Appendix 1: Other Accounts of the 1392 Royal Entry

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Appendix 1: Other Accounts of the 1392 Royal Entry

1.1 French epistolary report of 1392 (excerpt), ed. Helen Suggett, "A Letter Describing Richard II's Reconciliation with the City of London, 1392," English Historical Review 62 (1947), 212-13. The punctuation here below is editorial.

   Et tantost come le Roy feust un poy passez Wandesworthe, le gardeyn de la ville ové lez aldermen encountrerent ovesque le Roy au pee. Le gardeyn porta en sa mayn un espé, et le pomel en haut et la point en sa mayn, et lez clyeffs de la ville, et qant ills furent devant le Roy, le gardeyn disoyt, genulant luy et sez compaignons, "Mon seignur liege, si sont voz lieges, qe se mettent en vostre grace et mercy lour vies et corps et toutz lour bienz, en requirant vostre grace et mercy." Et lour fuist dit depar le Roy q'ills dussent venir au paloys de Westmoster et la averoient lour response. Et le Roy fist Percy prendre l'espé et lez clyeffs et porter ovesqe luy, et puys le Roy chivacha avant. Et bien la, tret d'un arc, le Roy trova lez mesters de la ville, vestutz d'une suyte, chescun pur luy mesmes, et feuront arayés au chival de chescun part de chemyn, demorantz trestoutz en lour placez tanqe le Roy fuist passez toutz, et duré le montaigne par deshors Wandesworthe entour une lewe. Et qant le Roy fuist passé toutz, il chivacha au part de chimyn et lessa toutz les gentz de la ville passez avant, et puys chivacha luy mesmes avant apres eux en mesme la compaignye. Et qant il fuist pluis pres de la ville, il fuist encontré ové toutz lez religiouses, freres, moygnez, prestrez, clercz, et enfantz, chantantz auscuns "Te Deum laudamus" et auscuns "Summe Trinitati." Et a sa entré a la pont, le gardeyn et lez aldermen luy presenteront de deux grandez coursers, trappés de drap d'or, partiz blanc et rouge, et une grande paleffray a la Roigne, trappéz de mesme la suyte. Et a sa venue en Chepe, parentre lez deux croys, vendront deux angeles, hors d'une nuwe, l'une apportant une corone pur le Roy, et le gardeyn le prist et le presenta au Roy, et un altre corone et a la Roigne. Et a Poules, la procession de l'esglise luy encontra, et le Roy descendy et ala en l'esglise et offrist. Et puis chivacha avant, et a Ludgate le gardeyn et lez aldermen presenteront le Roy d'une beale table d'or pur alter, et la Roigne d'une altre. Et bien entour Savoye, lez gentz de ville demoroient et lessent le Roy passer, et a Westmoster la procession luy encontra, et il s'en ala en le paloys et se vesti en une longe gowne, qar il avoit chivachez tout jour court. Et puis s'en ala en la sale et s'asist en une see en haut, qe fuist fait devant le grant see, arrayez dez draps d'or, et tretoutz le sale penduz de aras, et tretoutz lez comunes feurent devant luy. Et adonqe vient la Roigne et l'erchevesqe d'une part, et l'evesqe de Londrez d'altre part et eux mistrent as genoiles devant le Roy, luy priantz de prendre sez lieges en sa grace et mercy. Et puis fuist dit depar le Roy, par la bouche de seneschal, qe le Roy avoit esté poisant qe sicome Londres estoit sa chambre q'il avoit esté si malement gardés, et plusours altrez paroles queux je ne say escrire. Mays l'effect fuist qe le Roy lez prist en sa grace et lez granta toutz lour franchisez, si franchement come ills unqes avoient, forspris deux ou troys, qe lour dussent estre mostrez et moderez par son grant conseil. Et puis mangea les espyces et le vyn be[v]oit, et chescun s'en ala, et le Roy s'en ala a Kenyngton' a souper. Et lendemayn mangea en la ville ovesqe le gardeyn et le Roynge auxi, et la feust presentez au Roy une grande table d'argent et enamailez, et feust assez grant pur le reredors d'un alter, et a ma dame la Roigne une hanap de beryle et une ewer herneisez d'or. Et apres lour departir vers Westmostier, certeynz mesters de la ville feuront arrayés dez grandez vessellz, de shoutez et barges bien apparailez, et entre eux lez gentz de mester daunsantz et fesantz grant menstracye, et aleront ovesqe le Roy jesqe Westmostier. Et en alant par le chymyn, ills fesoyent le Roy et la Roigne boire ovesqe eux. Et apres ceo, le Roy fist toutz lez gentz de mester de venir ovesqe luy en son paloys, et illeoqes f[i]st tretoutz boire, et puys departiront ovesqe tresgrand joye et solas. Et, qant a plusours altrez affaires qe feuront ordeignés en la Citee, ne vous say certefyer, come dez conduitz de la ville, qe feurent diversement apparailez, currantz vyn et appareylez ovesqe diversez peynturez et ymageryes, et angels fesantz grant melodie et menstralcie, et ensi en plusours partyes de la ville, et lez rues apparaylez dez drapz, en auscun lieu, d'or et de soy. Et le offre fuist de cent mille liverez. Et le Roy lez ad pardoné, forsqe ditz mille liveres queux il avera en mayn et sez diz anz apres chescun an deux mille marcz.

[As soon as the king was a little past Wandsworth, the warden of the city and the aldermen met him, on foot. The warden carried a sword in his hand, the pommel up and the point in his hand, and the keys to the city; and when they were before the king, the warden spoke, him and his companions on their knees: "My liege lord, those of us here, who submit themselves -- their beings and bodies, and all their belongings -- to your grace and mercy, we are your lieges, beseeching your grace and mercy." And it was announced to them on the king's behalf that they should come to Westminster Palace and there they should have their answer. The king caused Percy to receive the sword and the keys and to carry them with him, and then the king rode on. Near by, the length of a bow-shot, the king came upon the guilds of the city, each by itself, dressed in distinctive livery; they were drawn up on horseback all along the road, remaining each in their places until the king had passed them all in review, the demonstration lasting from beyond Wandsworth for a considerable space. When the king had passed all in review, he rode to the side on the road and let all the people of the city pass before him, and then he himself rode on after them, keeping to their companies. And when he came nearer the city, he was met by all the religious of the city -- friars, monks, priests, clerks, and boys, some singing the Te Deum and some the Summe Trinitati. Upon his entry onto the bridge, the warden and aldermen presented him with two great coursers, trapped with cloth of gold, parti-colored white and red, and a great palfrey for the queen, trapped in the same manner. At his entry into Cheapside, between the two crosses, came two angels down from a cloud, the one bearing a crown for the king, which the warden took and presented to the king, and the other another crown, which was presented to the queen. Then, at Paul's, a procession from the church came out to meet him, and the king dismounted, went into the church, and made offering. Then he rode on, and at Ludgate the warden and aldermen presented the king with a beautiful altarpiece of pure gold, and the queen with another. Near the Savoy, the people of the city waited, to let the king process past them, and from Westminster a procession came out to meet him, and he went into the palace and dressed himself in a long gown, for he had been riding the whole day long. Then he entered his hall and seated himself on a high throne, set up in front of the great throne and decorated with cloth of gold; throughout the hall hung arras, and throughout it the commons stood before him. Then came the queen and the archbishop from one side, and the bishop of London from the other. They betook themselves before the king on bended knee, beseeching him to receive his lieges into his grace and mercy. Then it was pronounced on behalf of the king, by the voice of his chamberlain, that the king was mindful that it had been his own dwelling place, London itself, that had so mistreated him -- with numerous other remarks that I do not know how to record; but the import was that the king was taking them into his grace and granted them all their liberties, as liberally as they had ever been, excepting two or three, which required to be scrutinized and amended for them by his great council. Then he took spices and drank wine, and all departed, and the king betook himself to Kennington for supper. The next day he dined in the city with the warden, as did also the queen; and there was presented to the king a great table of silver gilt and enameling -- it was great enough for the reredos of an altar -- and to my lady the queen a beryl hanaper and a ewer encased in gold. After their leaving for Westminster, certain city guilds were arrayed thereabouts, with great vessels and decorated barges cabled together; on them the guildsmen danced and made merry, and went with the king all the way to Westminster. As they went along the way, they caused the king and queen to drink with them. Afterwards, the king caused all the guildsmen to come with him into the palace, where he caused all to drink, whence they departed in great comfort and joy. As for the many other matters that were arranged in the city, I cannot know how to explain: the conduits of the city, which were variously decorated, ran with wine and were decorated with diverse paintings and imageries, and angels made great melody and minstrelsy; in several parts of the city, the streets were hung with draperies, in each quarter, of cloth of gold and of silk. A hundred thousand pounds was offered him. But the king forgave them it, excepting ten thousand pounds, which he took in hand immediately, and two thousand marks to be given him annually in each of the subsequent ten years.]


1.2 The Westminster Chronicle 1381-1394, ed. and trans. L. C. Hector and Barbara F. Harvey (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982), pp. 502-07.

   Demum mediantibus amicis pro eis et precipue domina regina Anglie, que iteratis vicibus, immo multociens, prostravit se ad pedes domini regis tam ibi quam aput Notyngham, obnixe et sedule deprecando pro dicta civitate London' et pro statu civium ejusdem quatinus ut ipse suam indignacionem ab eis averteret ne tam celebris civitas cum tam numerosa plebe in ea degente pereat inconsulte, scilicet calore iracundie emulorum suorum, ad hec clemens et benignus rex pietate motus ad instanciam domine regine aliorumque suorum procerum et magnatum remisit eis omnia que in eum deliquerunt sub ista condicione, quod infra decem annos proximo sequentes solvant ei aut ejus certis attornatis quadraginta milia librarum, et hoc ad verum valorem, videlicet in jocalibus aut in pecunia numerata, et quod venirent erga eum et exciperent eum aput Wandlesworthe decenti apparatu, unaquaque ars dicte civitatis in secta sua et in equis, et per medium dicte civitatis honorifice perducerent eum usque Westmon' die ad hoc prefixo, qui fuit xxj. mensis Augusti. Londonienses vero consenserunt ista premissa pro eorum modulo percomplere ac in omnibus pro posse votis regiis obedire. Quid ultra? Venit dies prefixus; rex de manerio suo de Shene in regio apparatu iter suum sumpsit versus London'; erga quem exierunt Londonienses ex omnibus artibus civitatis ejusdem, equestres omnes, usque Wandleworth' et quelibet ars in propria sua secta; qui pre multitudine a ponte London' protendebantur ultra villam de Kenyngeton', et annumerantur ad xxij. milia equitum: erat quoque numerus peditum infinitus. In primo namque occursu aput Wandelesworth' optulerunt domini regi Londonienses gladium et claves civitatis predicte, deinde ad portam pontis London' presentarunt domino regi duos equos electos vocatos courceres: unus illorum erat albi coloris et alter rubei coloris, cum sellis argenteis ac splendide deauratis; ibi eciam dederunt domine regine unum pulchrum palefridum cum sella aurea adornatum. Erat autem pons London' et cetere strate eminenciores dicte civitatis diversorum pannorum aureorum, sericorum aliorumque bistinctorum lucide perornate. Procedebat ulterius, venit in Stratam Piscariam, ubi venerunt duo juvenes preclari forma decori specie cum duobus thuribulis aureis thurificantes eum honorifice, prout decebat. Et processit parumper, venit in vicum qui vocatur Chepe; ibi de quadam alta structura descenderunt quasi duo angeli in specie puerorum, ut erant, quendam cantum egregie et suaviter modulantes ac in eorum manibus duas aureas coronas habentes magni valoris: primus vero coronam quam in manu sua gestabat posuit super caput regis; alter quoque coronam quam ipse gerebat imposuit capiti regine. Sicque abhinc lento passu coronati venerunt ad Temple Barre, ubi presentarunt sibi unam tabulam auream valentem centum marcas. Abhinc recto tramite perrexerunt usque ad portam monasterii Westm', ubi occurrebat ei prior et conventus revestiti et albis capis induti cum crucibus, cereis, thuribulis, et textibus: quos videns rex et regina ilico descenderunt de equis et depositis coronis osculati sunt textus. Deinde in revertendo versus ecclesiam, conventus cantabat responsorium "Agnus in altari"; demum venientes ante magnum altare conventus cantebat antiphonum "Solve jubente". Dominus rex interim super gradus marmareos devote genuflexit et post ipsum venit regina et similes devociones peregit. Dicta collecta pro rege conventus intrabat ad feretrum Sancti Edwardi cum illa antiphona "Ave, Sancte rex Edwarde". Completa oracione ac factis suis oblacionibus rex in suum palacium est reversus.

   Mox Baldewynus de Radyngton' custos London' ex parte Londoniensium invitavit dominum regem ad prandium erga diem crastinum. Annuit rex: convivio celebrato Londonienses optulerunt domino regi unam tabulam mensalem argenteam ac deauratam longitudine novem pedum, valentem quingentas marcas. Istis sic decursis, quadam die non longe postea in magna aula Westmon' sedens rex in sua sede regia concessit prefatis Londoniensibus omnes libertates quas ab eis abstulerat exceptis tribus. . . .

[At length through the intercession, on behalf of the Londoners, of friends, conspicuous among them the queen (who more than once, indeed on many occasions, both at Windsor and at Nottingham, prostrated herself at the king's feet in earnest and tireless entreaty for the city and the welfare of its citizens that he would cease to direct his anger against them and would not let so famous a city and its teeming masses perish without due consideration simply because of the burning passion of its enemies), the king's mild and kindly nature was moved by pity, and persuaded by the queen and others among his nobles and prominent men he forgave the Londoners all their offences against him on condition that within the next ten years they paid him or his unquestionable attorneys £40,000 in real terms of jewels or specie, and that on the day appointed for his progress, which was 21 August, they should come out to meet him and receive him at Wandsworth with appropriate pomp, each city craft in its own livery and mounted on horseback, to escort him with all honor through the city to Westminster. The Londoners agreed to carry out these conditions to the letter, so far as they could, and to comply in all respects to the best of their ability with the king's wishes. What is there to add? The appointed day came; the king set out in royal splendour from his manor of Sheen on the road to London; to meet him representatives of every craft in the City, all mounted, came out as far as Wandsworth, each craft in its own livery; the throng was so great that it stretched from London Bridge beyond Kennington, mustering 22,000 horsemen and an uncountable number on foot. At the first encounter at Wandsworth the Londoners handed to the king a sword and the keys of the city; at the gate of London Bridge they presented him with two carefully chosen horses of the kind called "coursers," one white and the other a bay, with saddles of silver magnificently gilded: and here also they gave to the queen a beautiful palfrey adorned by a gold saddle. London Bridge itself and the chief city streets were gaily decorated with [banners of] assorted cloths of gold, silks, and other double-dyed fabrics. The king went on his way, and when he reached Fish Street there appeared two young men of fine figure and handsome appearance carrying two gold thuribles with which, as was fitting, they did him honour by censing him. A little further on he came to the street known as Eastcheap, and here there descended from a lofty structure two "angels" in the shape of boys (which is what they were) caroling a melody with singular art and sweetness and having in their hands two gold crowns of great costliness: the first boy placed on the king's head the crown he was carrying in his hand, and the crown borne by the other was set by him on the head of the queen. And so, wearing their crowns, they went from there at a stately pace to Temple Bar, where they were presented with a gold table worth 100 marks before proceeding by the direct route to the gate of the monastery at Westminster. Here the king was met by the prior and convent in new clothes and wearing white copes, with crosses, candles, censers, and Gospels: on seeing them the king and queen at once dismounted and, laying aside their crowns, kissed the Gospels. On the way back to the church the convent sang the responsory "Agnus in altari" and upon their eventual arrival before the high altar the antiphon "Solve jubente." Meanwhile the king knelt reverently on the marble steps and after him came the queen and performed similar devotions. When the collect for the king had been said, the convent went into St. Edward's shrine to the accompaniment of the antiphon "Ave, Sancte Rex Edwarde." When he had finished his prayers and made his offerings, the king returned to his palace.

   Soon afterwards Baldwin Raddington, the warden of London, invited the king on behalf of the Londoners to a banquet on the following day. The king accepted: and when the banquet was held the Londoners presented to the king a silver and gilt table nine feet long and worth 500 marks. One day, shortly after these events had run their course, the king took his seat on the royal throne in the great hall at Westminster and granted to the Londoners all the privileges he had withdrawn from them, with three exceptions.]


1.3. Knighton's Chronicle 1337-1396, ed. and trans. G. H. Martin (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), pp. 546-48.

   Interea, Dominica proxima post festum Assumpcionis Beate Marie, omnes poten-ciores ciuitatis uenerunt ad regem, et submiserunt se et omnia bona sua regi, et tunc primo recepit eos in suam graciam.
   Die uero Mercurii sequenti, rex disposuit se uenire Londonias. Et occurrerunt ei ciues equestres, multitudine quasi innumerabili, et qui non habebant equos dederunt ei obuiam pedestres. Mulieres quoque et infantes se ei monstrauerunt. Episcopus quoque Londoniensis, cum cetu cleri tocius ciuitatis, nullo ordine uel gradu, aut condicione uel sexu, ecclesiastice dignitatis excusato, cum ingenti honoris tripudio et regi et regine processit obuiam. Fertur in illa processione plusquam quingentos pueri in superpelliciis extitisse.

   Insuper et ciues ornauerunt facies domorum et camerarum suarum per omnes uicos, plateas, et stratas quo rex et regina transituri erant, a Sancto Georgio usque ad Westmonasterium. Saltem in dignioribus edificiis, uestibus cultioribus aureis et argenteis ueluetis syndonicis sicladibus, aliisque preciosis prout possibilitas cuiuscumque attingere poterat ut ubique, aqueductu in Chepa uinum rubeum et album affluenter emanante, puero quoque in uestibus albis in forma angeli cum cupa aurea desuper stante, et uinum regi et regine ad bibendum offerente.

   Interea offerunt regi unam coronam auream magni precii, et alteram coronam auream regine. Et post pusillum procedentes, conferunt regi unam tabulam auream de Trinitate, ad precium octingentarum librarum, similiter et regine aliam tabulam auream, de Sancta Anna, quam ipsa in speciali deuocione habebat, eo quod ipsamet Anna uocabatur. Et tantos ac tales honores et mirabiles regi impenderunt, quales nulli alii regi et huius regni retroactis temporibus meminimus impensos fuisse.

   Sicque progredientes, perduxerunt regem et reginam in aulam Westmonasteriensem. Rege uero sedente in sede regali, et omni populo coram eo stante, quidam ex ore regis regraciabatur populo de innumerositate magnifici honoris, et immense munificencie, ab eis regi impensa, et quo ad sua negocia incumbencia, in proximo parliamento se debere habere finale responsum.

[Meanwhile, on the Sunday after the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin (18 Aug. 1392) all the greater men of the city came before the king, and submitted their persons and all their possessions to the king, and he then for the first time took them back into his grace.    Then, upon the following Wednesday (21 Aug. 1392) the king arranged to go to London, and the citizens came to him in a company as it were beyond number, mounted, and those who had no horses came out to meet him on foot, and the women and children showed themselves to him. The bishop of London also, with all the clergy of the city, none of any order, grade, condition, or sex of the church's dignity being excused, came with the most auspicious honour, and processed before the king and the queen. It was reported that the procession included more than 500 children clad in surplices.

   And the citizens also decorated the fronts of their houses and chambers along all the roads, places, and streets by which the king and queen passed from St. George's to Westminster, at least on the more important buildings, with splendid hangings, of gold and silver, velvet, muslin cloth, and other costly things everywhere, all of the best that each of them could contrive, and there was white and red wine flowing from the conduit in Cheapside, and a boy dressed as an angel in white robes, with a golden cup, offering the king and queen wine to drink.

   And amongst other things they offered the king a golden crown of great price, and another golden crown to the queen, and a little further on they gave the king a golden tablet depicting the Trinity, which cost £800. And the queen had another tablet, with St. Anne, whom she held in special devotion, because she herself was called Anne. And so many and such honours and marvels were lavished upon the king that no other king of this realm in past times can be remembered to have enjoyed the like.

   And thus they went on their way, and led the king and queen into the Westminster Hall. And there with the king sitting upon the throne and all the people standing before him, they heard from the king's own mouth his thanks for the incalculably splendid honours and great munificence that they had shown him. And as for the matters perpending, they should have a final answer in the next parliament.]


1.4 1377-1419 Brut continuation (see above, p. 19n65), ed. Friedrich W. D. Brie, The Brut, or, The Chronicles of England, EETS o.s. 131 and 136 (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, and Co., Ltd., 1906-08), 2.347-48.

   And þan þe King with-ynne ij daye3 aftir, com to London; and þe Maire of London, schereue3, aldremen, and alle þe worthi cite aftirward, redyn ayens þe King yn gode araye vnto þe heth on þis syde þe maner of Schene, submittyng humyly hem self, and mekely, with almaner of obeysaunce3 vn-to hym, as þay owed to do. And þus þai brou3t þe King and þe Quene to London. And whanne þe King come to þe gate of þe Brygge of London, þere þay presentid hym with a mylke-white stede, sadelled and brydilled, & trapped with white cloth of golde and red parted togadir, and þe Quene a palfraye alle white, trappid yn þe same aray with white and rede, and þe condite3 of London [r]onnen white wyne and rede, for al maner pepill to drynke of. And betuene Seint Poule3 and the Cros yn Chepe, þere was made a stage, a ryalle, stondyng vpon hygh; a[n]d þerynne were mony angelis, with dyuers melodie3 and songe; and an aungell come doun fro þe stage on high, by a vice, and sette a croune of golde & precious stone3 & perles apon þe Kinge3 hed, and anoþer on the Quene3 hed; and so the citezenys brought þe King and þe Quene vnto Westmynstre, yn-to his palice at Westmynstre, & presentyd hym with ij basyns of syluyr, & ovirgilte, fulle of coyned golde, the summa of xx mk li, prayng hym, of his mercy and lordschip and specialle grace, þat þay my3t have his gode loue, and libertee3 and Fraunche3es like as þay hadde before tyme3, and by his lettre3 patente3 confermed. And þe Quene, and oþer worthi lorde3 & ladie3, ffillyn on hir kneys, and besou3t the King of grace to conferme þis. Thanne þe King toke vp þe Quene, and grauntyd hir alle hir askyng, and þanne þei þanked þe King and þe Quene and went home ayene.


1.5. Thomas Walsingham, Thomae Walsingham, quondam monachi S. Albani, historia anglicana, ed. Henry Thomas Riley, Rolls Series 28.1, 2 vols. (London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green, 1863-64), 2.210-11.

   Cumque et cives regressi fuissent, et proceres qui cum Rege fuerant, et reliquus populus, ad propria remeassent, Rex audiens Londonienses in tristitia constitutos et mente lapsos, ait suis; -- "Vadam," inquit, "Londonias, et consolabor cives; nec patiar eos ultra de mea gratia desperare." Quæ sententia, mox ut cognita fuit in civitate, incredibili jocunditate replevit omnes; unde omnes et singuli ei generaliter statuerunt occurrere, et non minores expensas facere in exenniis et donativis quam fecerant in ejus Coronatione. Rex igitur, ut venit Londonias, tanta gloria, tanta pompa, tanta varietate diversorum apparatuum, est susceptus, quanta suscipi decuisset aliquem regem triumphantem. Nam equos et phaleras, tabulas aureas et argenteas, pannos aureos et holosericos, pelves et lavatoria de fulvo metallo, aurum in pecunia, gemmas et monilia, tam ditia, tam nobilia, tam speciosa, donaverunt eidem, ut cunctorum valor, et pretium, non posset facile æstimari.

[When the citizens had departed, and the nobles who had been with the king and the rest had returned to their homes, the king, hearing that the Londoners were remorseful and downcast, spoke to his servants and said, "I will go to London and will console the citizens, nor will I allow them any longer to despair of my grace." As soon as this sentiment had been made known in the city, it filled all with unbelievable joy; whence all and sundry determined to go out in a body to meet him and to spend no less on presents and gifts than they had for his coronation. Consequently, when the king came to London, he was received with such glory, such pomp, and such a wealth of diverse devices, as would have been fitting for receiving a ruler come in triumph. For they presented him with horses and horse-trappings, gilt and silver tablets, cloth of gold and hanging silks, basins and ewers of the tawny metal, coined gold, gemstones and jewelry, so costly, so noble, and so rich, that the value and price of the things cannot easily be counted.]





Go to Appendix 2: Accounts of Richard's 1377 Coronation Entry