John Lydgate, The Lyfe of Seynt Margarete

JOHN LYDGATE, THE LYFE OF SEYNT MARGARETE: EXPLANATORY NOTES

1-77 Lydgate's Prologue elaborately defines his account as a literary text based on other texts within a long rhetorical tradition. Note the difference from the openings of those narratives designed for a listening audience.

24-28 daysye. Daisy; also called a "margarita"; hence Lydgate's use of it in his stanza developing flower images in connection with Margaret. The white lily traditionally symbolizes chastity; red roses, the shed blood of a martyr.

29-53 Margarete is also a name for the pearl, which Lydgate describes and compares with St. Margaret in these stanzas. This passage closely parallels the prologue to Margaret's legend in the Golden Legend (or Legenda aurea) of Jacobus de Voragine.

41 palme. A symbol of martyrdom in western iconography.

43-44 cordyal. Lydgate is listing some of the medicinal properties attributed to pearls. They were also ground up and used as a coagulant, to stop blood flow - making them useful in connection with childbirth, as well as other medical emergencies.

56-57 aureat lycoure/ Into my penne. A figure for poetic inspiration.

69 Lady Marche. Anne Mortimer, countess of March (d.1432), who requested that Lydgate write this Life. Daughter of Anne of Woodstock and Edmund, earl of Stafford, she married Edmund Mortimer, earl of March, in 1415. Anne might have become queen, since Mortimer was considered the legitimate heir of Richard II, but Henry V was chosen instead.

72 Frensshe and Latyne. The languages of the court and the church, respectively.

120-26 Lydgate's account places unusual emphasis on Olibrius' inner feelings when he first sees Margaret. For a moment he sounds almost like a courtly lover.

139 of foreyne lyne. Other versions of the legend have him explicitly consider the possibility that she might be a mere serf.

164-82 Olibrius begins by being much politer and more complimentary to Margaret than he sounds in most other retellings. Compare this passage, e.g., with lines 81-94 in the stanzaic version.

232-59 Lydgate places unusual emphasis on the onlookers' pitying response to Margaret's ordeal. Compare this passage, e.g., with lines 139-50 in the stanzaic version.

283-398 Lydgate compresses the critical scenes of the dragon and the demon, making them the same demonic figure in two different forms, both of whom Margaret apparently defeats while lying bound in her prison cell. Rather than a vigorous fight with the demon in human form, here her prayer accomplishes the task and placing her foot on his back seems purely symbolic. In lines 298-301 Lydgate offers a well-known image of Margaret: her hands together in prayer as she stands on the defeated dragon. In lines 314-15 her two foes are again conflated: she stands on the human-shaped demon, but he is described as a serpent. In line 397 the demon is again called a dragon, and in lines 316, 323, 344, and 393 he is again linked with serpents.

316-22 See Luke 10:19, "Behold, I have given you power to tread upon serpents and scorpions, and upon all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall hurt you"; and Genesis 3:15, "I will put enmities between thee and the woman, and thy seed and her seed: she shall crush thy head, and thou shalt lie in wait for her heel." Margaret also alludes to the fact that her deed will be recorded and remembered, which was in fact an important part of her cult. (See below, especially lines 454-62.)

351-71 The demon's hatred for people stems from his envy that God created humankind to replace those angels who followed Satan and fell from heaven to hell. Therefore, humans will have the place in heaven which the demons know was once theirs.

372 Salamon. King Solomon. See explanatory note to lines 223-32 of the stanzaic Life.

396 withedrowe. I.e., she removed her foot from his back rather than cause him more duress.

401-03 This kind of explicit connection between the dragon/demon and Olibrius is also made in the Legenda aurea (Jacobus de Voragine, trans. Ryan, l.370).

419 boylyng water. This touch may be original with Lydgate. Other versions of the legend suggest that the torturers sought to increase her suffering by plunging her alternately into fire and cold water.

432 heveded by vengeaunce. Beheaded for vengeance. That is, the 5000 new converts are executed immediately after their conversion. The next stanza suggests that Olibrius wants to have her killed before there are any more conversions.

463-73 Lydgate's version of Margaret's prayer for women in childbirth carefully makes God, rather than Margaret, the agent (literally, the physician). Unlike the version in MS C of the stanzaic Life (lines 315-18), Lydgate's version also makes no explicit mention of the infant's health.

495-96 Threttene kalendes . . . / Of Jul. Thirteen of the calends of July. This is July 20, Margaret's feast day in the western church. In the eastern church her feast is celebrated on July 17.

498-518 This passage is borrowed from the end of the chapter on Margaret in the Legenda aurea. Neither MacCracken nor editors of the Legenda have identified the "holy saint" being quoted.

511 maisterasse. Margaret's example during her lifetime makes her a model to be revered and imitated by everyone.

Lenvoy "The Envoy." A direct address to the reader or hearer at the end of a poem.

519-32 Although the poem was written at the request of Anne, countess of March (named in line 69), here Lydgate extends his audience to all gentlewomen, and then to all women who have need of the saint's assistance in childbirth, and finally to all people who need her help because of any kind of trouble.

533-39 The final stanza prays for the protection of Margaret and other martyr saints to help Lydgate and his readers resist the relentless attacks of the three enemies - the world, the flesh, and the devil. (See also the Prologue, lines 47-53). Margaret's particular efficacy is in protection against demons, but because she resisted the temptation to accept Olibrius' offer of marriage and endured torture, she has triumphed over the other two enemies as well. Note that "disease" is mentioned in all three stanzas of the Envoy, becoming broader and broader in its implications.

JOHN LYDGATE, THE LYFE OF SEYNT MARGARETE: TEXTUAL NOTES

Abbreviations: B = Bodleian Library MS Bodley 686 (SC 2527), fols. 193v-200v; D = Durham University Library MS Cosin V.II.14, fols. 97v-106v [base text]; H = British Library MS Harley 367, fols. 80r-83v; L = Cambridge University Library MS Ll.5.18, fols. 29v-41v; M = Henry Noble MacCracken [EETS edition].

Here begynneth . . . According to M, this rubric is found in MSS B and H as well as D. The abbreviation at the end is a dating formula, meaning "in year 8 of the reign of Henry VI."

9 Golde. D's reading. M: Gold.

34 smalle. M lacks the final -e, indicated in D by crossing the double l.

41 her. D's reading. M: hir.

59 thi. D's reading. M: this.

74 therof. D's reading. M: thereof.

122 sawe. D's reading. M: saw.

129 anone. D's reading. M: anoon.

135 sothely. D's reading. M: sothly.

136 her. D's reading. M: hir.

138 strife. D's reading. M: stryfe.

164 thynges. D's reading. M: thinges.

171 fairnesse. D's reading. M: fairenesse.

174 mustest. D's reading, an unusual form. The other MSS cited in M all have commoner alternatives: must (H), maist (L), or myghtest (B).

175 the thride. M's emendation. D: the the thride, followed by an erased word, possibly day.

178 deide. D's reading. M: deied.

182 Whiche. D's reading. M: Which.

195 feith. D's reading. M: feithe.

201 oure. D's reading. M: our.

216 this is. My emendation. Both D and M omit is, which I have supplied on the basis of B and L.

229 hir. D's reading. M: her.

233 Ful. D's reading. M: Full.

240 on to. My emendation. M retains D's reading, unto, without comment, presumably because M construed see as a noun ("sea"). But the MED confirms that the phrase is much likelier to be the infinitive "to see on," "gaze on."

247 thi. D's reading. M: this.

250 oute. D's reading. M: out.

252 thi. D's reading. M: thy.

254 worldly. My emendation. M retains worlde, the reading in D, but H and L both have worldly. B has an odder adjectival form, worldles.

266 myschief. D's reading. M: mischief.

270 Lyke. D's reading. M: Like.

274 take. D's reading. M: taken.

280 hir. D's reading. M: her.

282 destruccyoun. D's reading. M: distruccyoun.

287 hir. D's reading. M: her.

292 anoon. D's reading. M: anoone.

310 maide. M's emendation. D: made.

313 myghte. M's emendation. D: myght.

316 malys. D's reading. M: malyse.

319 shal. D's reading. M: shall.

325 venquysshed. M's emendation. D: vequysshed.

334 doun. D's reading. M: down.

335 atte. D's reading. M: at.

340 there. D's reading. M: their.

frendly.
D's reading. M: friendly.

341 thi. D's reading. M: thy.

342 chaste. M's emendation. D: chast.

343 distresse. D's reading. M: distress.

370 the. D's reading. M: thye.

375 spirites. My emendation based on B, H and L. M retains the odd form in D, spiritus.

378 oute. D's reading. M: out.

386 Whiche. D's reading. M: Which.

387 ther. D's reading. M: their.

390 alle. D's reading. M: all.

396 withedrowe. D's reading. M: with-drowe.

400 Venquysshed. My emendation. D: Wenquysshed, which M retains.

405 nexte. M's emendation. D: next.

al. D's reading. M: all.

407 beynge. D's reading. M: beyng.

408-09 do no sacryfice / The fals goddes. The idiom seems to demand a preposition after sacryfice, but there is nothing in M to suggest that any of the MSS inserts one.

420 Reconstruction from M. The line was evidently corrupt at an early stage of transmission. According to M, H has only the same fragment found in D: The water blowyng. B and L have complete lines, but significantly different ones: The watter boilyng with bollys grete and rounde (B); The wawys burbyllyng bothe large and rounde (L).

421 enviroun. D's reading. M: enviroune.

422 doolful. M's emendation. D: dooful.

426 strange. D's reading. M: straunge.

429 peple. D's reading. M: people.

435 al. D's reading. M: all.

439 youthe. D's reading. M: youth.

447 whan. D's reading. M: when.

449-55 D calls attention to this stanza with a prominent note beside it in the margin, apparently in the hand of the original scribe, which says, primo oravit pro suis persecutoribus ("First she prayed for those who persecuted her").

456-62 This stanza is marked with another prominent marginal note, in the same hand, saying, Peticio et pro eius memoriam agentibus et se invocantibus ("There was also a request for those who would honor her memory and call on her").

463-69 This stanza has another prominent marginal note, in the same hand, saying, Etiam devote oravit ad Deum ut quecumque in partu parielitans se invocaverit illesam prolem emitteret ("She also prayed devoutly to God that any woman who called on her in childbirth should deliver an uninjured child"). This note sounds more traditional than Lydgate's version of the prayer, where the emphasis actually falls on the safety of the mother.

477 highe. M's emendation. D: high.

487 shal. D's reading. M: shall.

488 Hir. D's reading. M: Her.

491-93 sowne . . . crowne. My emendations, based on B, H, and L. M retains the odder form, soun, from D, but emends D's croun to croune.

510 sholde. D's reading. M: shulde.

511 alle. D's reading. M: all.

515 virgyn. D's reading. M: virgin.

519-39 This ending is found in D and H but not in the other two MSS collated by M.

524 sykenesse. D's reading. M: syknesse.

534 other. D's reading. M: othir.
 
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John Lydgate, The Lyfe of Seynt Margarete








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Here begynneth the prolog of the holy seynt, Seynt Margarete,
compendyously compiled in balade by Lidgate dan Johan, Monk of Bury, Ao VIIIo h VI i.

At the reverence of Seynt Margarete
   My purpos is hir lyfe to compile;
Though I have no rethorikes swete
   Nor colour noon t'enbelisshe with my style
   Yet dar I seyn, it happeth so somen while,
Under writyng rude of apparence
Mater is hid of grete intellygence.

Ful ofte falleth, in this chestys blake
   Golde and perlys and stones of grete prys
Ben ylooke and into warde ytake;
   And by sentence and the prudent avys
   Of philosoffres, that holden were so wys,
A royal ruby in whiche ther is no lak
May closed ben in a ful pore sak.

And though that I have noon eloquence
nbsp;  For to discryve hir parfit holynesse
Hir chaste lyf, hir tendre innocence,
nbsp;  Hir martirdam wrought by grete duresse,-
nbsp;  Ay unmutable in hir stablenesse,
Unto the dethe ay one in hir suffraunce,
So was hir herte roted on constaunce.

In Crystes feith she gan hir so delyte,
   For whom she lyste despyse al worldly glorye,
This daysye, with leves rede and white,
   Purpul hewed, as maked is memorye,
   Whan that hir blode was shad oute by victorye,
The chaste lely of whos maydenhede
Thorugh martyrdam was spreynt with roses rede.

Margarete, the storye dothe hir calle,
   After a stone ynamed "margarite,"
A precyous gemme amonge these stones alle,
   In there bokes as clerkys liste to write;
   For of nature perlys echone ben white,
Right vertuous of kynde, rounde and smalle -
Whiche propurtees resemblen hir at alle.

She was first white by virginyté,
   In al hir lyvyng prevyde vertuous,
And smal she was by humylité;
   Right strong in God, this maide glorious;
   And for she was thurgh deth victoryous,
Thurgh her triumphe she gate the palme in hevene,
With laurer crowned above the sterres sevene.

This stone in vertu is a cordyal,
   To the spirit a grete confortatyf;
Right so hir herte was imperyal -
   I mene, in vertu duryng al hir lyf;
   For she venquesshed with al hir mortal stryf
The devel, the worlde, her storye dothe devyse,
And of hir flesshe she made a sacryfice

Unto the Lorde, that starf upon the Rode,
   Whan He liste deye for oure redempcyoun;
So this virgine, t'aquyte Him, shad hir blode
   Ful benygnely in her passyoun.
   O gemme of gemmes, vyrgyn of most renoun,
Thy lif to write be thou my socoure,
And shede of grace the aureat lycoure

Into my penne, quakyng of verray drede,
   Of retoryke for I have no muse
Duely to write thi martirdom; in dede,
   Ne were oo thyng, I wolde me excuse -
   That thou of grace wylt me not refuse
But dyrectyn, O blysful lode-sterre,
Me and my penne to conveye, whan I erre.

Lat thi lyght in derkenesse be my guyde
   Tochyng this processe whiche I have undertake.
Remembre, O virgyne, upon that other side
   On hir that caused, oonly for thi sake,
   Thyn holy lyf me to compile and make, -
My Lady Marche I mene, whiche of entent
Gafe firste to me in commaundement

That I shulde considre welle and see
   In Frensshe and Latyne thyn holy passyoun,
Thi martirdam and thi virginité,
   And therof make a compilacyoun;
   So, as I cowde, under correccioun,
And under supporte of alle that shal it rede,
Upon this storye thus I wylle procede.

Here endeth the prolog of Seynt Margarete, and next folwyng begynneth the storye of hir

In Anthiochye, a famous grete citee,
   This blyssed mayde, this martir gloryous
Whilom was born, hire legende ye may see, -
   Hir fader callid Theodosius;
   And as the storye playnly telleth us,
A patryark he was of paynym lawes
After the ryghtes used in tho dawes.

To a noryce this mayde was ytake,
   Right gracious of shape and of visage.
The paynym lawe of herte she hath forsake
   And was baptised in hir tendre age,
   For whiche hir fader gan fallen in a rage
And to hirward bare ful grete haterede,
Whan that he knewe she crystened was in dede.

And whan that she by processe dede atteyne
   Unto the age of fiftene yere,
With othir maydnes of beauté sovereyne,
   This holy virgyne, benygne and glad of chere,
   Flouryng in vertu, moste goodly and entere,
Humble of hir porte, this gracyous creature
Kepte of hir noryce the shepe in theire pasture.

Devoyde of pride, of rancour and of ire,
   She called was a mirrour of mekenesse.
The Holy Gost hir herte so dede enspire
   That wille and thought were sette on parfitnesse;
   To thynke on Criste was holy hir gladnesse,
And chere benygne to alle she dede shewe,
Softe of hir speche, and but of wordys fewe.

She gat hir love upon every syde
   By cause she was so inly vertuous,
For God and grace with hir dide abide -
   Al thyng eschewyng that was vycious -
   Til that the Prefette, called Olibrius,
Of aventure rode on his pleyng,
Where he sawe first this mayde, hir shepe kepyng.

He was ravesshede anoon with hir beauté,
   Hir grete fairnesse whan he dide adverte,
Hir fresshe face eke whan he dide see;
   Hir hevenly iyen perced thurgh his herte,
   Brent in his corage with importable smerte.
This cruel wolfe, for love inpacyent,
Cast him devowre this cely innocent.

Firste to himself thus he spake and sayde:
    "What is she, this? Where doth this goodely duelle?"
Who sawe ever toforn so faire a maide,
   Whiche alle othir in beauté dothe excelle?
   Of wommanhede she is the verray welle,
For me semeth myn herte in every weyne
Is thurgh perced with hir iyen tweyne."

And with that thought he made for to gone
   His servauntes to hir innocence,
Bad thei sholde enquere of hir anone,
   What that she was, with al hir diligence,
   And reporte unto his presence
Of hir lynage playnly how it stode
And where she were born of gentil blode;

"And of hir birthe if that she be fre,
   I wille hir have sothely to my wyfe,
Love and cherysshe for her grete beauté,
   As it is skyle, duryng al my lyfe,
   That atwene us ther shal be no strife;
And if she be born of foreyne lyne,
I wille hir take to myn concubyne."

Whan she was brought unto his presence,
   First he enquerede of hir condicyoun,
Bad hir declare platly in sentence
   Of hir lawe and hir religioun,
   And of hir kyn, by short conclusyoun,
Clerly dyscure, and the trouthe attame,
Hooly hir purpos, and what was hir name.

She, not to rekel for noon hastynesse,
   But ful demure and sobre of contenaunce,
Gan looke on him by grete avisenesse,
   Dressyng to God hir hertes remembraunce;
   Of chere nor colour ther was no variaunce.
Constaunt of herte, this holy blyssed mayde
To the Prefecte evene thus she saide:

"Touchynge my lynage, by successyoun
   My bloide conveied is fro grete noblesse,
My name Margarete; and of religioun
   I am Cristen, in verray sothfastnesse;
   And in that lawe, withoute doublenesse,
For lyf or dethe playnly I wille abide,
Persevere stable, and varien on no side."

Wherof the juge in manere gan disdeyne,
   To hir saide, for short conclusioun,
"Margarete, ther ben thynges tweyne
   Ful covenable to thi condicyoun:
   And this the first, to myn oppinioun,
Of thi byrthe the grete nobilité,
And the seconde is thi grete beauté,

"Whiche in thi persone joyned ben yfere,
   Worthi to be called a Margarite,
Of fairnesse of shape and eke of chere,
   A chose gemme among these perles white;
   And in this tweyne for I me delite,
Sewyng my counsaille thou mustest condiscende
Better avysed the thride to amende.

"To thi beauté it were a ful grete loos,
   To thi youthe and to thi maydenhede,
To leve on him that deide on a croos.
   I holde it foly; wherfore take goode hede,
   Forsake his feithe, and do as I thee rede:
First lat that god of thee be denyed
Whiche on a tre was hange and crucified."

"Certes," quod she, "whatever that thou seye,
   He wilfully suffred passioun
And humbely liste for mankynde deye,
   And sched His blode for oure redempcioun
   To make us fre, and payen oure raunsoun,
Of His joye that we ne sholde mysse
Where now He regneth eternaly in blysse."

The juge, wrothe, sent hir to prisoun,
   There to abide tille on the next day;
Makyng as thoo no dilacioun,
   Bad she sholde in al the haste thei may
   Be brought aforn him, to seyn yee or nay
Touchyng hir creaunce, what was hir lawe or feith.
And to hir evenne thus he seithe:

"Margarete," quod he, "have pité on thyne age,
   And have eke mercy on thi grete fairnesse.
Spille not thi thought of foly ne of rage,
   But tourn thyn herte, and thi wittes dresse
   To oure goddes, and do thi besynesse
Hem to honour and plese her deyeté,
As thou desirest to lyve in prosperité."

Quod she ageyn: "With hert, wille and thoughte
   I worship Him verrayly in dede
That made man, and after hath him bought,
   Whom hevene and erthe and the see dothe drede.
   Alle elementes He dothe conveie and lede,
For wynde, nor weder, nor no creature
Withoute His mercy may no while endure."

Quod the juge: "Anoon but thou consente
   To my desire as thou hast herde devyse,
Truste fully that thou shalt repente.
   For first I shall in ful cruel wyse
   Mercyles thy body so chastyse -
Trust me welle, this is no feyned tale -
Thi flesshe assonder kerve on peces smale."

Quod Margarete, "While that me lastethe brethe,
   I shal abide in this oppinioun.
Sytthe Criste for me suffred peyne and dethe,
   Shad al His blode for my redempcyoun,
   So for His sake, of hole affeccyoun,
Be assured that I have no drede
To deye for Him, and al my blode to shede."

The juge thanne upon a galowe tre
   Lete hangen up this holy pure virgyne,
Hir flesshe be rente in his cruelté,
   Whos blode ran doun right as eny lyne;
   Lyke a quyke this mayden in hir pyne
Shad oute hir blode, hir veynes al torent,
Til of hir body the lycour was al spent.

Allas the while! Thei that stode beside
   Ful sore wepten of compassyoun.
Allas! For doole thei myght unnethe abide
   To sene hir blode so renne and rayle doun.
   So importable was hir passyoun
For Cristes feithe that the peple abraide
And of pité thus to hir thei saide:

"O Margareta, allas, whan we take hede
   Hou thou whilom were faireste on to see,
But now, allas! Thi body is al rede,
   Steyned with blode, whereof we han pité.
   Allas! allas! Hou myght it evere be
To sene a mayde yonge, fresshe, and tendre of age
Mighty to endure of tourment suche a rage?

"Whi hast thou lost thyn excellent fairenesse?
   Whi hast thou lost thi shape and thy beauté?
And fynal cause of thi mortal distresse
   Is thi wilful incredulité.
   Lete fantasies oute of thyn herte fle
Now at the last, that thou maist in eese
Of thi turment the bitternesse appese."

Quod she: "Goth hens, ye fals counsaylirys,
   Ye worldly peple, unsad and ever untrewe,
Flesshely, chaungeable, and in youre desirys
   Delityng evere in thinges that be newe;
   Amonge remembreth - and wolde God ye knewe -
That of my flesshe the mortal tourmentrie
Is to my soule chief salve and remedie."

And to the juge thus she saide and spake:
    "O gredy hounde, lyoun insaciable,
On my body thou maiste welle taken wrake,
   But the soule shal persevere stable,
   For Cristes feith abiden immutable.
For thilke Lorde Crist Jhesu, whom I serve,
From al myschief my spirit shal preserve."

The juge, confuse sittyng in the place,
   To beholde myght not sustene
The rede blode rayle aboute hir face,
   Lyke a ryver rennyng on the grene;
   Toke his mantel in his mortal tene,
Hid his visage, whanne that he toke hede,
In herte astoned to sene hir sydes blede;

Made hir in hast to be take doun
   Myd of hir peyne cruel and horrible,
And efte ageyne putte hir in prisoun,
   Where she prayde: if it were possible,
   Hir mortal foo, dredful and odible,
The Lorde besechynge that she myght him see,
Whiche cause was of hir adversité,

Hir impugnynge thurgh his mortal fight
   That man first brought to destruccyoun.
And sodeynly appered in hir sight,
   Where as she lay bounden in prisoun,
   In the lykenesse of a felle dragoun
The olde serpent, whiche called is Sathan,
And hastyly to assayle hir he began.

With open mouthe, the virgyne to devour,
   First of alle, he swolwed in hir hede,
And she devoutly, hirself to socoure,
   Gan crosse hirself, in hir mortal drede;
   And by grace, anoon or she toke hede,
The horrible beste, in relees of hir peyne,
Brast assondre and partyd was on tweyne.

And efte ageyne to assayl hir he began,
   The story seith, and after dothe appeere
By gret disceit in lykenesse of a man;
   And she devoutly, with hir yen clere
   Lyfte up to God, gan maken hir prayere.
And as she lay in hir orisoun,
Under hir fete lyggyng the dragoun,

The devel, venquysshed, toke hir by the honde,
   Spake thes wordes, as I shal devyse:
"Thou hast me bounde with invisible bonde,
   Whiche victorie ought ynogh suffice!
   Cese of thy power, and lat me now aryse,
For I may not abiden thi constreynt,
In this batayle thou hast me made so feynt."

And she aroos withoute fere or drede,
   This cely maide, this tendre creature,
By grace of God hent him by the hede
   And cast him doun, for al his felle armure,
   Under hir fete - he myghte not recure;
And on this serpent for to do more wrake,
Hir ryght fote she sette upon his bake.

"Oo feende," quod she, "of malys serpentyne,
   Remembre of thee how I have victorye,
A clene mayde, by powere femynyne,
   Whiche shal be rad to myn encrees of glorye.
   Perpetuelly putte eke in memorie,
How a mayde hath put under fote
Sathan, that is of synne crope and roote."

With that the serpent lowde gan to crie,
    "Thou hast me brought shortly to uttraunce!
I am venquysshed, I may it not denye;
   Ageyns thee ful feble is my puyssaunce.
   Thyn innocence hath brought me to myschaunce,
And a mayde, but of yeeres tendre,
Hath me outrayed with hir lymmes sklendre.

"Yif that a man, whiche had force and myght,
   Had me venquysshed, I myght it welle sustene;
But now, allas, ageyn al skele and ryght,
   A cely virgyne, a mayde pure and clene,
   Hath me bore doun in al my felle tene;
And this, allas, bothe atte eve and morowe
Is grettest cause of my dedly sorowe.

"This encreseth grete party of my peyne,
   Whan I consydre withynne myself and see
How thi fader and moder bothe tweyne
   Were in there tyme frendly unto me;
   But thou allone, thurgh thi virginité,
Thi chaste lyf, thy parfyt holynesse
Han me venquysshed and outrayed in distresse."

Whan she bigan the serpent to constreyne
   To discure, and no thinge to hyde
By what mene and what manere treyne,
   Outher by malys, outher by envye and pryde
   That he assailed man on any syde,
"The kynde of man, telle on anoon," quod she,
"And be welle ware thou lye nat to me."

"Sothely," quod he, "I may it not denye -
   To seyn the trouthe playnly, and not spare -
My nature is of custume for to lye,
   As I that am of trouthe and vertue bare,
   Lyggynge awayte agenste the welfare
Of folkes goode, and alway envyous
To alle that ben parfite and vertuous.

"Naturelly to hem I have envye,
   Though thei thurgh vertu me ofte put abak,
And whan it falleth thei have of me mastrie,
   Ageyn to me resorteth al the wrak;
   Of charité I have so grete a lak,
So grete sorowe only for lak of grace
That man in hevene sholde occupye my place.

"Yet, wote I welle, I may it not recure,
   Nor in that place shal I never abide,
But in helle sorowe and peyne endure,
   From hevene caste for my grete pryde.
   This foule vice fro thennes was my guyde,
Yet of malys, the trouthe for to telle,
Envye I have that man ther sholde duelle.

"This eke trouthe that whilom Salamon,
   As bookes olde recorden and conclude,
Closed in a vesselle fendes many on
   And of spirites a grete multitude,
   Whiche innocentes ful often can delude;
But after dethe of that prudent kynge
Fro that vessel thei caste oute fire sparklynge.

"Men supposyng in theire oppinioun
   There was closed grete tresour and rychesse,
Brak the vessel of entencyoun,
   And sodeynly the fendes gan hem dresse
   Oute of that holde fer fro that distresse,
At her oute-goyng enfectyng al th'ayre,
Where thei abiden and have theire repaire;

"Whiche to mankynde do ful grete damage
   By ther malys and ther temptacions,
To olde and yonge and every manere age,
   By ther conspired fals illusyouns;
   But fynally alle ther collusyons
Goth unto nought, and al ther violence,
Whan ther is made myghty resistence."

Whan the serpent malicyous and olde
   To the mayde, whos fote dede him oppresse,
Had his processe and his tale tolde,
   She withedrowe to done him more duresse;
   And the dragoun upwarde gan him dresse,
Disapered, and forth his wey is goo;
And she, assured of hir gostly foo,

Venquysshed hath the prynce of al derkenesse,
   And sitthe she hathe overcome the hede,
It faylethe nat she nedes moste oppresse
   His cruel mynystre, and have of him no drede.
   And sewyng on, this floure of goodelyhede
The nexte day, voyde of al refuge
Save of the Lorde, was brought afore the juge,

Ful moche peple beynge in presence.
   And for she wolde do no sacryfice
The fals goddes, by mortal violence
   She was dispoiled in ful cruel wyse
   And naked stode, that folke myght hir despise;
And after that this gemme of maydenhede
Was brent with brondus bright as eny glede.

Hir sydes skorched, whilom white as melke,
   The cruel mynystres liste hir nat to spare;
For Crystes sake hir body, softe as selke,
   Mercyles, naked stode and bare,
   And to aument and encrese hir care
In boylyng water she was caste and bounde,
The wawys burblyng with bolles grete and round.

The folkes alle, that stonden enviroun
   Of doolful pité, that sawe this aventure,
Gan wepe and pleyne, and of compassyoun
   Merveyled sore a tendre creature
   Sustene myght suche tourment and endure;
For the tyraunt, to make hir peynes strange,
In fire and water gan hir tourment change.

And sodeynly there fille an erthequave.
   The peple, in drede, dempte it was vengeaunce;
And fyve thousand, for God wolde hem save,
   Converted weren from there myscreaunce,
   For Cristes sake heveded by vengeaunce.
Se how a mayde in al hir tourmentrie
The feith of Crist coude magnifie!

The blynde juge, al voyde of happe and grace,
   Last that othre converted wolde be
To Cristes feith, withoute lenger space
   Commaunded hath that this mayde fre,
   In youthe flourynge and virginité,
To ben heveded, withoute more tarying,
In hir praier as she lay knelynge.

But first she praied of humble affeccyoun
   To the juge, to graunten hir leysere
That she myght make hir orisoun,
   And have a space to lyve in hir praiere.
   And ful devoutly with hert hole and entere
Upon the poynte whan she sholde deye,
The blessed virgyne thus bygan to preye.

First she praide of parfite charité
   For hir enemys and hir tourmentours,
For hem that caused hir adversité
   And had hir pursued with mony sharpe shours.
   Of parfit love she gadrid oute the flours,
Praying also for thoo folkes alle
That after helpe unto hir grace calle,

And for alle thoo that have hir in memorie,
   And swiche as truste in hir helpe at nede:
That God hem graunte, sittinge in His glorie,
   Of His grace that thei may welle spede,
   And ageyn right that no man hem myslede,
"And Lorde," quod she, "to alle be socoure
That for thi sake done to me honoure.

"And specyally to thee I beseche
   To alle wymmen whiche of childe travayle,
For my sake, oo Lorde, be thou her leche;
   Lat my prayere unto hem availe.
   Suffre no myschief tho wymmen, Lorde, assaile,
That calle to me for helpe in theire grevaunce,
But for my sake save hem fro myschaunce.

"Lat hem, Lorde, not perisshe in theire childynge;
   Be thou her comforte and consolacyoun,
To be delivered thurgh grace of thyn helpynge;
   Socoure hem, Lorde, in theire tribulacyoun.
   This is my praier, this is myn orisoun,
And specially do alle folkes grace
That calle to me for helpe in any place!"

And fro that highe hevenly mansyoun
   Was herde a voys in open audience
That God had herde hir peticioun,
   To be parfourmed withoute resistence.
   And than this maide, moste of excellence,
Roos up devoutly, and no thynge afferde
Seide unto him whiche that helde the swerde:

"Come nere," quod she, "myn oune brother dere,
   Smyte with the swerde, and loke thou spare nought.
My body shal behynde abiden here,
   But my soule to hevene shal be brought."
   Hir hede enclynynge with an humble thought;
The mynystre with al his myght and peyne
Lefte up his swerde and smote hir necke on tweyne.

The peple of pité gan to crie and sowne
   That stode and sawe hir bitter passioun;
Of martirdam thus she toke the crowne
   For Cristes feithe, with hole affeccyoun.
   Threttene kalendes, the boke maketh mencyoun,
Of Jul this maide, a merour of constaunce,
Was laureat thurgh hir parfit suffraunce.

An holy seynt writeth of this maide, and seithe:
    "This Margareta, parfyt of hir creaunce,
With drede of God moste stable in hir feythe,
   Unto the deth havyng perseveraunce
   Sette hoole to God with thought and remembraunce,
In herte ay compunt, she was so vertuous,
Everything eschewyng that was vicious.

"Hir blessed lyf, hir conversacioun
   Were example of parfite pacience,
Of grounded clennesse and of religioun,
   Of chastité founded on prudence;
   God gaf to hir soverayn excellence
In hir tyme that she sholde be
To alle a maisterasse of virginité.

"Hir fadir, modir, hir kynred she forsoke;
   Hir holy lyvynge was to hem odious.
To Cristes lawe al holy she hir toke,
   This blissed mayde, this virgyn glorious;
   Of alle hir enemyes she was victorious,
Til at the laste, in vertu complet goode,
For Cristes sake she shad hir chaste bloode."

Explicit vita sancte Margarete.

Lenvoy

Noble princesses and ladyes of estate,
   And gentilwomen lower of degré,
Lefte up your hertes, calle to your advocate
   Seynt Margarete, gemme of chastité.
   And alle wymmen that have necessité,
Praye this mayde ageyn sykenesse and dissese,
In trayvalynge for to do yow ese.

And folkes alle that be disconsolat
   In your myschief and grete adversité,
And alle that stonde of helpe desolate,
   With devout hert and with humylité
   Of ful trust, knelyng on your kne,
Pray this mayde in trouble and alle dissese
Yow to releve and to do yow ese.

Now, blissed virgyne, in hevene hy exaltat,
   With other martirs in the celestialle se,
Styntith werre, the dredfulle fel debat
   That us assailith of oure enemyes thre,
   From whos assaute inpossible is to fle,
But, chaste gemme, thi servauntes sette at ese
And be her shelde in myschief and dissese.

Explicit.



In honor of; (see note)


Nor any; to embellish
sometimes
of rough appearance
knowledge

[it] happens; these [ordinary] black chests
pearls; value; (t-note)
locked [up]; guardianship
counsel
were considered
fault
be enclosed; very poor bag (sack)


describe her (Margaret's)

hardship
Always unchangeable; resolution
always the same; patience
rooted in constancy


chose to despise
(see note)
Crimson colored
shed
lily; virginity
covered

(see note)


choose
pearls are all
powerful by nature; (t-note)
properties; wholly


proved
humility

because
earned; palm; (see note); (t-note)
laurel; seven stars

power; stimulant; (see note)
something that restores and strengthens
majestic
virtue (power)
overcame
tell
flesh

died; Cross
chose [to]
to repay; shed
graciously; martyrdom
virgin of greatest fame
help
golden liquid; (see note)

[which is] quaking for very fear
rhetoric; because
Properly; (t-note)
except for one thing
will not refuse me
guide; guiding star
to lead; wander

Let; guide
Concerning

exclusively
your holy life; write
who deliberately; (see note)
Gave


suffering; (see note)

from those sources; compilation; (t-note)
as best I could, subject to correction
of everyone; read




Antioch

Some time ago
father

chief priest; pagan religion
rites; those days

nurse; taken
face
pagan; from her heart; forsaken
young age
fell into
toward her; hatred
christened

passage of time; did attain

outstanding beauty
expression
Flowering; complete
bearing
sheep

ill humor; anger
gentleness
inspire
perfection
wholly her joy
gracious bearing
few words

was loved by all around her
spiritually virtuous

avoiding everything
Prefect
By chance; enjoying himself
tending her sheep

overwhelmed
beauty; perceive
also
eyes
Burned; heart; unbearable pain

Decided to; blessed

(see note)
beautiful [person]
before; (t-note)

source
vein
pierced; two eyes

had go to her

Ordered; ask; (t-note)
their effort

ancestry
whether; noble blood

free born (noble)
honestly; (t-note)
cherish [her] ; (t-note)
fitting
between; (t-note)
inferior blood; (see note)
as my concubine


inquired
Ordered; frankly in truth

family
disclose; reveal
intention

too rash; any
quiet; serious of conduct
deliberation
Directing
expression



Concerning; lineage
descent; nobility

truthfulness
religion; duplicity

steadfastly; change

became indignant

two; (see note); (t-note)
suitable




together
a pearl
face; (t-note)
choice; pearls
two; because I delight
Following; consent; (t-note)
advised to amend the third ; (t-note)

loss
virginity
believe in; cross; (t-note)
folly; heed
counsel
let; yours
a tree; (t-note)


voluntarily
chose; to die

ransom
[so] that; lose
reigns



then no delay
[He] ordered
before; yes or no
Concerning her belief; (t-note)




Waste; mind with
turn; direct
diligence; (t-note)
deity






guide; lead



unless
tell

manner
merciless; punish
feigned; (t-note)
cut into small pieces

breath remains in me

Since
Shed
complete
fear
die; shed


caused to be hung up
torn
in a straight line
Like a spring; pain; (t-note)
Shed; lacerated
liquid

(see note)
sorrowfully; out of compassion; (t-note)
sorrow; hardly remain
see; run and flow
unbearable
broke their silence



once; to look at; (t-note)
red
stained

unspoiled; young
Strong enough


(t-note)
the ultimate
disbelief
flee; (t-note)
ease
alleviate; (t-note)

go hence; counselors
unreliable; false; (t-note)


Always; if
torment
medicine


greedy dog; lion
vengeance
steadfast

the same
harm; (t-note)

frustrated

run down
(t-note)
vexation
face
astonished

taken; (t-note)
[In the] midst of
afterwards

hateful
beseeching
hardship; (t-note)

opposing (resisting)
That first brought man to; (t-note)
(see note)

fierce dragon

attack; (t-note)


swallowed; head
save
fear
before; (t-note)
relief
Burst; in two

afterwards again; attack

deceit; form
eyes
lifted
prayer
lying

defeated



Abate
remain [in]
weak


innocent ; (t-note)
seized; head
despite; fierce armor
recover; (t-note)
vengeance
back

treacherous malice; (see note); (t-note)


retold ; (t-note)
also remember

head; source


destruction
(t-note)
power
misfortune
merely
overcome; slender limbs


bear
reason; custom
innocent (harmless)
fierce vexation; (t-note)
(t-note)
mortal anguish

[to a] great extent


(t-note)
(t-note)
(t-note)
overcome; ruined; (t-note)


reveal
means; trickery
Either by malice, or

nature
careful; not to lie

(see note)

accustomed to lie
bereft
Lying in wait against




strength (virtue); hinder
happens; control over me
returns; suffering




recover
live

thrown

(t-note)
dwell

same; once; (see note)

many devils
(t-note)
very often can delude

emitted; (t-note)


enclosed
on purpose
turn themselves
confinement far
departure infecting; the air
live; dwelling place

(t-note)
malice; (t-note)
sort of
their malicious
trickery; (t-note)
for nothing




narrative
forbore to do; harm; (see note); (t-note)
turn himself
Disappeared; is gone
certain about her spiritual enemy

(t-note)
since; head; (see note)
defeat
servant; fear
following; flower
deprived of all help; (t-note)
Except

many; in the court; (t-note)
(t-note)

stripped


burned; brands; burning coal

formerly white as milk
chose
silk
Unpitied
augment
(see note)
waves; bubbles; (t-note)

stood in the vicinity; (t-note)
sorrowful; event; (t-note)
complain
Wondered

extraordinary; (t-note)
varied her torture

came an earthquake
thought; (t-note)

misbelief
beheaded ; (see note)



luck; (t-note)
Lest; others

gracious (noble)
(t-note)
beheaded; delay


desire
opportunity
prayer
to remain
perfect; sincere
At the time; (t-note)


(t-note)


attacks
amassed the flowers
all those people
call on her grace for aid

those; (t-note)


prosper
lead them astray
comfort
pay their respects to me

(see note); (t-note)
labor in childbirth
their physician
benefit them

suffering
misfortune

childbirth



prayer



mansion; (t-note)
publicly


greatest
rose; afraid of nothing



Strike
remain
(t-note)
head bowing; (t-note)
servant; effort
struck; in two

swoon; (t-note)

received

Thirteen; (see note)
July; mirror (model)
honored; patience (endurance)

(see note)
perfect in; belief


devoted wholly
always devout
avoiding

conduct

purity


(t-note)
model; (see note); (t-note)


hateful

(t-note)

good with perfect virtue
shed





(see note); (t-note)




against; (t-note)
childbirth; give you comfort


misfortune
bereft



relieve; give you comfort

exalted high; (see note)
dwelling place; (t-note)
Stop; cruel conflict
from
it is impossible to flee

their; misfortune; distress