Selections from the Middle English Metrical Paraphrase of the Old Testament

THE MIDDLE ENGLISH METRICAL PARAPHRASE OF THE OLD TESTAMENT: FOOTNOTES

1 And presented herself so that the execution might take place

2 All they were able to seize lost their heads

THE MIDDLE ENGLISH METRICAL PARAPHRASE OF THE OLD TESTAMENT: NOTES

S = MS Selden Supra 52, the manuscript on which this and the Kalén-Ohlander edition are based. L = MS Longleat 257, the only other known manuscript of the paraphrase. O = Ohlander's edition. Citations are by stanza number and line number within the stanza.

The Prologue: Since L is missing the first 1472 lines of the poem (i.e., all of Genesis and the first two and a half stanzas of Exodus) the Prologue in this edition is based exclusively on Selden Supra 52. Because of the great length of the poem and because I have selected only three disparate sections, lines commented on in the notes are indicated by stanza number in the Kalén-Ohlander edition (which is basically the same stanza arrangement as one would find in the Selden MS). Both manuscripts of the poem are written in long lines (two verses per line), with stanzas usually marked every six lines, either in the margin or by capitalization.

2.6 on, the maystur of storyse. The one referred to here is Peter Comestor, "magister historiarum," whose Historia scholastica (c. 1170) was a principal source for legendary events for this poet and other Northern writers such as the authors of Cursor Mundi, the York Plays, the Northern Cycle, and Genesis and Exodus (MS Corpus Christi College, Cambridge 444, which is based on a Northern original of the late twelfth century) as well. When the poet refers to the "storyse," he means Comestor's Historia.

2.8 schort. S: schortes. Kalén's emendation.

3.6 ever. S: ouer. Kalén's emendation.

3.8 kawn. Heuser (p. 4) would emend to knawn, but Kalén suggests that kawn is the past participle of OE ceowan in the ME sense of "meditate on" (I.4n).

The Story of Jephthah and His Daughter: For the Story of Jephthah and His Daughter and the Story of Judith, I follow Kalén-Ohlander in using S as the primary text, with emendation derived mainly from L. The story is found in stanzas 292-99 (lines 33493-588) of the Middle English poem. The narrative loosely follows the Vulgate account in Judges 11. The most radical divergences occur in the dialogue between Jephthah and the daughter. See the note to stanzas 294 ff., which provides the Douay translation of the Vulgate for comparison.

292.1 Jepte. S: Septe; L: Iepte.

292.10 S: all that armys beyre. Kalén emends to: [to] all that [my?t] armys beyre, following L: all to men that myght armes bere.

293.1 S: herthy; L: hertly.

294 ff. The poet alters several details of the Vulgate text by developing Jephthah's concern for his daughter, his falling from his horse in grief, his daughter's self-sacrificing responses to his vow; by deleting the daughter's lament for her virginity; and by adding details of Jephthah's execution of the vow with beheading and cremation. The Vulgate reads: "And when Jephte returned into Maspha to his house, his only daughter met him with timbrels and with dances: for he had no other children. / And when he saw her, he rent his garments, and said: Alas! my daughter, thou hast deceived me, and thou thyself art deceived: for I have opened my mouth to the Lord, and I can do no other thing. / And she answered him: My father, if thou hast opened thy mouth to the Lord, do unto me what soever thou hast promised, since the victory hath been granted to thee, and revenge of thy enemies. / And she said to her father: Grant me only this which I desire: Let me go, that I may go about the mountains for two months, and may bewail my virginity with my companions. / And he answered her: Go. And he sent her away for two months. And when she was gone with her comrades and companions, she mourned her virginity in the mountains. / And the two months being expired, she returned to her father, and he did to her as he had vowed, and she knew no man. From thence came a fashion in Israel, and a custom has been kept: / That from year to year the daughters of Israel assemble together, and lament the daughter of Jephte the Galaadite for four days" (Judges 11:34-40 - Douay translation).

294.4 home. Omitted in S; supplied according to L.

294.5 byd. S: hyd. L: noght abyde.

294.6 agayns. This word carries connotations of expectation, the sense here being that the daughter comes out joyously in anticipation of Jephthah's triumphal arrival.

294.7 saw. Omitted in S. L: hire saw allas.

294.10 not. Omitted in S. L: myght not sytt.

295.6 dyght. With dede (death), dyght bears the sense of something being destined, predetermined, foredoomed, or caused. See MED dighten 2b, 2c, 3a(d).

296.10 that may no thyng avayle: "who may accomplish nothing"; or, "who [compared to the soldiers who were saved] am of no value."

297.3 fader. Omitted in S. Emendation based on L.

297.5 two wekes. In the Vulgate she gets a two-month respite to lament that she dies a virgin, thus establishing a Hebrew ritual. The Christian paraphrase places a premium on virginity and alters both the time interval and the details of her lament (that is, she laments her death with her friends, but not that she dies a virgin). Compare Chaucer's Physician's Tale, where Virginia likewise cites Jephthah's daughter to celebrate her virginity in death rather than lament it.

299.4 S: that he heddyd hyr; L: that heded hire. I follow L for the sake of meter.

299.7 S: ffeyle bow; L: ffowle vow. K: ff[e]le [v]ow.

299.11 S and L begin the line with Both; Kalén deletes it to preserve the three-stress line, which makes sense to me.

The Story of Judith: Stanzas 1414-79 (lines 16957-17748) of the Middle English poem.

1415.1 L: mell with this. O follows L here.

1415.4 S omits our. L and O include it.

1416.7 S omits them. L: theym and O: them. O's emendation maintains the dialect.

1420.9-12 Perhaps the Jews in Jerusalem overlooking that land are to be understood as looking out upon Bethulia, the city under siege in the Vulgate. But Bethulia is never mentioned in the paraphrase, and the sense here is ambiguous. It seems that the poet means that the holy city of Jerusalem is under attack. See 1421.3, where the Cité seems to be Jerusalem. In S the scribe regularly capitalizes the references to the City in the Judith story, perhaps to focus attention on the Jews' special dwelling place. But n.b. 1426.11-12, where the poet refers to the water conduits from Jerusalem and Jericho being cut off, which suggests that some other Cité could be intended.

1421.4 S omits dyght most. Included in L and O.

1421.7 S omits ther. Included in L and O.

1423.8 L: do in such a; O: deme in swylka.

1424.3 S omits of Moyses. Included in L and O.

1424.4 Abymalech. The Vulgate reads: "Remember Moses the servant of the Lord, who overcame Amalec that trusted in his own strength, and in his power, and in his army, and in his shields, and in his chariots, and in his horsemen, not by fighting with the sword, but by holy prayers" (Judith 4:12 - Douay translation). See also Exodus 17:8. The poet seems to have confused Amalec with Abimelech in Genesis 20, 21, or 26.

1425.1 L: as he theim red. O follows L.

1425.9 thoght. S: toy3t, the spelling throughout S, which I have universally emended to thoght, following L.

1426.1 thei. S: the; L: they.

1428.6 S omits God all. Included in L and O.

1429.2 land. S: sand; L: land. S enhances the alliteration and maintains the sense, though L is the more likely juxtaposition with "sea."

1430.5 hand. L: wand, in the sense of rod, is perhaps the preferable reading in that it picks up the alliteration.

1433.11 S omits us, which is supplied from L, as the sense of the line requires.

1433.12 S: at put us fro this payn. At appears to be a relative pronoun, the sense being "that will put us away from this agony." But L is more clear: to put us fro this payne.

1435.3 Job and Tobias survive by meekness and patience. In the Book of Tobias the younger Tobias, through prayer and patience, defeats a fiend who has slain Sarah's first seven husbands, and then weds her himself (chapters 6-9).

1436.2 S omits both, which is supplied from L.

1436.8 wayte. L: espy.

1437.6 gart. L: made hire seruant.

1437.12 wyse. L: help.

1438.3 pellour. O's emendation. S: plessour; L: pelure. O notes that S could be correct, however, citing NED pleasure sb B3 Torkington: "they Caryed with them Riches and plesurs, As clothe of gold and Crymsyn velvett."

1438.3 L: pured.

1439.10 S: tyll; L: to.

1440.12 S: sho fand them sone; L: toke theym sone in the felde. O emends to: [sone] fand them in the feld.

1441.1 They. S: The; L: they. So also in line 5.

1441.2 semly. S: sembly; L: semely.

1441.6 S: solace. L: so late, which is more likely.

1442.8 S: ther ere ther in; L: that er therin.

1442.12 S: have; L: creve.

1445.3 geyre. S: gyrde; L: gere. O's emendation.

1445.8 S omits sho. L: mery she made as his menye. O follows L.

1445.10 them. S: then; L: theim.

1446.10 how thou has. S: how that has; L: how thov haves.

1447.8 S: for fawt fell fay in feld; L: for faute of foode fall they shal in felde.

1450.6 thes. S: ther; L: thes.

1451.1 L: And ser I shal tell the a skill.

1451.3 S omits thy. L: at thy will is preferable metrically.

1453.1 O emends the line to read: And all that to [hym] may [be] [l]eue.

1454.10 S: gest; L: kest.

1454.12 rede. L: went.

1455.1-6 In the Vulgate Judith is sent to the place where Holofernes keeps his treasures, thus the beauteous things of line 3. See Judith 12:1.

1456.1-10 In romance tradition the woman normally needs a guardian for her well (e.g., Chrétien de Troyes' Yvain). Here Judith tends the well herself for the benefit of the whole city.

1458.2 The knight is identified in the Vulgate as Bagao, Holofernes' eunuch (Judith 12:10). See stanza 1469 (below), where he is identified as "the chamberer" but is still left unnamed. Bagoas and Holofernes were the chief Persian generals under the command of Artaxerxes Ochus in the expedition against Phoenicia and Egypt in 350 B.C., a fact that neither our poet nor the original author of Judith probably knew.

1462.6 suld sho. S: suld no man; L: shuld she.

1465.11 To mistakenly cancelled in S; L: To sett.

1471.2 S: all rafed; L: they raced. O emends to thei rafe.

1471.12 solpyng. L: spoiling.

1472.9 broght. S: brogh; L: broght.
 
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Selections from the Middle English Metrical Paraphrase of the Old Testament


   
   
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The Prologue*
   
God, Fader in Hevyn of myghtes most,
   that mad this mold and all man kynd,
The Sun that sendes us throwth to tast
   wesdom and welth and wytt at wyn,
The grace of the Holy Gast
   in whom all gudness behoves to begyn
Thrugh mediacy of Mary chast
   that helpes to safe uus of our syn,
Swylke myght unto me send
   thys boke ryght to aray,
Begynnyng, myddes, and end,
   that yt be to Goddes pay.
   
This buke is of grett degré,
   os all wettys that ben wyse,
For of the Bybyll sall yt be
   the poyntes that ar mad most in price,
Als maysters of dyvinité
   and on, the maystur of storyse,
For sympyll men soyn forto se,
   settes yt thus in this schort assyse.
And in moyr schort maner
   is my mynd forto make yt,
That men may lyghtly leyre
   to tell and under take yt.
   
This boke that is the Bybyll cald,
   and all that owtt of yt is drawn,
For Holy Wrytt we sall yt hald
   and honour yt ever os our awn.
All patriarkes and prophettes yt told,
   so ever ther saynges sekerly ar knawn,
And all wer fygurs fayr to fald
   how coymmyng of Crist myght be kawn.
God graunt us Crist to knaw
   all our form faders cravyd
And so to lere Is law
   that our sawlis may be savyd.
   
   
   
The Story of Jephthah and His Daughter*
   
Jepte was a knyght in armys clere;
   fro bayle, he sayd, he suld them bryng.
A fayre lady he hade to fere,
   and both thei lyvyd to Goddes lovyng.
He had a doyghtur that was hym dere
   and no mo chyldder, old ne yyng.
To hyr befell, os men may heyre,
   full gret myschefe, a mervel thyng.
He send to cetys and town,
   to all that myght armys beyre
And bad thei suld be bown
   to wend with hym in were.
   
Then unto God hertly he hett
   and mad a vowe with all his mayne
That yf he myght the maystry geytt,
   als sone os he com home agayn,
The fyrst qwyke catell that he mett
   of his for Goddes sake suld be slayn
In sacrifyce so forto sett.
   Thus sayd he suld be done certayn.
To batell then thei went
   withowtyn more respyte.
Ther enmys sone was schent,
   both slayn and dyscumfeytt.
   
Then past thei home with mekyll pride
   becawse thei wan the vyctory.
His doyghtur herd, is not to hyde,
   hyr fader suld come home in hy.
Be lyfe scho went, and wold not byd,
   agayns hym with gud mynstralsy.
When he hyr saw, ``Alas!'' he cryed,
   ``My doyghtur dere, now sall thou dy!''
To his hors fette he fell -
   in sadyll he myght not sytt.
No tong in erth may tell
   what kare his hert had hytt.
   
So when he myght hymselfe stere,
   he thoght in hert how he had heyght
To slo the fyrst that suld apeyre
   and sacrifyce yt in Goddes syght.
``Alas,'' he sayd, ``my doyghtur dere,
   for my doyng thi dede is dyght.''
Scho prayd hyr fader to mend his chere
   and mad hym myrth all that scho myght.
The more that scho mad glee
   to comforth hym with all,
The more sore hert had he,
   for he wyst how yt suld fall.
   
``A, doyghtur,'' he sayd, ``I made a vowe
   to God when I to batell wentt:
Yf I of panyms myght have prow,
   what so com fyrst in my present,
That suld be slone - that same ys thou.
   Alas for my sake now bees thou schent.''
``Fader,'' scho sayd, ``I beseke yow,
   be trew and tornes not your entent.
For bettur is that I dye,
   that may no thyng avayle,
Then so fayr cumpany
   as ye broyght from batelle.''
   
``Sen ye heyght sacrifyce to make
   to God that goverans gud and yll,
Leves it not, fader, for my sake,
   bot all your forward fast fulfyll.
Bot graunteys me grace two wekes to wake,
   to speke with lades lowd and styll
And of maydyns leve to take,
   and then do with me what ye wyll.''
He gafe hyre leve to gang
   with grefe and gretyng sore.
All that scho come amang
   ay menyd hyr more and more.
   
So went scho furth to mony a frend,
   that for hyr syghyng sayd, ``Alas.''
All weped for wo os scho can wend,
   when thei wyst how that it was.
And when the tyme drogh nere the end
   that hyr fader assygned has,
Scho went agayn with wordes hend
   and proferd hyr with payn to pas.1
Therfor hyr fader noyght leved:
   his sword in hand he hent
And swythly swopped of hyr hede
   and bad scho suld be brent.
   
Grett sorow yt was this syght to se;
   all weped that wyst of hyr wo.
Bot most sorow in hert had he
   that heddyd hyr and had no mo.
Swylke folys suld men fayn to flee
   and be abayst or thei vow so.
Fowle vow is bettur to broken be
   then man or woman sakles slo.
Sex yere governd Jepte Ebrews
   and saved them from all angers yll
Of Phylysteyns and Cananews,
   and then he dyed as was Goddes wyll.
   
   
   
The Story of Judith*
   
Dame Judyth was a gentyll Jew
   and woman wyse whore sho suld wende.
Now wyll we nevyn hyr story new,
   for to sum men yt myght amend
To see how sho in trewth was trew
   als lang als sho in lyf con lend,
And lufed the Law als lele Ebrew
   that Moyses tyll hyr kynred kend.
That Law forto mayntene
   sho ordand in all thyng,
Als insampyll was seyn
   and wyttenest in werkyng.
   
Bot to mell this mater more
   this lady now wyll we leve of hand,
And tell of fare that fell before,
   als our faders before us fand.
A kyng, Nabogodhonosour,
   in Bablion he was dwelland;
All other kynges and lordes wore
   full stably at his stevyn to stand.
All that lufed paynyms law
   and lyfed by mawmentry
Aftur his dedes con draw
   and lowted hym fast forthi.
   
He had this werld sett at his wyll;
   hym thoyght no noye suld neght hym nere,
For all his forwardes to fulfyll
   all hethyn folke were full fayn in fere.
With Ebrews oft hym angerd yll,
   for them lyst not his lare to lere.
Oft sythys he spyed them to spyll
   with engynys and with sawtes sere.
By sere cautels he kest
   how he myght bryng them down,
Bot whyls thei lufed God best,
   to beld them ay was He bown.
   
This kyng was strang in ylke stoure,
   and in all were he wan degré;
And so he gat to grett honowre
   and conquered kynges in sere cuntré,
Wherfor he fell in fowle errowre,
   als men may be exempyll see.
He couth not knaw his creatore
   bot hoped ther was no god bot he.
On payn of lyf and lyme
   he warned his men ylkon
And bad thei suld hald hym
   ther god and other none.
   
So in this errour con he dwell
   als maystur most of more and lese,
Wherfore fowle vengance on hym fell
   to lyfe als best with grouand grese.
Bot here we have no tym to tell
   the poyntes that proves all the procese.
Furth with our maters wyll we mell
   how Jewys ware doyne to grett dystrese.
For then the kyng ordand
   his ost with playn powere
To dystroy ylka land
   that his law wyll not lere.
   
And to fulfyll all this in dede
   to semble folke he wolde not sese.
He ordand on his ost to lede,
   a dughty duke heyght Olyfernes,
And bad all men to hym take hede
   and with hym wend in were and pese.
The folke were fayn and with hym yede,
   and for ther cheftan thei hym chese.
The kyng bad them not spare
   bot dyng down all bedeyne
That wold noyght luf ther lare,
   tyll all be conquered cleyne.
   
This dughty duke that I of ment
   fro his werke wold no langer abyde.
With full grett ost furth is he went
   with mynstralsy and mekyll pride.
Cytes and burghes both thei brent,
   the Jewys to harme full fast thei hyed.
Cornes and wynes shamly thei shent,
   thor was no trews to take that tyde.
The Jewys that were dwelland
   in Jerusalem Cité
Myght loke over all that land
   and full grett soroyng see.
   
When thei had so dystroyd and strayd
   and fuld the folke be fyrth and fell,
A sege to that Cité thei layd
   whore Jews was dyght most forto dwell.
``We sall not sese, for soth,'' thei sayd,
   ``or all the chylder of Israel
With all ther Godes to ground be grayd.
   So sall thei never of maystry mell.''
Thei loged them thore to lend
   and lyfyd at ther lykyng
Full fawrty days tyll end
   that burgh in bale to bryng.
   
Bot folke within full wysly wake
   ther Cyté fast forto dyffend
With allablasters and with bows of brake
   ay redy bown forto be bend.
With gunys grett styfly thei strake,
   within ther dynt durst no man lend.
And ever to God ther mayn thei make
   ther mornyng with His myght to mend.
Within that Cyté ere
   prestes to pray plenté
And knyghtes full wyse of were
   to govern ther degré.
   
Bot ther degré was not to deme
   all yf thei were dughty of dede.
Ther enmyse were so bold and breme,
   to them thei durst not batell bede.
Ther byschope heyght Elyachym,
   and unto hym holy thei yede
And prayd hym say how yt suld seme
   them forto deme swylka drede.
He commawnd then that thei
   suld both with hert and hend
Mekly unto God pray
   ther myschefe to amend.
   
``For so,'' he says, ``ye sall encrese
   and no thyng of your rebels reke.''
He sett ensampyll of Moyses
   and of the grett Abymalech:
``He putt his pepyll fast in prese,
   to fell Goddes folke thei were full freke.
Bot ay whyls Moyses prayd for pese,
   God sett ther noys in ther enmys neke.
Yf we werke on swylke wyse
   and faynd our God to plese,
Then sall non yll enmyse
   unto us do dysesse.''
   
Thei were full redy, os he red
   forto aray aftur his resown.
Full bowsomly, os he them bed,
   on the bare erth thei sett them down.
In hayrys and sekkes sone were thei cled
   and kest powder apon ther crown.
All yf ther enmyse wele were fed,
   to fyght then had thei no fusyown.
Ser Olyfernes thoght
   they lay ther full lang whyle.
Sere soteltes he soyght
   to wyn them be sum wyle.
   
He wyst wele thei wold have no dawt
   whyls thei had welth of waters clere.
Therfor he gart spare ylk spowte
   whore any wels of watur were.
He mad ther bekkes to ryn abowt
   that non suld negh that Cité nere.
So menes he forto make them lowt
   and be full blyth his lay to lere.
Then were the Jews in wo
   when thei saw stopped ylke streme
Fro the Cité of Jerico
   and fro Jerusalem.
   
Thei saw ther wellys wex all dry,
   thei fand no tast in town ne feld.
No wounder yf thei were sory,
   for wyn was wasted all that thei weld.
Ther price prophett them heyght Ozi
   that in batell them best wold beld.
To hym thei come with carfull crye
   and bad he suld ther bodes yeld.
``Our lyfes so forto save,
   for, sothly, ser,'' thei say,
``bettur is our hele to have
   then dye all on a day.''
   
When Ozi herd them sorowyng so
   and lyke to lose all that land,
He weped and wrang his hend for wo,
   and unto them thus he cummand
Unto the tempyll all forto go
   and pray ther God all weldand
``Us forto wyn out of this wo,
   sen all our hele henges in His hand.''
Full prestly thore thei pray,
   nevenand grett God be name,
And thus hymself con say,
   for thei suld say that same:
   
``Lord God, that mad kyrnell and corne
   and all may save be land and see,
That fed our faders fare beforn
   and fro Kyng Pharo mad them free,
Sene The lykes noyght that thei be lorn
   that trewly trows and treystes in The,
Have mercy on us evyn and morn;
   save Thi servandes and this Cyté!
We wott full wele us aw
   for syn swylke lyf to lede,
Bot Thi mercy we knaw
   is more then our mysdede.
   
``We wott wele Thou is all weldand
   and all may govern gud and yll,
Agayn Thi stevyn may no thyng stand,
   all states may Thou steme and styll.
Chasty us, Lord, with Thi hand
   that our enmyse say not this skyll:
`Ther God was wunt them to warrand;
   now wyll He not tent them untyll.'''
Then all that pepyll prayd
   full lowly, lese and more
And forto make them payd
   to them thus sayd he thore:
   
``I rede we fast fyve days to end
   with all wrschep we may weld,
And see yf God wyll socour send
   us forto save under his sheld.
And yf no comforth then be kend,
   this Cyté sone then sall I yeld
Our enmyse to have in ther hend,
so that thei hete to be our beld.''
Thei sayd, ``We all assent
   this forward to fulfyll.''
And so ther ways thei went
   ylkon at ther awn wyll.
   
Bot then this wyse woman Judyth,
   when scho herd of ther tythyng tell,
How Ser Ozi had ordand yt
   ther Cyté and therselfe to sell,
And how he made that mesure fytt
   to dome of God fyve days to dwell,
Sho wold yt wast with womans wytt,
   and furth scho went that fare to fell.
To the tempyll rayked scho ryght
   and cald tho folke in fere,
And up sho stud on heyght
   so that thei suld hyr here.
   
To Ozi fyrst hyr mone sho mase
   als to most maystur tho men amang.
Sho says, ``Omyse thou takes thi trace,
   and to my wytt thi werke is wrang.
How dere thou sett in certayn space
   the wyll of God to come or gang,
Sene He is gyfer of all grace
   sone forto leve or to last lang!
This is more lyke to greve
   our God, that most may gayn;
Then us oght to releve
   to put us fro this payn.
   
Therfor is gud that we begyne
   of this grevance to geyte relese,
And say: This sorow is sent for syn
   that we have wroyght and wold not sese,
Als was with elders of our kyn,
   Abraham, Ysaac, and Moyses.
Thei had wo, for God wold them wyn
   aftur ther payn to endlese pese
And also forto prove
   with teyne and with trayveyle
Whedder thei wold last in love
   or fro hym fayntly fayle.
   
And for thei wold not groche agayn
   bot schewed ay meknes and more and more,
Als Job and Thoby dyde sertayn
   that were assayd with seknes sor,
To Goddes bydyng ay were thei bayn;
   therfor ther guddes He con restore
And put them into power playn
   more fast then ever thei wore before.
The same then sall us fall,
   and we this fare fulfyll.''
Then Ozi and thei all
   graunted to werke hyr wyll.
   
Thei prayd hyr forto tell them to
   hyr purpase both by nyght and day.
``Now, sers,'' sho sayd, ``sen ye wyll so,
   all myn entent I sall yow say.
This nyght I wyll wende furth yow fro
   in other place my God to pray,
And pray ye that God with me go,
   and lokes none wayte eftur my way.
I kepe no cumpany
   bot my servand sertayn.
Kepes this Cyté seurly
   tyll God send us agayn.''
   
Sho sett yyng men to yeme the gate
   and bad thei suld be redy bown
To kepe hyr in the evyn late,
   for that tyme wold scho wend o town.
Then to hyr howse scho toke the gate
   and gart hyr servand in that sesown
With bawme and with bathes hate
   clense all hyr cors fro fote to crown.
And sythyn sho hyr arayd
   in garmentes gud and gay,
And ever to God sho prayd
   to wyse hyr in hyr way.
   
With sylke and sendell and satayn
   and baulkyn bettur non myght be,
Hyr pellour all of pure armyne,
   with pyrry plett full grett plenté,
With gyrdyll and garland of gold fyne
   to make hyr semly unto se.
Hyre maydyn bare both bred and wyne
   to fynd them fode for days thre.
God wyst wele that sho went
   to save His pepyll exprese.
Therfor to hyr He sent
   both favour and fayrnese.
   
When hyr aray was all redy,
   down on hyr knesse sho kneled then,
And sayd, ``My Lord God Allmighty,
   That wyll and thoght may clerly kene,
Sen in The lygges all vyctory,
   to me, Thi servand, myght Thou lene
Forto overcom our yll enmy
   and save this Cyté and Thi men.''
Scho prayd to God thus gaite
   tyll lyght of day con sese.
Then wentt scho to the gate
   full prevely to prese.
   
When sho com ydder, redy sho fand
   Ozi and other to tent ther toure.
Sho bad that thei suld stably stand
   that Cyté to save and socoure,
And that prestes suld pray with hert and hand
   that God suld be hyr governoure.
So sent sho furth with hyr servand
   to enmys that were strang in stoure.
Ever to God sho prays
   to be hyr helpe and beld.
Wach men that kepes ways
   toke them sone in the feld.
   
They merveld of hyr rych aray
   for so semly had thei sene none.
Sum of them ware prowd of that pray,
   for gay geyre had sho full gud woyne.
They asked wher scho was o way
   and why sho welke so late allon;
And to them sothly con scho say,
   ``Sers, fro my frendes thus am I gone.
I com to yow in trewse,
   and that sall ye here and see.
I am on of the Ebrews
   that wuns in this Cyté.
   
To fle ther fro I am full fayn
   and leve both catell, kyth and kyn.
For wele I wott myself certayn
   that ye and yours sone sall yt wyn.
To your prince is my purpase playn,
   and I sall tell hym, or we twyn,
To wyne yt wele withoutyn payn
   and dystroy all that ere therin.
Sen thei wyll not them yeld
   to men that may them save,
Yt is no boyte to beld
   them that no helpe wyll have.
   
Unto my hele I wyll take hede
   and to my servand that is here.
And, sers, I pray yow me to lede
   unto your prince that has no pere.''
Thei herd hyr spech was for ther sped;
   therfor thei were full fayn in fere.
To Olyfernes so thei yede
   and fand hym syttand with solace sere.
That lady in thei lad
   and told thei fand hyr flayd
And fro hyr frenschep fled,
   and how sho to them sayd.
   
When Olyfernes saw this syght
   and herd ther tayles how thei con tell,
In hyr hys hert was ravyscht ryght
   and demed that sho suld with hym dwell.
Than forto marre hym more in myght
   full flatt unto the grownd sho fell.
He commawnd men that wer full wyght
   to take hyr tyte up them omell.
Then on hyr knese sho kneled
   and prayd his helpe to have.
He sayd he suld hyr beld
   in oght that scho wold crave.
   
Sho thanked hym frendly, noyght at hyde,
   and ryght glad in his hert was he.
He saw hyr geyre of so heygh prid,
   he trowed sho was of grett degré.
He made hyr sytt hymself besyd,
   that was ryght semly syght to see.
Thei fell in talkyng so that tyde
   that mery sho mad als his meneyé.
Yt was solace sertayn
   to se them syt togeydder,
And fyrst he con hyr frayn
   cause of hyr comyng ydder.
   
Sho sayd, ``Ser, and yow lyke to here,
   I am an Ebrew ald and yyng.
My menyng is to mend your chere
   by gud bodword that I yow bryng.
I wyll maynteyn in my manere
   Nabogodhonosour, your kyng,
And his law wyll me lyke to lere
   when we have endyd other thyng.
And, ser, fully I fynd
   how thou has in his sted
Power to lowse and bynd
   als lord of lyfe and ded.
   
And, ser, I se the soth certayn:
   Ebrews, whyls thei may wepyns weld,
Wyll hold yond Ceté the agayn
   and never assent yt forto yeld.
Therfor to fle I am full fayn
   to the, that best may be my beld.
For wele I wott thei sal be slayn,
   for fawt of fode fall fay in feld.
And sen thei wyll not crye
   to the, that may them save,
I hald them wele worthy
   swylk hydows herm to have.
   
And therfore come I to the here,
   by certayn sygnes the to say
How thou sall all that kynd conquere
   lyghtly withoutyn lang delay.
Thei may not last, thus I the lere,
   because ther watur is haldyn away.
I herd them say with sympyll chere
   that all suld fayle or the faurt day.
And I saw, or I yode,
   how thei ther bestes sloght
For thyrst to drynke the blood,
   bot non had half enogh.
   
And when I saw that thei dyd so
   and that yt wold no bettur be,
I hyde me fast to fle them fro
   so to save my servand and me.
Sen thei wyll not be ware with wo
   to save themself and ther Cyté,
Yt was Goddes wyll that I suld go
   and tell ther tythynges unto the.
Lo, ser, this is,'' sho sayd,
   ``the cause of my comyng.''
Then was the prince wele payd:
   the wyn he bad them bryng.
   
He dranke and bed hyr furth by raw;
   sho thanked hym with hert and hende:
``Ser, me behovys lyfe eftur my law
   tyll this bargan be broyght tyll ende.
We have ordand, als Ebrews aw,
   fode thes four days forto spend.
And, ser, by that day sall we knaw
   how wele our myrth sal be amend.
For als lang als I dwell
   His law sadly to save,
Then wyll my God me tell
   how we sall helpyng have.
   
And, ser, so sall I tell the tyll
   to make a sawt by sotell gyne
To weld the Cyté at thy wyll
   and esely forto entur therin.
And, ser, than may thou spare or spyll
   the Ebrews ylkon or thou blyn,
And, yf the lyke, to lend thor styll
   or home agayn with wrschep wyn.''
With gawdes thus scho hym glosed
   to have hyr purpase playn.
Hyr sawys soth he supposed,
   And thus he glosed agayn:
   
``I gyfe the leve to make thi mese
   of mete and drynke at thy lykyng,
For thou ow wele thi God to plese
   That out of bale wyll the bryng.
And when we sall the ceté sese,
   thou sall have chose of all thyng
And lyfe ever then at thin awn ese
   with Nabogodhonosour, the kyng.
For and I fynd yt fyne
   that thou says in thi saw,
Then sall thi God be myne,
   and I wyll luf thi law.
   
And all that unto Hym may heve
   byd I thou do both nyght and day.
Yt is not gud that thou Hym greve,
   sen He all soth to the wyll say.''
Sho sayd, ``Then bus thou gyfe me leve
   forto have rowm and redy way
Ever more at myd nyght forto meve
   to certayn place my God to pray.''
Of hyr wyll noyght he wyst;
   therfor he graunt sone
To lyf at hyr awn lyst
   tyll all thier dedes be done.
   
And to his kepers cummand he
   o payn to lose both lyf and land
That thei suld to hyr bowsom be
   and holy held unto hyr hand
And make uschew and entré,
   so that no stekyll agayn hyr stand.
Thei graunt ylkon in ther degré
   kyndly to do als he them cummand.
Full mery was ylk man
   and full glad of ther gest.
So depart thei than
   And rede them all to rest.
   
Then to a chamber thei hyr led
   that was with alkyns wrschepe wroyght.
All bewtese both for burd and bed
   with mekyll blyse was ydder broyght;
And in that sted so was sho stede
   with alkyns solace sere unsoght.
Bot to slepe was sho never unclede;
   of other thyng was mare hyr thoght.
Ylke nyght scho toke hyr way
   ferre down into a dale.
Thor menys sho, and sho may,
   to hald the Ebrews hale.
   
In that ylke dale was dyght a well
   with Ebrews that before had bene.
Thorof thei dranke whore thei con dwell,
   and thorin ware thei weschyn clene.
And thore scho and hyr damsell
   trayveld so them two betwene.
Thei mad a spryng that fro yt fell
   at the Cyté syde forto be sene,
So that thei that wund within
   ware warescht wele of thryst.
Thus myght sho wende with win
   and lend at hyr awn lyst.
   
So trayveld scho be tyms thre
   into that place hyr God to pray.
Scho had fre eschew and entré.
   And so befell on the fourt day,
Olyfernes bad his men suld be
   ay redy in ther best aray.
For on the fyft day hoped he
   the Ebrews folke to fell for ay,
For so had Judyth sayd.
   he gart ordan forthi
A soper gudly grayd
   for hyr sake soveranly.
   
When all was poynted with pomp and pryd,
   a knyght then unto hyr sent he
Forto com and sytt hym besyde
   thar maner of solace forto se.
The knyght hyr told so in that tyd.
   Sho thanked hym with wordes free
And sayd, ``I sall not lang abyde,
   for at his bydyng wyll I be.''
Rychly sho hyr arayd
   to seme fayr in ther syght.
The pepyll were full wele payd,
   and the lord was most lyght.
   
Befor hymself hyr sett was wroyght
   full presciosly forto apere.
Hyr ryalnes rayvyschyd his thoght;
   he bede hyr mete with meré chere.
Sho ete mete that hyr maydyn broyght,
   and toke that coupe with wyn full clere
And made semland and dranke ryght noyght.
   Bot Olyfernes for that fere
Of myghty wyne dranke more,
   for myrth that thei were mett,
Than ever he dranke before.
   So hymself he oversett.
   
When Judyth saw that yt was so,
   of that werke was sho wele payd.
Sho made talkyng betwyx them two
   tyll he wyst noyght wele what he sayd.
He bad all men to bed suld go
   and radly to ther rest arayd,
And that none suld take tent hym to,
   for at hys lyst he wold be layd.
He thynkes that he sall have
   that lady hym forto plese.
Bot God wyll evermore save
   his servand fro dysese.
   
Unto his bed fast con he hye
   hys foly fare forto fulfyll.
He bad that lady com lyg hym by,
   for all the doreys ar stokyn styll.
Sho sayd, ``Ser, I sall be redy
   with word and werke to wyrke thi wyll.
Bot to my chamber wend wyll I,
   and full sone sall I come the tyll.''
To hyr chambre scho wentt
   and prayd God specially,
Als he knew hyr entent,
   to kepe hyr fro velany.
   
Unto God thor sho prayd and wepe
   forto vouchsave hyr sorow to slake.
Sone Olyfernes fell on slepe,
   for dronkyn man may not wele wake.
Sho warnd hyr servand to take kepe
   that no kyns noyse suld sho make,
And prevely als sho couth crepe
   hyr way to his bed con sho take.
Thor kneled sho on the ground
   and prayd God with Hys wyll
To strengh hyr in that stownd
   hyr forward to fullfyll.
   
Sho drogh his sword full sone sertayn,
   qwylke sho fand standand in that sted,
And with that brand sho brest his brayn;
   so with that dynt sone was he dede.
Then cutted sho sunder synow and vayn,
   and fro hys halse hewed of hys hed
And putt yt in a poket playn,
   whore thei befor had born ther bred.
Sho bad hyr maydyn yt bere
   whore als thei were wunt to pray.
Thei geydderd sayme ther geyre
   and wyghtly went ther way.
   
To have ther hele thei hastyd fast
   and made no tareyng in that tyde.
Tyll tyme thei were all perels past,
   thei wyst yt was no boyte to byde.
Yf yt were late, so at the last
   thei neghted nere to the Cyté syde.
To the kepers a crye scho cast
   and bad them opyn the wekett wyde.
Hyr voyce full wele thei knew;
   for fayn full fast thei wepe.
Full mony a bold Ebrew
   com thore hyr forto kepe.
   
Thei lete hyr in with torches lyght
   and lowtyng low, is not to layn,
Thei were full glad to se that syght,
   for wele thei wend sho had bene slayn.
Sho stud up in a sted of hyght
   that all men myght se hyr certayn.
And thore scho schewed hyr releke ryght,
   the hede out of hyr poket playn.
``Loves God,'' sho sayd sadly,
   ``That for you hath ordand
To sett your vyctory
   in a wake womans hand.''
   
Then all the pepyll in that place
   down on ther knese low thei knele.
Thei thanked grett God of his grace
   That kyndly so thar care wold kele.
When thei saw Olyfernes face,
   no wonder yf thei lyked yt wele.
Then Judyth spake furth in that space
   how thei suld do ever ylke dele.
Sho sayd, ``In this same day
   belyve loke ye be bowne
All in your best aray
   to dyng your enmys downe.
   
Set up this hed over the gate,
   so that your enmyse may yt se.
For fro thei wyt, full well I wayte,
   that ther prince so perysched be,
His men wyll make no more debate
   bot fayn to cayre to ther cuntré.
Then sall ye folow on them fote hate
   and fell them or thei ferre flee.
Thei sall lefe welth gud woyne,
   bot lokes non tent thertyll.
When thei ere fled and sloyn,
   then may ye fang your fyll.
   
Evyn als sho demed was done in hye:
   the hede was sone sett up on the heyght.
Then mad thei myrth and melody
   with bemys, als thei were bown to fyght.
And when the hethyn hard them crye
   And saw a sygne sett in ther syght,
Thei ware full yll abayst therby.
   To warne ther prince thei went full wyght.
To his chambre they hyed
   and bad his servandes say
How the Ebrews them ascryde
   Forto have dede that day.
   
The chamberer durst make no dyne
   for ferd yt suld turn hym to tayne.
He wend the woman were within,
   and that thei both on slepe had beyne.
Bot with hys handes he con begyn
   to wakyn them be cowntenance cleyne.
And sythyn he come to the curtyn,
   thore was no segne of solace seyne.
Then nere the bed he yode
   and fand rewfull aray:
A body laped in blod,
   bot the hed was away.
   
Full lowd he cryd, ``Alas! alas!
   Our lyves ere lorn, my lord is ded.''
``How is yt so?'' ylkon thei asse.
   He sayd, ``Se here, he has no hede.''
To Judyth chamber con thei pase
   and saw hyr stollyn out of that sted.
Then wyst thei wele that werkyng was
   by hyr wyles and hyr wekyd red.
Thore was no boyte to byde
   there welthes oway to wyn,
Bot ylkon to ryn and ryd
   and forsake kyth and kyn.
   
Thus of the rest thei were remeved,
   ther ryche robes all rafed and rent.
Ther restyng thore full sore them rewed,
   withoutyn welth away thei went.
The Ebrews prestly them persewed,
   all lost ther hedes that thei myght hent.2
Thor tho all that this bargan brewed,
   full shortly were thei shamed and shent.
Then come Ebrews agayn
   whore ther enmyse had beyne.
Thei fand all safe certayn;
   ther was no solpyng seyne,
   
Bot only of Olyfernes blod
   that out of his body was bled.
Thor ware garmentes of gold full gud
   and gold in bages abowt that bed.
The body thei kest to bestes fud
   and fowles therwith forto be fede.
Thresour thei toke and hame thei yode,
   non other welth with them thei led.
Non other thyng thei broght
   bot of gold full gud woyn.
To Judyth sone thei soyght
   and thanked hyr everylkon.
   
Thei broyght hyr gold in bages bun,
   and bed themself at hyr wyll to be.
Thei say, ``We wott we have yt wun
   With wyll of God and wyt of the.''
Scho says, ``Sen God thus has begun
   to save your selfe and your Cyté,
His tempyll sall therwyth be fun
   and goveren ever in gud degré.''
Thei say, ``We have leved thore
   of erthly welth to wyn
To make us mery evermore
   and comforth all our kyn.''
   
Sho bad them wyghtly wend ther ways
   to steyr tho folke that thei not stryfe.
``And partyes the mobyls, sers,'' sho says,
   ``be mesure both to man and wyfe.''
And so thei dyd by thirty days
   or thei that ryches myght up ryfe.
Tho that before were pore to prayse
   wer then relyfed for all ther lyfe.
Grett myrth was them amang;
   thei loved God of His grace
With solace and with sange
   full specially that space.
   
And when that space was sped and spend
   that thirty days were fully gone,
Then Judyth bad them with hyr wend
   unto ther tempyull everylkon
And love God thor with hert and hend,
   that swylke thressour had to them toyne.
And thei dyd evyn als sho them kend,
   Thei offerd gold ther full grett wone.
Sho bad them love only
   God, that is all weldand,
That sett Hys vyctory
   and ther helpe in hyr hand.
   
Als sho wold deme, thei dyd in dede,
   als worthy was withoutyn were.
Then home to hyr hows scho yede,
   and pepyll past to ther places sere.
A lades lyfe then con sho led,
   and Goddes law lyked hyr ever to lere.
And furth sho weryd hyr wedow wede
   bot in soverane sesons of the yere.
Then wold sho be more gay
   to syght and more honest
In purpas God to pay
   for wrschepe of that fest.
   
Sho had enogh of rent and land
   in ylke sted whore sho was sted
Aftur Manasses, hyr husband,
   that lordly lyf before had led.
And of all that sho had in hand
   over honest spence that suld be sped,
Ther with pore folke sho fed and fand
   and beldyd both to bake and bede.
Sho ocupyed so hyr sted
   in pennance and in prayer
Fro hyr husband was dede
   a hundred and fyve yere.
   
Hyr servandes, man, maydyn, and knave,
   mad sho to goveren gud degré.
Then dyed scho as God voched save,
   for fro that fytt may no man flee.
By hyr husband thei can hyr grave
   full solemply in that Cyté,
And by sevyn days sorowyng thei have,
   als costome was in that cuntré.
The Jews makes hyr in mynd
   evermore to be on ment,
For scho comforth ther kynd
   when thei in bale were bent.
   
Now be this werke wele may we wytt
   how God wyll pupplysch his power
In wemen forto fall als fytt
   als in men on the same manere.
Thus endes the Boke of Judyth,
   als clerkes may knaw by clergy clere.
God graunt hym hele that hath turned yt
   in Ynglysch lawd men forto lere!
Insampyll may men here se
   to be trew in trowyng.
God graunt us so to be
   and to His blyse to bryng!
   
   
   
made; world
Son; truth; taste
wisdom; intelligence to obtain
   
goodness must needs begin
mediation; chaste
save us from
Such
correctly to compose
   
liking
   
   
as all know
Bible shall
are made; excellence
By
and also by; story-telling; (see note)
soon; understand
paraphrase; (see note)
more brief
   
easily learn
recite; understand
   
called
   
shall; hold
as our own
   
wherever; certainly; (see note)
were figures; tell
meditated upon; (see note)
   
desired to know
learn His law
   
   
   
   
   
   
bright; (see note)
confinement; [the Jews]
as companion
according to
   
young
as; hear
strange
cities
bear; (see note)
commanded; conscripted
go; war
   
heartily; promised; (see note)
might
victory win
as; as
living creature
should
   
   
   
   
enemies soon were destroyed
defeated
   
passed; great; (see note)
won
heard, there's no hiding it
should; haste; (see note)
Quickly; wait; (see note)
toward (in anticipation of) him; (see note)
(see note)
shall you die
horse's feet
(see note)
tongue
grief; struck
   
restrain
promised
slay
   
   
death is doomed; (see note)
amend; countenance
made
   
   
sorrowful heart
knew; turn out
   
   
   
over the pagans; victory
presence
slain
will you be destroyed
   
true; don't change
die
(see note)
Than
   
   
Since you promised
   
Tarry not; (see note)
covenant precisely fulfill
weeks to lament (keep vigil); (see note)
ladies openly and privately
   
   
gave her permission to go
grief; weeping sorrow
   
ever grieved for her
   
   
   
woe as she left
   
drew near
   
courteous
   
delayed not
siezed
quickly swapped off; head
ordered; burnt
   
   
wept; knew; woe
   
beheaded; more [children]; (see note)
fools; be eager to avoid
abashed before
A foolish vow; (see note)
than; be slain without guilt
Six years
evil vexations
Philistines; Canaanites; (see note)
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
wise wherever; go
tell; anew
be profitable
she
lived
loyal Hebrew
Moses to; taught
   
determined
As example
witnessed in her behavior
   
speak of; matter; (see note)
leave for awhile
events
found; (see note)
   
dwelling
   
steadfastly; command
loved pagan
lived; idolatry
   
bowed to him firmly therefore
   
   
annoyance; approach
agreements
glad together
   
desired not; teaching; learn
times; to destroy them; (see note)
machines; many assaults
many crafty devices
   
   
comfort; ever; committed
   
powerful; every battle
warfare; victory
   
several
   
   
   
but himself
limb
everyone
   
   
   
   
   
   
live; beast upon growing grass
   
   
   
   
ordered
army; naked power
destroy whatever
obey (learn)
   
   
assemble; cease
ordered one; army
named
heed
go; war; peace
glad; went
chose
   
strike; straight away
love their teaching
utterly
   
alluded to
desist
army
   
towns; burned
hastened
shamefully; destroyed
truce; time
living; (see note)
   
   
   
   
scattered
despoiled; woods; hills
siege
were most prepared; (see note)
stop; they [Holofernes' army]
Until; children
smitten; (see note)
speak of victory
remain
   
forty
city; grief
   
wisely are vigilant
their; defend
steel cross-bows; winches and racks
already prepared to be cocked
great cannons powerfully
range; remain
their complaint (moan)
their mourning
are
   
learned in warfare
maintain their position
   
position; judge
whether they were all doughty warriors
fierce
engage
was named
as a group they went
   
understand such terror; (see note)
   
hand
meekly
   
   
   
enemies reckon
(see note)

(see note)
He [Abimalech]; conscription
destroy; bold
   
noise (prayers)
work in similar manner
endeavor
no wicked enemies
harm
   
as he advised; (see note)
   
obediently; commanded
   
hairshirts; sackcloth
dirt; head
   
provisions
(see note)
held out
Many subtle tricks
by deceitful strategem
   
knew; doubt; (see note)
as long as; plenty
made scarce every spout
   
brooks to be diverted
nigh; run near
intends; bow
eager; law; learn
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
spoiled; possessed
best; was named Ozias
protect
   
dwelling place surrender
   
truly
health
   
   
   
likely
   
   
   
powerful; (see note)
   
welfare hangs
earnestly there
naming; by
Ozias himself did say
   
   
made seed and grain
by
food in former times; (see note)
   
Since You like not; lost
who; believes; trusts
night and day
servants
know; ought
because of; such
   
greater than our sins
   
all-powerful
   
Against Thy voice
contain and silence
Chasten; (see note)
enemies; saying
Their God used to protect them
care for them so long
   
meekly, the lesser and the greater
satisfied
   there
   
advise
devotion; wield
   
shield (protection)
shown
surrender
their power
promise; protection
   
agreement
   
   
   
   
heard tell of their plans
Ozias, the high priest; proclaimed
their; themselves
   
demand of God results in five days
it [their plan] destroy; intelligence
plan to squelch
she went steadfastly
called those people together
stood in a prominent place
they should hear her
   
complaint she makes
most important among those
Amiss; your course
   
dare; specific time
go
Since; giver
terminate; abide
grieve
who may help most
find relief; (see note)
(see note)
   
   
to get release
because of sin
wrought; cease
   
   
woe; win them
their; peace
   
suffering; travail
Whether; abide
   
   
since; complain
ever showed meekness
(see note)
tried; sickness
obedient
did restore
manifest power
secure
shall befall us
if; mission
   
   
   
   
(see note)
sirs; since
   
   
   
   
make sure that none follow; (see note)
   
   
Guard; securely
until; returns
   
young; guard
bade; readily prepared
To attend her; evening
depart from
returned home
made her servant; time; (see note)
ointment; hot baths
body; foot
then she had herself dressed
   
   
guide; (see note)
   
silk; fine silk; satin
brocade
furs; ermine; (see note)
precious stones adorned
girdle
   
   
provide them with food
knew well
expressly
   
   
   
   
knees she kneeled
   
Whose; understand
Since in Thee lies
incline
wicked enemy
Thy people
in this way
was gone; (see note)
   
secretly to hasten forward
   
thither; found
attend their tower
ordered; steadfastly
help
   
   
So she sallied forth
powerful in battle
   
comfort
Watchmen who patrol the ways
captured; field; (see note)
   
(see note)
(see note)
prey
fancy dress; great plenty
going
walked; alone; (see note)
truly she said
from
truce
hear
one
dwells
   
eager
abandon; property; family; kin
   
soon shall conquer it
   
before we depart
How to win it easily
are; (see note)
Since; surrender themselves
   
profit in helping
(see note)
   
welfare; heed
   
lead
peer
good fortune
glad together
went
found; sitting; apart
led
terrified
people
   
   
   
   
heart; utterly ravished
   
in order to deceive him
   
strong
quickly up between them
knees she kneeled
   
comfort
whatever; desire
   
there's no hiding it
   
apparel; high; (see note)
believed
   
   
time
company; (see note)
   
(see note)
did ask her
hither
   
if you wish to hear
old; young
intention
good advice
adhere; behavior [to]
   
learn
   
   
have; place; (see note)
loose; bind
life; death
   
speak the absolute truth
weapons carry
against you
surrender
   
protection
   
lack of food fall dead; (see note)
   
   
   
such hideous harm
   
to you
signs to tell you
people
   
advise you
withheld
   
before the fourth
before I left
beasts slaughtered
   
   
   
   
   
hastened
   
   
   
   
their circumstances
   
   
well pleased
wine
   
invited her [to drink] in turn
heart; hand
it behooves me to live according to
until
ought
(see note)
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
tell you when; (see note)
assault by subtle device
conquer; (see note)
   
   
everyone before you stop
to stay there still
return home decked with honors
flattering promises; deceived
   
words (sayings) true
talked flatteringly
   
permission; prepare your food
   
ought
Who out of grief
capture
choice
   
   
For if I find; true
speech
   
   
   
pertain; (see note)
   
grieve
   
must; give; permission
leeway; ready access
go (move)
   
he knew nothing
   
live according to her own desire
   
   
guards
upon pain of loss of
be obedient
wholly
exit (issue); entrance
doorbar against
   
   
each person
guest; (see note)
   
prepare themselves; (see note)
   
(see note)
all manner of splendor
beauteous things; board
   
placed
all manner of unsought comforts
for sleep; undressed
more
Each night
far
There she intends if she may
keep; healthy
   
same; a well had been dug; (see note)
by; in years past
Thereof; where; went
therein were
   
labored
   
   
dwelt
were relieved
return with joy
remain; own pleasure
   
journeyed
   
exit (issue)
   
   
   
   
to destroy forever
   
gave orders therefore
superbly prepared
majestically
   
appointed
(see note)
   
   
at that time
   
   
   
   
their sight
pleased
wantonly cheerful
   
her chair; prepared
   
queenliness
ordered her to feast; merry cheer
ate food
   
semblance but drank nothing
companion
strong wine
joy; together
   
overwhelmed
   
   
well pleased
   
   
   
promptly
pay attention to him
desire
   
   
   
distress
   
did he hasten
foolish fancy
lie
doors are firmly barred
   
   
go
come to thee
   
   
   
villainy
   
there; wept
vouchsafe; allay
   
   
pay attention
no kind of noise; (see note)
quietly as she could creep
   
There she kneeled
   
strengthen; moment
promise
   
drew
which; place
sword; burst
blow
asunder sinew; vein
neck cut off
simple bag
their bread
   
to the place where; wont
gathered together their gear
manfully
   
To secure their welfare
time
perils
use to tarry
   
approached near
   
wicket
   
joy; wept
   
   
   
   
bowing; it is no lie
   
thought
high place
see her for sure
relic
head
Love God; solemnly
Who
(see note)
weak
   
   
knees
   
Who; relieve (cool)
   
   
   
should do each and every detail
   
quickly; ready
   
strike down your enemies
   
   
   
For when they know; know
   
   
be eager to go
pursue them hot-foot
destroy; before; flee far
leave much desirable wealth
pay no attention to that
are; slain
seize
   
Even as; quickly
   
   
trumpets; prepared
   
   
abashed
quickly
hastened
   
cried out to them
battle
   
noise
fear; get him in trouble
thought
been
   
   
   
seen
went
rueful
lapped
   
   
   
are lost
ask
   
   
   
   
wiles; evil counsel
no use to take time
their loot to take away
each one did run; ride
   
   
   
tattered and torn; (see note)
sorely; rued
   
swiftly; pursued
   
There then all who; seige dreamed up
destroyed
   
where their; been
   
defiling seen; (see note)
   
   
   
   
   
cast out as food for beasts
   
Treasure; home they went
   
(see note)
in abundance
   
each and everyone
   
bound
offered themselves
won
your intelligence
   
   
supplied
   
   
   
   
   
   
bade; quickly go
guide
divide; moveable goods
just proportions
   
divide up
Those who
relieved
   
   
   
   
   
over and past
   
   
   
   
treasure; given
advised
abundance
   
powerful
   
   
   
deed
doubt
   
   
lady's
   
wore her widow's weeds
except; religious holidays
   
   
please
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
expense; paid
supplied
provided; clothes and lodging
   
   
From the time
a hundred and five years
   
   
   
   
fate
buried her
   
   
   
   
remembered
   
misery; afflicted
   
by; know
make known (publish)
women; fitting
   
   
learning
health
into; unlearned people to teach
Example
true in belie

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