Richard Maidstone, Concordia (The Reconciliation of Richard II with London)

RICHARD MAIDSTONE, CONCORDIA: EXPLANATORY NOTES

3-6 Cicero, De amicitia 23.88, in De senectute, De amicitia, De divinatione, ed. and trans. William Armistead Falconer (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1923), pp. 194-95: "Verum ergo illud est, quod a Tarentino Archyta, ut opinor, dici solitum nostros senes commemorare audivi ab aliis senibus auditum: si quis in caelum ascendisset naturamque mundi et pulchritudinem siderum perspexisset, insuavem illam admirationem ei fore, quae iucundissima fuisset, si aliquem cui narraret habuisset. Sic natura solitarium nihil amat semperque ad aliquod tamquam adminiculum adnititur, quod in amicissimo quoque dulcissimum est" ["True, therefore, is that celebrated saying of Archytas of Tarentum, I think it was - a saying that I have heard repeated by our old men who in their turn heard it from their elders. It is to this effect: 'If a man should ascend alone into heaven and behold clearly the structure of the universe and the beauty of the stars, there would be no pleasure for him in the awe-inspiring sight, which would have filled him with delight if he had had someone to whom he could describe what he had seen.' Thus nature, loving nothing solitary, always strives for some sort of support, and man's best support is a very dear friend"]. Maidstone's Determinacio begins similarly (ed. Edden, p. 121), with an anecdote from Plato.

9 Ricarde. Unidentified, but certainly not (ut puto) King Richard; see the Introduction, p. 33 and note 91.

11 Trenovantum. I.e., London; compare lines 18 ("Nova Troia"), 39 ("Troia"), 123 ("Troia Novella"), and 212 ("Pergama"). On these allusions, see Federico, "A Fourteenth-Century Erotics of Politics."

15-16 I.e., the year 1392.

17 soror. I.e., Diana, the Roman lunar deity. Counting from March (when the new year traditionally began), the moon had completed its monthly cycle (Phebo fuerat soror associata) six times (bis ter) by August.

19-20 I.e., 21 August.

22 Perfida Lingua. I.e., Male-bouche, a Roman de la rose-like personification, of a sort that Chaucer's early work (including the English verse translation of the Roman) had domesticated; compare line 41.

29 quot mortes. Probably a specific reference to the legal murders of various adherents of the king, including Robert Tresilian and Simon Burley, by the so-called Merciless Parliament in February and March 1388, in the aftermath of the Appellants' coup; see Saul, Richard II, pp. 191-94.

30 Quamque sit inultus. Evidently written before events of 1397 and left unrevised; see Barron, "The Tyranny of Richard II."

35 This claim is contradicted by the so-called Articles of Deposition of 1399; see Eberle, "The Politics of Courtly Style," especially p. 172.

45 Urbis custodem. Baldwin Raddington - a nephew of Richard's late lamented intimate Simon Burley, possibly alluded to at line 29 - was appointed warden of London by the king 22 July 1392, in succession to Edward Dallingridge, the first custos, who had been appointed 25 June 1392, as part of the royal takeover of the city; see Barron, "The Quarrel of Richard II," pp. 184 and 188, and, for Rad-dington's career, Tout, Chapters 4.196-99.

47 Regis in occursum vestri vos este parati. Compare Matthew 24:44: "Ideo et vos estote parati, quia, qua nescitis hora, Filius hominis venturus est" ["Wherefore be you also ready, because at what hour you know not the Son of man will come" - Douay-Rheims, Challoner rev.; all Biblical citations come from this edition]; possibly recalling Isaiah 40:3: "Vox clamantis: In deserto parate viam Domini, rectas facite in solitudine semitas Dei nostri" ["The voice of one crying in the desert: Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight in the the wilderness the path of our God"].

52 trans vada vadat. I.e., cross the Thames, so leaving the city.

62 celum. I.e., canopy.

74 maior. Here equivalent to Modern English "mayor." In fact, the office was effectively suspended in the period 25 June 1392 to 13 October 1392, during the tenure of the custodes appointed by the king.

80 Secta. I.e., a suit of livery; compare line 95.

81-95 Though Maidstone uses various Latinized English and French terms in this list of London guilds, the more remarkable feature may be his frequent resort to terms from Plautine comedy (caupo, coqus, faber, merx, piscarius, pistor ["baker"], sutor ["cobbler"], textor, tonsor, zonarius). Maidstone's list was used as a source of vocabulary for Latham's Revised Medieval Latin Word-List from British and Irish Sources, from which the glosses below were mostly taken; other inferences are labeled probable. Also, it is noteworthy that Maidstone begins his list with the guilds that were the strongholds of merchant-oligarchic power, the goldsmiths, the fishmongers, the mercers, and the vintners, though in doing so he would probably only have been reflecting the order of the procession itself. The standard treatment of the history of these organizations remains Unwin, The Gilds and Companies of London. For various possible meanings of the demonstration of guild-solidarity that the procession represents, see Federico, "A Fourteenth-Century Erotics of Politics," especially pp. 150-51.

81 argentarius. Probably meaning "goldsmith," by extension (lit., "silversmith").

82 Mercibus hic deditus. Probably meaning "mercer."

83 apothecarius. Probably meaning "grocer" (lit., "apothecary").

85 scissor. I.e., "cloth-shearer."

86 mango. Probably meaning "haberdasher" (lit., "monger").

87 archifices. I.e., "bowyer."

91 streparius. Probably meaning "saddler," equivalent to sellarius (lit., "stirrup-maker").

93 This remark seems misplaced, coming mid-catalogue as it does here. Possibly some transposition of lines or other garbling occurred in transmission, helping to account also for what happens next: no pentameter follows to close the couplet begun in line 93, with the implication that at least a line of Maidstone's writing has been lost at this point; compare line 170.

"A" super "R." The letters probably were meant to stand for "Anna" and "Ric-ardus," though other explanations are possible. On King Richard's fondness for such badges of livery (and the menace they might represent), see Strohm, Hochon's Arrow, pp. 65 and 182-84, and especially Bowers, "Pearl in Its Royal Setting," pp. 136-41.

95 secta. Compare line 80.

115 cuntis. Equivalent to cunctis. Similarly spelled forms occur again at lines 139 ("cunta"), 426 ("cunta"), 453 ("cuntis"), and 469 ("cuntis"), though a form spelled cunct- occurs too, at line 427 ("cuncti").

121 re sit et Anna. Later in the poem (see line 434 ff. and corresponding explanatory note), Maidstone develops the etymological meaning of the queen's Christian name (from a Hebrew term meaning "grace"), and the sense of this remark also seems to depend on this meaning: the hope expressed is that the queen may prove to be as gracious in the event as her name suggests she might or should be.

150 reddere. A noun, meaning "surrender."

155 Sex quater. I.e., the twenty-four aldermen.

166 phalangis. I.e., "falding cloths."

170 No pentameter follows to close the couplet begun here, with the implication that at least a line of Maidstone's writing has been lost at this point, too; compare line 93.

183 Strata. I.e., "street."

205 ligios. I.e., "lieges."

212 Pergama. The Trojan citadel, used here to stand for the physical city of London (Nova Troia) itself, as distinct from the citizens (corpora) and their wealth (divicie), as part of Maidstone's representation of the city as a type of Troy; compare line 11.

223 imperatoria proles. Her father was the late emperor Charles IV (1316-78), on whom see Wallace, Chaucerian Polity, pp. 357-61.

229 deus huic dedit illam. The quasi-scriptural remark appears to liken Richard and Anne to God's originally perfect human creations, Adam and Eve, though there is no specific parallel: compare Genesis 2:22: "et aedificavit Dominus Deus costam, quam tulerat de homine, in mulierem et adduxit eam ad hominem" ["And the Lord God built the rib which he took from Adam into a woman: and brought her to Adam"], and Genesis 3:12: "Dixitque homo: mulier quam dedisti sociam mihi, ipsa dedit mihi de ligno et comedi" ["And Adam said: The woman, whom thou gavest me to be my companion, gave me of the tree, and I did eat"].

233-34 presentat equm vobis, licet hoc minus equo / Extiterit donum. The punning on n. equs ("horse") and adj. equs ("fair") (from Classical Latin aequus) is not possible to translate.

250 Pheton. I.e., Phaeton, the exemplary bad driver from Greco-Roman mythology: having begged his father Helios' permission to try driving the solar car, Phaeton lost control of it and was fatally struck down by Zeus before his incompetence could set the world on fire. The version of the story best known to someone like Maidstone may have been that of Ovid, Metamorphoses 2.1-328.

251 Femina feminea sua dum sic femina nudat. The pun depends on one or the other of the occurrences of femina in this line being construed as a nominative/accusative plural form of the neuter noun femor, -inis ("thighs"), the root syllable of which is short by nature, unlike the first syllable of femina, -ae, which is long by nature; the problem is that Maidstone's line requires both of its occurrences of femina to have a long first syllable.

264 Forum. I.e., Cheapside.

269 Bachum. I.e., Bacchus. Tetis: I.e., Tethys, a titan, wife of Oceanus and mother of the sea-nymphs and river-spirits. The terms are used metonymically for "wine" and "water" respectively.

289 ciphum. Equivalent to a form of scyphus ("communion cup") in medieval usage.

293 Materiam superavit opus. Ovid, Metamorphoses 2.5: "materiam superabat opus."

314 Obsequiis animos se quietasse suos. The translation reflects a strict construction of the grammar; suos might instead be construed as referring to the king and queen.

320 Angelici prefert ordinis effigiem. Though the remark is biblical in some sense, there appears to be no particular close verbal parallel.

325-26 The uncharacteristic tas (though see Appendix 4.4 for comparable occurrences) combines with the opacity of the phrase Extat ut est maior, sedibus inferior (none of the other accounts of the entry describes this part of the show at all instructively) to suggest that some corruption may afflict this couplet.

337-40 In this list too, Maidstone prefers ancient vocabulary (fistula, tibia, timpana, lira, etc.) to medieval terms that might have had more descriptive accuracy.

345 episcopus urbis. Robert Braybroke, bishop of London 1381-1404, a promoter of the cult of St. Erkenwald (compare line 348: "Erkenwaldi sancta sepulcra"). See Emden, Biographical Register of the University of Oxford 1.254-55.

351 in Lud quoque porta. The legend of Lud's construction of the city walls (and the derivation of the city's name from his) is recounted in Geoffrey of Monmouth, The History of the Kings of Britain 3.20 (also 1.17), trans. Thorpe, pp. 106 and 74; compare lines 479-80, below.

361-68 For the tradition that such catalogues of trees and beasts represent, see Curtius, European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages, especially pp. 194-95.

372 Agnus et ecce dei. John 1:29 "Altera die vidit Johannes Jesum venientem ad se, et ait: Ecce Agnus Dei, ecce qui tollit peccatum mundi" ["The next day, John saw Jesus coming to him; and he saith: Behold the Lamb of God. Behold him who taketh away the sin of the world"].

373 quia. Illogical, strictly, and so possibly corrupt.

397-98 Ricardi quod fuit ante / Nomen. I.e., Richard the Lion-hearted. On the accretion of quasi-legendary materials about this historical figure, see the still fundamental work of Paris, "Le roman de Richard Coeur de Lion," especially pp. 387-93, on the later fourteenth-century developments most nearly contemporary with Maidstone's writing. See also Broughton, The Legends of King Richard I, Coeur de Lion.

417 Rex et apum caret omnis acu. The notion would derive ultimately from the ancient science mentioned by the elder Pliny, Historia naturalis 11.17.52-53, though it would have become widely diffused in subsequent popular lore. Compare Thomas Hoccleve, The Regiment of Princes, lines 3375-81, where Hoccleve is probably drawing on some version of the Ludus scaccorum.

434 gracia. The (Hebrew) etymology was widely known; compare Bokenham, Legends of Holy Women, line 1498 ("Anne is as myche to seyn as 'grace'"), p. 41, or the Trinity College stanzaic Life of Saint Anne, line 211 ("The name of Anne to say hyt ys but grace"), in Parker, ed., The Middle English Stanzaic Versions of the Life of Saint Anne, p. 96. Forms of the term then recur throughout the rest of Maidstone's account of this exchange between queen and warden; for example, lines 436 ("Gracia"), 439 ("Grata"), and 451 ("grates").

439-44 Compare Esther, especially 7:3, "Ad quem illa respondit: Si inveni gratiam in oculis tuis, o rex, et si tibi placet, dona mihi animam meam, pro qua rogo, et populum meum pro quo obsecro" ["Then she answered: If I have found favour in thy sight, O king, and if it please thee, give me my life for which I ask, and my people for which I request"], and 8:5.

442 Irritat edicta. The verb is Irrtat ("invalidates") not irrtat, requiring the MS lection edicta, not dicta, as read by both Wright and Smith.

448 virum. I.e., "husband," Richard II.

454 Westquemonasterium. Equivalent to Westmonasteriumque. Compare Thomas Elm-ham, "On the Death of Henry IV," ed. Wright, Political Poems and Songs 2.122: "In Bethlem camera Westquemonasterio," also a pentameter line.

472 tibi. The shift of the queen's petition after this point, from such a singular form to the more formal second person plural (e.g., line 477 "velitis"), is not possible to translate.

479-80 The legends of Brutus and Arthur here alluded to also derive ultimately from Geoffrey of Monmouth, The History of the Kings of Britain 1.3-1.18 and 8.19-11.2 respectively, trans. Thorpe, pp. 54-74 and 204-61; compare line 351.

481 regi . . . morituro. I.e., with the exception of the Christ-King.

522 didicere. A preferable reading might be docuere ("taught").

RICHARD MAIDSTONE, CONCORDIA: TEXTUAL NOTES

In addition to the manuscript's headings and marginalia, this apparatus lists departures from the manuscript, enclosed in brackets [ ] in the edited text, excepting the marks of punctuation, which are editorial, and the expansion of manuscript abbreviations, which are supplied passively throughout the text. The apparatus also lists the substantive variants (i.e., neither the orthographical variants nor the typographical errors) of the editions of Wright = W (distinguishing Wright 1838 = Wa, and Wright 1859 = Wb as necessary) and Smith = S.

Interlinear heading (before line 1): Incipit concordia facta inter regem et civitatem Londonie.

8 sentis. W: senties (fortasse recte).

Interlinear heading (before line 45): Hic preparat se civitas in occursum regis.

79 H[o]s. MS: Hoos; compare line 177.

80 quemque. W: quaeque.

87 archifices. W: artifices.

88 lorimarius. W: lorinarius.

89 [Hic]. MS: Ibi; correction inserted in the margin.

92 avigerulus. W: anigerulus.

94 bursistaque. MS: -que is inserted above the line.

101 quater. W: quatuor.

Interlinear heading (before line 102): Hic occurrunt cives regi.

Interlinear heading (before line 130): Hic reddit se civitas domino regi.

Interlinear heading (before line 154): Hic veniunt cives ad reginam.

Interlinear heading (before line 160): Hic tendit rex cum tota cohorte versus urbem.

170 ille. W: iste.

176 servet. W: servat.

Interlinear heading (before line 177): De pluvia que tunc accidit.

177 T[u]nc. MS: Tuunc; compare line 79.

179 pluerat. W: pluebat.

Interlinear heading (before line 183): De venia data exuli in Southwerk.

190 tribuit. W: tribuat.

Interlinear heading (before line 191): Hic fuit regina coronata.

Interlinear heading (before line 197): Hic presentat civitas regi duos dextrarios per cus- todem.

209 [est]. Omitted in MS.

Interlinear heading (before line 221): Hic presentant regine palefridum.

235 leviter. W: leniter.

241 illa. W: iam.

Interlinear heading (before line 225): Hic progreditur rex cum tota cohorte versus Chepe.

Marginal notation (next to lines 250-52): de curru dominarum qui cecidit super pontem.

253 ille. W: iste.

Marginal notation (next to lines 258-60): de ornatu Chepe et aliarum platearum.

260 decus. W: pecus.

Interlinear heading (before line 269): Quomodo aqueductus dedit vinum et de ornatu eius.

270 ille. W: iste.

271 quasi. W omits.

Interlinear heading (before line 275): De turri mirabili in medio Chepe.

276 Cernit. Corrected from Cernunt in MS.

287 pendent. W: pendunt.

294 nova. Wa: novo.

296 el[o]quendo. MS: elequendo.

Interlinear heading (before line 297): Hic offert custos coronas regi et regine.

303 sensu. W: sensum.

omni. W: omne.

Marginal notation (next to lines 310-11): hic riserunt parum rex et regina.

312 ei. Wb: eis.

Interlinear heading (before line 317): De ornatu secundi aqueductus ad portam Pauli.

323 micant. W: micat.

330 celicas ille sedet. S: ille sedet celicas.

333 oculus . . . auris. W: oculos . . . aures.

Marginal notation (next to lines 335-36): de instrumentis organicis.

339 Zambuce. W: Zambuca.

Interlinear heading (before line 343): Hic intravit rex monasterium sancti Pauli equis relictis.

345 O[c]currunt. MS: Orcurrunt.

347 Concomitantur. W: Concomitatur.

Marginal notation (next to lines 351-53): De ornatu porte Lud.

355 hiique. W: hii quoque.

Interlinear heading (before line 357): De deserto et Iohanne Baptista ad Barram Templi.

Marginal notation (next to lines 361-62): De arboribus diversis.

364 Ulm[u]s. MS: Ulms.

Marginal notation (next to lines 365-66): de diversitate bestiarum.

Interlinear heading (before line 379): Hic dantur regi et regine due tabule preciose cum ymaginibus.

Interlinear heading (before line 393): De verbis custodis ad regem in dando tabulas.

407 [u]t. MS: et.

412 velit. W: vellet.

416 tamen. W: tantum.

Interlinear heading (before line 421): Hic tetigit rex tabulas aureas sibi datas.

Interlinear heading (before line 429): Hic dantur tabule domine regine eiusdem figure.

435 nam. W: num.

442 edicta. W, S: dicta.

Interlinear heading (before line 453): Hic progreditur rex versus Westmonasterium et cives sequntur.

458 Tam. W: Iam.

Interlinear heading (before line 463): Quomodo regina corruit ante regem pro civibus.

Interlinear heading (before line 467): Supplicacio regine pro eisdem civibus.

467 mi. S: me.

Interlinear heading (before line 493): Responsio domini regis ad reginam.

Interlinear heading (before line 499): Hic alloquitur rex cives et reddit libertates.

527 Sit. W: Sic.

Interlinear heading (before line 539): Congratulacio civium pro restitutione libertatum etrecessus eorum.

Postlinear notation (after line 546): Explicit concordia facta inter regem Riccardum secundum post conquestum et cives Londonie per fratrem Riccardum Maydiston Carmelitam sacre theologie doctorem anno domini millesimo CCC. nonagessima tertio.

RICHARD MAIDSTONE, CONCORDIA: APPENDIX 3 FOOTNOTES


1 Mathew, Court of Richard II, p. 151.

2 The textual history of the "Lollard Twelve Conclusions" is discussed in Anne Hudson, Selections from English Wycliffite Writings, pp. 150-51. Dymmok's response to the Lollards is discussed by Fiona Somerset, "Answering the Twelve Conclusions," pp. 52-76, reprinted in Somerset, Clerical Discourse, pp. 103-34. The import of the section on extravagance was noted by Eberle, "The Politics of Courtly Style," pp. 168-78; see also Bowers, "Pearl in Its Royal Setting," p. 120, and Saul, Richard II, pp. 355-57. For biographical infomation, see Dymmok, Liber, pp. xi-xv, and Emden, Biographical Register 1.617.

3 See below, p. 111 (compare lines 28-30 of the Latin text).

4 The following distinction appears, in fact, to come from Summa Theologica 2a2ae.32.6.

5 Though the presentation in Cronin's edition(pp. 295-301) is not clear on this point, the whole of the following chapters two through four - which is to say, over half of Dymmok's twelfth section, on extravagance, chapters one through six - including the scriptural and partristic quotations, is taken over wholesale from the section of Aquinas mentioned here: Summa theologica 2a2ae.169, with a few omissions and a verbal change or two (possibly verbal variations current in the textual tradition of St. Thomas). See Somerset, "Answering the Twelve Conclusions," p. 75n28 (reprinted in Clerical Discourse and Lay Audience, p. 121n29).

6 The remaining chapters of Part Twelve, chapters 7-12, consist of summary of the twelve Lollard conclusions and Dymmok's hortatory general conclusions. His summary of the twelfth conclusion is: "In XIIa autem et ultima politicam hominum communicacionem, statuum ac graduum varietatem impediunt, dum docent pene omnes artes mechanicas removendas, omnes homines modo consimili vestiendos, parique pastu pascendos, et sic in quadam conclusione homines ponentes universos distinctionem ecclesie ordinem decoremque confundunt" ("In the twelfth and final conclusion, they impugn men's civil intercourse and distinctions of rank and estate, in teaching that almost all the mechanical arts are to be done away with, and that all men should be clothed in the same manner and fed alike; thus, making men all the same, they would end by overturning the church's distinction, order, and decency" - Dymmok, Liber, p. 305).]

RICHARD MAIDSTONE, CONCORDIA: APPENDIX 3 NOTES (TEXT)


Lines 1-9: Which remarks are rendered in Latin as follows. The Twelfth Conclusion: The multitude of arts not needful to man in our church nourishes much sin, by way of superfluous curiosity and people's disfigurement with curious vestment. So much experience shows and reason proves, for Nature herself, with few crafts, suffices for humankind. The corollary comes from what the apostle Paul says: "And having food and raiment, let us be therewith content." It seems to us that goldsmiths and armourers, and indeed all manner of arts not needful for humankind, by the Apostle's criteria, ought to be utterly wiped out, for the sake of virtues' augmentation. Howbeit that the two arts here named were needful under the Old Law, the New Testament has yet voided these arts, as well as numerous others.

Chapter one.

Lines 10-23: By this their twelfth conclusion, these enemies of the truth mean to do away with the various crafts and arts, inasmuch as they assert that the most part of them are not needful for feeding and clothing humankind, and because - so they say - the crafts and arts, by their superfluous encumbrance, serve men up occasion for sinning, through means of the body's decoration and the fostering of pride thereby. Wherefore, for their better understanding, the following is to be taken into account. According to St. Thomas (2a2ae.151.8), "necessity," in respect of human life, can be understood in two ways. In the first place, it can be understood in the sense that that without which a something can by no means exist is said to be "necessary," as food is necessary for the animate. In this perspective, a small number of the crafts would indeed suffice, or would be "necessary," for humankind can be content with little. In the second place, something can be said to be "necessary" for human life, in the sense that that may be said to be "necessary" without which a something cannot exist properly; and in this perspective, given the diversity of human estates and degrees and achievements, very many crafts are "necessary" for humankind, inasmuch as it is needful for men to be ranked in order, by means of their victualing and clothing and their housing, according to the decency of their respective estates and the necessity of their respective ways of life.

Lines 23-38: It is right, for example, that kings, princes, and others who have been set up in states of social elevation should have their estates dignified, indeed magnificently, by the kind of buildings they live in, as the Philosopher himself has asserted (in Ethics 4): namely, it is necessary for such men to inhabit buildings that are sumptuous, grand, comely, and thoroughly well decorated, for the proper decoration of which are required a variety of artisans, namely, painters, carvers, glaziers, smiths, jewelers, and artisans of other sorts, too, which it would indeed take too long to enumerate. Furthermore, the Philosopher (Politics 6) has likewise proven that such is in fact obligatory for the kinds of lords whose job it is to rule peoples, in order that they might strike fear into their peoples, lest they rise up against their superiors too readily. For when peoples can see that the residences of their princes are wrought with such skill and power and magnificence, they will regard their rulers as wealthy and competent, and they will regard overthrowing them as a thing so far impossible, to just that degree that their princes are seen to stand above their peoples in power and wisdom. Moreover, not only is it right that they should be seen to stand above their peoples in the way that they are housed, but likewise in the way that they eat and drink. Since in fact all varieties of foodstuffs were created for the sustenance of humankind, as is clear in Genesis 2 and 9, it is consequently just that persons of greater dignity should be seen to stand above the rest, in respect of the richness of what they eat and drink and the skillful provisioning of it, for the preparation of which is required a manifold culinary art, in the absence of which humankind might not be sufficiently sustained, according to the argument I made above, about "necessity" of the first type.

Lines 38-60: Thus it is right that princes and nobles, in accord with the decency of their estate, be housed in greater magnificence and fed more sumptuously than the remainder of the population; just so, it is likewise right that such be also arrayed more lavishly than the rest, in raiment of varied ornament. For it is not accordant to reason that a servant be dressed as splendidly as a lord, or an ordinary knight as a prince, or a monk as a secular. Rather, just as persons are distinguished from one another in estate and dignity, so reason requires that they be distinguished from one another also by means of different styles of dress. Hence in the Secreta secretorum, Aristotle enjoined Alexander never to appear to his people in public except in appropriate, indeed in magnificent array, that by consequence thereof he would be held in greater esteem. Moreover, that humble dress causes personages to be held in the more contempt, in respect of the people, is clear from the life of the blessed apostles Simon and Jude, where we read that the esteemed counselors, called to their king, on catching sight of Simon and Jude, dressed as they were in the humblest of clothes, took to holding their persons in contempt. Additionally, that it is proper for persons of great dignity to stand above the people, not only in their sumptuous dwelling-places and in their more lavish food and drink, but also in the stateliness of their dress, is established well enough in 3 Kings 10:4-7, where we read:
And when the queen of Sheba had seen all Solomon's wisdom, and the house that he had built, and the meat of his table, and the sitting of his servants, and the attendance of his ministers, and their apparel, and his cupbearers, and his ascent by which he went up unto the house of the Lord, there was no more spirit in her. And she said to the king, 'It was a true report that I heard in mine own land of thy acts and of thy wisdom.'
From these remarks, it is clear that for a king to have sumptuous, beautiful palaces, culinary splendor, and decorous dress is right and proper, since the very wisdom of Solomon here stands commended by reason of such things, as could in no wise be accomplished except by great industry on the part of artisans, certainly not by the necessity of the bare requisites of feeding people sparingly and clothing them poorly.

Chapter two.

Lines 61-75: Albeit it is lawful for some to be set apart from others, lavishly and artfully, by their dwelling-places, as well as by their clothing and dietary practices, in keeping with their estates, yet it does occasionally happen that, in all such matters, there may be persons who pass beyond the bounds of virtue, as St. Thomas teaches (2a2ae.169): "There is no moral evil in the things we make use of, but only in the persons who use them immoderately." This immoderation can be seen to be twofold: in the first place, in respect of the customs of the persons among whom someone lives, whence Augustine says (Confessions 3): "While yet allowing for their diversity, outrages against accepted manners are to be avoided." In the second place, immoderation results from inordinate affection in the use of such things on the part of the person using them. By consequence, it sometimes occurs that a person makes use of such things excessively libidinously, whether in keeping with the customs of the persons amongst whom he lives or whether above and beyond those customs. Hence Augustine says (On Christian Doctrine 3): "Disorderly passion in the use of things needs be shunned, not only by abusing the customs of those amongst whom we live, but also often by going too far and displaying in shameful discharge the filth which before was hidden in the privy of received manners."

Lines 76-86: Inasmuch as it is a matter of excess, this kind of inordinate affection results from three things, in the first place, when by overmuch attention to matters of dress, particularly clothing and other things of the sort, pertaining to personal adornment, a person courts the glory of the world. Hence Gregory says, in one of his homilies:
There are those who believe that the cultivation of precious and costly clothing is no sin, but surely, if it were no sin, the word of God would by no means be so solicitous to make the point that Dives, subject to infernal torment, had dressed himself in purple and fine linen. No one uses ostentatious dress, namely, dress beyond what is appropriate for his estate, except for vainglory.
Secondly, inasmuch as their clothing is intended for bodily excitement, to that same extent persons use vestimentary fineries for pleasure. In the third place, inasmuch as what end can there be to excessive solicitude over vestimentary cultivation of the exterior, if not some sort of perturbation, at least to a degree?

Lines 86-95: On these accounts, Andronicus posits three principles for cultivation of the exterior, as follows. In the first place is humility, which precludes any intention of vainglory; and he says that this humility consists in a manner of self-presentation not superabundant in ornaments and preparations. Next comes sufficiency unto oneself, which precludes any intention of preciousness; and he says that sufficiency unto oneself consists in a manner of self-presentation that is content with what is proper, subject to determination by such things as pertain to sustaining life, in keeping with that remark of the Apostle (1 Timothy 6:8): "And having food and raiment, let us be therewith content." The third is simplicity, which precludes superfluities of solicitude; he says that simplicity consists in a manner of self-presentation that contents itself with whatever comes. It is on all such considerations that rests the matter of considerate vestimentary array, of whatever sort, proper to a person's estate, appropriately fit to circumstance, and without sin.

Lines 95-104: From the other perspective, vestimentary defect can be regarded as a two-fold perturbation, in some measure, depending on what causes it. On the one hand, it comes of neglect, on the part of a person who is more careless or heedless than is proper, when it comes to the maintenance of appearances. Whence the Philosopher says (Ethics 7) that it amounts to laziness, should a person trail his cloak in the dirt and not trouble about lifting it up. On the other hand, vestimentary defect is a perturbation to the degree that the very defect aims at vainglory. Whence Augustine says (On the Lord's Sermon on the Mount), "In bodily things not only dazzle and pomp but also dirt and drabness can be ostentatious, and all the more insidiously as deceiving under guise of service to God." And the Philosopher says (Ethics 10) that both superabundance and inordinate neglect amount to arrogance.

Lines 105-8: So, just as persons can lawfully array themselves sumptuously and artfully, in keeping with the proprieties of their estates, by the same token the artisans who make such adornment possible can lawfully pursue their crafts; moreover, such artisans are to be not done away with, but allowed or even encouraged, as needful collaborators for persons who would carry out their social and civic duties.

Chapter three.

Lines 109-17: Against the aforesaid, however, it can be argued as follows, for from such premises it seems to be entailed that women can adorn themselves, with the kind of adornments customary for women, without any mortal sin. But that such would be false is proven thus. In the first place, everything that is contrary to the precept of holy writ is mortal sin. Women's customary adornment, however, is contrary to the precept of holy writ, apparently, for we read (1 Peter 3:3): "Whose adorning, let it not be that outward adorning of plaiting the hair, and of the wearing of gold, or of the putting on of robes," where the Gloss echoes Cyprian's remark: "women who have put on Christ cannot put on purple and fine linen; women who decorate themselves with gold and jewelry and pearls have put aside their proper adornments of mind and body." But such cannot be, except by mortal sin. Therefore, this kind of adornment of women cannot be without mortal sin.

Lines 118-26: Elsewhere, in his work On the Dress of Virgins, Cyprian writes, "Not merely virgins and widows, but also wives and indeed all women should be admonished in no way to deface God's work and fabric, the clay that he fashioned, with the aid of golden cream, black shadow, and rouge, or by applying any cosmetic to alter the natural lineaments"; and he adds further on:
They lay hands on God when they strive to reshape what He has shaped. This is an assault on His handiwork, a distortion of the truth. Thou shalt not be able to see God, having no longer the eyes that God made, but the eyes that the devil unmade; with him shalt thou burn on whose account thou art made up.
But such cannot be, except by mortal sin. Therefore, women's adornment is not without mortal sin.

Lines 127-30: Moreover, just as it fits not a woman to use men's clothing, no more does it fit her to use excessive ornament. The former is a sin, for it is written (Deuteronomy 22:5): "The woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man, neither shall a man put on a woman's garment." It appears here too, therefore, that women's superfluous adornment is mortal sin.

Lines 130-31: Contrary to this, however, is that it would seem that artisans manufacturing adornments of this sort should on this account sin mortally.

Lines 132-46: The response, in keeping with the remarks of St. Thomas (2a2ae.169.2), is that, although all the same considerations, applying generally in respect to exterior adornment, need be taken into account, when it comes to women's ornament, there needs to be additionally further special consideration taken, precisely because feminine adornment provokes men to lust, in accord with the words of Proverbs (7:10): "And behold there met him a woman with the attire of a harlot, and subtile of heart." A woman can yet lawfully put effort into such, in order to please her husband, lest he be fallen into adultery for contempt of her: "But she that is married careth for the things of the world, how she may please her husband" (1 Corinthians 7:34). Therefore, should a wife adorn herself to please her husband for such a purpose, she can do so without sin.

Lines 140-53: On the other hand, such women as have no husbands, or want no husbands and are of such estate as not to have husbands, cannot without sin set about to please men's gazes to the point of inciting lust, for such is to give men incentive to sin. If any should adorn themselves with such an intention, in order to incite others' lust, they would sin mortally. If, on the other hand, for simple-minded light-heartedness or even plain vanity, namely, out of willful pride, should any do so, it is not always a mortal sin, but may be sometimes only venial; and the same rationale applies to men, too.

Lines 146-53: Hence Augustine writes, in the Letter to Possidius,
I should not wish you to make any impulsive regulation forbidding the use of jewelry or fine clothing, except that those who are neither married nor desirous of being married ought to be thinking about how to please God. But worldly people think of worldly things: if husbands, how to please their wives; if wives, how to please their husbands. However, it is not seemly for women, even married ones, to uncover their hair, since the Apostle commands them to veil their heads.
On this point, however, a woman may be excused from sin when without vanity she follows the prevailing contrary custom, although such a custom is not to be commended.

Lines 153-58: From all of which it follows, that married women, as well as women intending to marry, can lawfully use whatever adornment is used by women of their estate and is customary among them, provided that they do so, not with a perverted intention of seducing men to illicit lust, nor for pomp and glory, but only in order to please their husbands or husbands to be, or in order to conform themselves to what is customary amongst the persons with whom they must interact; and all the same points apply to men.

Chapter four.

Lines 159-74: In the first place, it must therefore be pointed out, as the Gloss says at the same point, that the wives of men who were in distress despised their husbands and, in order to attract other men, adorned themselves more pleasingly than usual; this the apostle Peter forbids. Of such a circumstance, Cyprian spoke, and the same practice is used by women even up to the present day. For when their husbands are away in distant parts, or are subject to difficulties of any sort, they ought not adorn themselves with pearls or other ornamental fineries of theirs. Lest occasion for sinning with other women be given them, the Apostle does not forbid spouses from pleasing their husbands. On this point, the Apostle teaches (1 Timothy 2:9): "I would that women pray adorned in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety, not with braided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array." By this remark is given to understand that, though grave and moderate vestmental ornament is not forbidden women, the excessive or the immodest or the shameless is, including all adornment that goes beyond what is appropriate to the woman's estate, and all adornment that she puts on to augment lust inordinately, or inordinately to incite to lust: thus much only is prohibited. So says the Gloss on this same apostolic text: "women ought not," it says, "to be found dressing themselves in finery," and so forth, and in all the like, above the mode and manner proper to their persons, with the intention of stirring lust, but rather they ought to put themselves forward in piety by means of good works.

Lines 175-86: In the second place, it must be pointed out that women's face-painting, of which Cyprian speaks, is a species of fiction, the kind of thing that cannot be without sin. Whence Augustine says, in the Letter to Possidius,
As to the practice of painting their faces to make them more pink and white, I doubt that even their own husbands care to be deceived, and husbands - actual or prospective - are the only men for whom women are allowed to deck themselves out, and that by indulgence, not command.
Nonetheless, such face-painting does not always entail mortal sin, but does so only when it is undertaken for purposes of lust or in contempt of God, in the instances of which Cyprian speaks. Yet it needs be understood that it is one thing to feign a beauty one does not have, and it is something else again to cover over a defect, born of any cause, illness, for example, or something else of the sort. For such is lawful, according to the Apostle (1 Corinthians 12:23): "And those members of the body, which we think to be less honorable, upon these we bestow more abundant honour."

Lines 187-93: In the third place, it must be pointed out that, as has been said, exterior adornment must be appropriate to the person's condition, in keeping with established custom. Consequently, it is a vice, in and of itself, for a woman to dress like a man, and vice versa, especially inasmuch as such can be occasion for lust and is expressly prohibited in the Old Law, because the gentiles used such exchange of manners of dress by reason of idolatrous superstition. Nonetheless, such can at times be used without sin, whenever it is used by reason of necessity, by way of disguise from enemies, for example, or for a want of other clothing, and the like.

Lines 194-203: In the fourth place, it must be pointed out that, if there is any art used for making anything that men cannot put to use except in sin, the artisans do sin by consequence of the very act of making such, inasmuch as directly they provide others opportunity to sin, for example, were someone to fabricate idols or anything pertaining to an idolatrous cult; and in keeping with such reasoning all the forbidden arts are fit for destruction, such as, for example, divinations by earth, by air, by water, and by fire; necromancy; divining and the magical art notary; all forms of sorcery, amulet-tying, and spell-casting; the Platonic wand, the seal of Solomon, and the rest of the tokens used superstitiously in arts of this sort. All of them are condemned by the canon law (cap. 26); for men cannot put arts of this sort to use except in sin, and therefore all such arts are unlawful and fit for utter destruction.

Lines 203-14: On the other hand, if there be any art used for making things that men can put to use either for good or for ill - such as swords or arrows or the like - the employment of such arts is no sin, and such arts alone can be said to be lawful. Whence Chrysostom (On Matthew) says: "Only those that produce and contribute to the necessities and mainstays of life should be called arts." By way of contrast, if, as often enough happens, some make use of the products of an art for ill purposes, even if the products themselves be not unlawful per se, yet it falls to the duty of the prince to see to it that they be driven out of the city, according to the doctrine of Plato. Therefore, since women can lawfully adorn themselves, in order to safeguard the decencies of their estates, or can lawfully even add something to their beauty, in order to please their husbands, the conclusion is that the artisans who work the means of such adornment do no sin in the cultivation of their arts, unless perchance they work at anything superfluous or fantastic. Whence Chrysostom says, "Even the arts of the cobbler and the weaver need to be curtailed, for they have been drawn into lechery; the need for them has been corrupted, and art has been debased by artifice."

Chapter five.

Lines 215-23: From all such it follows that the law evangelical prohibits no art which was lawful under the old dispensation, unless perchance it be such arts as were used in the cults of the Jews and the rites of sacrifice of the old dispensation. All such arts, the products of which were capable of being put to use by men without sin, were lawful at that time, just as they are even now. On the other hand, such other arts, the products of which could not be put to use without sin, were condemned at that time, as is clear of the arts listed above (see also Deuteronomy 18, 1 Kings 28, and 4 Kings 23). Now too the same arts stand condemned, as is clear from the aforegoing. Additionally, as for those arts that men make use of for ill more often than for good, it fell then to princes, just as it does even now, to see to it that such be driven away, no matter that the arts themselves be not unlawful per se, because of the damage they do the commonwealth.

Lines 224-46: "Goldsmiths and armourers, however" - arts they say ought utterly to be done away with - are indeed "approved in the New Testament, just as they are in the Old." Such is clear in the case of goldsmiths, since Christ did not prohibit the use of coinage but gave it his approval, bidding "render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's" (Matthew 22:21), specifically, goldsmiths' products. Moreover, Christ himself kept money, for seeing to necessities (see John 13:29). Likewise, the Philosopher shows (Politics 1 and 3) that it is necessary that there be money, for making exchanges among men, of such things as are needful for human life: such could not take place absent the goldsmith's art and application. Furthermore, that the goldsmiths' art is not worthy to be cast out is clear also from the fact that the Lord himself taught, directly, that their art and numerous others were requisite, not only for providing the necessities of human life, but additionally for adornment of the divine worship and of such men as are set in estates of dignity (Exodus 31:2-5):
See, I have called by name Bezaleel, and I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship, to devise cunning works, to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass, and in cutting of stones, and in carving of timber.
In the same biblical book, chapters twenty-five through thirty-one, he sanctions and ordains the fabrication of various ornaments, of linen drapery, of gold and of silver, the work of weavers, embroiderers, and featherers, as well as work at painting and carving, for the decoration of the temple and the adornment of the ministers thereof. Even unto the present day, men make use of these same arts for adorning their clothing, as do women, for adorning their whole persons, in silk, in gold and silver, and in gems, lawfully enough and without sin. Such arts are therefore prohibited neither in the New Testament nor by the Gospel, and for this reason above all, namely, that God himself gave them mandate; nor is there any adequate reason why arts of this sort ought now to be forbidden, any more than they were under the Old Law. Consequently, now just as then, such arts are to be permitted and approved. It is even written that St. Dunstan had been a goldsmith and had made many a vessel, skillfully, of gold and of silver.

Chapter six.

Lines 247-60: That arms-makers are needful and approved in the New Testament is apparent from the fact that soldiery is lawful and necessary amongst Christians, as is apparent from the remarks made above in Part Ten, and consequently it is right for them, namely soldiers, to have weapons of all types, both defensive and offensive. The several justifications for such a state of affairs I have adduced already: it is right for such arms to be produced though the industry of arms-makers, and consequently their art, far from being only tolerable amongst Christians, is rather indeed to be fostered and guarded with all due diligence. Vegetius, in The Military Affairs, and the Philosopher too, in The Politics 8, demonstrate that military acumen is indeed needful for governing realms and peoples. To such governance pertains familiarity with and knowledge of all arms of war and its sundry instruments, as well as supervision of arms-makers about their tasks, after the fashion of architects, or of a master in their art. By consequence, the art of arms manufacture is not only lawful but is moreover needful; by consequence, it is by no means to be done away with.

Lines 260-76: It is rashness of the most extreme sort, in fact, to assert that such things as God has provided men, for their needful employments to come, ought by rights to be done away with. Considerations of this sort have already been rehearsed, as St. Augustine makes clear, in The City of God 22.24, where he demonstrates that God endowed man with a rational soul, by means of which man should be able to grasp all the cardinal virtues and have great skill in discovering sundry, subtle arts, needful for human life, as in clothing and housing himself, agriculture and pottery-making, in catching and consuming fishes, fowls, and wild beasts, in dye-making, in music, in cookery, brewery, and spicery, painting and sculpture, and all the many other things there rehearsed - all of them, by God's provision, being helps to man's welfare and are put to use for just such a reason. Therefore, whoever attacks such things tries to abolish divine providence - the divine providence that provided humankind with such arts as might make good the defects of humankind, advance civil intercourse among men, and demonstrate God's wisdom in setting things aright, not only by means of men's natural operations, but likewise by means of men's artful discoveries and their bountiful manifestation of God's goodness therethrough. Deputing all the goods of nature to our disposal alone were not enough for the great bounty of God's goodness, had he not ordained too that such also be put more amply to use, for humankind's benefit, by application of the sundry arts.
 
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Richard Maidstone, Concordia (The Reconciliation of Richard II with London)








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545   
 
Concordia facta inter regem et cives Londonie,
per fratrem Riccardum Maydiston

TULLIUS IN laudem tantam sustollit amicos [fol. 8vb]
    Quod licet, hiis demptis, optima nil valeant.
"Stes," ait, "in celis, videas ibi queque beata,
    Hauriat auris in hiis utraque dulce melos:
Quicquid adhuc sensus poterit tibi pascere quinos
    Nil valet acceptum, si nec amicus adest.
Si careas socio, cui sata placencia narres,
    Hec eadem sentis non placuisse tibi."
Hinc tibi, Ricarde, duplante iugo michi iuncte
     (Nomen et omen habes: sic socius meus es),
Gaudia visa michi Trenovantum nuper in urbe
    Actus amicicia glisco referre modo;
Et licet incultum carmen tibi condere curem,
    Parce, precor, cure: parcere debet amor.

M CAPE, TER quoque C, deciesque novem duo iunge
     (Hunc numerum anni supputo dando notis).
Tunc bis ter Phebo fuerat soror associata,
    Cum bona felici sunt, Nova Troia, tibi.
Mensis ut Augusti ter septima fulsit in orbem
    Lux, tibi, Londonie, rumor amenus adest;
Namque tuum regem, sponsum dominumque tuumque,
    Quem tibi sustulerat Perfida Lingua, capis.
Invidiosa cohors regem tibi vertit in iram,
    Desereret thalamum sponsus ut ipse suum;
Sed quia totus amor tuus est - et amantis ymago
    Formosior Paride - nescit odisse diu.
Adde quod in miseros semper solet hic misereri,
    Nec habet ultrices rex pius iste manus.
Quot mala, quot mortes tenero sit passus ab evo,
    Quamque sit inultus, Anglia tota videt.
Quid cupit hic servire deo, nisi semper et esse
    Pacificum, letum, nilque perire bonum?
Sic fovet ecclesiam, statuens statuum moderamen,
    Sternere ne liceat quod statuere patres.
Effugat ingratos, cupidos, stolidos, truculentos:
    Queque decent regem hec rapit ipse sibi.
Talis adolescens toto non restat in orbe,
    Qui sciat ut Salomon regna tenere sua.
Hic licet accensus foret in te, Troia, parumper,
    Grata modo facies se docet esse piam.
Non poterat mordax detractans lingua tenere
    Quin cuperet thalamum sponsus adire suum.
Qui libertates solitas tibi dempserat omnes
    Nunc redit, et plures reddere promptus eas.
Urbis custodem miles quem rex ibi signat
    Alloquitur cives sic, rutilante die:
"Regis in occursum vestri vos este parati, [fol. 9ra]
    Percipiatque palam quam bene nunc veniat.
Tocius ecclesie fiat processio cleri,
    Omnis et ordo suas se ferat ante cruces.
Nulla sit ars urbis que non distincta seorsum
    Splendidius solito trans vada vadat eques.
Quicquid in urbe probum fuerit promatur in ista
     (Nam gaudete) die: pax tribuetur," ait.
Hiis animata loquelis tota cohors sociatur,
    Preparat et cultu se meliore suo;
Ornat et interea se pulcre queque platea:
    Vestibus auratis urbs micat innumeris.
Floris odoriferi specie fragrante platea,
    Pendula perque domos purpura nulla deest,
Aurea, coccinea, bissinaque tinctaque vestis
    Pinxerat hic celum arte iuvante novum.
Quos tulit ante dies istos plebs ista labores,
    Quas tulit expensas, os reserare nequit.
Quid moror? Ecce, dies transit: properatur ab urbe
    Regis in occursum, coniugis atque sue.
Quis numerare queat numerum turbe numerose,
    Que velud astra poli densius inde fluit?
Milia viginti iuvenes numerantur equestres;
    Qui pedibus pergunt non capit hos numerus.
Custos precedit, comitantur eumque quater sex,
    Quos aldirmannos urbs habet ut proceres.
(Iure senatorio, urbs hiis regitur quasi Roma,
    Hiisque preest maior, quem populus legerit.)
Hiis erat ornatus albus color et rubicundus,
    Hos partita toga segregat a reliquis.
Clavibus assumptis, urbis gladio quoque, custos
    Precedit, proceres subque sequntur eum,
H[o]s sequitur phalerata cohors cuiuslibet artis.
    Secta docet sortem quemque tenere suam:
Hic argentarius, hic piscarius, secus illum
    Mercibus hic deditus, venditor atque meri;
Hic apothecarius, pistor, pictor, lathomusque;
    Hic cultellarius, tonsor, et armifaber;
Hic carpentarius, scissor, sartor, ibi sutor;
    Hic pelliparius fulloque, mango, faber;
Hic sunt archifices, ibi carnifices, ibi tector;
    Hic lorimarius pannariusque simul;
[Hic] vaginator, hic zonarius, ibi textor;
    Hic candelarius, cerarius pariter;
Hic pandoxator, ibi streparius, ibi iunctor;
    Est ibi pomilio, sic avigerulus hic.
"A" super "R" gratis stat in artibus hic numeratis
     [ . . . . . . . ]
Hic cirotecarius bursistaque, caupo coqusque:
    Ars patet ex secta singula queque sua. [fol. 9rb]
Cerneret has turmas quisquis puto non dubitaret
    Cernere se formas ordinis angelici.
Tam valido solet auxilio qui Marcius exstat
    Prelia suffultus nulla timere pugil.
Quelibet ut proprias est ars sortita phalangas;
    Mille quater stadiis omne repletur iter.

PSALLITE NUNC, cives; regi nunc psallite vestro!
    En, rex vester adest; psallite, quod sapit hic!
Rege propinquante, comites glomerantur heriles.
    Ha, michi! Quam pulcrum cernere credis eos!
Dum niveo resideret equo, se quique retractant
    Ut pateat populo rex pius ipse suo.
Vernula quam facies fulvis redimita capillis
    Comptaque sub serto preradiante coma;
Fulget et ex auro vestis sua rubra colore,
    Que tenet interius membra venusta nimis.
Iste velud Troylus vel ut Absolon ipse decorus,
    Captivat sensum respicientis eum.
Non opus est omnem regis describere formam:
    Regibus in cuntis non habet ille parem.
Larga decoris ei si plus natura dedisset,
    Clauderet hunc thalamis invida forte Venus!
Sistit ut in medias super arva repleta catervas,
    Nobilibus regni cingitur, ut decuit.
Nec procul est coniux, regina suis comitata:
    Anna sibi nomen; re sit et Anna, precor.
Pulchra quidem pulcris stat circumcincta puellis;
    Vincit Amazonibus Troia Novella sub hiis.
Sternitur ex gemmis nitidis sparsim sua vestis
    Ad capud a planta; nil nisi gemma patet!
Nulla deest adamas, carbunculus, atque berillus:
    Qui lapis est precii, sternitur inde capud.
Quod nitet in fronte nitida radiatque per aures
    Verberat obtuitum, ne foret inde satur.
Aurea rex dum frena trahit et sistere cogit
    Dextrarium, proceres mox populusque silent.
Accessit propius custos, secumque togati;
    Claves leva manus, dextra tenet gladium,
Ad se converso puncto mucronis; ad instar
    Tristis captivi, sic sua verba refert:
"En, rex, cuius ut est nimium metuenda potestas,
    Sic et amanda nimis, nec reverenda minus:
En, humiles cives, vestris pedibus provoluti,
    Reddunt se vobis et sua cunta simul.
Clavibus hiis gladioque, renunciat urbs modo sponte:
    Vestre voluntati prompta subesse venit. [fol. 9va]
Hoc rogat assidue, lacrimis madefacta deintus,
    Mitis ut in cameram rex velit ire suam.
Non laceret, non dilaniet pulcherrima regni
    Menia, nam sua sunt, quicquid et exstat in hiis.
Non oderit thalamum sponsus quem semper amavit;
    Nulla subest causa cur minuatur amor."
Sumit ad hec gladium, claves quoque, Londoniarum;
    Rex cito militibus tradit utrosque suis:
"Acceptamus," ait, "tam vos quam reddere vestrum,
    Et placet ornatus exhibitus michi nunc,
Sed quid in urbe mea geritur modo tendo videre,
    Si scierit regem gens mea nosse suum."
Transit et interea custos, comitatus eisdem
    Sex quater, et sistunt regia terga retro.
Reginam propius veniunt, humili quoque vultu.
    Valde precantur eam, spondet et ipsa bonum.
Corde favet, sed valde dolet quia regis in iram
    Urbs tam clara ruit, "Spes tamen exstat," ait.

HIIS (VELUD EST dictum) gestis, properatur ad urbem;
    Ars artem sequitur: est prior ultima nunc.
Ut valor est artis, retinet loca digna valori:
    Gaudet honore suo quelibet atque gradu.
Nigris, purpureis, albis, fulvis bene tinctis,
    Viridibus, rubris, puniceisque togis
Ac bipartitis; sunt vestibus atque phalangis
    Artes distincte, quod decet artifices.
Illa prius, hec posterius, ars tendit ad urbem;
    Vix exercitui sufficiebat iter!
Turba premit turbam; iacet hic, ruit hic, cadit ille.
     [ . . . . . . . ]
Musica nulla tacet: cantus, strepitus, neque clangor;
    Altaque concussit ethera dulce melos,
Dumque chori fratrum psallunt regemque salutant;
    Incipit amplecti mox venerando cruces.
Basia dat crucibus; imitatur eum sua coniux;
    Et rogat ut regnum servet uterque deus.
T[u]nc respirare cepit tristis prius aura,
    Tempestas etenim turbinis ante fuit.
Sic pluerat (quod tristis erat); tunc sexus uterque
    Turbari metuens turbine tam valido;
Ast Nothus ut distat, lenisque Favonius astat,
    Aura serena micat: urbs modo nil trepidat.
Strata foras urbem, qua pulcra suburbia restant -
    Hec "opus Australe" dicitur - est etenim.
Obviat hic regi vir, in exilium modo missus, [fol. 9vb]
    Arboreamque crucem fert, homicida reus.
Pronus ut ante pedes iacuit prostratus equinos,
    Flens rogitat veniam: rex sibi donat eam;
Sicque pium miseri miseret solitum misereri,
    Gracia quam tribuit restituatur ei!
Aurea regine super erigitur capud Anne
    Pulcra corona - parum non valet illa, putes!
Mirificum opus hoc lapidum radiosa venustas
    Ditat, et eximiam efficit illa lucem.
Grata fuit facies vario redimita monili;
    Cultus enim patrie pulcrius ornat eam.
Pontis ut usque pedem propiat rex, stant ibi cives
    Dextrariique duo, inclita dona nimis.
Purpura cum bisso tegit hos partita caballos:
    Cesar honorifice supra sederet eos!
Hos ducit ad regem custos deputatus in urbe,
    Urbis et ex parte talia verba refert:
"Rex pie, rex prudens, rex pacifice, dominator:
    Nil nisi pax petitur vestra - rogamus eam!
En, ligios vestros, letos foris, intus ovantes,
    Gaudia magna nimis hiis tulit ista dies,
Quod ducitis dignum thalamum iam visere vestrum;
    Quas valet urbs grates tota referre cupit.
Sed quia quicquid habet nimis [est] parvum dare regi,
    Hos tamen optat equos vestra manus capiat.
Dantur in hoc signum, quod se reddunt modo cives:
    Corpora, divicias, Pergama, queque sua.
In vestris manibus sit eorum vitaque morsque,
    Et regat ad libitum regia virga suos."
Rex, contentus ad hec, "Et nos," ait, "ista placenter
    Munera suscipimus: iraque nostra cadit.
Concedimus pacem genti que restat in urbe;
    Plebs mea nunc erit hec, rex et ero sibi nunc."
Hec ut ait, vultu solido satis atque sereno,
    Letificat mestos vox ea mille viros.
Ordine consimili, coniux ubi regia pausat,
    Pergitur, et custos taliter inquit ei:
"O generosaque nobilis imperatoria proles,
    Stipite nata quidem magnifici generis.
Vos deus elegit, ad sceptra Britannica digne:
    Imperii consors estis, et apta fore.
Flectere regales poterit regina rigores,
    Mitis ut in gentem rex velit esse suam.
Mollit amore virum mulier: deus huic dedit illam.
    Tendat ad hoc vester, o pia, dulcis amor! [fol. 10ra]
Leta cupit faciem plebs hec modo cernere vestram,
    In qua consistunt et salus et sua spes.
En, presentat equm vobis, licet hoc minus equo
    Extiterit donum, corde tamen hillari.
Est nam qui teneros vestros leviter ferat artus;
    Ambulat et numquam cespitat in phaleris.
Partiti tegitur equs hic ex veste coloris
    Purpurei bissi - sic fuerant reliqui.
Accipiat domina (modicum licet) hoc modo munus:
    Supplicat instanter integra nostra cohors."
Suscipit illa datum, grates referendo benignas,
    Spondet et auxilium quod valet illa suum.
Voce licet tenui loqueretur et ut muliebri,
    Grata tamen facies urbis amica fuit.

TALITER HIIS gestis, gaudenter itur in urbem;
    Turba premit turbam, sic iter artat eam.
Venit ut ad portam pontis regina, patenter
    Sors bona prodigium mox dedit, ecce, novum:
Namque sequntur eam currus duo, cum dominabus;
    Rexerat hos Pheton; unus enim cecidit.
Femina feminea sua dum sic femina nudat,
    Vix poterat risum plebs retinere suum.
Casus et ille placet, veniat (rogo) quod michi signat,
    Corruat ut luxus et malus omnis amor!
Pergitur hinc; rutilant, fulgent, splendentque platee:
    Omnibus in vicis plauditur et canitur.
Spectantur pulcre, dum spectant ista, puelle,
    Nulla fenestra fuit, has nisi que tenuit.
Virgineas facies qui cerneret urbis in alto,
    Quod decus est ymo sperneret ut nichilum.
Quippe satis lento passu transitur in urbe,
    Concursu populi prepediente viam.
At ubi perventum medium fuit urbis et usque
    Introitum vici, dicitur ille "Forum,"
Quales texture picturarumque figure,
    Qualis et ornatus scribere quis poterit?
Nempe videtur ibi, de summis usque deorsum,
    Nil nisi divicie, vultus et angelici.
Stillat aqueductus Bachum - nec adest ibi Tetis! -
    Rubra dat ille liquor pocula mille viris.
Huius et in tecto steterat quasi celicus ordo,
    Qui canit angelicos, arte iuvante, melos.
Densa velud folia seu flores, sic volat aurum,
    Undique virginea discuciente manu.
Itur abhinc; mediam dum rex venit usque plateam, [fol. 10rb]   
    Cernit ibi castrum, stat: stupet hinc nimium.
Pendula per funes est fabrica totaque turris,
    Etheris et medium vendicat illa locum;
Stant et in hac turri iuvenis formosaque virgo,
    Hic velud angelus est, hec coronata fuit.
Cerneret has facies quisquis, puto, non dubitaret
    Nil fore sub celo quod sibi plus placeat.
Rex reginaque tunc astant, bene discucientes
    Quid velit hec turris alta vel hii iuvenes.
Descendunt ab ea iuvenis, simul ipsaque virgo;
    Nulla fuit scala, nec patuere gradus.
Nubibus inclusi veniunt, et in ethere pendent,
    Quo tamen ingenio nescio, crede michi!
Iste tenet ciphum; geminas gerit illa coronas.
    Hec nitidis gemmis; plenus et iste mero.
Hec rutilante novo fabricata quidem satis auro
    Singula testatur fulgida materies.
Materiam superavit opus: patet hoc et in artis
    Et simul artificis subtilitate nova.
Optulit ergo suas custodi virgo coronas;
    Quas in utraque manu, sic el[o]quendo, tenet:
"Rex," ait, "illustris reginaque nobilis, ambos
    Custodiat semper vos deus incolumes!
Qui dat terreni vobis dyademata regni
    Regna perhennia celestia donet item!
Cernite iam plebem vestram, quam leta salutat
    Vos et honorare gliscit, ut ipsa valet.
Nititur ex studio (sensu quoque) quod habet omni
    Pendere nunc vobis intime quod placeat;
Mittit et hinc, binas vobis referendo coronas,
    Innumeras grates, si capiatis eas.
Non decet hoc alios donum; rogitat tamen ipsa,
    Sumat ut hoc placite vestra benigna manus."
Contentantur ad hec tam rex quam regia coniux;
    Subridendo parum sumit uterque datum.
Ridet et ad vinum roseum, quod ridet in auro,
    Quodque propinat ei portitor angelicus.
Spem tulit ex ridente gena tunc plebs utriusque,
    Obsequiis animos se quietasse suos.
Invisis gradibus, simul angelus ipsaque virgo,
    Nubibus inclusi, mox loca prima petunt.

USQUE MONASTERIUM Pauli cito tunc properatur,
    Cuius et ante fores mira patet species:
Trino tronus ibi circumdatus undique giro
    Angelici prefert ordinis effigiem,
Angelicisque choris sic virginei sociantur, [fol. 10va]
    Psallentes pariter quisque canore suo,
Sicque micant facies iuvenum tam in hiis quam in illis,
    Fiat ut extaticus intime respiciens.
Nam puerilis etas iuvenum sexus utriusque
    Extat ut est maior, sedibus inferior.
Supra sedebat eos iuvenis quasi sit deus ipse;
    Lux radiosa sibi solis ad instar inest.
Flammigerum vultum gerit hic, niveas quoque vestes;
    Supra ierarchias celicas ille sedet.
Organa pulsat ibi; mentem rapit hec melodia,
    Vocibus angelicis dum canit ille chorus.
Hinc decor, hinc dulcor: oculus recreatur, et auris:
    Singula cernentes obstupuere simul.
Quot putas hic musas, quot et instrumenta canora,
    Quam quoque multimodum hic genus organicum?
Fistula, cistula, tibia, timpana cum monacordo,
    Organa, psalteria, cimbala cumque lira,
Zambuce, cithare, situleque tubeque vielle,
    Buccina cum nablis, simphonicisque choris.
Singula scripturo deerit michi sensus et hora:
    Plurima namque michi sustulit ipse stupor.
Rex reginaque mox post hec pedites adierunt,
    Sacra monasterii tunc visitare loca.
O[c]currunt pariter primas et episcopus urbis;
    Obviat et clerus illius ecclesie.
Concomitantur eos, in cultu pontificali,
    Ad Erkenwaldi sancta sepulcra simul.
Quippe, deo precibus sanctoque datis venerato;
    Concito scandit equm, qui fuit ante pedes.

EST PLUS ADHUC. Transitur abhinc, in Lud quoque porta:
    Consimilis cultus stat, similisque nitor.
Ad fluvii pontem, nimium bene culta refulgent
    Agmina spirituum: hii quoque dulce canunt,
Hii dant incensum, hii psallunt, hiique salutant,
    Floribus hii sternunt singula subter eos.
Ast ubi perventum fuit ad Barram cito Templi,
    Silva super porte tecta locata fuit!
Hec, quasi desertum, tenuit genus omne ferarum,
    Mixtum reptilibus, vermibus, et variis.
Sunt ibi spineta, sunt dumi, suntque rubeta;
    Fraxinus et corulus, quercus et alta pirus,
Prunus, acer, pepulus, populus quoque, tilia, fagus,
    Ulm[u]s, lentiscus, palma, salix tremulus;
Hic lupus, hic leo, pardus, et ursus, et hic monacornus,
    Hic elephas, castor, simia, tigris, aper,
Hic onager, cervus celer, hic panteraque, dama, [fol. 10vb]
    Hic vulpes fetens, taxus, ibique lepus.
Currunt, discurrunt, pugnant, mordent, saliuntque,
    Ut solet ad vastum bestia seva nemus.
Astitit hiis medius sanctus baptista Iohannes,
    Indicat hic digito: "Agnus et ecce dei!"
Inspicit attente rex hunc quia, quem notat iste
    Illius ut meminit, micior inde fuit:
Nam quia devotus colit hunc constanter eidem
    Pre reliquis sanctis porrigit ipse preces.
Huius ad intuitum, si quid sibi manserat ire,
    Extitit extinctum protinus usque nichil.
Angelus a tecto descendens mox satis alto,
    Splendida dona nimis fert in utraque manu,
Sunt etenim tabule, sacris altaribus apte:
    Quas nequit inspiciens immemor esse dei.
Inde crucifixi Christi stat sculpta figura,
    Discipuli flentis, matris et extatice;
Sculpitur hic et uterque latro, velud in cruce pendens:
    Ut deus est passus, tota patet series.
Quod minus extat in hiis, quod vilius, hoc fuit aurum:
    Multimodis gemmis pingitur istud opus.
Non fuerant vise tabule prius orbis in amplo
    Que deceant velud hec tam bene sceptrigeram.
Sumit ab angelicis manibus tabulas modo dictas
    Custos, sicque sua publice verba refert:
"Salve, pater populi! Rex, dux, princeps, modo salve!
    Salvet et omnipotens vos deus, alma salus!
Quam fuit hec preclara dies hiis civibus, in qua
    Constituit regem vos deus esse suum!
Prole patrissante - Ricardi quod fuit ante
    Nomen adhuc repetit quicquid honoris erat.
Regibus ergo probis patribusque bonis bona proles
    Successura fuit: sors dedit ut decuit.
Nobilitas generis, virtus proba, formaque pulcra,
    Gracia, prosperitas, ingeniumque sagax:
Queque decent regem, persona simul capit una -
    Una, procul dubio, non nisi vestra, scio!
Sed, super hec, pietas compassio veraque cordis,
    Dignificans animum, vos probat esse probum.
Spes etenim populi pocior fit, [u]t ad pietatem
     (Qua datur hiis venia) regis et ira cadit.
Significant satis hoc tabule quas cernitis iste:
    Quas regi pia plebs optulit, ecce, pio.
Orat ut inspiciat has, rex cum tangitur ira,
    Mortis et ut Christi mox velit esse memor;
Parcat et ignaris, veluti rex celicus ille, [fol. 11ra]
    Hostibus indulgens, semper inultus erat.
Principis est potuisse suas extendere vires
    In tamen externos, quos oderit, populos.
Rex et apum caret omnis acu, tamen extat eo plus
    Sponte timendus ab hiis quos ferit ipse nichil!
Sumat et hinc vestra manus hoc modicum modo munus,
    In signum pacis quam rogat hic populus!"
Extendendo manum, rex tunc sacra munera tangens.
     "Pax," ait, "huic urbi, civibus atque meis!
Intuitu Christi, matrisque sue generose,
    Baptisteque Iohannis, michi precipui,
Necnon sanctorum quorum modo cerno figuras,
    Sponte remitto mee crimina cunta plebis!
Sed veniatis," ait, "ad nostra palacia cuncti:
    Plenus enim finis - pax quoque - fiet ibi."
Rex transit; regina venit; conformia custos
    Munera presentans intulit ista sibi:
"Inclita Cesareo soboles propagata parente,
    Quam decor et forma nobilitant nimium,
Matris christifere nomen sortita Marie,
    Quod titulis, Anna, 'gracia' sonat idem.
Non decet hunc titulum vacuum fore, nam gerit illum
    Gracia que populis nunc valet esse suis.
Vos ideo meminisse decet, pia dux dominarum,
    Sanguinis et generis nominis et proprii.
Grata loqui pro gente sua regina valebit -
    Quod vir non audet sola potest mulier.
Hester ut Assueri trepidans stetit ante tribunal,
    Irritat edicta que prius ipse tulit.
Nec dubium quin ob hoc vos omnipotens dedit huius
    Participem regni, sitis ut Hester ei.
Propterea, petit urbs vestrum prostrata benignum
    Auxilium, in quo plus habet ipsa spei.
Donat et has vobis tabulas, altaribus aptas:
    Ut stent ante deum, vos tamen ante virum.
Cernitis has quociens, tociens meminisse velitis
    Urbis, et efficere rex sit amicus ei."
Illa refert grates nimias pro munere tanto:
     "In me, si quid erit, perficietur," ait.

ITUR ABHINC, CUNTIS equitantibus ordine pulcro;
    Westquemonasterium, rege iubente, petunt.
Quis fuit ornatus aule, quis cultus ibidem,
    Scribere difficile, nec reserare leve.
Nam ea textrili fuit arte domus cooperta
    Tam prius insolita quod stupet intuitus. [fol. 11rb]
Summa tenet summi tronus regis loca scamni,
    Aurea tegmina quem splendida sola tegunt.
Sceptriger hoc nitidum scandit rex, ecce, tribunal;
    Circumstant proceres, moxque silere iubent.
Ingreditur regina, suis comitata puellis,
    Pronaque regales corruit ante pedes.
Erigitur, mandante viro. "Quid," ait, "petis, Anna?
    Exprime, de votis expediere tuis."
"Dulcis," ait, "mi rex, michi vir, michi vis, michi vita!
    Dulcis amor, sine quo vivere fit michi mors!
Regibus in cuntis, similem quis possidet urbem,
    Que velud hec hodie magnificaret eum?
Quis cultus, quis honor, qui sumptus, munera quanta,
    Sunt inpensa modo, rex venerande, tibi!
Nos quoque mortales et, ut hii, velud umbra caduci
    Simus in hiis mortis absit ut immemores!
Quo maiorem sumit honorem, quisquis eo plus
    Est humilis et erit, si sapiens fuerit.
Hinc, mi rex, mi dulcis amor, memor esse velitis -
    Supplico prostrata - quid modo contigerit.
Tempora post Bruti regumque peracta priorum
     (Quamvis et Arthurus annumeretur eis),
Non fuerat cuiquam regi datus hic morituro
    Tantus honor, quantum contulit ista dies.
Maior enim si facta foret reverencia regi,
    Tangeret iniuria publica forte deum!
Hinc, super hos cives, super urbem sic reverentem,
    Tam vos quam vestros, intime condoleo;
Et rogo constanter, per eum quem fertis amorem
    Ad me, condignum si quid amore gero,
Parcere dignemini plebibus, qui tanta dedere
    Munera, tam prompte nobis ad obsequia;
Et placeat veteri nunc urbem reddere iuri
    Ac libertates restituisse suas."
"Sumo placenter," ait tunc rex, "carissima coniux,
    Queque petita modo: nec nego quod rogitas.
Consessura mecum scandas, dulcissima, tronum,
    Namque loquar populo paucula verba meo."
Sedibus ut teneros regina sedens locat artus.
    Rege loquente; duces, plebs quoque, tota silet.
"Vos," ait, "o cives, vos regia gens specialis,
    Nostri quos aliis plus refovere patres:
Vobis in hoc regno nullos fore liberiores
    Constat, et extollit vos favor hic nimium. [fol. 11va]
Propter opes nimias, magnos quoque propter honores,
    Degenerasse potest urbs mea forte modo.
Nunc ubi sunt iuste leges, ubi rectaque iura?
    Quo timor in dominos? Quo modo fugit amor?
Quo bona nunc pietas? Inopum proteccio grata?
    Quo socialis amor? Omnis abhinc periit.
Quippe potest tante fieri modo causa ruine,
    Que generat fastum, tam bona prosperitas.
Quod ego si scirem - sciat urbs hec, nam bene sciret -
    Urbibus in reliquis non foret ista prior.
Antiquus tamen ille favor, quem pristina regum
    Approbat auctoritas, non minuetur adhuc,
Sentit enim vestrum mea mens per signa timorem,
    Vos quoque spero per hoc ad meliora trahi.
Sumptus enim video vestros, data munera penso,
    Coniugis atque mee pondero valde preces.
Vos ideoque cavete deinceps principis iras;
    Contemptu proceres non habetote meos.
Antiquam servate fidem. Nova dogmata semper
    Spernite, que veteres non didicere patres.
Ecclesiam quoque catholicam defendite totam:
    Non habet illa gradum, quin colat ipse deum.
Iudicibus vestris insit timor omnipotentis;
    Pauperis in causam fraus mala ne veniat;
Sit et in urbe mea bona pax - contencio nulla,
    Nec conventiculum federis insoliti.
Si nostras etenim rumor penetraverit aures
    Obvius hiis monitis, urbs luet - haud dubium!
Sed modo suscipite claves, gladium quoque vestrum,
    Legibus antiquis hanc regitote plebem.
Antea quod licuit, liceat modo, dum tamen equm
    Extiterit, solitum non variando modum.
Premineat maior, electus qui regat urbem,
    Regis et, ut solito, suppleat ille vices.
Vos quoque, felices dulci iam pace potiti,
    Pergite gaudentes ad loca quisque sua!"

GAUDET AD HEC turba, prostrata ruit, iacet humo,
    Acclamat laudes vocibus altisonis:
"Vivat rex! Vivat semper! Vivat bene! Vivat!
    Longa sit in regno sospite vita suo!
Sint sibi felices anni mensesque diesque,
    Floreat et victis hostibus ipse suis!"
Dumque strepunt, abeunt, redeunt, regem benedicunt,
    Exitus est operi terminus iste rei.
The Reconciliation of Richard II with London,
by Brother Richard Maidstone

In praise of friends does Tully lavish such great praise,
    For, with those gone, the best of things, though good, lack worth.
"In heaven you might stand and see where all is blest
    And with both ears there drink in that sweet song," he says,
"But all that nourishes our fivefold wits and sense
    Is not a bit of good without a friend beside.
If you're without a soul to share your pleasure with,
    You feel that none of this has brought you any joy."
So, Richard, who are joined to me by double yoke
     (You share my name and symbol: we're companions),
To you I'm drawn by friendship, and I long to tell
    The joys I saw just recently at Trinovant;
I hesitate to offer you a clumsy song:
    Have pity on my fear, I beg, as love demands.

TAKE M, THREE C's, and ten times nine, and then add two
     (I calculate the number of the year by signs).
Six times the moon had to her twin, the sun, been joined,
    When happy tidings came to you, O glad New Troy.
When three times seven August dawns had lit the world,
    A pleasant rumor, London, spread throughout your bounds;
For now you get your king again, your spouse, your lord,
    Whom Wicked Tongue had taken from you by deceit.
Its grudging troop had roused the king to wrath at you,
    So that the groom gave up and left his marriage bed;
But since your love is whole - your lover's face more fair
    Than even that of Paris - he can't hate for long.
And one thing more: this gentle king commiserates
    With those that grieve - his hands are not avenger's hands.
All England sees how many ills, how many deaths,
    He's suffered from a tender age, still unavenged.
What service will he offer God? He'll always be
    In peace and joy, and never let the good decline.
He tends the church, decreeing guidance for its ranks
    Not to destroy that which our ancestors decreed.
He drives away unruly, greedy, stubborn fools
    And takes unto himself all that befits a king.
In all the world there's no young man alive like him,
    Who knows how, just like Salomon, to rule his realm.
Although his anger, Troy, blazed at you for a while,
    His face, now pleasing, shows that he is merciful.
Detraction's biting tongue could not detain the king
    From yearning to approach his marriage bed as spouse.
He'd once withdrawn all of your former liberties
    But now returns, quite ready to increase them more.
The knight appointed by the king as London's ward
    Addressed the citizens, when dawning day grew red:
"Be now prepared, O Londoners, to meet your king:
    Let him now see how welcome he is to you all.
Let all the clergy of the church proceed in front,
    And every order bear their crosses held before.
Let every city guild be quite distinct, and then
    On horseback cross the river in a splendid style.
Let all that's good in London be displayed," he said,
     "And on that day rejoice, for then will peace be yours."
Emboldened by these words the company drew close,
    And dressed itself in all the best array it could;
Meanwhile, each city square put on its finery:
    The city shone with countless gilden draperies.
The city squares smelled sweet with varied scented blooms,
    And purple buntings hung throughout in every home,
Cloth stained with gold and white and cocchineal dye
    Had here displayed a canopy with aiding skill.
No tongue could tell the labors or the great expense
    That Londoners had undergone before these days.
But look, the day goes by, I mustn't hesitate:
    All rush from town to meet the king and his young bride.
Who could recount the number of that countless crowd
    That flows from London, thicker than the heaven's stars?
On horseback twenty thousand young men could be seen;
    Of those on foot no number could contain them all.
The warden goes before with twenty-four in train,
    For these are London's aldermen, of noble rank.
(Like Rome, the city's ruled by them, as senators,
    And over them the mayor, elected by the folk.)
These were arrayed in finery of red and white,
    Distinguished from the rest by robes of double hue.
The warden goes before, the city's keys in hand
    And, too, the city's sword; the nobles walk behind,
Then after this a decked-out troop from every guild.
    Their suit proclaims that each one is quite separate:
A goldsmith, a fishmonger, and after him
    A mercer bent on trade, a seller of fine wine,
A grocer, baker, painter, and a stonemason,
    A knife-maker, a barber, and an armorer,
A carpenter, a shearer, tailor, shoemaker,
    A skinner, dyer, shopmonger, a smith as well,
And here the bowmen, butchers, and the thatchers too,
    The lorimers and drapers too, they came along;
A sheather, girdler, were here, a weaver there,
    A chandler and a waxmaker were there as well;
A brewer and a stirruper, a joiner too,
    As well there was a fruiterer and poulterer.
Among these guilds a welcome "A" stands on an "R"
     [ . . . . . . ]
A glover, pursemaker, a taverner, a cook:
    From each one's suit of clothes, his craft was clear to see.
No one, I think, who saw these crowds, could hesitate
    To say that here he saw the forms of angels stand.
On such support the martial warrior relies
    When he goes forth to war and fears no battle fray.
There each and every guild was granted its own troop;
    The route was packed along the way for four full miles.

NOW SING, O citizens, now sing to greet your king!
    For, see, your king is here; now sing, for he is wise!
The king draws near; the noble companies pack close.
    O my! How fair a sight, you'll grant, to see them all!
He sat upon his snowy horse, and all pulled back
    So that the people could behold their kindly king.
A maiden too, her face enclosed by yellow hair,
    Her tresses neatly set beneath a garland's gleam;
Her red dress shines in color, brightened by the gold,
    Concealing underneath her very pretty limbs.
And he, so fair, like Troilus or Absolon,
    Makes captive all the hearts of those that see him there.
There is no need to itemize the king's good looks:
    Among all kings on earth he clearly has no peer.
If lavish Nature had increased his beauty more,
    Then jealous Venus might have locked him in her room!
He halted in the crowded fields among the hosts,
    Surrounded fittingly by England's noble lords.
His wife, the queen, is near with all her retinue:
    Her name is Anne; I pray she may be Anne in deed.
She's beautiful, with other beauties all around;
    Led by such Amazons, New Troy is unsurpassed.
Her dress is strewn and overspread with gleaming gems
    From head to toe; there's nothing visible but gems!
Carbuncle, adamant, and beryl, all are there:
    Her head is overspread with every precious stone.
What shines upon her face and gleams upon her ears
    Assaults the viewer's gaze, and leaves it wanting more.
The king pulls back the golden reins and halts his steed;
    At this the people and the nobles all fall still.
The warden then draws near, with aldermen in robes;
    His left hand holds the keys, his right hand holds a sword,
Its point toward himself. Just like a prisoner,
    With woeful face, he spoke his speech as follows here:
"Your majesty, whose awful power is to be feared
    And also to be loved, and equally revered,
Behold: your humble citizens, beneath your feet
    Surrender all they have and their own selves to you.
With keys and sword the city gives up willingly:
    It comes all ready to surrender to your will.
Suffused with tears within, it earnestly entreats
    The king to enter in his room in gentleness.
Let him not rend or tear apart his realm's fair walls,
    For they are his, and all that still remains inside.
Let not the bridegroom hate the room he's always loved;
    No cause remains by which his love should be reduced."
With this, he takes up London's sword and keys as well;
    The king then hands both keys and sword to his own knights:
"We take you in, and your surrender, willingly;
    The fine display you've shown is pleasing to me too,
But next I plan to see what London's doing now,
    And if my people know how to accept their king."
Meanwhile the warden goes, surrounded by these four
    Times six companions; they stand behind the king.
They come up to the queen with humble countenance,
    Beseeching her, and she prays good for them in turn.
Her heart loves them, but grieves that such a famous town
    Had earned the royal wrath, but "Hope remains," she said.

THIS DONE (AS has been said), they hasten to the town;
    Guilds follow guilds in line: the first becomes the last.
They keep their proper place according to their state:
    Each one rejoices in its honor and its rank.
They're dressed in robes of black, of purple, and of grey
     (Well dyed), of green and red and scarlet too,
And bi-colored; the guilds are set apart by clothes
    And into companies, as fitting to their trades.
One first, another next, the guilds proceed to town;
    The road was scarcely big enough to hold the host!
Crowd jostles crowd; one lies, one trips, one falls
     [ . . . . . . . ]
The music's never still: the song, the roar, and shout;
    The pleasing melody strikes all the air above,
While choruses of friars sing and greet the king;
    He clasps the crosses to him, showing reverence.
He presses them with kisses, and his wife does too
    And both send prayers to God to keep and save the realm.
The gloomy climate then began to breathe again,
    For up to then the weather had been full of storms.
It had rained so (since it was sad); and man and wife
    Feared lest they be upset by such a raging storm;
But when the south wind left and gentle west wind blew,
    The atmosphere shone bright: the city now was calm.
Outside the city lies a street where suburbs spread
    Quite splendidly - its name is Southwark, "southern work."
The king here meets a man, a felon, homicide,
    Now banished from the realm; he bears a wooden cross.
He lays himself headlong before the horses' feet
    And weeping begs for pardon, which the king then grants;
Thus, kindly, he bestows his kindness on this wretch,
    So may the grace that he has shown be shown to him!
A fine and golden crown is raised above the head
    Of Anne, our queen - you can be sure it wasn't cheap!
The glowing beauty of its stones enhanced this work,
    And so the crown produced a wondrous gleaming light.
Her face was pleasing, girt with varied necklaces;
    Her country's fashion beautifies her all the more.
The king draws near the bridge's pier, where stand arrayed
    The citizens, two destriers, and splendid gifts.
These horses' covering is purple slashed with white:
    An emperor with honor would bestride these steeds!
The city's chosen warden leads them to the king
    And, speaking for the city's part, recites these words:
"O kindly king, farsighted, peaceful, conqueror:
    We seek for nothing but your peace - for this we beg!
Behold your liegemen, on the outside glad, inside
    Ecstatic, for this day has brought great joy for them,
Since you now deign to come back to your marriage room;
    The city's eager to give all the thanks it can.
But since its all is not enough to give a king,
    The city begs you to accept these destriers.
They're given as a sign that Londoners now yield
    Their bodies, riches, Pergamum, and all that's theirs.
Their life and death is now to be within your hands,
    And may your royal rod guide subjects at its will."
The king, at this contented, said: "We too accept
    These gifts with pleasure: now at last our wrath is gone.
We grant our peace to those that live within these walls;
    They're all my people now, and now I'll be their king."
When he said this, with countenance serene and firm,
    His words brought joy to thousands then enmired in gloom.
They go on in this way, and when the royal bride
    Stops in the way, the Warden speaks to her like this:
"O noble high-born lady, born of lofty race,
    Imperial in rank, renowned in family.
God chose you, worthily, for Britain's sceptered rule:
    You share in her broad rule, as you are fit to do.
The queen is able to deflect the king's firm rule,
    So he will show a gentle face to his own folk.
A woman soothes a man by love: God gave him her.
    O gentle Anne, let your sweet love be aimed at this!
These happy people now desire to see your face,
    For in it all their well-being and hope reside.
Behold, they offer you a horse, and though the gift
    Is less than fair, it's given with a happy heart.
It's of a type to gently bear your tender limbs;
    It ambles and it never stumbles in its gear.
This horse is covered with a cloth of double hue
    Of white and purple - so were all the others too.
Now, may your ladyship accept this gift (though small):
    Our company together begs you earnestly."
She takes the gift, and thanks them for it gratefully,
    And pledges to them all the help that she can give.
Although her words were in a woman's voice and soft,
    Her pleasing face, however, was the city's friend.

THESE THINGS thus done, they joyfully proceed to town;
    Crowd jostles crowd, for so the route compresses them.
The queen came to the bridge's gate, and then good luck
    Provided suddenly a new astonishment:
Two carriages, packed full with ladies, followed her;
    A Phaeton was their driver; one was overturned.
When women thus exposed their female thighs to view,
    The people scarcely could restrain a hearty laugh.
So may this lucky fall's significance come true,
    And lechery and lustful passion come to grief!
The march proceeds; in splendor public squares shine bright:
    In all the streets the singing and the cheers resound.
The pretty girls look on, and they are looked at too,
    For all the windows were packed full with pretty girls.
Whoever in the high street saw these maidens' looks
    Would scorn what's "beautiful" as though it had no worth.
They pass throughout the city at a gentle pace,
    For crowds of people block the route along the way.
But when they reached the middle of the town, just where
    The street begins that's known in English as "The Cheap,"
Who could describe the tapestries and tableaux there,
    And all the decoration and the fine displays?
For there was nothing to be seen, from top to toe,
    But lavishness and faces such as angels have.
An aqueduct dripped Bacchus - Tethys wasn't there! -
    That potion poured a ruby drink to thousands there.
On this house roof there stood a heavenly array,
    Which sang angelic songs, with art's assisting aid.
Gold flies around like leaves and blossoms, thick and fast,
    For everywhere a maiden's hand spreads it around.
They left; and when the king had reached the central square,
    He saw a castle there: he stopped and was amazed.
The total structure and its tower hung from ropes,
    And occupied a space suspended in the air;
Within the tower stood a youth in angel form,
    A girl beside him, beautiful, who wore a crown.
Whoever saw their forms, I think, would have no doubt
    That nothing underneath the sun could please him more.
The king and queen then paused, reflecting on this sight
    And what the tower means and who the young ones were.
They now descend, the young man and the girl as well;
    There was no ladder, nor could any steps be seen.
They came enwrapped in clouds, suspended in the air,
    But what device was used, believe me, I don't know!
The young man holds a cup; the girl extends two crowns.
    The latter shine with gems; the cup is full of wine.
The bright material bears witness that the crowns
    Were finely fashioned out of gleaming brand new gold.
The workmanship surpassed the substance, as was shown
    By novel subtlety of artist and of art.
The maiden then presents the warden with the crowns;
    He holds them in each hand, and then he speaks these words:
"O king illustrious and noble queen," he said,
     "May God guard both of you and keep you safe and sound!
May He, who gave you crowns of rulership on earth,
    Reward you too with heaven's everlasting realms!
Behold your people now, how happily they greet
    You and desire to honor you, as best they can.
They strive with all the effort (and the wit) they have
    To give to you whatever pleases you at heart;
And so they send to you, by giving these two crowns,
    Their countless thanks, if you will kindly take this gift.
This gift would not be right for others; but we ask
    Your kindly hand now to accept it with good will."
At this the king and royal bride are well content;
    And, smiling slightly, each one takes their gift in turn.
They smile too at the ruby wine which smiles in gold,
    And which a server with an angel's face pours out.
The people then took hope from each one's smiling cheek,
    That by their services they'd put their minds at rest.
Up unseen steps the angel and the maiden rise,
    Enwrapped in clouds, and then they seek their former place.

THEY HASTEN then towards the Minster of St. Paul's;
    Before its doors a wondrous spectacle appears:
A throne surrounded on all sides by three big rings
    Portrays a likeness of angelic ordinance.
To choirs of angels virgin companies are joined
    And sing together, harmonizing in their song.
The faces of the young shine in both these and those,
    That all that see them close are utterly enthralled.
The childish age of these young folk of either sex
    Shows in the bigger ones all taking lower seats.
Above all sat a youth, as though like God himself;
    A ray of light, just like the sun, shines in this youth.
He wears a flaming face and snow-white clothes as well;
    He sits above the ranks of heaven's holy troops.
A sound rings out; the melody enchants the mind,
    When with angelic voice the choir resounds in song.
It's sweet and beautiful, refreshing ear and eye:
    Those seeing all these things were altogether stunned.
How many kinds of music do you think there were,
    And tuneful instruments of every shape and size?
Pipe, citole, flute and drum and monochord were there,
    And organs, psalteries, and cymbals, with the lyre,
Sambukes, citerns, citoles, and trumpets, fiddles too,
    Great horns and strings, and voices all in harmony.
For me to write all this, both wit and time would fail:
    Amazement drove so many things quite from my mind.
Soon after this the king and queen went forth on foot
    To pay a visit to the abbey's holy site.
The primate and the city's bishop met them there;
    A cleric of that church came out to greet them too.
These three, in bishop's robes, escort the king and queen
    Together, to the holy tomb of Erkenwald.
They pray to God and to the saint they all revere;
    He swiftly mounts the horse that stands before his feet.

THERE'S MORE to come. They leave from here, and at Lud's gate
    A similar display is shown, and just as fine.
There, at the river bridge, the hosts of spirits shine,
    All well decked out and dressed: and they sing sweetly too.
Some sprinkle incense, others dance, and some salute,
    And some spread flowers everywhere beneath their feet.
Then soon they finally arrive at Temple Bar,
    And there a forest had been placed atop the gate!
It had, just like a desert, every kind of beast,
    Including reptiles, snakes, and many other kinds.
There brakes and briar-patches spread, and thorny shrubs,
    An ash, a hazelbush, an oak, a lofty pear,
A plum, a maple, bullace, poplar, lime and beech,
    Elm, mastic-bush, and palm and quaking willow-tree;
Wolf, lion, leopard, bear, and unicorn were there,
    A beaver, elephant, ape, tiger, and a boar,
Wild ass, swift deer, a panther, and a doe were there,
    A smelly fox, a badger, and a hare as well.
They run and run around, they fight and bite and leap,
    As savage beasts behave in desert wilderness.
Amidst them all the holy John the Baptist stood,
    And pointed with his finger: "Look, the Lamb of God!"
The king observed him closely, since, remembering
    The saint that was portrayed, his manner grew more mild:
For, since he honored him devotedly, to him
    He offered prayers before all other holy saints.
On seeing him, if any anger still remained,
    It vanished utterly, expiring on the spot.
From off the lofty roof an angel then came down,
    And in each hand he carried very splendid gifts,
For these were tablets, suited to an altar place:
    No one who looked at these could fail to think of God.
A carving was displayed of Christ upon the Cross,
    A sad disciple, and a mother, quite distraught;
Two thieves were sculpted too, appearing crucified:
    The total sequence showed the suffering of God.
The meanest and most cheap material was gold:
    The work was finely dressed with gems of every kind.
In all the world no tablets had been seen like these
    So fittingly to suit a scepter-bearing hand.
The warden took the tablets from the angel's hands
    And thus in public made the speech that follows here:
"Hail, father of the people! King, prince, leader, hail!
    May God almighty, kindly health, keep you all the while!
How splendid was that day for London's citizens,
    The day when God appointed you to be their king!
As father, so the son - King Richard's name repeats
    His ancestor's and all the honor it entails.
To good and noble kings and ancestors, his line
    Was sure to correspond: faith granted what was right.
Innate nobility, great bravery, good looks,
    Grace and prosperity, and wit and wisdom too:
All these, things that befit a king, one person holds -
    One person, as I know for sure, and that is you!
Above all this, your piety and empathy,
    Heartfelt, which show your mind, proclaim your probity.
The people's hope is greater still, when royal wrath
    Subsides and turns to mercy, pardoning them all.
These tablets that you see are symbols of all this:
    Your faithful people give them to their faithful king.
They beg the king, when touched by wrath, to look upon
    These tablets and reflect upon the death of Christ;
And spare the ignorant, as heaven's king once did,
    Forgiving enemies, and always unavenged.
A prince has power to extend his might abroad,
    But just against whatever foreigners he hates.
In bees the king's without a sting, but all the more
    He must be feared by those he doesn't strike at all!
So may your hand accept this gift, although it's small,
    To signify the peace that all your people beg!"
The king stretched out his hand and touched the sacred gifts.
     "Let there be peace to London and my citizens!"
He said. "For Christ and for His noble mother too,
    For John the Baptist, my own saint and special friend,
For all the saints whose figures I now contemplate,
    I grant forgiveness gladly for my people's crimes!
But to my palace all of you must come," he said,
     "For there a final end will come - and also peace."
The king passed by; the queen arrived; the warden gave
    Her matching gifts and, as he did, he said these words:
"Famed offspring of a father born from Caesar's line,
    Ennobled greatly by your beauty and your grace,
Who bears the name of Mary's mother, Mary who
    Bore Christ - the name of Anna means the same as 'grace.'
This name should not be meaningless, for it is hers
    Who now for all her people can display her grace.
You, kindly ladies' leader, ought to call to mind
    Your blood and family and your own proper name.
A queen can, for her people, speak the words that please -
    None but a woman can do what no man would dare.
When fearful Hesther stood before King Assuer's throne,
    She brought to naught the edicts that the king had passed.
For this, no doubt, almighty God gave you to be
    A partner in this reign, a Hesther for the realm.
Therefore your people's city, prostrate, begs your help
    And kindness, for on these it mainly puts its hope.
It gives to you these tablets, fit for altar place:
    They stand in front of God, as you before your man.
Whenever you see these, you'll gladly call to mind
    Your city and ensure the king remains its friend."
She gives her heartfelt thanks for such a splendid gift:
     "Whatever's in my power," she said, "it will be done."

THEN ALL depart on horseback in their fine array;
    And, at the king's command, to Westminster they go.
The decoration of the hall and its array
    Would be no easy task to tell or to unfold.
The house was overspread with all the weaver's skill;
    The gaze was stunned at such an unaccustomed sight.
The royal throne has pride of place upon the dais,
    Bedecked with coverings of nothing but fine gold.
The scepter-wielding king then mounts the gleaming throne;
    The nobles stand there, urging silence on the crowd.
The queen comes in, accompanied by all her maids,
    And falls, bowed down, prostrate, before the royal feet.
At his command she stands. "What, Anna, do you seek?"
    He asks. "Just speak, and your desires will be met."
"Sweet king of mine," she said, "my man, my strength, my life!
    Sweet love, without whom life to me would be like death!
What king on earth rules such a city that, like this
    Today, would honor him and magnify his name?
What worship, honor, what expense, what splendid gifts
    Have just today, most honored king, been spent on you!
We too, like these, are mortal, fleeting like a shade:
    May God forbid that we should give no thought to death!
The greater honor one receives, if he is wise,
    The more humility he has and always shall.
And so, my king, my sweetest love, please keep in mind -
    I beg you on my knees - what has just happened here.
Since Brutus' days and those of ancient kings
     (If even Arthur were included in their ranks),
Such honor never has been shown to mortal king
    As has, this day, been granted and conferred on you.
If greater reverence were shown towards the king,
    The public wrong, perhaps, would trouble God himself!
Thus, for these citizens, for this respectful town,
    For you yourself and yours, I feel the deepest grief
And beg you earnestly, by that love that you have
    For me, if I do anything to earn your love,
Please deign to spare these people, who have given you
    Such gifts, so readily, in service to us both;
And please restore the city to its ancient rights
    And give it back at last its former liberties."
"My dearest wife," the king said then, "I gladly take
    To heart what you have asked: I won't deny your boon.
Come up, my sweetest, to the throne and sit with me,
    For to my people I must speak a word or two."
The queen then placed her tender limbs upon the seat.
    The king began; the nobles and the folk fell still.
"O citizens, my people, special to the king,
    On whom my ancestors bestowed especial care:
It's sure that in this realm none more than you enjoyed
    Such liberties, our favor raised you up so high.
From such prosperity, and splendid honors too,
    My city might, perhaps, be now degenerate.
Where now are laws and edicts that are fair and just?
    What has become of fear of lords? Where has love fled?
Where now is piety? Protection of the poor?
    Where is its loving friendship? All has passed away.
The cause of such a recent fall perhaps might be
    This great prosperity, which is a sense of pride.
If I know this - let London know, for so it would -
    It would not be the first among all other towns.
Yet ancient favor, which antique authority
    Of kings approves, will not now be decreased as yet,
For in my mind, from all these signs, I feel your fear
    And hope that thus you are now drawn to better things.
I see what you have spent; I weigh the gifts you've made
    And also take account of pleadings from my wife.
So, citizens, henceforth beware the prince's wrath;
    Don't scorn or hold my lords and nobles in contempt.
Observe the ancient law. Reject for evermore
    New doctrines that the ancient fathers did not learn.
Also defend and guard the total catholic church:
    It has no sacred rank that does not worship God.
Let all your judges hold the Lord in awe;
    Let no misuse or fraudulence afflict the poor;
And in my city let there be fair peace - not strife,
    And no newfangled gatherings in novel leagues.
If any news should reach me that conflicts with this
    Advice, the city will regret it - mark my words!
But now take back your keys, receive your sword again,
    And henceforth rule this people by your ancient laws.
What was before allowed, is now allowed again,
    As long as it is fair, not straying from the norm.
A chosen mayor should be above, to rule the town,
    And, as is usual, to act the role of king.
You too, now blest (since you have won the peace you sought),
    Go joyfully, each one, returning to your homes!"

AT THIS THE crowd rejoice and fall prostrate and lie
    On earth, and sing out praise in voices to the skies:
"Long live the king, live long, live safe and well, long live the king!
    Long may he reign, and may his realm be well!
May all his years and months and days be blessed ones,
    And may he flourish, quelling all his enemies!"
And while they shout and come and go and bless the king,
    The end of this affair brings closure to this work.





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Go to Appendix 1: Other Accounts of the 1392 Royal Entry