo hors ne havede, com gangande.
So that withinne a fourtenith
In al Denemark ne was no knith,
Ne conestable, ne shireve,
That com of Adam and of Eve,
That he ne com biforn sire Ubbe -
He dredden him so thef doth clubbe.
Hwan he haveden alle the king gret
And he weren alle dun-set,
Tho seyde Ubbe, "Lokes here
Ure louerd swithe dere,
That shal ben king of al the lond
And have us alle under hond,
For he is Birkabeynes sone,
The king that was umbe stonde wone
Us for to yemen and wel were
With sharp swerd and longe spere.
Lokes now, hw he is fayr:
Sikerlike he is hise eyr.
Falles alle to his fet -
Bicomes hise men ful sket."
He weren for Ubbe swithe adrad
And dide sone al that he bad.
And yet he deden sumdel more:
O bok ful grundlike he swore
That he sholde with him halde,
Bothe ageynes stille and bolde
That evere wolde his bodi dere.
That dide he hem o boke swere.
 
Hwan he havede manrede and oth
Taken of lef and of loth,
Ubbe dubbede him to knith
With a swerd ful swithe brith,
And the folk of al the lond
Bitauhte him al in his hond,
The cunnriche everil del
And made him king heylike and wel.
Hwan he was king, ther mouthe men se
The moste joye that mouhte be -
Buttinge with sharpe speres,
Skirming with talevaces that men beres,
Wrastling with laddes, putting of ston,
Harping and piping, ful god won,
Leyk of mine, of hasard ok,
Romanz reding on the bok.
Ther mouthe men here the gestes singe,
The glewmen on the tabour dinge.
Ther moutthe men se the boles beyte,
And the bores, with hundes teyte.
Tho mouhte men se everil glew;
Ther mouthe men se hw grim grew -
Was nevere yete joye more
In al this werd than tho was thore.
Ther was so mikel yeft of clothes
That, thou I swore you grete othes,
I ne wore nouth ther of trod.
That may I ful wel swere, bi God!
There was swithe gode metes
And of wyn that men fer fetes,
Rith al so mik and gret plenté
So it were water of the se.
The feste fourti dawes sat -
So riche was nevere non so that.
The king made Roberd there knith,
That was ful strong and ful with,
And Willam Wendut hec, his brother,
And Huwe Raven, that was that other,
And made hem barouns alle thre,
And yaf hem lond and other fe,
So mikel that ilker twenti knihtes
Havede of genge, dayes and nithes.
 
Hwan that feste was al don,
A thusand knihtes ful wel o bon
Withheld the king with him to lede,
That ilkan havede ful god stede,
Helm and sheld, and brinie brith,
And al the wepne that fel to knith.
With hem ek five thusand gode
Sergaunz that weren to fyht wode
Withheld he al of his genge -
Wile I namore the storie lenge.
Yet hwan he havede of al the lond
The casteles alle in his hond,
And conestables don therinne,
He swor he ne sholde never blinne
Til that he were of Godard wreken,
That ich have of ofte speken.
Half hundred knithes dede he calle,
And hise fif thusand sergaunz alle,
And dide sweren on the bok
Sone, and on the auter ok,
That he ne sholde nevere blinne,
Ne for love ne for sinne,
Til that he haveden Godard funde
And brouth biforn him faste bunde.
 
Thanne he haveden swor this oth,
Ne leten he nouth, for lef ne loth,
That he foren swithe rathe
Ther he was, unto the pathe
Ther he yet on hunting for,
With mikel genge and swithe stor.
Robert, that was of all the ferd
Mayster, girt was wit a swerd,
And sat upon a ful god stede,
That under him rith wolde wede.
He was the firste that with Godard
Spak, and seyde, "Hede, cavenard!
Wat dos thu here at this pathe?
Cum to the king swithe and rathe!
That sendes he thee word and bedes,
That thu thenke what thou him dedes
Whan thu reftes with a knif
Hise sistres here lif
And sithen bede thou in the se
Drenchen him - that herde he!
He is to thee swithe grim;
Cum nu swithe unto him
That king is of this kunerike,
Thou fule man, thou wicke swike!
And he shal yelde thee thy mede,
Bi Crist that wolde on Rode blede!"
 
Hwan Godard herde that he ther thrette,
With the neve he Robert sette
Biforn the teth a dint ful strong.
And Robert kipt ut a knif long
And smot him thoru the rith arum -
Ther of was ful litel harum!
 
Hwan his folk that saw and herde,
Hwou Robert with here louerd ferde,
He haveden him wel ner browt of live,
Ne weren his two brethren and othre five
Slowen of here laddes ten,
Of Godardes altherbeste men.
Hwan the othre sawen that, he fledden,
And Godard swithe loude gredde:
"Mine knithes, hwat do ye?
Sule ye thusgate fro me fle?
Ich have you fed and yet shal fede -
Helpe me nw in this nede
And late ye nouth mi bodi spille,
Ne Havelok don of me hise wille!
Yif ye it do, ye do you shame
And bringeth youself in mikel blame!"
Hwan he that herden, he wenten ageyn,
And slowen a knit and a sweyn
Of the kinges oune men,
And woundeden abuten ten.
The kinges men, hwan he that sawe,
Scuten on hem, heye and lowe,
And everilk fot of hem he slowe,
But Godard one, that he flowe,
So the thef men dos henge,
Or hund men shole in dike slenge.
He bunden him ful swithe faste,
Hwil the bondes wolden laste,
That he rorede als a bole
That wore parred in an hole
With dogges forto bite and beite.
Were the bondes nouth to leite -
He bounden him so fele sore
That he gan crien Godes ore,
That he sholde of his hend plette;
Wolden he nouht ther fore lette
That he ne bounden hond and fet.
Datheit that on that ther fore let!
But dunten him so man doth bere
And keste him on a scabbed mere,
Hise nese went unto the crice.
So ledden he that ful swike
Til he biforn Havelok was brouth,
That he havede ful wo wrowht,
Bothe with hungre and with cold
Or he were twel winter old,
And with mani hevi swink,
With poure mete and feble drink,
And swithe wikke clothes,
For al hise manie grete othes.
Nu beyes he his holde blame:
Old sinne makes newe shame!
Wan he was so shamelike
Brouth biforn the king, the fule swike!
The king dede Ubbe swithe calle
Hise erles and hise barouns alle,
Dreng and thein, burgeis and knith,
And bad he sholden demen him rith,
For he knew the swike dam;
Everil del God was him gram!
He setten hem dun bi the wawe,
Riche and pouere, heye and lowe,
The helde men and ek the grom,
And made ther the rithe dom
And seyden unto the king anon,
That stille sat so the ston:
"We deme that he be al quic flawen
And sithen to the galwes drawe
At this foule mere tayl,
Thoru his fet a ful strong nayl,
And thore ben henged wit two feteres
And thare be writen thise leteres:
'This is the swike that wende wel
The king have reft the lond ilk del,
And hise sistres with a knif
Bothe refte here lif.'
This writ shal henge bi him thare.
The dom is demd - seye we namore."
Hwan the dom was demd and give,
And he was wit the prestes shrive,
And it ne mouhte ben non other,
Ne for fader ne for brother,
But that he sholde tharne lif,
Sket cam a ladde with a knif
And bigan rith at the to
For to ritte and for to flo;
And he bigan tho for to rore
So it were grim or gore,
That men mithe thethen a mile
Here him rore, that fule file!
The ladde ne let nowith forthi,
They he criede, "Merci! Merci!"
That ne flow him everil del
With knif mad of grunden stel.
Thei garte bringe the mere sone,
Skabbed and ful ivele o bone,
And bunden him rith at hire tayl
With a rop of an old seyl
And drowen him unto the galwes,
Nouth bi the gate but over the falwes,
And henge him thore bi the hals -
Datheit hwo recke: he was fals!
 
Thanne he was ded, that Sathanas,
Sket was seysed al that his was
In the kinges hand ilk del -
Lond and lith and other catel -
And the king ful sone it yaf
Ubbe in the hond, wit a fayr staf,
And seyde, "Her ich sayse thee
In al the lond, in al the fe . . . ."
Tho swor Havelok he sholde make,
Al for Grim, of monekes blake
A priorie to serven in ay
Jhesu Crist, til Domesday,
For the god he havede him don
Hwil he was pouere and ivel o bon.
And ther of held he wel his oth,
For he it made, God it woth,
In the tun ther Grim was graven,
That of Grim yet haves the name.
Of Grim bidde ich namore spelle.
But wan Godrich herde telle,
Of Cornwayle that was erl,
That fule traytour, that mixed cherl!
That Havelok King was of Denemark,
And ferde with him, strong and stark
Comen Engelond withinne,
Engelond al for to winne;
And that she that was so fayr,
That was of Engelond rith eir,
Was comen up at Grimesbi,
He was ful sorful and sori,
And seyde, "Hwat shal me to rathe?
Goddoth, I shal do slon hem bathe!
I shal don hengen hem ful heye
So mote ich brouke my rith eie,
But yif he of mi londe fle.
Hwat! Wenden he deserite me?"
He dide sone ferd ut bidde,
That al that evere mouhte o stede
Ride or helm on heved bere,
Brini on bac, and sheld and spere,
Or ani other wepne bere,
Hand-ax, sythe, gisarm, or spere,
Or aunlaz and god long knif,
That als he lovede leme or lif,
That they sholden comen him to,
With ful god wepne yboren, so
To Lincolne, ther he lay,
Of Marz the sevententhe day,
So that he couthe hem god thank;
And yif that ani were so rank
That he thanne ne come anon,
He swor bi Crist and by Seint Johan,
That he sholde maken him thral,
And al his ofspring forth withal.
 
The Englishe that herde that,
Was non that evere his bode sat;
For he him dredde swithe sore,
So runcy spore, and mikle more.
At the day he come sone
That he hem sette, ful wel o bone,
To Lincolne with gode stedes,
And al the wepne that knith ledes.
Hwan he wore come, sket was the erl yare
Ageynes Denshe men to fare,
And seyde, "Lythes nw alle samen!
Have ich gadred you for no gamen,
But ich wile seyen you forthi.
Lokes hware here at Grimesbi
Hise uten laddes here comen,
And haves nu the priorie numen -
Al that evere mithen he finde,
He brenne kirkes and prestes binde;
He strangleth monkes and nunnes bothe -
Wat wile ye, frend, her-offe rede?
Yif he regne thusgate longe,
He moun us alle overgange,
He moun us alle quic henge or slo,
Or thral maken and do ful wo
Or elles reve us ure lives
And ure children and ure wives.
But dos nw als ich wile you lere,
Als ye wile be with me dere.
Nimes nu swithe forth and rathe
And helpes me and yuself bathe,
And slos upo the dogges swithe.
For shal I nevere more be blithe,
Ne hoseled ben ne of prest shriven
Til that he ben of londe driven.
Nime we swithe and do hem fle
And folwes alle faste me!
For ich am he of al the ferd
That first shal slo with drawen swerd.
Datheyt hwo ne stonde faste
Bi me hwil hise armes laste!"
"Ye! lef, ye!" quoth the erl Gunter;
"Ya!" quoth the Erl of Cestre, Reyner.
And so dide alle that ther stode
And stirte forth so he were wode.
Tho mouthe men se the brinies brihte
On backes keste and lace rithe,
The helmes heye on heved sette.
To armes al so swithe plette
That thei wore on a litel stunde
Grethet als men mithe telle a pund,
And lopen on stedes sone anon;
And toward Grimesbi, ful god won,
He foren softe bi the sti
Til he come ney at Grimesbi.
 
Havelok, that havede spired wel
Of here fare, everil del,
With all his ferd cam hem ageyn.
Forbar he nother knith ne sweyn:
The firste knith that he ther mette
With the swerd so he him grette,
For his heved of he plette -
Wolde he nouth for sinne lette.
Roberd saw that dint so hende -
Wolde he nevere thethen wende,
Til that he havede another slawen
With the swerd he held ut drawen.
Willam Wendut his swerd ut drow,
And the thredde so sore he slow
That he made upon the feld
His lift arm fleye with the swerd.
 
Huwe Raven ne forgat nouth
The swerd he havede thider brouth.
He kipte it up, and smot ful sore
An erl that he saw priken thore
Ful noblelike upon a stede,
That with him wolde al quic wede.
He smot him on the heved so
That he the heved clef a two.
And that bi the shudre blade
The sharpe swerd let wade
Thoru the brest unto the herte;
The dint bigan ful sore to smerte,
That the erl fel dun anon
Al so ded so ani ston.
Quoth Ubbe, "Nu dwelle ich to longe!"
And let his stede sone gonge
To Godrich, with a god spere,
That he saw another bere;
And smot Godrich and Godrich him,
Hetelike with herte grim,
So that he bothe felle dune
To the erthe, first the croune.
Thanne he woren fallen dun bothen,
Grundlike here swerdes he ut drowen,
That weren swithe sharp and gode,
And fouhten so thei woren wode
That the swot ran fro the crune
To the fet right there adune.
Ther mouthe men se to knicthes bete
Ayther on other dintes grete,
So that with the altherleste dint
Were al to-shivered a flint.
So was bitwenen hem a fiht
Fro the morwen ner to the niht,
So that thei nouth ne blunne
Til that to sette bigan the sunne.
Tho yaf Godrich thorw the side
Ubbe a wunde ful unride,
So that thorw that ilke wounde
Havede ben brouth to grunde
And his heved al of slawen,
Yif God ne were and Huwe Raven,
That drow him fro Godrich awey
And barw him so that ilke day.
But er he were fro Godrich drawen,
Ther were a thousind knihtes slawen
Bi bothe halve and mo ynowe,
Ther the ferdes togidere slowe,
Ther was swilk dreping of the folk
That on the feld was nevere a polk
That it ne stod of blod so ful
That the strem ran intil the hul.
Tho tarst bigan Godrich to go
Upon the Danshe and faste to slo
And forthrith, also leun fares
That nevere kines best ne spares,
Thanne his gon, for he garte alle
The Denshe men biforn him falle.
He felde browne, he felde blake,
That he mouthe overtake.
Was nevere non that mouhte thave
Hise dintes, noyther knith ne knave,
That he felde so dos the gres
Biforn the sythe that ful sharp es.
Hwan Havelok saw his folk so brittene
And his ferd so swithe littene,
He cam drivende upon a stede,
And bigan til him to grede,
And seyde, "Godrich, wat is thee,
That thou fare thus with me
And mine gode knihtes slos?
Sikerlike, thou misgos!
Thou wost ful wel, yif thu wilt wite,
That Athelwold thee dide site
On knes and sweren on messe bok,
On caliz and on pateyn ok,
That thou hise douhter sholdest yelde,
Than she were wimman of elde,
Engelond everil del.
Godrich the erl, thou wost it wel!
Do nu wel withuten fiht
Yeld hire the lond, for that is rith.
Wile ich forgive thee the lathe,
Al mi dede and al mi wrathe,
For I se thu art so with
And of thi bodi so god knith."
"That ne wile ich neveremo,"
Quoth erl Godrich, "for ich shal slo
Thee, and hire forhenge heye.
I shal thrist ut thy rith eye
That thou lokes with on me,
But thu swithe hethen fle!"
He grop the swerd ut sone anon,
And hew on Havelok ful god won,
So that he clef his sheld on two.
Hwan Havelok saw that shame do
His bodi ther biforn his ferd,
He drow ut sone his gode swerd,
And smote him so upon the crune
That Godrich fel to the erthe adune.
But Godrich stirt up swithe sket -
Lay ne nowth longe at hise fet -
And smot him on the sholdre so
That he dide thare undo
Of his brinie ringes mo
Than that ich kan tellen fro,
And woundede him rith in the flesh,
That tendre was and swithe nesh,
So that the blod ran til his to.
Tho was Havelok swithe wo,
That he havede of him drawen
Blod and so sore him slawen.
Hertelike til him he wente
And Godrich ther fulike shente,
For his swerd he hof up heye,
And the hand he dide of fleye
That he smot him with so sore -
Hw mithe he don him shame more?
 
Hwan he havede him so shamed,
His hand of plat and ivele lamed,
He tok him sone bi the necke
Als a traitour, datheit who recke!
And dide him binde and fetere wel
With gode feteres al of stel,
And to the quen he sende him,
That birde wel to him ben grim,
And bad she sholde don him gete
And that non ne sholde him bete,
Ne shame do, for he was knith,
Til knithes haveden demd him rith.
Than the Englishe men that sawe,
That thei wisten, heye and lawe,
That Goldeboru that was so fayr
Was of Engelond rith eyr,
And that the king hire havede wedded,
And haveden been samen bedded,
He comen alle to crie "Merci,"
Unto the king at one cri,
And beden him sone manrede and oth
That he ne sholden, for lef ne loth,
Neveremore ageyn him go,
Ne ride, for wel ne for wo.
 
The king ne wolde nouth forsake
That he ne shulde of hem take
Manrede that he beden and ok
Hold othes sweren on the bok.
But or bad he that thider were brouth
The quen for hem swilk was his thouth
For to se and forto shawe,
Yif that he hire wolde knawe -
Thoruth hem witen wolde he
Yif that she aucte quen to be.
 
Sixe erles weren sone yare
After hire for to fare.
He nomen onon and comen sone,
And brouthen hire, that under mone
In al the werd ne havede per
Of hendeleik, fer ne ner.
Hwan she was come thider, alle
The Englishe men bigunne falle
O knes, and greten swithe sore,
And seyden, "Levedi, Kristes ore
And youres! We haven misdo mikel
That we ayen you have be fikel,
For Englond auhte for to ben
Youres and we youre men.
Is non of us, yung ne old,
That he ne wot that Athelwold
Was king of this kunerike
And ye his eyr, and that the swike
Haves it halden with mikel wronge -
God leve him sone to honge!"
 
Quot Havelok, "Hwan that ye it wite,
Nu wile ich that ye doune site;
And after Godrich haves wrouht,
That haves in sorwe himself brouth,
Lokes that ye demen him rith,
For dom ne spareth clerk ne knith,
And sithen shal ich understonde
Of you, after lawe of londe,
Manrede and holde othes bothe,
Yif ye it wilen and ek rothe."
Anon ther dune he hem sette,
For non the dom ne durste lette
And demden him to binden faste
Upon an asse swithe unwraste,
Andelong, nouht overthwert,
His nose went unto the stert
And so to Lincolne lede,
Shamelike in wicke wede,
And, hwan he come unto the borw,
Shamelike ben led ther thoru,
Bi southe the borw unto a grene,
That thare is yet, als I wene,
And there be bunden til a stake,
Abouten him ful gret fir make,
And al to dust be brend rith there.
And yet demden he ther more,
Other swikes for to warne:
That hise children sulde tharne
Everemore that eritage
That his was, for hise utrage.
 
Hwan the dom was demd and seyd,
Sket was the swike on the asse leyd,
And led him til that ilke grene
And brend til asken al bidene.
Tho was Goldeboru ful blithe -
She thanked God fele sythe
That the fule swike was brend
That wende wel hire bodi have shend;
And seyde, "Nu is time to take
Manrede of brune and of blake,
That ich se ride and go,
Nu ich am wreke of mi fo."
 
Havelok anon manrede tok
Of alle Englishe on the bok
And dide hem grete othes swere
That he sholden him god feyth bere
Ageyn hem alle that woren lives
And that sholde ben born of wives.
 
Thanne he haveden sikernesse
Taken of more and of lesse,
Al at hise wille, so dide he calle
The Erl of Cestre and hise men alle,
That was yung knith withuten wif,
And seyde, "Sire erl, bi mi lif,
And thou wile mi conseyl tro,
Ful wel shal ich with thee do;
For ich shal yeve thee to wive
The fairest thing that is o live.
That is Gunnild of Grimesby,
Grimes douther, bi Seint Davy,
That me forth broute and wel fedde,
And ut of Denemark with me fledde
Me for to burwe fro mi ded.
Sikerlike, thoru his red,
Have ich lived into this day -
Blissed worthe his soule ay!
I rede that thu hire take
And spuse and curteyse make,
For she is fayr and she is fre,
And al so hende so she may be.
Ther tekene, she is wel with me;
That shal ich ful wel shewe thee.
For ich wile give thee a give
That everemore, hwil ich live,
For hire shaltu be with me dere,
That wile ich that this folc al here."
The erl ne wolde nouth ageyn
The king be, for knith ne sweyn
Ne of the spusing seyen nay,
But spusede that ilke day.
That spusinge was in god time maked,
For it ne were nevere, clad ne naked,
In a thede samened two
That cam togidere, livede so
So they diden al here live:
He geten samen sones five,
That were the beste men at nede
That mouthe riden on ani stede.
Hwan Gunnild was to Cestre brouth,
Havelok the gode ne forgat nouth
Bertram, that was the erles kok,
That he ne dide callen ok,
And seyde, "Frend, so God me rede,
Nu shaltu have riche mede,
For wissing and thi gode dede
That tu me dides in ful gret nede.
For thanne I yede in mi cuvel
And ich ne havede bred ne sowel.
Ne I ne havede no catel,
Thou feddes and claddes me ful wel.
Have nu forthi of Cornwayle
The erldom ilk del, withuten fayle,
And al the lond that Godrich held,
Bothe in towne and ek in feld;
And ther-to wile ich that thu spuse,
And fayre bring hire until huse,
Grimes douther, Levive the hende,
For thider shal she with thee wende.
Hire semes curteys for to be,
For she is fayr so flour on tre;
The hew is swilk in hire ler
So the rose in roser,
Hwan it is fayre sprad ut newe,
Ageyn the sunne brith and lewe."
And girde him sone with the swerd
Of the erldom, biforn his ferd,
And with his hond he made him knith,
And yaf him armes, for that was rith,
And dide him there sone wedde
Hire that was ful swete in bedde.
 
After that he spused wore,
Wolde the Erl nouth dwelle thore,
But sone nam until his lond
And seysed it al in his hond
And livede ther inne, he and his wif,
An hundred winter in god lif,
And gaten mani children samen
And liveden ay in blisse and gamen.
Hwan the maidens were spused bothe,
Havelok anon bigan ful rathe
His Denshe men to feste wel
Wit riche landes and catel,
So that he weren alle riche,
For he was large and nouth chiche.
 
Ther after sone, with his here,
For he to Lundone for to bere
Corune, so that it sawe
Henglishe ant Denshe, heye and lowe,
Hwou he it bar with mikel pride,
For his barnage that was unride.
 
The feste of his coruning
Lastede with gret joying
Fourti dawes and sumdel mo.
Tho bigunnen the Denshe to go
Unto the king to aske leve;
And he ne wolde hem nouth greve,
For he saw that he woren yare
Into Denemark for to fare;
But gaf hem leve sone anon
And bitauhte hem Seint Johan,
And bad Ubbe, his justise,
That he sholde on ilke wise
Denemark yeme and gete so
That no pleynte come him to.
 
Hwan he wore parted alle samen,
Havelok bilefte wit joye and gamen
In Engelond and was ther-inne
Sixti winter king with winne,
And Goldeboru Quen, that I wene
So mikel love was hem bitwene
That al the werd spak of hem two;
He lovede hir and she him so
That neyther owe mithe be
Fro other, ne no joye se
But if he were togidere bothe.
Nevere yete no weren he wrothe
For here love was ay newe -
Nevere yete wordes ne grewe
Bitwene hem hwar of ne lathe
Mithe rise ne no wrathe.
 
He geten children hem bitwene
Sones and doughtres rith fivetene,
Hwar-of the sones were kinges alle,
So wolde God it sholde bifalle,
And the douhtres alle quenes:
Him stondes wel that god child strenes!
Nu have ye herd the gest al thoru
Of Havelok and of Goldeboru -
Hw he weren boren and hw fedde,
And hwou he woren with wronge ledde
In here youthe with trecherie,
With tresoun, and with felounye;
And hwou the swikes haveden tiht
Reven hem that was here rith,
And hwou he weren wreken wel,
Have ich seyd you everil del.
Forthi ich wolde biseken you
That haven herd the rim nu,
That ilke of you, with gode wille,
Saye a Pater Noster stille
For him that haveth the rym maked,
And ther-fore fele nihtes waked,
That Jesu Crist his soule bringe
Biforn his Fader at his endinge.
 
Amen
(see note)
 
 
Whoever; wait
 
went around poorly dressed
a decent guy
company
bravest; in time of need
might ride; steed
may; hear
may learn
our
 
tell a story
shield
let; ever
may
in order that; might
Let us bless the Lord; (see note)
rhyme
good end
made
strong; band
 
 
 
in earlier days; (see note)
(see note)
 
Young and old loved him
vassal; retainer; (see note)
Knight, peasant; commoner
widows; clerics
good
might
Church; truth and justice
Just
summoned them
Traitors; informers
as; bitter drink
Outlaws
 
high; gallows
took [as a bribe]
 
I suppose; (see note)
 
pouch white or black; (see note)
 
evil laid on a hand
merchants travel
Throughout; with their
boldly buy
 
towns; from there
who caused them shame
they were not soon; brought
made poor; nothing
ease
Much; praise
peace
 
flower
lord [as far as]; (see note)
his [people] bring; (see note)
invasion; (see note)
When he conquered his enemies
corners
They; themselves; (see note)
 
Right (Justice); more than all things
 
 
loyal; (see note)
a help
Whoever; harm
knight
 
whoever; widows; (see note)
 
cast
fasten tightly
 
brought
Unless; (see note)
lose limbs; (see note)
(see note)
ever
wield; company; (see note)
 
spark from coal
(see note)
 
clothing; (see note)
 
Lord; cried
generous; not at all stingy
good
shred (morsel)
 
The poor who; went
reward
Cross
guide; advise
dwelt; country
 
called
 
 
justly; (see note)
no heir
Except for; very fair
did not know how to
Walk; talk
violent illness
knew; realized; (see note)
 
what
what do You advise
reward
How; (see note)
much
thoughts
I think not of myself
wonder
 
knew how to
 
to a proper age
rule
pleasing
take care of
Neither; not please me
heaven's realm
 
When; made complaint
strongly [he]; (see note)
writs (notices); very soon
For; everyone; (see note)
 
Roxburgh; (see note)
they; quickly
To; ill
place where; (see note)
restraints; night
fastened; fastenings
might not
food eat
comfort
 
almost dead
 
Everyone who
went to him
They; wept bitterly
earnestly; ore (grace)
(see note)
 
they
 
where he; (see note)
always
Very much; (see note)
 
When they
had greeted
They mourned; howled; lamented
quiet
weeping; not
death; brought
 
beseech
For my daughter
[sovereign] lady
Who; protect
 
grown woman; (see note)
take care of and help; (see note)
They; quickly
(see note)
 
 
advice
great fear
best protect
 
 
pleased with; advice
(see note)
missal
chalice; paten also; (see note)
communion cloth; implements of Mass; (see note)
made
protect
fail; reproach
old
 
 
courtship; (see note)
might
Whomsoever; seemed
give
noblest; (see note)
strongest also
 
 
entrust
 
When; in this way
compelled
entrusted her to
owned
part
govern her
 
might do
earnestly; grace
himself received the sacrament
I think five; (see note)
beat himself hard
painfully strike himself
from; flesh
so soft
bequest (will) very
affirmed
given
(see note)
coffer; chest
knew
disposed of
left; possession
 
beaten; (see note)
confessed; beaten
Into your hands, Lord; (see note)
Here (then at this moment); lay aside
 
died; noblemen
When
greatest
sighing; grief
pulling out hair
wept very hard
were there
 
Ladies; bower; (see note)
When; somewhat relieved
they; wept
 
mass
psalters (psalm books)
(see note)
 
[his soul] should dwell
buried
forgot not
 
seize
he placed
trust in
he made to swear
they; good faith
whatever seemed good; (see note)
 
would be
old
 
When
dear; displeasing
commoners; in service
(see note)
travel through
(see note)
Sheriffs; beadles; reeves; (see note)
Peacekeepers; lances
protect
harm; (see note)
beck and call
 
against him
commoner
Assuredly
possessions
Truly; while
in awe
afraid
As is; beast; prod
 
 
grew into; alive
manners; (see note)
worth
called
tear wept; (see note)
 
himself; (see note)
how; fared; (see note)
how wise she was; (see note)
rightful heir
kingdom
sigh
Whether; (see note)
Queen; lady
Whether
 
Curses to whomever; tolerates (permits); (see note)
 
I; fool; serving girl
rules
Curses on whomever
while
grown; proud
food; clothes
I; given; too often
I; guarded; (see note)
It shall not be
foolish; blind
 
 
 
use; pale neck; (see note)
When treason; expressed
 
 
straw
ordered her to be brought
Before; eat; (see note)
where
As
ordered her to be led
seashore
keep; (see note)
Poorly; wretched rags
guard
 
 
ever might avenge her wrong
 
leave off; (see note)
without ceasing moans
Where; lies
who
bonds of death
May He loose her
permit; him (Godrich) see; (see note)
gallows
 
Although; did no wrong
 
our story
 
 
strong
 
knights; attendants
bold
 
command an army
ride a horse
 
as much as
daughters
as it happened
(see note)
caesar; (see note)
when; (see note)
fulfilled (ended)
might not
gift
 
When; knew, quickly
far and near
Canons; (see note)
counsel; advice
confess; absolve
While; alive
 
When; given the sacrament
bequest (will)
 
through; know
Who; might look after
they knew how to
walk
attendants at their sides
 
moon; (see note)
thought
friend
 
 
might bear
Helmet; head; command an army
strong
 
believed what
laid hands
entrust to
 
property
be of age
Except that; want
altar; vestments
 
missal
protect; (see note)
their kin; approved; (see note)
 
then his rights
belongs to it
towns; fields
 
 
commanded; afterwards
 
very sorrowfully
died soon
moon
dark night
Protect; hell's pain
permit; live
heaven
 
 
boy
heir; (see note)
other
he had them placed
 
were kept
they wept; miserably
 
Before; three years old
wretched clothes
nut
 
regal bedding
surely
greatest traitor
created
Except for; wicked; (see note)
curses
 
patriarch
fastened cloak
 
beloved Holy Cross
bled upon
curse
Cursed be
can
(see note)
Nevertheless he (Godard)
subdued
 
dear; loathsome
carry out
not trouble
designed
 
Against
 
 
When; expressed; went
tower; they were kept
they wept
boy (Havelok); somewhat
Came towards him
greeted
What is the matter
Why weep; yowl
badly
(see note)
have nothing; eat
knight; servant
gives; food
Half the amount; could
Woe
Alas! is not there any grain
make bread from
nearly
their woe
gave; straw
together
As if; for fun
play
green; pale
cut; their throats
then; pieces
 
wall
 
stood by; (see note)
innocent
Much; might
 
rob
boy who; (see note)
 
Lord
Homage; I offer; (see note)
give
On the condition; you let me live
I will
 
Against; shield; (see note)
harm
 
 
 
 
fathered
[Godard] heard; (see note)
Somewhat; have pity
warm
innocent
good
killed
pity; withdrew; (see note)
Havelok; (see note)
thought he [Godard] wished; were dead
would not with his [own] hand
kill; evil demon
stood by
Staring; crazy
alive
cause
Peace
kill; (see note)
killed
 
Lords
they
 
advice
order; sea
drowned; (see note)
neck; anchor
That; float
at once
fisherman; thought
 
 
know; servant
Will you
 
[I] make you
property
Provided that
you tonight
When; moonlight; (see note)
throw
(see note)
 
While
 
pain
Knew he never before
 
lame; dumb
take revenge
When; tightly bound
then; wound; (see note)
thrust
gag; rags; filthy
breathe
Wherever
When
What; villain told him he heeded; (see note)
(see note)
drown
agreement; they
bag; big; pale
 
And; hut; (see note)
entrusted him to
Guard
(see note)
drown
 
enough; possessions; (see note)
lord; promised
 
When; (see note)
jumped; did not sit
down
 
 
Alas
son
vulture; eagle
Lion; wolf; she-wolf; bear
beast; harm
until midnight
When; light
put on
Are not you thinking
sworn to my lord
disgraced
 
know; behooves; (see note)
 
at once; inside
stoke; fire; light
 
 
bright
as if
Surrounding
a ray emerged
sunbeam
Just as light; (see note)
As if; burned candles
exclaimed
our hut
 
think
jumped
(see note)
Ungagged; quickly
very quickly
pulled off; shirt
king's birthmark; (see note)
bright
God knows; said; heir
[be] lord
mighty
 
(see note)
 
flay alive
bury alive
 
greatly wept
[Havelok's] feet
 
next to me
 
rustics; servants; (see note)
keep
Until; know how to
 
head
know, surely
foul traitor
Through
 
 
protect and watch over you
 
happy boy
asked for bread
nearly
What; ropes
 
[the] gag
firmly thrust
tied up
nearly
eat
God knows; fetch
 
such things; (see note)
 
 
True
Where; nothing works injury
 
 
 
Heartily
Could; hide
ate; believe
 
before that time; believe
 
When
 
put
great joy
fear not
 
As soon as; light
 
wicked
overseer; (see note)
 
 
 
neck
surely
He will never eat
lies
Give; possessions; (see note)
 
(see note)
promised
When
 
Thoroughly; eyes
Do you want to
base slave
hence
before
You shall have; reward; (see note)
slight provocation
so help me God
 
too
quickly go hence; (see note)
 
too
(see note)
How shall I be advised; (see note)
[If] he knows [Havelok is] alive; both
 
for us out of
save; our
my wife's [life]
grain
wool, cattle
goats; beard; (see note)
hens
was worth anything
might
converted to cash
supplied; enough
tar; pitch
uncertain sound; creak; (see note)
installed
 
Oars
was needed
put
had it prepared
put
three
daughters; were
began to steer
headed for
best of all
they were
a short while; (see note)
 
(see note)
them
later; his [Havelok's]
 
But first; much
grief
completely
forthwith learn; (see note)
 
 
land; (see note)
Lincolnshire
i.e., fishing boat
 
cottage
For; company
live
 
there
shelter; sheltered
owned
place; took its name; (see note)
 
 
always
now; Judgment Day
 
fisherman
 
 
nets
sturgeon; whale; (see note)
turbot; salmon
seal; eel
succeeded; very
Cod; porpoise
mackerel
flounder; plaice; skate
baskets
One for; three
 
On land; collect money
Neglected; neither town nor farm; (see note)
went
empty-handed
sauce
hood
bag; grain
work; lost
(see note)
knew; (see note)
town
traversed; through
wool; (see note)
counted
from there; happy
many times
Cakes; horn-shaped bread
bags; flour; grain
Oxens'
lines [for fishing]
for his nets
(see note)
 
bore himself well
household
or
aware; worked hard
stayed
boy; (see note)
grown
 
 
 
for long
God knows; go
useful thing
Work
 
 
 
stay; wrong
reward; since
 
baskets
know; harm; (see note)
burden
as an ox
stay here
hurry forth
 
 
started early
basket
heaped like
 
As four men, on my word
 
every bit; (see note)
for it
trimming of a farthing; (see note)
went; each
 
trade learn
It happened; famine
grain
plan
household
doubt
must
gotten
might; sea
ling; skate
availed
family; might
worried
In what way
he did not think
thought
 
think; must die
famine
our; long gone
from here; go
 
Hence [from here]; must go
know; right way
town
 
sloeberry (i.e., I am powerless); (see note)
 
 
earn
poorly clothed
sail
Some clothing
Son; endure
 
shears off; (see note)
garment
put
socks; shoes; (see note)
Nor any kind of other clothes; (see note)
barefoot; went
perplexed; (see note)
to go to
fasting
 
third
Porters; here
Poor who; went; (see note)
Sprang; as spark from burning coal
shoved down
amidst; mud
toward the cook
(see note)
bridge
porters; stay
 
farthing cake
also
 
saw; (see note)
lie
earl's
 
quickly
glad
 
 
way; walked
 
 
down a hill
Hurried; basket
take
 
squid, salmon; plaice; (see note)
lampreys; eels
toes nor heels (i.e., he ran)
 
Where; burden took
 
off; head; (see note)
smiled
strong; enough
Will you stay with
 
invested; (see note)
wages
 
said; dear
Ask; [for] wages; (see note)
give
Firewood; fetch
 
 
kindle
brightly
split sticks
Eels; skin; their
wash
 
Said; I desire
there
 
broth; kettle
eagerly
Curse whoever denies you food
 
at once
As still as
 
Then; well made out
 
drew up
large tub; (see note)
 
 
All by himself; (see note)
 
(see note)
peat; star grass; (see note)
 
use
hauled; cut
Wanted; to have
Any more than if; beast
most meek
Laughing; glad
 
hide
child
sport; play
(see note)
went
their
 
shy
old
saw
 
far and wide
great; (see note)
 
Except
nothing; wear
wretched cloak; cumbersome; (see note)
foul; very wretched; (see note)
stick of firewood
take pity
brand new
socks; shoes
made him put them on; (see note)
hosed
 
 
 
There; governed
kingdom
 
clad
when; together
games
there
i.e., taller by a head; (see note)
greatest
no one took
 
like
As; tall; (see note)
 
peer
 
As; gentle
Although; mistreated
Never; insulted
evil intent
pure
sport; sexual desire
her (an attractive woman); sport; (see note)
witch
England
power
made to; town
 
alive
then
 
assembly
champion
with servants; (see note)
 
 
there; sport
To that place; weak
 
then
stalwart youth
Peasants; cattle prods
As they
enough assembled
there; stable boy
be on duty
sport; see
feet; tree [as a foul line]
heaved; mighty; (see note)
very large number
also
just as; an ox
Very strong
Who might
nor
 
With it
 
Whosoever
 
Were; old
outstanding performer counted; (see note)
As they
also; lads
great dispute
greatest effort
at that
ignorant
before
before that time
 
 
 
himself; doubtful
 
picked
 
putted [it]; time
Farther
somewhat
shotput saw
They shoved each other; laughed
go
here too long
wonder; hidden
made known
threw
each of them
tall
manly (wight)
went the rumor
also
 
 
 
They; everywhere
tall
skillful
Through
 
 
desire
made me swear
mass implements
(see note)
greatest (highest)
strongest also
made
Where; tall
skillful
searched from here to India
 
that very boy
 
[he] thought
with
surmised
ordinary person (peasant)
 
A single furrow; possession; (see note)
[rightful] heir
very
serf (slave)
For this reason; expected
 
Satan
buried; (see note)
Let him be hanged; oak
 
For; soon; sent
courteous
had her brought
 
 
nonetheless; treacherous
wed (give)
 
 
Saint John
 
 
Unless; heir
 
 
so angry
such
(see note)
 
rogue
 
marry; cook's
 
 
 
 
in spite of you
wept
 
 
church
i.e., Godrich
 
do you want
said
 
shoe
Where
 
house; cottage
twig [for fuel]
sauce
clothing except; white cloak
have on
cook's
struck
blows; (see note)
Unless
as a mate
high
thrust out your eye
alone; afraid
ordered
 
quickly
moon
treacherous; (see note)
slave; traitor
Unless; accept
banish you from
gallows run
burn
threatened
dared not; espousal obstruct
even though; very
 
 
woman
 
espouse
cling
(see note)
A very great amount
gave her [his]; she took them; (see note)
They; married
every bit
dealt with; good clerk
from York
assembly
As; to that place
 
 
 
knew not; might [do]
would avail them
Where; go from there
 
knew
seize (possess)
without security
treachery; worried about
beloved
 
rather
Therefore; counsel
 
to; sons
 
Themselves
 
solution
always; way; (see note)
 
(see note)
word
 
alive
 
When they knew
 
against; disloyal
they set themselves
 
dear lord
to your; companion
that very time
 
Well is [it for] us; alive
may
 
If
good things
oxen; sea
great possessions
our; bequeathed
property
Told; to entrust you
swine
Remain; yours
 
her
our
she commands
They shall
bring water to her
They; put to bed
 
made
Afterwards
stoked
goose; hen
duck
 
 
 
 
i.e., They drank to their health often; (see note)
During; night; as
continually
thought; deceived
given [in marriage] out of her rank; (see note)
One; light
so bright
bright; shining
blaze of fire
north
 
 
wonder that; afraid
mean
nobleman; believe
 
shoulders
cross
voice
 
set aside
married
 
betokens
means
 
 
 
eyes
lady
 
When; voice
 
so many times over glad
might not; hide
 
knew
 
out of; started
Beloved
wondrous dream; just now
 
Listen; dreamed
 
one of the tallest hills
to
high
world
As; hill
to possess
towns
 
embraced; once
i.e., my long body
 
Towards
Everyone who
clung
 
 
 
I dreamed also
fled; (see note)
 
alive
Except serfs; their
 
Enclosed
[England]
God; my dear
She; quickly
moon
(see note)
throne
caesar
for; wear
crown
 
 
 
saw
 
live
Uncle
vassal; thane
citizens; attendants
made; solemnly
every part
nothing to fear
value; nut
 
doubt
advise
quickly; (see note)
not postpone; journey
 
 
eyes
know
(see note)
Ask
they; go
refuse
go; eagerly
they; heartily
may; ready; (see note)
Wherever in the world they are
make them quickly prepare
delay not
harm
 
what; advised
dressed
church went
Before
in front of; Cross
Cross; began to call upon
who governs
 
mercy
 
avenge; enemy
eyes kill
 
 
deprived
Commanded
great injustice; (see note)
harm
mistreated; in any way
[he] has
driven; beg
pain lie
 
(see note)
I
 
drowned
lost
 
holds
right
know
 
prayer
offering; altar
took his leave
i.e., the Virgin Mary
Cross
weeping
 
they were ready
to go
 
 
something else
called; eldest; (see note)
 
(see note)
 
said; Listen
Gentlemen
 
Danish
 
alive
advice
 
entrusted to a servant
limb (i.e., a villain); entrusted us; (see note)
possessions
foul fiend
 
cut in two their
then [chopped] them into small pieces
[he] ordered
 
Solemnly
 
in [it]
 
skillful
harm
Preferable; falsely sworn
drown; lost
 
protect
if; found
tightly bound; (see note)
 
 
Therefore
 
 
brought up
age
wield weapons
blows give
 
 
beseech; go
 
Each
belongs to it
Boroughs, fields; village; (see note)
 
 
 
such as; buy
permission
magistrate
judge
 
 
town
drew; (see note)
 
in hope of success
shrewd who; gave reward; (see note)
 
at a high price
 
merchants
later; hear
If
 
 
given it up
(see note)
beheld
 
Broad
 
 
God; said; Why; knight
know; very powerful
 
Helmet; head
buy; goods (i.e., be a merchant)
get along
If he takes my advice
Trading; leave off
Nonetheless
request
(see note)
 
 
as much as your life
fear
offer
faith
myself; pledge
 
what he offered
afraid
because of
 
 
experienced any
assented
horse; sat on
 
[went] forth away
went
so that
both; (see note)
I; want; advise
 
though he were frightened
oppose what; bade
 
court; went; (see note)
who; (see note)
would have suffered death
 
laid an evil hand on her
 
 
brave
i.e., has good retainers
 
 
went towards them
 
inspect; (see note)
Then; hill
those; were
head
 
 
courteous
turn
 
just as much as
 
might [have]
only
on my word
 
many [a]
 
 
fetch inside
to her; in jest
together
 
Who; as a flower
no woman
as she
table; (see note)
blessing
 
emperor; caesar
Cranes, swans, venison; (see note)
Salmon; good sturgeon
claret; (see note)
Wine white
There was; little
request; (see note)
 
 
prolong
annoy; company
each; tippling shared; (see note)
toasted
 
 
Each; (see note)
let; go
four alone
use; toe
woman; there will be much; (see note)
their lords
 
 
spears
(see note)
 
 
as
protect; (see note)
keep watch
next; when; light
powerfully strong
 
 
 
 
(see note)
prepare a sumptuous supper
not a bit stingy
taste
eat
 
 
loose jacket
strong men
 
Each one; sword
night watchman
 
Saint Augustine; (see note)
who
coat of mail; back
grabbed
as if he were crazy
out there
make a ruckus
Go hence
believes
Should I
kill
others; cast
bind up; (see note)
 
Do you think; afraid
door go
Despite all of you, churl, before long
boulder
fly with great force
broke apart
ran
quickly pulled out; (see note)
huge; quite big
 
Here
quickly; (see note)
Cursed be any who flee
one; you will pay
run
pulled out
 
(see note)
robbed him of life
door-bar
with one stroke he killed all three of them
brains
Did not lie open to the stars
fourth
greeted
Upon; head that
eye socket; fly
hit; head
stone dead; there down
fifth
Gave; hard
 
shed
turned
 
 
in two
felled
whipped out
wanted [to hit]
(see note)
 
absolution; (see note)
in less time
might run
very tough
decision; among themselves
They; surround
batter [him]
heal; doctor
quite a number
as do; bear
tear apart
bear bait; (see note)
active; eager
surrounded him altogether
 
thrust with sword
 
places
head to toe
crazy
amazing that
off
As
mow
show them
 
 
 
caused
in a little while
felled
 
Then; a great noise
in every way
Assailed him
very far
swords rushed; from far away
kill; gladly
They dared get near
Than if; boar; lion
 
Hugh; din
acted wrongly
Against; lord
grabbed; oar
as a hart (stag)
came there in a little while
angry
[they] surrounded
as
anvil
said Hugh
ate; grain
 
Where
Grab both of you two; cudgel
allow; not
Until; avenged; (see note)
 
 
Cursed be [the one] who
my good boy
good light; moon
grabbed; (see note)
bear an ox
 
Much thicker; thigh
 
 
rushed; as; frenzied
 
 
knaves
 
avenged
 
legs; thighs
caused; run down
feet; crown
not one head
quite a number
crowns
dark; white (OE bl~ c); (see note)
be beaten soft
As; stomachs; roar; (see note)
babies
loses its mother
 
ruckus; they deserved it
they; mauled
thrust; hit
fists; brains
sixty-one
No one
 
 
mangled
wretches
ditches; slung
trenches; hair
left
Quickly; news to
 
 
Men-at-arms; might have been
 
go
what this disturbance means
 
 
 
 
 
I would prefer
 
 
Roughly; (see note)
lept; horse nimbly
 
town
 
 
called
cut up; torn to pieces
as
bruised; thigh
what is wrong with you
Who; treated
torn to pieces
 
as the moon rose
 
fastened cloaks
torment
kill
quickly
 
people
wall
right away
grabbed
out; though they were fierce
As; mill
 
with one stroke
in time of need
 
in my opinion
alone
If it were not for him
my own soul's counsel
harm
such; therein
very least
horse; brought down
 
sword; very huge
has one through; arm
harm
one; thigh
most enormous
other
severe
since; felt; pain
boar
fought
brain-pan (skull)
utterly crush
shiver; smash
as a hound does
A curse
every
Lie; as
he is not to be blamed
either
killed
 
 
I have; harm
troubled
robbed
they have certainly paid for it
 
know; will be soon dead
 
truth
lie through my teeth; (see note)
[should] tell a lie
hang
citizens; stood by
Hearty; solemn
old
 
 
carry off
coffer; chest
might in sacks thrust
 
possessions; torn apart
himself preserved
lost no possessions
Who; stand up against
nighttime
tally
Strong
one
Who was named; (see note)
(see note)
far away
killed; beam
 
possessions to control
town; country
spent; food; (see note)
Fetch him quickly; (see note)
 
might be made whole
recover
go
 
Because
those
Cain's
They
their death cursed
Since; went; at night
citzens
outlaws; more
sloeberry (i.e., I do not care)
 
brought
concern
 
were so severe; (see note)
 
examined
doctor; determined
he (the doctor)
walk; talk
sit on a palfrey; (see note)
charger
Then Ubbe put aside
pass over
 
 
men-at-arms
guarantee
their friends
 
wait [in ambush]; (see note)
go
loan; room; (see note)
high tower
may; get around
healed
 
 
firwood wall
 
 
whenever you want
cover; at night
 
offer; cause
counsel
 
 
rejoicing
men-at-arms
 
 
three
 
Woke
room where
As bright
 
 
 
is partying
foolishness; take part in
time of night
it behooves; pools
ditch; mud
 
robbers
believe in
 
peered in
spoke a single
 
 
light
 
 
aware of
 
called; shy; bold
cunning
More; lie
 
marvel
When
out
issued from; gleam
Just like
(see note)
As if seven candles burned
also
they dared
soundly
As if; dead
left
 
Down to the breast
 
together
sport
observe
Just as
turned
cross
so bright; (see note)
 
knew
mark of exalted birth; (see note)
sparkled
As; (see note)
 
penny to pick out (choose)
 
 
 
Who; their; [to] them wont
govern; protect
foreign army
there was
like
As
As; his heir
 
They fell
greeted
glad
As if; risen from the grave
times
tips
 
go blank (become pale)
they
 
 
 
 
 
 
Homage; offer
 
 
 
 
 
 
strong [as you]
swear fealty
dark; light
town (fortified place)
 
retainer; vassal
 
knight
strong
 
very glad
many times
 
darkness; night
 
 
vassals, thanes
citizens; (see note)
 
everyone
their
 
 
command; refuse
went; know
wanted
 
Listen to me
together, slave; noble
 
 
 
 
 
advice
Entrusted
protect; property
 
possessions
 
vestments
protect
Without fault; deceit (reproach)
 
oath he disregarded
become him evil
 
 
 
 
 
pity; boy
hands
killed; sorry fiend (villain); (see note)
forced; fisherman
 
drown
wild
 
knew; rightful heir
 
 
 
brought up
Look
world; peer
tall
great
earth
 
Be
 
Homage to
(see note)
ceremonial honor; (see note)
together
 
On; very
Might; from that prevent
became his; there
were
 
 
 
each
 
servants
 
before; done
not one
 
Oaths of loyalty; they taken
 
 
Fealty
Solemnly
faith
Towards
against that never a one would oppose
 
 
(see note)
writs far and near
governed
siblings and kinsmen
immediately
To; good news
 
delay
hurrying
Whoever had no horse; walking
fortnight (two weeks)
 
sheriff
(see note)
 
They feared; as thief
they; greeted
seated
Look
Our
 
in control
 
formerly accustomed
govern; defend; (see note)
 
 
Surely; heir
 
quickly
 
 
 
On; gravely
remain loyal
timid
harm; (see note)
(see note)
 
 
dear ones; hostile ones
 
 
 
Entrusted them
kingdom
solemnly
 
 
Thrusting
Fencing; swords
shot-putting
a great amount
Game of backgammon; dice also
(see note)
tales
minstrels; drum beat
bulls baited
dogs lively; (see note)
every type of sport
excitement
 
world; then
much giving away; (see note)
 
believed
 
 
wine; bring from far away
much; abundant
 
feast; days lasted
 
 
 
also
 
 
property
each one; (see note)
Had in his company
 
 
equipped
 
that each one had
coat of mail
were appropriate
good
eager
company
lengthen
 
 
castle wardens; placed
stop
avenged
 
(see note)
 
 
altar also
stop
 
 
bound
 
When they; sworn
 
went very quickly
 
 
strong retainers; very proud
army
 
 
would gallop powerfully
 
Halt, villain; (see note)
 
soon
orders
 
deprived
their lives
ordered
 
angry
 
kingdom
traitor
reward
Cross
 
(see note)
fist; struck
teeth; blow
whipped out
arm
harm
 
 
their lord fared
They [would] have; murdered
If it were not for
 
very best
others; they
shouted
 
in this way
 
difficulty
allow; destroy
 
yourselves
dishonor
they; returned
knight
own
 
 
Struck them everywhere
everyone; (see note)
alone whom he flayed
Like
hound; ditch sling
 
 
roared; bull
confined
bait
not hard to find
They; very sorely
plead for; grace
cut off
stop
 
Cursed be the one who hinders any of it
 
threw; mangy mare
nose; arse; (see note)
they led; traitor
 
(see note)
 
Before; twelve
much; labor
 
bad; (see note)
 
pays for; guilt
 
 
When
foul traitor
 
Vassal; thane
judge
they; treacherous fellow
In every way; [with] him angry
They set themselves; wall; (see note)
 
old; young
judgment
 
 
flayed alive
then
mare's; (see note)
(see note)
chains
 
thought
robbed of; every part; (see note)
 
 
 
judgment; decided
 
absolved
otherwise
 
lose; (see note)
Quickly
toe
cut; flay
cry out (roar)
Because; gory
from there
Hear; foul wretch
stopped no wit
Although
flayed him every bit; (see note)
 
had prepared to bring the mare
infirm
 
sail
dragged
Not; roadway; fields
neck
Cursed be any who cares
 
 
Quickly; seized
every bit; (see note)
Land; estates; property; (see note)
gave
i.e., into Ubbe's hands
invest; (see note)
property; (see note)
 
black monks; (see note)
priory; forever
Judgment Day
 
infirm of body
promise
knows
buried
 
offer; to tell
when
 
filthy man
 
army
into England
 
[Goldeboru]
rightful heir
 
 
What is advisable for me to do
have them both slain
 
enjoy
Unless; out of
Do they want to disinherit
army called out
might on horse
helmet on head
Coat of mail on back
 
Battle axe, scythe, halberd
dagger
limb
(see note)
weapons; borne; (see note)
 
March
could; well
headstrong
they
 
slave
forfeit
 
 
command resisted
they feared him
As the nag [fears] the spur
 
well-equipped
warhorses
weaponry; carries
eager; to hasten
Danish; go
Listen now
gathered; play
want to
 
foreigners
captured
 
burns churches
 
advise
rules
may; overcome
hang alive or kill
 
rob us of our
 
teach
Just as; faithful
set; indeed
both
strike at; forcefully
(see note)
confessed; absolved
off
Get going; make them flee
follow
army
 
Cursed be any who do not
 
dear one
Chester
 
rushed; as if they; mad
Then
thrown; straightened
 
hurried
time
Equipped; count out a pound; (see note)
 
forcefully
went quietly by the road
near to
 
learned
journey
army; against them
Spared
 
thus
head struck off
delay
skillful
from there; go; (see note)
 
 
 
third
 
left
 
 
 
raised
spurring [his horse]
 
gallop
 
split in two
shoulder
pass
 
hurt
 
as dead as
hesitate
 
 
 
(see note)
Bitterly
they
headfirst
they
Violently
 
 
sweat
(see note)
two knights
 
smallest
Would all be smashed to pieces
 
 
ceased
 
 
ugly
very
[He] would have
cut off
were not [there]
pulled
saved; very
before
 
sides; plenty more
armies; clashed
such killing
pool
 
into the hollow (i.e., downhill)
Then first of all
 
as a lion goes
no kind [of] beast
[the lion] is gone; made
 
 
 
survive
 
felled them as; grass
 
broken
very much reduced
charging
exhort
how is it with you
do
 
Certainly; do wrong
understand
set
missal
chalice; paten also; (see note)
[to] his; yield
When; age
every part
 
 
 
your hatred
dead [companions]; anger
strong
 
 
 
hang high
thrust out
 
Unless; quickly from here
 
forcefully
broke; in two
 
army
 
 
 
quickly
 
 
 
 
count up
 
soft
toe
distressed
[Godrich] should have from
wounded
Vehemently to
foully injured
raised
fly off
 
 
 
When
cut off; wickedly
 
As
 
 
 
bride ought; angry
have him guarded
beat
 
judged; appropriately
saw that
knew; high and low
 
rightful heir
 
 
They
in one voice
offered; homage
love; hate
 
for weal nor for woe
 
neglect
take from them
Homage; they offered; also
Loyalty oaths
commanded
them
observe
recognize
understand
ought
 
eager
go
set out immediately
 
peer
courtesy, far or near
 
 
on
mercy; (see note)
done much wrong
against you have been disloyal
ought to be
 
 
Who does not know
kingdom
traitor
held
grant; hang
 
Since; understand
 
according as; done
 
Make sure; judge
judgment
 
 
Homage; loyalty oaths
counsel
 
no one; dared prevent
judged
filthy
Endwise; across
turned; tail
 
Shamefully in wretched clothes
 
 
south of
still; think
 
 
ashes; burned
 
traitors
should lose
heritage
crime (outrage)
 
judgment
 
to; very; (see note)
ashes; right away
then
many times
burned
intended; shamed
 
brown
Whom; walk
avenged upon
 
 
 
 
 
 
women
 
surety
from high and low (socially)
 
Chester
Who
 
If; trust
deal
 
alive
 
Grim's daughter; (see note)
brought up
 
rescue; from; death
advice
 
Blessed be; always
command
espouse
noble
as gracious as
Moreover
 
promise
 
Because of; you shall
 
 
 
marriage
same
(see note)
 
land united
 
their lives
They produced
 
 
 
 
earl's cook
also
 
reward
guidance
 
cloak
sauce; (see note)
 
clothes
for that reason
(see note)
 
 
marry
happily; to
gracious
go
 
 
hue; face
As; rose bush
blossomed
fresh
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
were married
linger
went to
received
 
(see note)
produced
forever; happiness
 
 
endow
property
 
generous; stingy
 
army
traveled; wear
Crown
and
How
baronry; prolific
 
at his coronation
 
 
Then; Danes
permission to leave
 
were eager
travel
 
entrusted
magistrate
in every way
rule; good
complaint
 
they set out
stayed behind with
 
joy
 
 
world
 
anywhere
away from
Unless; they
angry at each other
their; always
anger
hostile
arise
 
 
precisely fifteen
Of whom
 
 
begets; (see note)
story; completely
 
How they
wrongly
 
evil
traitors; intended
To rob them
 
(see note)
Therefore; beseech
rhyme now
 
quietly; (see note)
rhyme
kept awake
So that
Before; father
 
 


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