The Wallace: Selections (Books 7-12)

1 Until south across [the River] Forth she brought them with her right away

2 To obtain a pardon so that she might be at peace

3 Pierced through the veins and unlucky [in loss] of blood

4 Then laughed he loudly and said, "May ill befall you["]

5 With household provisions diligently he supplied them

6 Supplier of food thereafter he was certainly no more

7 Lines 238-39: I think we should make them feel our strength in combat, and so we do many times

8 Lines 250-51: So it appeared to him, death had seized him quickly, / Then said to them, "He has paid what he owed [to Nature]" (i.e., he has died)

9 She offered her milk-filled breast to Wallace

10 Until we know who you are you shall [come] with me to Ayr

11 Of Wallace's escape, then continued on their way

12 And gloves of plate-armor were covered well with cloth

13 By that time the [English] force was making its way to Loudoun Hill

14 None dared separate until the press to battle was past

15 English serving men (knaves) they made their baggage transport

16 Sir Ranald Crawford was obliged to be there at that time

17 In matters of war he did not follow his counsel

18 Now enjoying good [fortune], now cold weather, now hot

19 Caused him many times to triumph over his adversaries

20 From their lance supports [attached to the saddle] they threw sharp spears at that time

21 Right through the rib; the shaft broke completely

22 To Shortwood Forest removed food and strong wine

23 Between the two parties (i.e., the English armies) Wallace then sallied out

24 But the [female] sleuth hound, which was reliable and fierce

25 He ordered him to go on and said the stronghold (i.e., Gask Hall) was near

26 None came back, but [the horn] continued to blow harshly

27 To a stair leading to a close, the boards [he] smashed in two

28 Since he began [his rebellion] are lost beyond help (i.e., fatally wounded)

29 They did not recognize him, [therefore] he was the less in danger

30 Some were stabbed, some had their throats cut

31 No English [man] could find fault with them, poor nor rich

32 So that he never again marshaled any horses

33 Lines 766-67: Their horses they took and promptly made themselves ready to leave / The town; they did not stay for dinner

34 With our [smaller] force to wait to [give] them battle here

35 [A] beginning made by agreement before ready witnesses

36 "Whom do you scorn?" said Wallace. "Who taught you?"

37 One made an obscene gesture and pulled at his long sword (penis)

38 [Remained] behind their men until they reached the gate

39 To Lanark made their way on horses, a thousand in all

40 If you are the leader of all this thing (rebellion)

41 You, robber-king, charge me because of a mere circumstance

42 Let [me] know (hear) the price. I will take every one of them

43 "For by [the look of it] this army knows the roads well"

44 Wallace was pleased when he had heard that call (lit., word)

45 Lines 567-68: Whomever they hit, with sword blows, no armor could stop them once they assembled on foot

46 Through Culter Valley before they had time to climb the hill

47 Overgrown with brushwood, and all the grass was growing vigorously

48 In Cumberland from his home in Pontefract

49 So long as I am quit [of responsibility] I care not what you do

50 Do not fail therefore to redress this wrong

51 The green [signifies] the courageous effort in which you are now engaged

52 Although you would send [a messenger], [going to] that trouble would be in vain

53 Tightly drawn ropes were fastened all along a beam

54 With a law-court servant to bring him before the court

55 Through great gluttony fell suddenly into a stupor like swine

56 It would [fall] to him (i.e., Wallace), for anything they could devise

57 Nor consider anyone [a] lord unless he owns land

58 Some grimly wept as they departed this life

59 Indeed, I believe you have not yet been blessed by a bishop

60 Lines 763-64: By [the time] our party was past Strath Fillan, / Every one [of] the small band of outlaws began to tire

61 Made an end of him; [so] that he told no news

62 Cleared a space around him as large as a rood (a measure) or more

63 That Jop himself did not know for sure who would win

64 Kept himself independent, though sworn to King Edward

65 Generosity and loyalty he had as [much as] any one could ask

66 Lived as he could and always kept good faith [with the Scottish rebels]

67 Had [it] openly proclaimed that there would be no sparing

68 Lines 1075-76: None went away except priests, women, and children; / [If] they resisted they did not escape without harm

69 He was made an earl only a short time before

70 Seven thousand in all floundered at once in [the River] Forth

71 He lived there freely as an outlaw

72 They should continue and have no fear of him (i.e., Earl Patrick)

73 Lines 106-07: Wallace would stop there no longer and turned back / Towards Dunbar, where reliable men told him

74 Northumberland [men presenting] an awesome sight

75 Lines 199-200: In truth I will not flee / As long as I have one against four of his [men]

76 Lines 285-86: None was so strong that, [once] injured by Wallace, / Ever again troubled a Scot

77 Lines 457-58: He arranged for them to choose the best armor and horse / And enough weapons to serve them well

78 What need was there of a greater force to go [to battle]?

79 Lines 518-19: He did not sin by burning and slaying them (the English). / They thought it no sin when they let us feel the same

80 And assurance of safety for as long as he wished to ask [it]

81 And this they decided among themselves

82 This knight Cambell, a man distinguished for his wisdom

83 They were extremely fearful about their own troops

84 We have no responsibility for what our king makes us do

85 Although he was the best, we do not find fault with any other

86 Since the death of Brutus, without battle, except Wallace

87 Good men must endure [the] scorn of worthless fellows in war

88 These men in shining armor reached the bulwark

89 Then Wallace said, "Where such things come through menacing["]

90 [Bearers] of [the] oldest coats [of] arms in that region

91 He should be punished for slaying such an innocent creature

92 The queen discovered words did not help her [case]

93 This emboldened me all the more to try you

94 To minstrels, heralds, she gave abundantly

95 Because of your generosity we shall cause no more trouble

96 Lines 115-16: But I am not cut out to be a courtier; / And I would rather die than leave you here

97 [That] some advocated taking to the battlefield to offer open battle

98 Fled to a plain, the English sought [to escape] from them

99 And [yet we] do not injure [them]? We have too great a repulse

100 Curling brown hair on [his] forehead and light eyebrows

101 I will let the balance of the sorrow be assuaged

102 A very large company of armed men guarded him


THE WALLACE: SELECTIONS: EXPLANATORY NOTES


Abbreviations: see Textual Notes.

Book 1

1-4 The scribe indents the first four lines here and at the beginning of other books, and he indents the first two lines at the beginning of some stanzas (e.g., 2.171ff.). I have maintained the practice.

1-19 These lines provide a short prologue in which Hary highlights the commemorative function of his narrative. Although similar to Barbour's prologue in The Bruce, Hary's denigration of the English, the first of many such disparagements in his poem, is not characteristic of Barbour. Note the references to reading in line 1 of the Prologue, and then in the first line introducing the hero (line 17), and then later in the direct advice to readers in line 34. McDiarmid regards them as addresses to readers of histories (2.124n1-4).

21 Through the convention of providing his hero's genealogy, Hary traces Wallace's lineage back to the "gud Wallace" (line 30) who was a companion of Walter Warayn of Wales, or Walter Fitz Alan, the first Scottish Stewart. The Stewart dynasty succeeded the Bruces to the throne of Scotland.

23 Sir Reginald (Ranald) Crawford, brother of Wallace's mother, became sheriff of Ayr in May 1296.

28 Elrisle. Elderslie, specifically Renfrewshire land held first by the father, later by the brother of the same name, Sir Malcolm Wallace, as vassals to the Stewarts. It was part of the lordship of Paisley and Renfrew and, as Barrow (1973) points out, is right at the heart of the Stewart fief (pp. 339-40).

34 the rycht lyne of the fyrst Stewart. This appears to be a reference to Barbour's long lost genealogy of the Stewarts, a work whose existence is also attested by the fifteenth-century Scottish chronicler Andrew Wyntoun.

36 Sir Malcolm Wallace is the only brother mentioned, although other sources suggest William Wallace had at least one other brother, John, who was executed in 1307 after being captured fighting for Bruce.

41 Alexander. I.e., Alexander III (1249-86), whose accidental death when he was thrown from his horse near the royal manor of Kinghorn in Fife left the kingdom without a king. His three children had died before him, his two sons without offspring, so that the heir to the throne was his daughter's child, Margaret, the "Maid of Norway." Margaret died in Orkney on her way to Scotland to ascend her throne in 1290. A number of rival claimants to the throne then presented them-selves, the strongest two being Robert Bruce, lord of Annandale (grandfather of the future king, Robert I), and John Balliol, who did succeed in 1292.

44 a full grevous debate. Hary provides a very brief and over-simplified account of the succession crisis in the following lines. In line 47, he identifies the chief competitors as "Bruce" (that is Robert Bruce, lord of Annandale), "Balyoune" (John Balliol), and "Hastyng" (John Hastings), the descendants of the three daughters of "Our Prynce Davy" (line 45), David, earl of Huntingdon and grand-son of David I (1124-53). Balliol claimed the throne as the grandson of the eldest daughter, Dervoguilla, "of first gre lynialy" (line 49), and Bruce as the son of the second daughter, Isabel, and the first male descendant "of the secund gre" (line 50); Hastings was the grandson of Ada, the youngest daughter. King Edward I (Longshanks) was approached as arbiter and used the opportunity to declare his overlordship of Scotland. Bruce and Balliol emerged as the main claimants, although by the end of 1292, Bruce had resigned his claim in favour of his son and heirs, and Edward had decided in favor of Balliol (crowned at Scone on 30 November). By the rule of primogeniture, Balliol had the stronger claim but after the succession of Robert Bruce in 1306 history was re-written to make Bruce appear the divine and popular choice. See Barbour (Bruce 1.37-178), Wyntoun (Cronykil 8.i, ii, v-viii, x), and Bower (Scotichronicon 11.1-14), whose accounts clearly influenced Hary.

53-54 These lines may have been influenced by Barbour's passionate reproach:
A blynd folk full off all foly,
Haid 3e wmbethocht 3ow enkrely
Quhat perell to 3ow mycht apper
3e had nocht wrocht on þat maner.
Haid 3e tane keip how at þat king
Alwayis for-owtyn soiournyng
Trawayllyt for to wyn sen3hory
And throw his mycht till occupy
Landis þat war till him marcheand
. . . .
3e mycht se he suld occupy
Throw slycht þat he ne mycht throw maistri. (Bruce 1.91-112)
56 Gaskone. The war with Philip the Fair of France over Gascony did not break out until June 1294, whereas Hary is clearly referring here to events in 1291-92. Bower's mention of the envoys who journeyed to Gascony in 1286 to seek Edward's arbitration in the succession crisis (11.3) may well account for Hary's mistake, as McDiarmid suggests (2.130n56).

61 Noram. Norham, in Northumberland. It was here in May 1291 that Edward met the Scots and declared his right to overlordship of Scotland.

65 Byschope Robert. Robert Wishart, bishop of Glasgow (1261-1316), a staunch defender of Scottish independence.

70 Edward decided in Balliol's favor and the latter was crowned king in November 1292.

77 Ane abbot. Identified as Henry of Arbroath by McDiarmid, who cites Wyntoun and Bower as Hary's sources here (2.131n75-77).

79 Werk on Twede. Up river from Berwick on Tweed.

81 Corspatryk. Earl Patrick of Dunbar and March, one of the great magnates of Scotland who supported Edward I. His role in the sack of Berwick is also attested by the Scalacronica, a chronicle of English history begun in 1355 by Sir Thomas Gray when he was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle. He was later appointed keeper of Berwick town (1298). Hary describes him as a traitor, and blames him for the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar the following month.

85-96 Several accounts of Edward's sack of Berwick in March 1296 survive. Medieval Scottish chroniclers represent it as one of the greatest atrocities perpetrated by Edward's forces, because of the slaughter of civilians, including women and children. Wyntoun (8.11) and Bower (11.20) describe the devastating attack in detail and both reckon the toll at 7,500, as Hary does.

94-95 In contrast to Edward's indiscriminate slaughter, Wallace persistently refuses to slay women and children in Hary's narrative.

98-114 The Battle of Dunbar took place on 27 April 1296. Hary seems to have used a different source here from Wyntoun and Bower, who mention the presence of only one earl, Ross. The English Lanercost chronicle agrees with Hary about the four present. Modern historians tend to agree that three were present, Atholl, Ross, and Menteith. (Barrow [1988], p. 74, Watson, p. 25)

102 Mar, Menteith, Adell, Ros. The high-ranking earls of Mar, Menteith, Atholl, and Ross.

115-21 Scune. Edward's recorded itinerary after Dunbar places him in the borders during May and early June and then further north from 6 June, staying in Perth 21-24 June, in Forfar 3 July, and arriving in Montrose on 8 July, to which he summoned Balliol. If he included Scone on his route, then he must have been there in the last week of June. Both Bower and Wyntoun state that Balliol was summoned to Montrose and, stripped of the royal regalia, was there forced to resign the kingdom on 8 July 1296. Whether Edward was ever crowned at Scone is a matter for speculation. He certainly removed the Stone of Destiny, traditionally used for Scottish coronations, to London in 1296.

122 Gadalos. Legendary history records that Gaythelos was the husband of Scota, the eponymous mother of the Scottish people and daughter of an Egyptian pharaoh whose descendants brought to Scotland the Stone of Destiny that later became the coronation seat of Scottish monarchs and a symbol of Scottish independence. Taken by Edward to London in 1296, it was finally returned to Scotland with the Scottish royal regalia in 1996. See Fordun, Chronica 1.8-19, and the expanded version of this origin myth in Bower, Scotichronicon 1.9-18.

123 Iber Scot. Hiber, the son of Gaytheles, who established the Scots in Ireland.

124 Canmor syne King Fergus. Malcolm Canmore, king of Scots (1058-93) and the successor of Macbeth. According to legend, Fergus was the first Scottish king.

132 Margretis ayr. The descendants of St. Margaret, the English wife of Malcom Canmore, became the rulers of England and Scotland. Hary may be drawing on Bower, who inserts a list of their descendants in the midst of his account of the Scottish succession dispute (11.12).

133 After his triumphant tour through much of central and eastern Scotland, accepting homage as he went, Edward set up an English administration, with headquarters in Berwick, in August 1296. Important barons and knights, many captured at Dunbar, were taken as prisoners to England.

134 Bruce. I.e., Robert Bruce, the future king.

137 Blacok Mur . . . Huntyntoun. McDiarmid believes this should be Blacow mur, as it refers to Blakemore in Yorkshire where the Bruces held lands (2.136n137). Huntyntoun is the vast English Honour of Huntingdon, a third of which had come into the Bruce family through Isabel, one of the three daughters of Earl David.

140 Protector. McDiarmid (2.136n140) suggests one possible corroboration of this claim that Edward entrusted the government of all Scotland to the earl of Warenne and Earl Patrick of March (Joseph Stevenson and Robert Rodger, eds., The Wallace Papers [Edinburgh: Maitland Club, 1841], p. 5).

144 Hary returns to Wallace and resumes his account of the outbreak of war in early 1296. Later (line 192) Wallace is said to be eighteen years of age when he has his first violent encounter with the English in Dundee. Hary's account of his career does not add up. If Wallace is eighteen in 1296 he cannot have been forty-five at the time of his death in 1305, as Hary says he was (12.1427). It may be that Hary thought of eighteen as the age at which a youth could take up arms. In Book 3 Adam, the eldest son of Wallace's uncle Sir Richard Wallace, at the same age is the only one of the three who rides off with William Wallace to pursue a campaign against the English.

147-48 I.e., Malcolm, Wallace's father, alongside his eldest brother, also called Malcolm (line 321). The Lennox, in the west of Central Scotland, was one of the oldest earldoms of Scotland. It incorporated Dumbartonshire, much of Stirlingshire, and parts of Renfrewshire and Perthshire.

150 Kilspindie in the Gowrie district of Perthshire, where a relative on his maternal side offers refuge. Even though this relative is said to be an "agyt man" (line 154), it seems unlikely that Hary was referring to the uncle of Wallace's maternal grandfather, as line 152 seems to suggest, but rather to Wallace's uncle.

155 That part of Wallace's education included going to school in Dundee, ten miles from his uncle's home in Kilspindie, is repeated by Hary in 7.670-71.

159 Saxons blud. Hary quite frequently refers to the English occupiers in this racist manner. Another example is the metonym, "Sothroun" (e.g., line 188). (See Goldstein [1993], pp. 222-23.)

160-70 These sentiments are reminiscent of Bruce 1.179-204.

165 The English occupation is compared to Herod's slaughter of the innocents.

171-72 Although no other known source claims Glasgow diocese was handed over to the bishop of Durham, McDiarmid suggests that Hary's conviction about this may be based on a tradition (2.138n171-72).

175-76 The hanging of Scottish leaders and Wallace's revenge on the English as they slept in barns at Ayr are entirely fictitious events described in Book 7.

194 Specific examples of the strife Wallace encounters are recounted at lines 205-32 and in Book 2.

201-02 The description of Wallace's appearance and manner is quite conventional. His reticence to speak much is mentioned again at line 294. A more detailed portrait of Wallace is deferred until 10.1221-44.

205 The name of the constable of Dundee Castle in 1296 is not known, but the name Selby (line 207) is that of a Northumberland knight who was active in the wars of independence.

215 McDiarmid suggests a "geste" may be Hary's source here (2.140-41n205-07).

219 Rouch rewlyngis. That is, roughshod rawhide boots. In his poem on the Battle of Bannockburn, the English poet Laurence Minot used much the same term, "Rughfute riveling" (line 19), as a mocking metonym for the Scots (The Poems of Laurence Minot, ed. Richard Osberg [Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publi-cations, 1996], p. 36).

275 lawdayis . . . set ane ayr. Lawdays were the days appointed for holding courts of law, and justice-ayres were the circuit courts of the sovereign's justice.

282 St. Margaret was Queen Margaret of Scotland (d. 1093), wife of Malcolm Canmore (1057-93). Originally a member of the Saxon royal family, she became renowned for her piety and was canonized in 1249. Her shrine in Dunfermline Abbey (line 287) was a favorite destination for pilgrims.

285 Landoris. Lindores, Fife. This suggests they took the ferry across the Tay at the confluence with the River Earn, rather than the Dundee-Tayport ferry near the firth. Lindores was on a major pilgrim route, and shelter could be obtained at the Grange, the home farm of the nearby abbey.

287 Dunfermline, another early Scottish burgh, was also a major trade and communication center because of its proximity to the River Forth.

290 Lithquhow. Linlithgow, in what is now West Lothian, was one of the earliest royal Scottish burghs.

294 Note the qualities admired in the young Wallace, especially reticence. See explanatory note to lines 200-01.

296-97 One of the main ferry routes for pilgrims and other travelers in medieval Scotland linked Dunfermline and Queensferry (named after Queen Margaret, see explanatory note to line 282).

299-300 his eyme . . . persone. Bower also refers to one of Wallace's uncles as a priest.

304 sone. Used throughout the poem in addresses by older to younger male relatives generally.

317 Corsby. In Ayrshire, sometimes anglicized on maps as Crosby.

319-21 Hary claims that Wallace's father and his eldest brother Malcolm were killed at the Battle of Loudoun Hill, but Malcolm Wallace was alive in 1299 and history only testifies to a battle there in 1307. See explanatory note to 3.78.

330 lord Persye. Henry Percy, a Northumberland knight, was appointed warden of Ayr and Galloway by Edward I in 1296. He played a major part in the Scottish wars. He also appears in Bruce 4.598-603. Hary describes him as "captane than of Ayr" at line 379.

355 uncle Wallas. Another uncle, Sir Richard Wallace of Riccarton in Kyle, Ayrshire, conjecturally one of the Wallace fees (Barrow [1973], p. 350). It was, perhaps, one of his three sons mentioned first in 3.43-44 (here paraphrased) who married the widow of the earl of Carrick (the father of the future king, Robert Bruce) in 1306.

363-68 Hary becomes specific about the months Wallace spends in Ayrshire, but the year is still unclear.

368-433 The source for this story of Wallace's violent encounter with Percy's men is probably a traditional tale.

383 Scot, Martyns fysche. McDiarmid cites an old Scottish proverb which conveys the sense of "every man for himself" (2.144n383).

399 The Englishman objects to Wallace's use of the familiar "thou" instead of the more appropriate "ye" or "yhe" (lines 385 and 391) that he adopted earlier in the exchange.


Book 2

11 Auchincruff. Auchincruive Castle, Ayrshire, was the fee of Richard Wallace (line 13).

16 Laglyne Wode. Presumably a nearby forest, later part of the Auchincruive estate. Wallace uses it as a natural stronghold and refuge a number of times in the narrative (2.66; 3.421; 7.262).

27-65 One of three episodes in this book in which Wallace flexes his muscles against the English as he limbers up for organized resistance to the occupation regime Hary has described. Opportunities to display his hero's individual feats of combat are created just as they were for Bruce in Barbour's "romanys." The motif is repeated at lines 78-136, although this time Wallace does not escape his pursuers, and at lines 384-411.

93 A similarly familiar, therefore rude, form of address is found at line 391.

171-359 Note the change of stanza form for Wallace's lament in prison from couplets to a 9-line stanza rhyming aabaabbab, except for the first, which rhymes aabaababb.

234 Celinus. Another name for Mercury. McDiarmid reads Celinius and relates the allusion to Chaucer's Compleynt of Mars where Venus flees "unto Cilenios tour" (line 113) to avoid exposure by Phebus, who catches her with Mars (2.146-47n234).

258 His fyrst norys. Wallace's former wet nurse (also referred to as his "foster modyr" at line 270) retrieves his "body" from the castle walls and arranges for him to be carried across the river to Newtown on the north bank of the Ayr river. This may suggest that Wallace's birthplace was in Ayrshire. On the other hand, tradition associates Wallace's birth with Elderslie in Renfrewshire, and it may be that the wet nurse came from Ayrshire to nurse the young Wallace. He later sends her, with her daughter and grand-daughter, to join his own mother in safety there (lines 366-69).

274 A. A. MacDonald notes this motif was probably taken from Valerius Maximus ("The Sense of Place in Early Scottish Verse: Rhetoric and Reality," English Studies 72.1 [Feb. 1991], 12-27: 18).

280 To aid the ruse that Wallace is dead the good woman, "[h]is foster modyr" (line 270), places a board covered with woolens and surrounded by lights, as if it were a place of honor for mourning the deceased.

288 Thomas of Ercildoune, otherwise known as Thomas the Rhymer, is mentioned with other soothsayers in the Scalacronica. A ballad dating from the fifteenth century recounts some of Thomas the Rhymer's adventures in Elfland. See The Romance and Prophecies of Thomas of Erceldoune, ed. James Murray, EETS o.s. 61 (London: N. Trübner, 1875). Hary attributes to Thomas the prophecy that Wallace will three times oust the English from Scotland (lines 346-50).

359 Wallace's raids in England are described in 8.512-620.

416 Sir Richard Wallace of Riccarton. See explanatory note to 1.355. He is said to have three sons (line 418).

436 Robert Boyd is presented by Hary as one of Wallace's loyal companions, along with Adam Wallace, one Kneland, whose first name is never provided, and Edward Litill. Probably he is Robert Boyd of Noddsdale, Cunningham, and co-roner of Ayr and Lanark, and possibly the same Sir Robert Boyd whom Barbour identifies as one of Bruce's staunchest supporters (Bruce 4.342, 352-63, 505).


Book 3

1-14 Compare to the opening lines of Henryson's fable The Preiching of the Swallow.

11-20 Historically, the English did not occupy many castles in 1296. Hary establishes another contrast between the suffering and deprivation of the Scots and the well-provisioned English occupying forces. The irony is that harvest time is approaching. Hary is using a literary device, as the opening lines make apparent, and creating a motive for Wallace's revenge (lines 40-41).

17 wyn and gud wernage. The first suggests vin ordinaire, red or white, while wernage is a malmsey or muscadine, a strong, sweet-flavored white wine.

67 Loudoun Hill, just north of the River Irvine, Ayrshire.

72 as myn autor me teld. Like other medieval writers, Hary uses the authority topos to create the impression of authenticity.

78 Avondale, not far from Loudoun. McDiarmid suggests that Hary ingeniously created this detour from the usual route from Carlisle to Ayr, via Corsancone, so that he could invent a Battle at Loudoun Hill, drawing details from Barbour's account of Bruce's victory there in 1307 (2.153-54n81). See explanatory note to line 100.

100 There is no evidence to support Hary's account of this battle, although McDiarmid (2.153-54n81) is probably correct in saying that Hary "borrowed" it from Barbour's account of the battle Bruce fought there in 1307 (Bruce 8.207-358). The use of "dykes" and the flight of the English are common to both battles.

111-12 Compare to 1.319-20. Hary has mentioned only one brother, Malcolm. He was alive in 1299.

117-18 knycht Fenweik. No specific individual has been identified, but McDiarmid points out that a number of persons with this name are mentioned in contemporary records (2.153n62). The expeditions against the Scots may allude to cross-border raids in which Fenwicks (from Northumberland or Cumberland) are known to have been involved.

124 and be. A medial placement of an introductory conjunction is somewhat common. The sense is: "And he shall again be dragged through the town."

129-32 The polished armor of the English contrasts with the utility of the Scots' armor. The few against the many is a common romance motif, employed by Barbour too.

133-34 A maner dyk. This may well refer to a ditch and wall combination of the kind Barbour describes in Bruce 8.172-83.

188 Bewmound. Beaumont, a squire, is not to be confused with Beaumont, earl of Buchan (according to Hary), who appears from Book 7 on.

193 hors repende rouschede frekis undir feit. Repende: "kicking, plunging"; rouschede: "rushed," i.e., "charged." The alliterative surge of violence almost overwhelms the syntax as the horses crush men underfoot.

207 Kyle and Cunningham were two districts of Ayrshire. Boyd held land in Cunningham. See explanatory note to 2.436.

214 Clyde Forest was on the north side of the River Clyde.


Book 4

1-10 Hary's literary pretensions are most evident in rhetorical set pieces of this kind in which the month (September) and the season (autumn) are described.

3 Victuals in this sense include all harvestable foods, such as grain, berries, vegetables, and so on.

9 The mutability of worldly things is a medieval commonplace.

15-16 A sheriff was "the principal royal officer in local districts into which the kingdom was divided for the purposes of royal government" (Barrow [1988], p. 8). Sir Ranald inherited the position throw rycht (line 16), reflecting the tendency for a sheriff's office to become heritable.

18 as witnes beris the buk. Another invocation of his written source, or authority. The book cited here is presumably the fictitious one by Blair, which Hary claims as his main authority on Wallace.

22-54 Another instance of aggression between Wallace's and Percy's baggage men. See explanatory note to 1.368-433.

26 Hesilden. Hazelden, Renfrewshire, south of Glasgow.

71 the Mernys. Newton Mearns.

325-44 This passage, like set pieces in chronicles magnifying the qualities of the land, for better or worse, celebrates Scotland's plenty (and depravity). Compare with Barbour's account of food resources in Aberdeenshire (Bruce 2.577-84) after his defeat at Methven. Methven Park later became a favorite royal hunting reserve.

335-40 The device of anaphora (now . . . now) is employed to effect the full range of Scotland's character.

341 Hary points out that Wallace will fight for Scotland's independence (Scotlandis rycht) for 6 years and 7 months, and predicts what is to come, but of course the chronology is Hary's own.

359 mar. The chief magistrate of a town. According to the DOST, mar normally referred to the mayor or magistrate of an English town, but is used here of Perth, a town occupied by the English. There is also an old Scottish Gaelic term, maor, meaning steward or bailiff.

395-96 Sir James Butler's son, Sir John, is said to be deputy captain, and Sir Garaid (Gerard) Heroun to be the captain of Kinclaven Castle (line 396). A Robert Heron was appointed chamberlain comptroller in Scotland in 1305, but no Sir Gerard Heron has been identified as active in Scotland during this period.

441 Ninety English soldiers arrive, led by Butler, as becomes clear at line 457.

718 ff. Hary makes clear the precariousness of the woman's actions. Death by burning was the usual punishment for high treason decreed for women.

723 Wallace is referred to as a rebell. He later denies this vociferously.

740 Rycht unperfyt I am of Venus play. Compare to Chaucer, whose narrators in the dream vision poems often profess inexperience in the ways of Venus.

787 South Inche. McDiarmid notes the town had a North and South Inch, or lawn (2.166n787).


Book 5

95 Gask Wood, like Gask Hall (line 175), is on the left bank of the River Earn.

180-214 No specific source for this ghost story is known. Hary refers to Wallace's experience as a fantasé (line 212), which McDiarmid notes conforms to what Chaucer calls "infernals illusions" in medieval dream lore, i.e., fantasies that lured men to their destruction (2.169n180-224). On possible Celtic sources for the Fawdoun episode, see Balaban, p. 248.

211 ff. Hary ponders on the fantasé (line 212) and compares the myscheiff (line 217) to Lucifer's fall. Note the echo of Barbour (1.259-60) about leaving discussion of such matters to clerks (lines 223-25).

219-24 Or quhat it was in liknes . . . . McDiarmid refers to Dante's Inferno in which it is disclosed that fiends take over the bodies of traitors once the soul has departed (2.170n221-22). In his Daemonologie (1597), King James VI discusses pos-session of dead bodies by devils, calling such specters umbrae mortuorum (ch. 6.23-25; 7.16-18).

389-94 Note the use of the appropriately familiar form of address by the parson. But when the English adopt the familiar form the intention is to insult Wallace.

465-66 In Bothwell . . . / With ane Craufurd. The Crawford is presumably a kinsman of Wallace. After a night in Bothwell, Lanarkshire, Wallace moves on to Gilbank (line 467), not far from Lanark, where another uncle, Auchinleck, Sir Reginald Crawford's brother, shelters him (line 469).

467 Gilbank was identified by Jamieson as a property in Lanarkshire, held in tribute by Auchinleck, as noted by McDiarmid (2.174n467).

470-80 Presumably family tradition provided Hary with the details of these relationships; for example, that Auchinleck married Sir Reginald's widow, the daughter of the laird of Lesmahago (line 474), and fathered three children, one of whom was the son mentioned at line 477. The Crawfords, as noted before (line 466), were hereditary sheriffs of Ayr. Percy would have received homage from Sir Reginald when he was installed as part of Edward's administration in 1296.

474 Lesmahago. In Lanarkshire.

487 Loran. William Loran, Butler's nephew.

506 Percy is thinking about the need to appoint a new garrison at Perth, and he makes arrangements for this at lines 519-20. No arrangements are made for Kinclaven, which has been reduced to ruins (line 521).

508 clerkys sayis. Another reference to prophecies that haunt Wallace.

514 nacioune. One of the earliest uses of this term to refer to an identifiable nation. Wyntoun also uses it in this sense (7.408).

519 The Siwards of Tibbers and Aberdour in Fife were one of the chief Scottish baronial families. Sir Richard Siward was son-in-law to Sir John Comyn and after his capture at the Battle of Dunbar he became a prominent member of Edward I's administration in Scotland. He is known to have been sheriff of Fife and also of Dumfries, as well as warden of Nithsdale, but surviving records do not indicate whether he was ever sheriff of Perth. See also explanatory note to 7.1017.

533-45 Hary's putative sources, John Blair and Thomas Gray, are depicted as scholars and eye-witnesses. As Hary had a friend by the name of Blair, a compliment may be intended.

569-71 William Hesilrig was a Northumberland knight appointed as sheriff of Lanark in 1296 as part of the new administration. He is mentioned in the Scalacronica, p. 123.

579-710 Hary cites a buk (line 580) as authority for the story of Wallace's sweetheart. Wallace's courtship of a maiden in Lanark is also told by Wyntoun, who briefly relates how Wallace's "lemman" in Lanark dies at the hands of the town's sheriff for assisting the hero's escape from the town (8.13.2075 ff.). Unlike the "lemman" in Perth, this maiden is the daughter of a late, respectable Lanarkshire landowner. She later declares that she wyll no lemman be (line 693). Her noble parentage, beauty, manners, and virtues are all noticed. Hary names her father as Hew Braidfute of Lammington (line 584), which is in Lanarkshire, but the family has not been identified. He stresses her vulnerability, as she lacks the protection of parents and her brother has been killed. Among her qualities is piety: Wallace falls in love when he first sees her in church. That Hary's model is Criseyde from Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde is clear in lines 605-06. See Harward, pp. 48-50.

606 The prent of luff. Derived from Aristotelian philosophy, this conception of love as a deep impression made on, and retained in, the heart is also found in Robert Henryson's Testament of Cresseid (lines 505-11).

609 hyr kynrent and hyr blud. These are credentials that make her attractive to him.

631-32 Compare Troilus's attitude in Troilus and Criseyde (1.191- 203).

685 ff. See Chaucer's The Franklin's Tale (CT V[F]741-50) for a similar "accord" (V[F]741), especially concerning service in love.

719-61 Wallace moves into Annandale, traveling from Corehead, in Moffatdale, to Lochmaben Castle, where he kills the captain.

720 This familial relationship between Thom Haliday and Wallace is not otherwise attested. The purported relationship gives Wallace an extended family and support network. See 6.535-37 and explanatory note to 6.537, below.

721 Litill. Edward Litill from Annandale. See explanatory note to 2.436.

737 Sir Robert Clifford, a Westmoreland knight, was active in Scotland from 1296. He has known associations with Caerlaverock and Carlisle castles, so may well have had a cousin who was captain of Lochmaben. He was warden of Galloway from 1298 and appointed captain of the southwest garrisons, which were regularly under attack from the Scots. He defended Lochmaben from Bruce in 1307 and was killed at Bannockburn. Hary is inclined to make family vengeance a motivating force. Compare his treatment of the Butlers.

755 A marshal was originally one who tended horses. Later it was the title of a high-ranking officer in a royal court.

757-65 Another instance of Hary's grim humor. As well as shaving, barbers also let blood.

766-970 Wallace and his small company are pursued by soldiers from Lochmaben. Running combat ensues as the English give chase through the Knockwood (line 777) and Wallace tries to return to Corehead, avoiding open battle. Reinforcements are provided when needed most by Sir John Graham and one Kirkpatrick, whereupon the pursuit is reversed.

804-09 This is the "few against many" motif again.

815-18 Hugh of Morland, another Westmoreland knight, and a veteran according to Hary, was probably involved in border warfare long before the war with Scotland broke out. Although many of the specific persons mentioned by Hary cannot be identified precisely, their names are often authentic in that they can be linked to geographical places.

841 ff. Wallace is presented as an exemplary chieftain.


Book 6

1-104 This preamble links Wallace's fortunes to love, and anticipates the loss of his beloved. The meter adopted here is appropriate for tragedy, as in Chaucer's The Monk's Tale, and incorporates Wallace's complaint, lines 29-40. Hary appropriates the conventional spring topos for the opening of Book 6, associating April, the last month of spring (line 3), with Wallace's sufferings on account of love. The opening lines are not easy to follow though. Hary begins with what seems to be a reference to Christian liturgical use, with his allusion to the utas of Feviryher (line 1). Utas or "octave" was the eighth day after a feast day, counting the day itself. The term was also used of the whole period of eight days, so McDiarmid's suggestion that Hary may simply mean the weeks of February may be correct. The reference to the appearance of April when only part of March has passed (line 2), may be explained, as McDiarmid suggests, as an allusion to the Roman calends of April, which began on March 16 (2.181n1-2).

25 feyr of wer. Here and at line 40 but with different, though connected, meanings.

44-56 concord. The influence of the "accord" (CT V[F]791) between Arveragus and Dorigen in Chaucer's The Franklin's Tale (V[F]791-99) is unmistakable, especially the echoes in the next stanza. A further debt to Chaucer's Complaint of Mars (2.76-77) is detected by McDiarmid in lines 54-56 (2.183n54-56). An idealized relationship, based on literary models, is certainly indicated.

57 doubill face. The duplicitous face of Fortune is frequently used to convey the arbitrary nature of her power. See, for example, Chaucer's The Book of the Duchess, lines 626-34.

60-61 The rhetorical figures of antithesis and anaphora combine in the now . . . now construction, and again at lines 81-85.

71 A Squier Schaw. McDiarmid implies that Hary may have been influenced by the fact that around the time he was writing his poem one of James IV's squires was a John Shaw (2.183n71).

88 McDiarmid (2.184n88) finds an echo of Troilus and Criseyde 4.296: "On lyve in torment and in cruwel peyne."

94 na hap to ho. Literally "no destiny to stop," i.e., destined not to stop.

97-101 The role of Fortune and the contrast between this corrupt, changeable world and perfect heaven are conventional and undoubtedly influenced by Boethian philosophy. An extended treatment of the theme can be found in The Kingis Quair by James I of Scotland (1394-1437).

107-271 The date is very precise and alerts us to his source, Wyntoun's Cronykil, Book 8, ch. 13. Hary lifts the ensuing dialogue straight from Wyntoun (8.13.2038-48) but he elaborates on Wyntoun in his account of the lead-up to the confrontation (8.13.2029-37).

113 Robert Thorn, supposedly an English officer too, has not been identified.

114-18 "Has found the best way / To act against Wallace / By picking a quarrel with him as he happened to come / From the church in town, / While their company would be armed." Note the assumption that Wallace would be unarmed (i.e., without armor) and so vulnerable. See line 125 where he and his company are dressed in seasonal green.

124-264 Hary may have had another source for his account of the death of Wallace's sweetheart and the revenge killing of Heselrig than Wyntoun's Book 8, ch. 8. The killing of the sheriff and the burning of the town are attested in other sources.

132 Dewgar . . . bone senyhour. Hesilrig attempts to insult Wallace with French idioms, implying that he is an effete foreigner newly come from France (line 134) or a mock-courtier. Wallace replies to the scornful address by contemptuous use of single pronouns in his response (line 133).

136 McDiarmid suggests a contemporary reference to Princess Margaret, who was brought from Denmark to Scotland in 1469 (see 2.183n71 and 2.185n134-36).

140 Here the English mock Scots idioms of salutation. McDiarmid (2.185n140) points out that this is a series of sarcastic greetings, initially in dialect, then in pidgin-Gaelic, meaning something like: "Good evening, [give me] drink Lord, furious champion, God's blessing [on you]."

182 The woman. This is a reference to Wallace's wife, as the following lines indicate.

190 Cartland Crags, two miles northwest of Lanark.

193-94 Hary employs the rhetorical strategy of the "inability" topos and, as Goldstein (1993) observes, "The episode is no less powerful for its calculated understatement" (p. 228).

265-66 Wyntoun: "Fra he thus the Schirrawe slew, / Scottis men fast till hym drew" (8.8.2117-18).

268 that gret barnage. That is, the English occupying forces.

271-72 The debt to Wyntoun is apparent:
And this Willame thai made thare
Our thame chefftane and leddare. (8.8.2121-22)
The idea of Wallace as the people's choice is common to both.

275 Murray of Bothwell, said to be the rightful owner of Bothwell Castle, a vital stronghold which commanded the direct route from northern Scotland to the southwest (Barrow [1988], p. 121). This must be a reference to the father of Andrew Murray, later Guardian of Scotland. At this time Bothwell Castle was still the property of the Oliphants. When Andrew Murray inherited it he became known as Murray of Bothwell.

297-318 Jop becomes Wallace's herald. Although Hary gives him a history, he is otherwise unknown. Grimsby is possibly Gilbert de Grimsby, who carried the banner of St. John of Beverley in Edward's progress through Scotland after Dunbar. McDiarmid notes that a William Grymesby of Grimsby stayed for a while at Linlithgow Palace in 1461, and the poet may well have met him there (2.188n297-318).

302-12 Compare Chaucer's portraits of the merchant and seaman in The General Prologue.

309 A pursuivant was the junior heraldic officer below the rank of herald.

329 His oath of allegiance to Edward must have been made in 1296.

336 Schir Jhone of Tynto. The association with Tinto suggests he was a Lanarkshire knight, but he has not been identified.

342 This is fabricated, as is the ensuing Battle of Biggar. Edward did not bring an army to Scotland again until 1298, when the Battle of Falkirk was fought.

363-66 Note the romance motif of disguise in battle. Fehew, or Fitzhugh, is a brother of the Fehew who is later beheaded by Wallace while defending his castle of Ravensworth (8.1010-69). McDiarmid notes that a Fitzhugh fought at Bannockburn and refers to another Fitzhugh who was a prominent contemporary of Hary (2.189n363). The relationship to Edward is a complete fabrication, used to introduce a tale about how a nephew's head was sent to Edward with Wallace's reply to the king's writ.

410 Possibly a reference to the tournaments in which heralds relied on their specialist knowledge of participants' coats of arms.

417-19 Wyntoun memorably likened one of Edward's terrible rages to the writhing effects brought on from eating a spider! (8.11.1773-78).

434-73 McDiarmid notes that the same story is told of Hereward the Wake (2.190n434-75).

444 A mark or merk was worth thirteen shillings and four pence.

506 Somervaill. McDiarmid identifies him as Sir Thomas Somerville (2.190n506). The Somervilles owned lands in Linton, Roxburghshire, and Carnwath, Lanarkshire (Barrow [1988], p. 325). Sir Walter and his son David of Newbigging (lines 508-10) were probably Somerville retainers. Sir John Tynto (line 509) was another Lanarkshire knight. See explanatory note to line 336.

517-26 Hary's debt to The Book of Alexander, possibly indirectly through Barbour, has been noted by McDiarmid (2.191n516-26) and others.

537 Jhonstoun and Rudyrfurd are place names, and may refer to Sir John of Johnstone and Sir Nicholas of Rutherford, as McDiarmid suggests. Hary claims they are the sons of Haliday (see explanatory note to 5.720).

540 Members of the Jardine family, associated with Annandale, were active in the wars.

543-765 Battle of Biggar. A fabrication that may very well draw on a variety of sources in which other battles and campaigns are depicted, in particular the accounts by Froissart and Barbour of James Douglas' Weardale campaign, especially the skirmish at Stanhope Park, and details from the Battle of Roslin in 1303 found in Wyntoun and Bower. There are many anachronisms therefore in the account of this fictitious battle and its aftermath. Among Hary's most blatant fabrications is his claim that a number of Edward I's relatives were killed at Biggar (lines 649-54).

561 erll of Kent. McDiarmid identifies him as Edmund of Woodstock, uncle of Edward III (2.192n561).

592 that cheiff chyftayne he slew. I.e., the earl of Kent. The historical earl was actually executed in 1330.

638-41 Supplies are taken to Rob's Bog while Wallace moves his troops to nearby Devenshaw Hill on the right bank of the Clyde River.

645 John's Green is probably Greenfield near Crawfordjohn.

669 duk of Longcastell. Duke of Lancaster. McDiarmid (2.194n669) points out this is an anachronism, like the reference to the lord of Westmoreland (line 685). The earl of Lancaster at this time was Edmund, brother of Edward I. In 1298 the son Thomas succeeded.

689-91 A Pykart lord as keeper of Calais is another anachronism derived from Edward III's French wars.

694 Schir Rawff Gray. Hary makes him warden of Roxburgh Castle (8.496-98, here paraphrased), but when it was surrendered to Edward by the Stewart in 1296 the English knight Sir Robert Hastings became keeper (as well as sheriff of Roxburgh) until 1305 when Edward I's nephew, John of Brittany, was appointed the lieutenant of Scotland and keeper of this militarily vital castle (Watson, p. 216). But according to McDiarmid, the name of the English warden of Roxburgh Castle in 1435-36 was Sir Ralph Gray, so this is another anachronism.

698 Eduuardis man. Sir Amer de Valence was Edward I's lieutenant in Scotland and was later created earl of Pembroke (1307). He was not a Scot, as Hary seems to suggest, although the description fals may refer to the role he later played in commissioning John Menteith to betray Wallace (Book 12). The influence of Barbour is detectable in the reference to Valence immediately after Loudoun Hill, and the connection with Bothwell (similarly in 6.274).

749 The name of the captain of Berwick in 1297 is not known but, as Watson observes, the majority of appointments do not survive in the official record (p. 33). Both Roxburgh and Berwick were strategically very important, as Hary acknowledges (8.1551-52).

761 Byrkhill. Birkhall, near Moffat.

765 Braidwood. Braidwood, Lanarkshire.

767 Forestkyrk. Forestkirk was the old name for Carluke, Clydesdale.

768 The exact date of Wallace's appointment as Guardian of Scotland is unknown, but Barrow (1988) believes it must have been before March 1298 (p. 96). Hary's use of Wyntoun here and at lines 784-86 is evident (Wyntoun 8.12.2121-22). See also Bower 11.28.

771 Schir Wilyham. Sir William Douglas had been the commander of Berwick Castle when Edward sacked it in 1296. He had certainly joined forces with Wallace by May 1297 when together they attacked William Ormsby, the English justiciary at Scone (of which Hary makes no mention). William Douglas' son, Sir James Douglas, was Bruce's companion in arms.

802 Adam Gordone. Adam Gordon, a kinsman of the earls of Dunbar (with Gordon in Berwickshire as his principal estate), was a known Balliol adherent (Barrow [1988], p. 189). By 1300 he was the Scots warden of the West March. He later became a prominent magnate under Robert Bruce.

836 Towrnbery. Turnberry was the chief castle of Carrick. Around the same time that Wallace slew the sheriff of Ayr, Robert Bruce led a revolt against Edward I in Carrick.

851-53 Wallace administers justice, in keeping with his duty as a Guardian. Bruce similarly rewards trew (line 853) men in Barbour's narrative.

854 brothir sone. I.e., Wallace's nephew. McDiarmid (2.197n854) takes this as a reference to his elder brother's son, Malcolm, who would have inherited the patrimony as the eldest son, and on his death (which Hary had said took place at Loudoun Hill) his son would have been heir.

855 Blak Crag. Blackcraig Castle in the parish of Cumnock, Ayrshire. "His houshauld" (line 856) suggests (like "his duellyng" in line 940) a reference to Wallace's own castle, which is confirmed in Book 12.937-38. This has fed the belief retained by some that Wallace was born in Ayrshire.

863 byschope Beik. Anthony Bek, bishop of Durham and Edward's lieutenant in Scotland until August 1296. In Book 1 (lines 171-72) Hary had said that Glasgow diocese was transferred to the jurisdiction of Durham.

865 Erll of Stamffurd . . . chanslar. John Langton was actually chancellor of England at this time. Hary may be confusing him with Sir Thomas Staunford, a member of Sir Henry Percy's retinue (Watson, p. 44), especially as he has referred to Percy in the preceding lines (lines 862-64).

869 Ruglen Kyrk. Rutherglen Church near Glasgow.


Book 7

1-2 If Hary's chronology were at all consistent, this would refer to February 1298 since in the previous book he had placed the killing of Heselrig some time after April of 1297; but the Battle of Stirling Bridge (11 September 1297) will be described later in this book.

7-9 In Aperill . . . Into Carleill. According to the records, after he returned from Flanders on 8 April 1298, Edward summoned his leading commanders in Scotland to a royal council at York. On the same date he also ordered a muster of Welsh foot-soldiers at Carlisle (Watson, p. 61) as part of his campaign to invade Scotland. Hary may be confusing preparations before the Battle of Falkirk with those before Stirling Bridge, the previous year.

16 A very striking image of genocide, as Goldstein (1993) notes (p. 231).

23-29 The plans for the wholly fictitious murder of leading Scots, referred to by Hary as gret bernys of Ayr (line 25), are hatched. Hary's respect for Percy leads him to dissociate him from the atrocity (lines 31-36).

38 his new law. This relates to the justice-ayre that Bek is to hold in Glasgow. McDiarmid finds corroboration in line 517 (2.199n38).

40-41 Arnulf of Sothampton appears to be fictitious. None of the earls of Southampton had this first name. Later Hary mentions that Arnulf received Ayr castle, presumably as a reward for the executions (lines 507-08).

56 maistré. Barbour also uses it in the sense of display of might. It is clearly seen as a provocative act in time of truce.

58 Monktoun Kyrk. Monkton Church, near Ayr in the west of Scotland.

61 Maister Jhone. Probably another reference to Master John Blair (5.533). McDiarmid takes it as evidence of Blair's Ayrshire origins, saying Adamton, the seat of the Blair family, was in Monkton parish (2.199n62). He attempts to warn Wallace to stay away from the justice-ayre at Ayr because he knows it is ominous that Lord Percy has left the region (lines 63-64).

68-152 Wallace falls asleep and has a vision in the form of a dream. There are plenty of literary models for this dream-vision, including Chaucer's Parliament of Fowls and House of Fame. A particular debt to the fourteenth-century poem The Alliterative Morte Arthure, in which King Arthur is visited by Lady Fortune in a dream, has been proposed. In his dream, Wallace is visited first by St. Andrew and then by the Virgin Mary. A vision of St. Andrew confirming Wallace's divinely ordained role as governor of Scotland is mentioned in the Coupar Angus MS of Bower's Scotichronicon (11.28) and probably derived from traditional tales known to both Bower and Hary (see D. E. R. Watt, Notes to Scotichronicon 6.236n35-37).

94 saffyr. The sapphire is interpreted at lines 139-40 as everlasting grace.

123 In L there are the following Protestant substitutions: The stalwart man instead of Saynct Androw, and "Goddis saik" replaces "For Marys saik" in line 291.

178-90 Jupiter, Mars . . . Saturn. These allusions recall Chaucer's The Knight's Tale, CT I(A)2454-69, as previous readers have noted. The echoes are particularly striking in lines 183 and 185.

190 heast sper. In the earth-centered medieval cosmography, Saturn, like the other planets, moved within its own sphere. The moon moved within the sphere closest to the earth, while Saturn moved in the sphere furthest away, or highest in the heavens.

191-92 The death of the Argive hero and seer Amphiorax (Phiorax, line 192), or Amphiaraus, is told at the end of Statius's Thebaid 7. McDiarmid cites Troilus and Criseyde 5.100-05, and Lydgate's Siege of Thebes as Hary's more immediate sources (2.202n191-92).

195 Burdeous. Bordeaux. McDiarmid (2.202n195) reckons Hary is referring to Charles VII's capture of Bordeaux (1453), in which case this is another anachronism.

197-98 braid Brytane feill vengeance . . . . This may be a veiled reference to recent or contemporary history, but it is too vague for more than speculation.

202 towboth. Tolbooths were prisons and, traditionally, execution sites in Scotland.

205-10 Sir Reginald Crawford and Sir Bryce Blair - who, like Robert Boyd (2.436), was a Cunningham knight - were actually executed much later: Blair was hanged, possibly in a barn in Ayr in 1306, while Crawford was hanged and beheaded at Carlisle in 1307. Hary's source was Bruce 4.36-38:
Off Crauford als Schyr Ranald wes
And Schyr Bryce als þe Blar
Hangyt in-till a berne in Ar.
214 Schir Neill of Mungumry. Unknown. McDiarmid (2.202n214) suggests Hary may have meant Neil Bruce, Robert Bruce's brother, because his summary execution after a valiant defence of Kildrummy castle is described by Barbour shortly after the lines quoted above (Bruce 4.59-61, 314-22).

218-20 The Crawfords, Kennedys, and Campbells came from the southwest (Carrick and Ayrshire), while the Boyds and Stewarts, originally from Renfrewshire, became kinsmen of Robert I through marriage. The Stewarts eventually formed a royal dynasty. McDiarmid may be correct in saying that some are names Hary wished to honor in his own day (pp. xlix, lvii).

229 curssit Saxons seid. One of Hary's many disparaging references to the "enemy." The English are first referred to as Saxons in 1.7.

237 Hary's partisan view is in evidence and, as in the opening lines of Book 1, here he makes an appeal to contemporaries.

280-81 There is a possible echo of Suetonius's account of the covering up of the assassinated Julius Caesar (to preserve his dignity), which Hary could have known through Fordun (Chronica 2.17).

288 William Crawford, presumably Sir Reginald's son.

331 deill thar landis. He refers to the lands of the murdered Scottish barons. See lines 436-37, below.

342 McDiarmid (2.203n342) says Irish ale is whisky, but I have been unable to confirm this.

346-49 Note the emotive language used here to condemn the English. Goldstein (1993) cites this as an example of Hary's "racist discourse" (pp. 224-25).

362 burges. A burgess was a citizen of a burgh, a freeman.

380 Adam . . . lord of Ricardtoun. Adam Wallace. See explanatory note to 1.144. Riccarton in Kyle, Ayrshire was long associated with the Wallace family as noted earlier (explanatory note to 1.355). See explanatory note to 5.465-66, above, on Auckinleck.

385-86 Wallace's divine mission is thus manifest.

400-01 Compare Chaucer on true nobility in his lyric on Gentilesse, and the curtain lecture in The Wife of Bath's Tale (III[D]1109-64).

403 the Roddis. The island of Rhodes, possibly a contemporary reference by Hary to the Knights of St. John, as McDiarmid suggests (2.204n403).

408 der nece. This is the "trew" woman (line 252) who had warned him to stay away from the barns and advised that the English were drunk.

434-35 The lines are bitterly ironic and allude, of course, to the treachery perpetrated at the barns of Ayr and the revenge about to be taken.

440 A typical example of Hary's grim humor.

450-70 The repetitions and heavy alliterations are particularly effective in conveying the merciless killings described in these lines.

453-54 "Some rushed quickly to reach Ayr, if they could. / Blinded by fire, they could not see properly what they were doing." McDiarmid interprets thar deidis war full dym as "their deaths were in utter darkness" (2.204n454), but line 472 makes clear that some did escape.

471 There was a Dominican priory in Ayr, and Drumley was the name of a property not far from Ayr that belonged to the Gilbertine monastery of Dalmulin, according to McDiarmid (2.205n471).

488 the furd weill. McDiarmid suggests this is St. Katherine's Well (2.205n488).

491-92 Compare the irreverent humor here with lines 546-47, below.

559 Throughout The Wallace Hary is generous in his praise of warriors from Northumberland. Their mettle would have been tested in border warfare over many years. See line 585 for corroboration.

579-80 strang stour . . . the clowdis past. The dust raised by horses and clashing forces. McDiarmid cites James Scott's comment that such vivid imagery is not to be expected from a man born blind (2.205n579-80).

585 The Percy's men are said to be experienced warriors, just as men of Northumberland are acknowledged as "gud men of wer" (line 559).

595-96 Wallace kills Percy. Factually this is untrue since Henry Percy was alive until 1314. Robert Bruce's attack on Percy and his garrison in Turnberry Castle is described by Barbour (Bruce 5.43-116).

607 that place. I.e., Bothwell, which is occupied by Valence, as Hary has observed.

609-11 began of nycht ten houris in Ayr. "Started from Ayr at ten o'clock at night." Hary reckons it took Wallace fifteen hours altogether to travel from Ayr via Glasgow to Bothwell (Ayr to Glasgow 11 hours, Glasgow to Bothwell 4 hours).

613 The impression of verisimilitude is bolstered by another reference to an authoritative source, the buk.

617-954 While disturbances are known to have occurred in the first half of 1297 in the west Highlands, Aberdeenshire and Galloway, Wallace's involvement in any of these is not confirmed by other sources. After he killed the sheriff of Lanark his next recorded strike, with William Douglas, was against the English justice at Scone in May. Hary does not mention this.

620 The recital of names is probably more important than any particular individuals here.

621-23 Apon Argyll a fellone wer . . . . John of Lorn is described as "Fals" (line 629), perhaps because, with his father, Alexander MacDougall, lord of the Isles, he submitted to Edward in 1296. He was a Balliol supporter, and was related to John Comyn; after the latter's murder, he became Bruce's implacable enemy.

623 Probably Sir Neil Campbell of Loch Awe, who plays a part as one of Bruce's closest companions in The Bruce (2.494; 3.393, 570-74).

626-28 Makfadyan. Said to have sworn fealty to Edward, but probably not a historical person. As McDiarmid points out (2.206-07n626), these "events" are modeled on Barbour's account of the Lorn episodes (Bruce 10.5-134).

633 Duncan of Lorn was Alexander MacDougall's second son.

643 McDiarmid glosses Irland as Hebridean islands (2.207n643). The Wallace uses "Irland" to designate northern and western Celtic settlements on the mainland (Highlands) and the Gaelic inhabited islands. See OED, Irish adj. 1.

647 Louchow. Loch Awe region, near Lorn.

649 Crage Unyn. McDiarmid identifies this as Craiganuni (2.207-08n649).

670 This is the second reference to Wallace's schooling in Dundee. Duncan of Lorn is said to have been Wallace's school companion.

673 Gylmychell. Possibly a member of the local clan Gillymichael.

679 Sir Richard Lundy is consistently presented as a patriot by Hary, fighting with Wallace at the Battle of Stirling (7.1237). The historical Lundy actually went over to the English when the Scots leaders prepared to surrender at Irvine in 1297. He was with the English at Bannockburn (1314). The Lundy family held estates in Angus.

685 The Rukbé. Another anachronism, if the allusion is to Thomas Rokeby, mayor of Stirling Castle in 1336-39, as McDiarmid suggests (2.209n685-86). The sheriff of Stirling, and probably the keeper of Stirling Castle at the time, was Sir Richard Waldergrave.

723 Lennox men were known for their patriotism, and their loyalty to their "lord," Earl Malcolm.

755 In Brucis wer agayne come in Scotland. There is no mention of them in The Bruce.

757-58 Mencione of Bruce . . . . Another reference to the spurious biography by Blair. The claim that Wallace fought for Bruce, [t]o fend his rycht (line 758), is incorrect, since the historical Wallace fought for Balliol, not Bruce.

764 small fute folk. As McDiarmid notes, these were lightly armed auxiliaries (2.210n764).

776 westland men. Warriors from the west country, presumably from Argyll.

798 Cragmor. Creag Mhor, facing Loch Awe.

842 Yrage blud. The "Irish" here refers to Celtic clansmen, whether from the Highlands, the Hebrides, or Ireland.

849 In other words, native Scots threw themselves on the mercy of Wallace.

880 John was the heir and Duncan was his younger brother, not his uncle. The MacDougalls were related to the Comyns and were Balliol supporters.

890 Sir John Ramsay is briefly mentioned by Barbour as a member of Edward Bruce's retinue bound for Ireland (Bruce 14.29).

900-02 Although Barbour describes Ramsay of Auchterhouse as chivalrous (Bruce 14.29-30), McDiarmid notes there is no such reference to Sir Alexander Ramsay in The Bruce (2.211n901-02).

913 There is no reason to believe that Ramsay held Roxburgh Castle. See explanatory note to 6.694.

917 Hary comments on his own inclination to digress and the criticism it attracts, employing a well-known rhetorical topos.

927-32 a gud prelat. I.e., Bishop Sinclair. Another anachronism, as he was not made bishop until 1312. Barbour had celebrated his exemplary leadership against an English invasion of Fife in 1317. Hary's wish to honor the "Synclar blude" (line 930), as the Sinclairs were prominent literary patrons in Hary's day, may explain this passage.

938 Lord Stewart. Lord James Stewart was hereditary lord of Bute (line 936). He had served as a Guardian during the interregnum and had been given charge of a new sheriffdom of Kyntyre by John Balliol during his short reign. He surrendered to Percy and Clifford in July 1297, but had joined Wallace by the Battle of Stirling Bridge.

980 The wattir doun . . . to that steid. I.e., along the Tay River to Perth, or St. John's Town, as it was known.

981 Ramsay is said to be their guide, presumably because he knows the area so well, since he held lands in neighboring Angus.

983-1027 The assault on Perth. Bruce had mounted an attack on Perth in June 1306 and, as in Hary's account of Wallace's assault, he had approached from the west. The Battle of Methven followed. Perth was not won by Wallace, and the installation of Sir William of Ruthven as sheriff in 1297 is another fabrication. See explanatory notes to lines 1017, 1025, and 1281, below.

990 Turret Bridge was on the southwest side of Perth (McDiarmid 2.213n990).

1017 Jhon Sewart. Sir John Sewart or Siward. See explanatory note to 5.519. The Siwards were a Fife baronial family. The implication is that Siward was the keeper of the castle or sheriff of the town who was replaced by Ruthven (lines 1025-27), but this seems unlikely.

1025 Rwan. McDiarmid identifies him as Sir William de Rothievan (i.e., Ruthven), who swore fealty to Edward in 1291 (2.213n1025-28).

1031 Cowper. Coupar Abbey in Angus.

1044 Dwnottar. Dunnottar Castle on the east coast of Scotland.

1078 Lord Bewmound. Sir Henry Beaumont, a cousin of Edward II, had married Alice Comyn, an heiress to the earldom of Buchan. He fought at Bannockburn.

1079 Erll he was. Beaumont was an earl, but not of Buchan as Hary claims (line 1077). John Comyn was earl of Buchan 1289-1308 and died childless (Barrow [1988], p. 271).

1082 Slanys. Slains Castle was on the coast.

1088 Lammes evyn. I.e., July 31. Lammas Day is the first day of August, and tra-ditionally the day on which there was thanksgiving for harvest.

1089 Stablyt. In the sense of settled the affairs of the kingdom, i.e., through the appointment of officers and the distribution of lands as rewards.

1090-1127 A number of sources, including Wyntoun (8.8.2147-50) and Bower (11.27), confirm that Wallace was laying siege to Dundee in August 1297 when he heard about the English forces sent by Edward to Stirling.

1102 Kercyingame. Sir Hugh de Cressingham, Edward's treasurer in Scotland. He seems to have become a hated figure in Scotland, and his corpse was flayed when discovered after the Scottish victory at Stirling Bridge.

1103 Waran. Sir John de Warenne, earl of Surrey, appointed keeper of the kingdom and land of Scotland, had commanded the English army at the siege of Dunbar.

1110-19 These lines refer to the capture of Dunbar that Hary referred to earlier, in Book 1. Although Earl Patrick was an adherent of Edward I, his wife remained a Scottish patriot. As the earl of Warenne prepared to take Dunbar Castle in 1296, the countess tricked her husband's garrison into admitting the Scottish forces to the castle. Some of Hary's details may have come from the Guisborough chronicle (lines 977-78). For a full account, see Barrow (1988), p. 72.

1129 Angwis men. Men of Angus.

1144-45 Wallace sends the herald Jop to inform the Scots that the battle will take place on the next Tuesday.

1145-1218 Battle of Stirling Bridge. A number of the details given here are peculiar to Hary, such as the sawing of the bridge in two (line 1151); the use of wooden rollers at one end of the bridge (lines 1155-56); and the use of a carpenter to sit in a cradle under the bridge to release pins on command (lines 1158-60). The Scots were probably outnumbered by the English, but Hary's figures (50,000 English) are fanciful. The number of casualties, including the death of Cressingham at Wallace's hands (lines 1194-99), is also Hary's invention. Some of Hary's details agree with the account in Guisborough, for example, his figure of 50,000 for the English host (line 1166), although Guisborough says there were also 1,000 cavalry. Various sources agree that Cressingham led the vanguard across the narrow bridge, while Warenne remained with the other main contingent on the south side of the bridge (lines 1171-75). According to the records, the English made their way to Berwick after the defeat at Stirling, not Dunbar as Hary says (lines 1218 and 1227). For another account of the battle, see Barrow (1988), pp. 86-88.

1170 playne feild. Wallace was on the Abbey Crag slope.

1174 An ironic allusion to a popular proverb, as McDiarmid points out (2.216n1174), to the effect that the wise man learns by the example of others. Barbour quotes it early in The Bruce: "And wys men sayis he is happy / Þat be oþer will him chasty" (1.121-22).

1214 Andrew Murray, father of the regent of the same name. He had been in revolt against Edward in Moray since 1297. See Bower, 29.19 and Watt's note on p. 237. Although Wyntoun (8.13.2178) and an inquest of 1300 say that Andrew Murray was killed at Stirling Bridge (Joseph Bain, ed., Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland [Edinburgh: H. M. General Register House, 1881-88] 2.1178), Barrow (1988) and others believe that he did not die until November, probably from wounds received in the battle (p. 343n1). Bower's statement that he was wounded and died (11.30) bears this construction. Murray and Wallace shared leadership of Scotland during the two months after the Stirling victory.

1222 Dunbar Castle was occupied by Waldergrave at this period, not by the earl of Lennox.

1234 Hathyntoun. Haddington, near Edinburgh.

1251 McDiarmid suggests Hary makes this Assumption Day because of Hary's presentation of Wallace as a special protégé of Mary.

1252 Our Lady. This Catholic reference is amended to our Lord in L.

1255-59 Barrow (1988) points out that the history of the lordship of Arran is obscure at this time, but the association with Menteith, a member of the Stewart family, dates from this period (p. 363n88). It was perhaps conquered by Robert I. Menteith's oath of allegiance to Wallace (lines 1261-62) is richly ironic in view of his later betrayal.

1276 Cristall of Cetoun. Sir Christopher Seton, a Yorkshire knight married to Bruce's sister Christian, became one of Bruce's most devoted followers. He was captured at Doon Castle and executed in 1306. See The Bruce 2.421-30; 4.16-24.

1281 Herbottell. The keeper of Jedburgh Castle bears the name of another border castle. Herbottle and Jedburgh castles were held against the English until October 1298. Wallace put John Pencaitland in as keeper (Watson, p. 50) Whether a Ruwan (Ruthven) was installed as captain (lines 1289-90) is unknown.

1293 For the reference to The Bruce, see explanatory note to line 1276 above.

1299-1300 This is historically inaccurate since Edinburgh Castle remained in English hands until 1314.

1302 Mannuell. Manuel, in Stirlingshire.

1306-08 Bruce is intended, although Wallace was actually a Balliol supporter.


Book 8

1 Fyve monethis thus. Five months after the Battle of Stirling Bridge would be February 1298, but references to the months of October and November at lines 433-34 only serve to highlight the problems with Hary's chronology. Wallace may well have tried unsuccessfully to win Earl Patrick over at this time.

21 king of Kyll. An insulting play on the Wallace lands held in Kyle.

23-24 Corspatrick's dismissal of Wallace as a knight bachelor, i.e., a relative novice, is also meant to be insulting. The earl refers to that well-known image of mutability, the wheel of Fortune, to predict that while Wallace may currently enjoy good fortune, this will soon change.

29 Many Scots lords held land in England at this time, e.g., Robert Bruce.

37 a king. I.e., King Robert Bruce. See line 146, below.

63-66 Robert Lauder became a powerful Scottish magnate under Robert I, richly rewarded by the king for loyalty with grants of lands and the position of justiciar of Lothian. Hary suggests he is keeper of some castle (line 64), presumably Lauder in Berwickshire.

68 the Bas. Bass Rock, off North Berwick.

71 Lyll. Unknown, although McDiarmid points out that the Lyles of Renfrewshire obtained property in East Linton in the fifteenth century.

115-21 Coburns Peth . . . Bonkill Wood . . . Noram . . . Caudstreym . . . on Tweid. All of these place names are in Berwickshire. Norham was on the north bank of the River Tweed and Coldstream on the south bank.

124-29 Atrik Forrest . . . Gorkhelm. Ettrick Forest was in the borders and Gorkhelm has not been identified. McDiarmid suggests that the latter may have been in the vicinity of the Cockhum stream near Galashiels (2.220n129).

139 Bek was sent by Edward I in July 1298 to capture castles in East Lothian. See explanatory note to lines 179-80, below.

158 Lothyane. The shire of Lothian in eastern central Scotland.

161 Yhester. The Gifford Castle of Yester in east Lothian. Peter Dunwich was the English keeper of this castle in 1296-97.

162 Hay. Sir Hugh Hay of Borthwick, near Edinburgh, who later fought with Bruce at Methven, where he was captured.

163 Duns Forest. In central Berwickshire.

179-80 Lammermur. Bek rides through the Lammermuir hills and north to the Spottsmuir, south of Dunbar. McDiarmid notes that this was the scene of the battle of Dunbar in 1296 (2.220n180), so the battle described in lines 188-324 may well be fictitious or a confused rewriting of the earlier battle.

270 Mawthland. Maitland was the name of the person who surrendered Dunbar Castle to the earl of Douglas in 1399. According to David Hume of Godscroft, a Robert Maitland was the son of Agnes Dunbar and John Maitland of Thirlestane (The History of the House of Douglas, ed. David Reid. 2 vols. Scottish Text Society fourth ser. 25-26 [Edinburgh: Scottish Text Society, 1996], 1.253 and 2.546n253).

314 Compare The Bruce 3.45-54, which in turn is influenced by the account of Alexander's defense of his retreating men in the Roman d'Alexandre.

317 Glaskadane. Said to be a forest. McDiarmid places it near Doon Hill in Spott parish (2.221n317).

334 Tavydaill. Teviotdale, in the borders.

337 Schir Wilyham Lang. I.e., long or long-legged William Douglas. The Douglas so known was actually the fifth lord of Douglas (c. 1240-76). Hary is referring to his son, the seventh lord (1288-1302), whose nickname was le hardi. See expla-natory note to 6.771.

373 knycht Skelton. Probably one of the Cumberland Skeltons active in the Borders during the wars.

384 Noram Hous. Norham Castle, on the north bank of the River Tweed.

439 Roslyn Mur. Roslin, south of Edinburgh, in Midlothian. It was the site of a battle, won by the Scots, in 1303.

513-19 According to Bower, Newcastle seems to have been the furthest south Wallace reached in the 1297 raids. In May 1318, however, Bruce's army raided Yorkshire. Hary's claim that Wallace's army conducted a burn and slash campaign as far as York which he is supposed to have besieged for fifteen days (line 529) is not supported by the historical record, but was probably influenced by Barbour's account of Bruce's raids. On the extent and impact of the historical Wallace's invasion of northern England in 1297, see C. McNamee, "William Wallace's Invasion of Northern England in 1297," Northern History 26 (1990), 540-58.

522-25 Hary describes the revenge Wallace vowed at line 442. No prisoners are taken for ransom: all are put to the sword. All these lines reiterate this idea. Note the grim humor.

530 King Eduuard. Edward was actually in Flanders at this stage, returning in March 1298.

636 schawit thaim his entent. I.e., he revealed to them what Edward intended.

639-72 Hary is at pains to portray Wallace as a loyal vassal with absolutely no ambitions to usurp his rightful king's place.

651 Cambell. Sir Neil Campbell of Lochawe. See explanatory note to 7.623.

662 As a lord of the parlyment, Malcolm is a hereditary member of the Scottish parliament. The other estates of the clergy and burgesses were also represented.

886-88 King Arthour . . . Mont Mychell. See the account of Arthur's victory over the giant of Gene in The Alliterative Morte Arthure (lines 886-87; 1015-16).

945 Mydlam land. This has been identified as Middleham, ten miles southwest of Richmond (McDiarmid 2.227n945).

946 Brak parkis doun. A park might be a grove, an enclosed tract, a woodland, pasture land, or a game preserve.

953-54 The Commons pressure Edward to accept Wallace's pes (line 954).

955 Na herrald thar durst. The implication is that none dare come because of what he did to the last ones!

961-72 The posing of a question of this kind to the audience or reader is a typical romance convention. The invited comparison with Brutus, Julius Caesar, and Arthur, all well-known from the Nine Worthies tradition in the Middle Ages, is intended to favor the hero.

972 brak his vow. I.e., to fight a battle within forty days.

1009 Ramswaith. McDiarmid reckons this is Ravensworth Castle, northwest of Richmond (2.228n1009-10).

1010 Fehew. Fitzhugh, said to be Edward's nephew when his head is delivered to the king (line 1101).

1024-25 This refers to an incident described in 6.363-405.

1031 lat his service be. That is, commanded him to refrain.

1047 The bowmen provide the equivalent of covering fire.

1081-83 Wallace's treatment of Fitzhugh's head is deliberately provocative because Edward has reneged on the agreement to offer battle.

1107 Wodstok. Woodstock, according to Hary, the earl of Gloucester and captain of Calais (9.675-85). See explanatory notes to line 1494, below; see also 8.1534-37.

1113-36 The role of Edward's queen is invented by Hary. As previous editors have noted, Edward's first queen had died, and he did not marry his second, the sister of Philip IV of France, until 1299. McDiarmid (2.228-29n1113-36) suggests a literary model in Lydgate's Jocasta (The Siege of Thebes).

1120 An allusion to the hanging of the Scots nobles in Ayr, described in 7.199-514.

1137 queyn luffyt Wallace. Hary plays briefly with a romance motif when he suggests that the queen may have been motivated by love for Wallace, inspired by his noble reputation. Hary's own comments follow and make conscious use of the authority topos.

1147 luff or leiff. This does seem to be a tag, as McDiarmid suggests, meaning "for love or not for love."

1183-94 Hary normally places such astrological descriptions at the beginning of a new book, for example at the opening to Book 4.

1215-21 The queen's retinue, which is all female with the exception of seven elderly priests, is another literary touch.

1225 lyoun. The lion rampant of Scotland emblazoned on Wallace's tent is the central emblem of the Royal Arms of Scotland. The leopard is the corresponding emblem on the English royal arms (6.466).

1237-1462 Wallace's long dialogue with the queen is a remarkably courteous exchange, evincing the nobility of both parties. Wallace's cautiousness about the queen's motives is expressed to his men, whom he warns to be on guard against the treachery of women. He is nevertheless courteous enough to exclude the queen from his suspicions. The queen in turn strives to allay suspicions by tasting all the food she has brought by way of gift. Her mission, she says, is peace. Wallace resists her overtures by recounting instances of English aggression which have provoked and perpetuated the war, from the arbitration between the competitors for the throne through the injustices done to Scotland and the personal injustice to Wallace, particularly the murder of his wife, to the truce breaking, and the atrocity at Ayr. She hopes to win him over through offering gold as reparation and tries to appeal to his chivalry, but he refuses to play the courtly game. He says he has no faith in a truce which will not necessarily be binding, or honored by the English king. In the end, he is persuaded by her gentrice (line 1456) or noble magnanimity when she generously distributes the gold to his men in any case.

1256-62 Rownsyvaill. The epic poem, The Song of Roland, made the betrayal and death of Roland at Ronceval famous in the Middle Ages. Hary may have used the Historia Karoli Magni, copied at Coupar Angus Abbey in the fifteenth century, for this episode as well as for the description of Wallace in Book 10, as McDiarmid suggests (2.230n1251-62).

1281 marchell. Here a functionary of the kind appropriate in a royal court.

1286 byrnand wer. A reference to Wallace's scorched-earth tactics in England.

1320-21 pape. The pope was approached in the late thirteenth century to intercede and stop England's suzerainty claims.

1327-28 These lines echo Barbour (Bruce 1.37-40).

1335 This refers to the coronation of John Balliol.

1339 Bower has an account of Julius Caesar's failure to secure tribute from the Scots (Scotichronicon 2.14-15).

1341-43 These lines refer to the pledge Edward made to Robert Bruce the Elder to promote him to the throne of Scotland once Balliol was deposed. Bower claims that Edward basically used Bruce to ensure the surrender of the Scottish nobles (Scotichronicon 11.18).

1345-47 This derives from Bower, Scotichronicon 11.25:
Robert de Bruce the elder approached the king of England and begged him to fulfil faithfully what he had previously promised him as regards his getting the kingdom. That old master of guile with no little indignation answered him thus in French: "N'avons-nous pas autres chose a faire qu'a gagner vos royaumes?", that is to say: "Have we nothing else to do than win kingdoms for you?"
(vol. 6, trans. Wendy Stevenson)
1368 woman. This alludes, of course, to the murder of his wife by Heselrig (6.124-264).

1391 gold so red. Red gold was considered the most precious and valuable.

1407 That ye me luffyt. A tenet of courtly love was that the loved one should love in return or be considered merciless.

1478 key of remembrans. Whereas Chaucer made old books "of remembraunce the keye" (Legend of Good Women, Prologue F.26), Hary represents Wallace himself, through the queen's acknowledgment of his qualities, as the key to remembrance.

1494 thre gret lordys. Clifford, Beaumont, and Woodstock (lines 1503-04).

1523 yong Randell. Sir Thomas Randolph, later earl of Moray and regent of Scotland. He figures prominently in The Bruce.

1525 Erll of Bowchane. Sir John Comyn was the earl of Buchan and a Balliol supporter. Hary does not indicate that he is the same person as the John Comyn referred to two lines later, perhaps because he thinks of Beaumont as the earl of Buchan. (See explanatory note to 7.1079.)

1527 Cumyn and Soullis. All the early Scottish chroniclers claim that Sir John Comyn betrayed Bruce to Edward after making a secret covenant with him. See also The Bruce 1.483-568. Comyn was killed by Robert Bruce in 1306 (Bruce 12.1185 ff.). Sir William Soules was later executed for conspiracy against Robert I (Bruce 19.1-58).

1536 Glosister. The earl of Gloucester, Bruce's uncle through marriage.

1539-43 erll Patrik. As noted earlier, Earl Patrick in fact remained an adherent of Edward I until his death in 1308.

1573-74 All Halow Evyn. Halloween, or the eve of All Saints Day (31 October and 1 November, respectively), so Hary gives their departure date as 21 October, ten days before the feast day, and their arrival at Carham Moor (near Coldstream) as Lammas Day, August 1, the following year, making the raiding campaign in England last over nine months, for which there is no historical confirmation, as noted earlier.

1583-86 The installation of Seton and Ramsay as captains of Berwick and Roxburgh respectively is Hary's invention, as Berwick remained in English hands until 1318 and Roxburgh until 1314.

1597 gossep. I.e., Wallace had been godfather to two of Menteith's children.

1602 March. The Marches, specifically the border between Scotland and northern England.

1616-18 Of this sayn my wordis . . . yeit fell. This should be the last sentence of Book 8, but the scribe errs and continues for another 124 lines.


Book 10

93 Thar. I.e., the ancient Perthshire forest of Blak Irnsid (lines 92 and 333), Black Earnside, not far from the Benedictine abbey of Lindores where various historical battles were fought. Records show that Wallace was here, but in 1304, where he was attacked by the English several times.

98-99 Guthré, / And Besat. Hary thinks of Guthrie and Bisset as local to Perthshire and Fife, probably landowners.

112 Woodhavyn. Woodhaven on the Firth of Tay, opposite Dundee.

118-20 Wallace is referring to events described in 5.19-42.

128 The sentiment of pro patria mori, more or less.

150 Jhon Wallang. Sir John de Valence, Sir Amer's brother. He is referred to as sheriff of Ayr in 12.891.

188 erll of Fyff. Siward is a leading Fife baron. Of course he soon threatens to hang him high if he refuses the order to remain at Earnside Forest (lines 300-02, below).

292 Coupar. In Fife.

310-19 Valence going over to Wallace is a fiction, of course.

835-36 Compare to 1.296-97.

857-75 Schyr Wilyam Lang, of Douglace Daill. See earlier explanatory note to 8.337. Hary claims he was married twice and had two sons by each wife, Sir James and Sir Hugh by the sister of Sir Robert Keith, and two others by Lady Eleanor Ferrars. In his History of the House of Douglas (1633), David Hume of Godscroft also claims this (p. 59), but he is probably following Hary. William Fraser, on the other hand, says the first wife, and the mother of James Douglas, was Elizabeth Stewart, daughter of Alexander, High Steward, and that Hugh was one of two sons born to the second wife, whom he calls Elizabeth Ferrars, the other son being Archibald Douglas (The Douglas Book, 4 vols. [Edinburgh: T. and A. Constable, at the Edinburgh University Press, 1885], pp. 75, 104).

865 Gud Robert Keth. Sir Robert Keith, marischel of Scotland, a patriot who supported Wallace until 1300, when he submitted to Edward I.

866-68 Barbour also places James Douglas in Paris during his formative years (Bruce 1.330-44).

873 lady Fers. Lady Eleanor Ferrars, or Ferriers, a widow.

883 Sawchar. Sanquhar Castle, Dumfrieshire, possibly built by the English. It was not won by Wallace as far as is known.

885 Bewffurd. Beaufort is otherwise unknown.

896 Thom Dycson. The Dickson family was associated with Sanquhar, but the source is probably The Bruce (5.255-462), where a Thomas Dickson helps James Douglas capture Douglas Castle. Sir William had been Edward's prisoner since 1297 so could not have been involved in taking Sanquhar at this time.

912 clewch ner the wattyr of Craw. Crawick, in the parish of Sanquhar.

962 Dursder. Durisdeer Castle at Castlehill.

964-65 Enoch . . . Tybris. Enoch and Tibbers castles in Durisdeer parish.

976 Ravynsdaill. Ravensdale is said to be the keeper of Kynsith, near Cumbernauld.

978 Lord Cumyn (Comyn) held Cumbernauld Castle.

997 Lithquow. Linlithgow, which Edward held from 1296.

1017 Hew the Hay. See explanatory note to 8.162.

1025 Ruthirfurd. See explanatory note to 6.537.

1221-46 Wallace statur. Wallace's portrait is drawn from Bower, Scotichronicon 11.28, who in turn derived details and phrases from the Pseudo-Turpin description of Charlemagne, and from Fordun.

1242-44 Alexander the king . . . Ector was he. Comparisons with the magnanimity of Alexander and the audacity of Hector (line 1244) were conventional. There may also be echoes from Chaucer's portrait of the Knight in The General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales (line 1243).

1259 Scrymiour. Probably Alexander Scrymgeour, appointed constable of Dundee by Wallace in March 1298 (10.1162).


Book 11

73-438 Battle of Falkirk. The historical battle was indecisive (Barrow [1988], p. 103), but Scheps notes that in some MSS of the fourteenth-century romance, Thomas of Ercildoun, the victory is also given to the Scots, so this outcome is not just Hary's invention (Scheps, "Possible Sources," p. 126). Without Wallace, who withdraws from the field in anger (line 158), the Scots are overpowered, but Wallace eventually comes to the rescue and snatches victory from defeat. Hary, like Wyntoun (Cronykil 8.15.2245-69) and Bower (Scotichronicon 11.34), makes the treachery of Comyn a key factor in the initial Scottish defeat. Wallace could not rely on the cavalry in the end. The issue of rank is highlighted in Hary's invented exchange between Wallace and Stewart (lines 105-19), in which Stewart articulates the fears of the nobles.

101 Cunttas of Merch. The countess of Dunbar, wife of Earl Patrick, and sister to Sir John Comyn whose hostility towards Wallace is attributed by Hary to this alliance.

135 howlat. The fable of the owl (lines 134-38) derives from Richard Holland's Book of the Howlat (c. 1448) in which the owl is presented as a treacherous upstart.

151 Cumyn. Like Fordun, Hary uses the name of Comyn as a byword for treachery.

153 I of danger brocht. A reference to the release he negotiated with Woodstock in 8.1525.

179 Erll of Harfurd. An earl of Hereford is known to have been an English commander who saw action in Scotland and was in Carlisle in September of 1298 (Watson, p. 68), but whether he was at Falkirk is not known.

203 Bruce. Whether Bruce was present at Falkirk is a much-debated matter. See Barrow (1988), p. 101. Fordun and Wyntoun say he was; the English chroniclers, including Guisborough (who is the most detailed), do not mention his presence. Hary uses his purported presence to create a confrontation between Bruce and Wallace.

207 gold of gowlis cler. The royal Scottish coat of arms. At line 209: "The rycht lyon."

217-40 Hary moves into allegorical mode to represent Wallace's internal debate or struggle.

279 Rewellyt speris all in a nowmir round. This is the classic schiltron formation in which foot soldiers with long spears were grouped in circular bodies as a first line of defense against advancing cavalry. It has been estimated that some of the schiltron formations at Falkirk comprised as many as 1,500 men (Roberts, p. 122). These schiltrons were, however, vulnerable to attack by archers, as Falkirk testifies. Cavalry protection to deflect the archers was lacking.

295 The erll of York. An anachronism, as this title was not created until the reign of Edward III.

342 Comparison with Alexander again, this time against Gadifer. Barbour, too, uses the analogy to describe Bruce's cover of his men after a skirmish with John of Lorn (Bruce 3.72-84)

361 Quham he hyt rycht. A tribute paid only to Wallace so far.

378-92 The account of Graham's death owes much to The Alliterative Morte Arthure, as previous readers have noted.

434 Magdaleyn Day. Wyntoun and Bower also date the Battle of Falkirk on St. Mary Magdalene Day (i.e., 22 July) 1298.

440-527 The Bruce-Wallace dialogue across the Carron owes much to Bower's account of a conversation between the two across a narrow ravine. According to Hary, Wallace considers Bruce as the rightful king of Scots, but the historical Wallace was a Balliol supporter. The dialogue focuses on Wallace's rebuke of Bruce for being fals (line 461) and killing his awn (line 447) people, especially Stewart and Graham. In Bower, Wallace's accusation that Bruce is effeminate and delinquent in not defending his own country persuades Bruce to changes sides (Scoti-chronicon 11.34).

454 Ra. McDiarmid notes that a Robert Ra of Stirling occurs in the records (2.261n454).

472 offspryng. This implies that Bruce is the (unnatural) father of his people.

492 Thow renygat devorar of thi blud. The charge conveyed in this startling image is taken to heart when, after Falkirk, Bruce refuses to wash the blood from his clothes and person and endures at supper the scorn of the English: "Ane said, 'Behald, yon Scot ettis his awn blud'" (line 536).

1085 Bewmound. Sir Henry Beaumont. See explanatory note to 7.1078.

1089 Clifford received the Douglas lands in 1297 (Barrow [1988], p. 157). Barbour describes James Douglas's attack on Clifford's garrison there in 1307 (Bruce 8.437-87).

1093-1111 The debt is to The Bruce 1.313-45.

1111 lord Soullis. McDiarmid suggests a possible debt to Barbour for the claim that de Soules was given the Merse.

1113 Olyfant. Sir William Oliphant, a Perthshire knight, was commander of Stirling Castle when it was heavily attacked by Edward's new siege machines in 1304, despite Oliphant's offer to surrender the castle. In 1299 Gilbert Malherbe was sheriff when John Sampson surrendered. Oliphant was installed by Sir John de Soules.

1114-56 These lines represent the Bruce-Comyn pact. Compare Barbour's Bruce 1.483-510.


Book 12

740 Bowchan Nes. Literally the nose of Buchan.

743 Climes of Ross. Identification is uncertain.

791-95 The role of Menteith in the capture of Wallace is not doubted. He is accused of treachery by Fordun, Wyntoun, and Bower. Barrow (1988) points out that Menteith was a staunch patriot but submitted to Edward in 1304 and so was acting in line with this allegiance in handing Wallace over (p. 136).

835-48 Another homily, this time on covetise (covetousness). The particular allusions to Hector and Alexander suggest a probable debt to Barbour, but of course such analogies were common. Barbour has a similar descant on treason as exemplified in the fates of Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, and King Arthur, among others (Bruce 1.515-60).

885-94 erll of Fyf. Duncan, earl of Fife. was not actually active on the patriot side in Wallace's lifetime. He was later a companion-in-arms when Bishop Sinclair repelled an English attack in Fife in 1317 (Bruce 16.543-666).

894 ald thane. The thane referred to is MacDuff, famous for slaying Macbeth.

918-24 Barbour's mention of Edward Bruce's return to Galloway may be the source here (Bruce 9.477-543).

928 Lowmabane. Lochmabon Castle was part of the Bruce lordship of Annandale.

937 Blak Rok. See earlier reference to the Blackcraig (6.855) and explanatory note.

959-82 Hary has Wallace rescue Scotland three times before he hands over to Bruce. The correspondence between the two is, of course, Hary's invention.

960 McDiarmid suggests lestand pees could mean "heaven" (2.273n960).

962 purpost than to serve God. I.e., to enter religious orders.

984 Glaskow. Bower says Glasgow was where Menteith's men captured Wallace (Scotichronicon 12.8).

1062 byndyng rew. The binding of captured Wallace ironically parallels the break-up of Scotland.

1075 thai Menteth. McDiarmid suggests "these Menteiths," i.e., kinsmen (2.274n1075).

1077 saiff thar lord. Hary refers to Sir John Stewart, but Sir James was actually chief. Menteith was Sir John Stewart's uncle.

1081 eighteen yer. Falkirk was fought in 1298, so eighteen years makes no sense. Even if eight is meant, this would put Wallace's capture in 1306, which is too late.

1082 Hary presents Comyn's death as in part a payback for his role in bringing about the death of Stewart at Falkirk.

1089-90 Clyffurd. See explanatory note to 5.737.

1096 The Scots did not have Berwick at this time.

1109-28 Allace. The anaphora on "alas" marks these lines as a formal complaint or lament.

1139 Longawell. Thomas Longueville is the French knight (and reformed pirate) who accompanied Wallace from France. His adventures are detailed in Book 9 (omitted from these selections).

1147 Brucys buk. An explicit reference to Barbour's Bruce, possibly 9.396.

1151 The Charteris family was a prominent one in Hary's day and he pays a compliment by making Thomas of Longueville an ancestor.

1163 Possibly an echo of the opening lines of Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde.

1164-76 Edward Bruce's eulogy on Wallace is an interesting exercise in propaganda as once again Hary suggest that Wallace fought to make Robert Bruce's reign possible.

1183-84 The order for Comyn's killing is given because he is seen as responsible for Wallace's death, just as he had earlier been accused by Hary of a part in the death of Stewart (lines 1079-82).

1195 A reference to Barbour's account in The Bruce, as line 1212 acknowledges. See also notes above on Berwick as held by the English until 1318 (8.1583-86).

1205 best chyftayn. A comparison of James Douglas and Wallace as chieftains, but inevitably to Wallace's advantage.

1226-28 McDiarmid (2.277n1227-28) suggests that this refers to the Black Parliament, held at Scone in 1320 to deal with Soules, Brechin, and the other conspirators, described by Barbour (Bruce, 19.46) and Bower (Scotichronicon, 13.1).

1239-1301 Bower mentions the vision of a holy man in which he saw the ascent of Wallace's soul to heaven. Hary may be extending this as he draws on other sources, such as traditional tales about Wallace, to which Bower may also have had access.

1260 fyr brund. McDiarmid identifies this as the flame of Purgatory (2.279n1260).

1269 layff. The monk asks about the brand in his fellow's forehead.

1280 The date is erroneous. Wallace was executed on Monday, 23 August 1305.

1297 bellys sall ryng. See McDiarmid for other examples of bell-ringing as witness to virtue (2.279n1297).

1305-09 Wallace as a martyr is compared to the greatest of English saints: Oswald, Edmond, Edward, and Thomas.

1312-37 Edward's prohibition on shriving Wallace and the retort of the bishop of Canterbury who proceeds to hear Wallace's last confession are entirely fanciful. The intention is to blacken Edward's character further.

1384-86 McDiarmid (2.280n1385-86) suggests an echo of Henryson's Fox and the Wolf (lines 694-95). Note the contrast to Bruce's deathbed words (Barbour's Bruce 20.171-99). Wallace is nevertheless presented as devout, in his reading of the psalter to the last.

1400 done. I.e., tortured.

1414 Blair. See explanatory note to 5.533-45.

1417 Byschop Synclar. This seems to be Hary's invention.

1427-28 McDiarmid omits these lines which contain a contradiction about Wallace's age at death.

1439 McDiarmid translates as, "No one had engaged himself to pay for the writing of this work" (2.281n1437).

1445-46 Wallas . . . Liddaill. See my Introduction for a comment on these two patrons.

1451-66 Note the convention employed in this epilogue. Compare with Chaucer's The Franklin's Tale.


THE WALLACE: SELECTIONS: TEXTUAL NOTES


Abbreviations: C = The Lyfe and Actis of the Maist Illvster And Vailzeand Campiovn William Wallace, ed. Charteris (1594); F = Fragments of an edition in the type of Chepman and Myllar (1507/8); Jamieson = Wallace, or, The Life and Acts of Sir William Wallace of Ellerslie (1869); L = The Actis and Deidis of Schir William Wallace, ed. Lekpreuik (1570); McDiarmid = Hary's Wallace (1968-69); MS = National Library of Scotland MS Advocates 19.2.2, fols. 79r-194r.


Book 1

26 of. MS: off. So too in lines 47, 66, 94, 108, 133, 134, 143, 166, 190, 204, 290, 356, 375, 379, 420 and passim.

32 hyr. L: heir. McDiarmid emends to her.

37 as cornyklis. MS: as conus cornyklis. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

57 landis. McDiarmid notes that -is endings in the MS frequently look like -e.

64 croun. MS: toun. L: Crown. McDiarmid's emendation.

87 folowid. McDiarmid: followid.

97 Eduuard maid. McDiarmid adds has, based on L.

106 than. McDiarmid: then.

116 homage. So L. MS: ymage. McDiarmid's emendation.

118 he send. MS: send he, with caret indicating inversion.

159 cummyng. McDiarmid adopts couth ring from L.

193 outhir. McDiarmid: othir.

269 the. McDiarmid's addition from L.

278 Hym disgysyt. McDiarmid adds self, following L.

285 Landoris. McDiarmid emends to Lundoris, following L.

302 Welcummyt. McDiarmid: Welcwmmyt. Also at line 329.

336 Wallas. McDiarmid: Wallace.

352 thaim. McDiarmid: thame.

407 ane awkwart straik him gave. MS: awkwart he him gawe. L: ane akwart straik him gaif. McDiarmid's emendation.

423 Lord abide. McDiarmid adopts L's reading, which omits lord.

429 discumfyst. McDiarmid: discwmfyst.


Book 2

8 mynd. McDiarmid: mynde.

10 thaim. McDiarmid: thame.

27 Aboundandely. McDiarmid emends to Abandounly.

31 thaim. McDiarmid: thame.

34 On. So L. McDiarmid follows the MS: In.

49 Upon. MS: Vpon. McDiarmid: Apon.

75 Wallace. McDiarmid: Wallas.

76 thaim. McDiarmid: thame.

78 se. McDiarmid's addition, following L.

83 bocht. MS: thocht bocht. McDiarmid's emendation.

86 schirreff. McDiarmid: schireff.

89 yeid and said. McDiarmid emends to 3eid, said.

93 thow. So L. MS: the. McDiarmid's emendation.

100 sodanlé. McDiarmid: sodanli.

138 ga. McDiarmid and Jamieson adopt ta, following L.

153 fell. McDiarmid: sell. L also has fell, as McDiarmid notes.

175 law. McDiarmid notes this is the MS reading, but emends to lawe.

198 yow. McDiarmid: thow.

216 Compleyn. McDiarmid: Compleyne.

219 sellis. L: cellis. McDiarmid: sell is.

231 hym. McDiarmid: him.

234 Celinus. McDiarmid: Celinius.

244 thar. McDiarmid: that.

308 thar presoune. MS omits thar. L: thair presoun. McDiarmid's addition.

339 After this line in L a different hand inserts an extra line: "I wald his weilfair and caist into his thocht."

425 thrang. So L. MS: fand. McDiarmid and Jamieson emend to fang.


Book 3

9 rialye. McDiarmid: realye.

13 coud. McDiarmid: could.

24 was. McDiarmid: war.

25 Thai waryit. MS: He trowit. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

35 thai. McDiarmid's addition.

97 trastyt. MS: trast. L: traistit. McDiarmid's emendation.

100 the. McDiarmid's addition.

101 thair. So L. MS: than. McDiarmid's emendation (thar).

114 caus. McDiarmid: causer.

135 tuk. McDiarmid: tuke.

145 byrney. McDiarmid: birny.

146 throuch. L: Throw out. McDiarmid: throuch-out.

147 offe. McDiarmid: off.

152 enveround. McDiarmid: enverounid.

174 he doune. MS: doune he, but marked to indicate alteration.

176 The and arsone. McDiarmid: The gud arsone, but the means "thigh" here.

182 payne. McDiarmid: playne, though he notes L: pane.

189 brand. MS: hand. McDiarmid's emendation.

201 ennymys. MS: chewalrye. L: enemeis. McDiarmid's emendation.

203 hors sum part to. MS: On horsis some to strenthis part. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.


Book 4

10 hevyn. McDiarmid adopts the hycht from L.

19 far. McDiarmid's addition, which has support from L.

26 that. McDiarmid and Jamieson adopt at.

32 thou. McDiarmid: you.

60 der. So L. MS: her. McDiarmid's emendation.

92 fold. McDiarmid: feld, but fold is correct and is used at line 469.

339 hett. McDiarmid: heit.

340 wett. McDiarmid: weit.

353 of. McDiarmid's addition from L.

372 fynd. McDiarmid: find.

405 on. McDiarmid: in.

437 All. McDiarmid emends to Off.

443 his. McDiarmid adopts thar, based on L.

444 feild. McDiarmid: field.

466 throuout. McDiarmid's addition (throu-out), based on L.

480 Wallace. L: The walls. McDiarmid changes to wallis.

481 was thar lord. Needs to be understood as "were their lords" to agree with flearis.

498 his. McDiarmid: hys.

503 Women. McDiarmid: Wemen.

720 suour. McDiarmid: suor.

761 tresoun. MS: tresour. L: tressoun. McDiarmid's emendation.

787 Thai folowit him. MS: Him thai folowit. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.


Book 5

71 chyftayne. McDiarmid: chyaftyne.

75 wycht. McDiarmid: wyth.

77 maide. McDiarmid: maid.

83 of. McDiarmid: off.

115 Als Fawdoun was. MS: Als Fawdoun als was. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

116 haldyn. McDiarmid: knawin, following L; but see 5.817 where haldyn is used to mean "reputed."

186 gret ire. MS: the gret Ire. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

187 that. MS: he. L: that allane. McDiarmid emends to him allayne.

191 horn. McDiarmid: horne.

196 it. McDiarmid's addition from L.

207 Faudoun. McDiarmid: Fawdoun.

392 Goddis saik wyrk. MS: Goddis wyrk. McDiarmid's addition, based on L's reading: Goddis saik mak.

409 wes. McDiarmid: was.

476 into. So L. MS: in. McDiarmid's emendation.

485 brynt. MS: bryt. McDiarmid's silent emendation.

501 Lorde. McDiarmid: Lord.

526 that. So L. MS: than. McDiarmid's emendation.

528 of. McDiarmid: off.

564 was of that. MS: that was off that. McDiarmid's reading, modified from L.

576 bot. McDiarmid: but.

590 protectiounne. McDiarmid: proteccioune.

616 his. McDiarmid: hys.

619 als. McDiarmid: as.

629 luff. McDiarmid's addition from L.

652 remaynyt. McDiarmid: remaynt.

656 langour. McDiarmid: languor.

714 ramaynyt. McDiarmid: remaynyt.

758 contré. McDiarmid: cuntre.

764 cheyk. MS: cheyff. L: cheik. McDiarmid's emendation.

789 ar. McDiarmid: are.

800 thai. McDiarmid emends to the, based on L.

849 wes. McDiarmid: was.

852 nayne. McDiarmid: nane.


Book 6

1 utas. MS: wtast. McDiarmid's correction.

19 for to. MS: to. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

24 sor. MS: sar. McDiarmid's silent emendation.

45 was maid. MS omits was. McDiarmid's addition from L.

62-63 These two lines are reversed in the MS. McDiarmid's emendation.

73 gudlye. McDiarmid: gudly.

79 hym fer mar. MS: hyr fer mar. F and L: hym mair sair. McDiarmid's emendation.

80 Line missing from MS, supplied from F. This line is also added by McDiarmid.

83 now. MS omits. McDiarmid's emendation, following F.

97 fortoune. McDiarmid: fortune.

140 Gude. McDiarmid: Gud.

159 wapynnys. McDiarmid: wappynnys.

171 his. McDiarmid: hys.

186 upon. MS: wpon. McDiarmid: vpon.

195 but. McDiarmid: bot.

219 nocht. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition, following L.

226 Gud . . . duelyt. MS: Off . . . duelt. McDiarmid's emendations.

307 Pykarté. McDiarmid: Pykearte.

315 thai him knew. McDiarmid emends to that thai him knew, based on F and L.

360 Aganys. McDiarmid: Agaynys.

398 wes. McDiarmid: was.

413 thee leid. MS: thou. McDiarmid's emendation (the), following L.

416 falow led him. MS omits led. McDiarmid's addition from L.

432 tell. MS: till. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

436 was sone war. MS omits sone. McDiarmid's addition from L.

437 to sell. MS: he to sell. McDiarmid's emendation.

441 sell. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

471 he. MS: how. McDiarmid's emendation, following F and L.

473 pot. McDiarmid: pott.

485 thai MS: thai thai. McDiarmid silently emends.

507 the. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

510 Davi son. MS: Dauison. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

516 for chance. MS: for charg. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

518 folk. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

525 that. McDiarmid's addition, based on L.

we may in our viage. So F. MS: may we in sic wiage, followed by McDiarmid.

528 fullfill. McDiarmid: fulfill.

537 Jhonstoun. So F and L. MS: Wallas. McDiarmid's emendation.

547 rych. McDiarmid: ryth, although he notes variant readings of richt (F) and riche (L).

559 how. McDiarmid emends to full, following F and L.

561 walkand had beyne. MS: walkand beyne. McDiarmid's addition from F and L.

578 owndir. McDiarmid: wndir.

591 self. MS: saw. My reading, adopted from F and L.

596 thocht. McDiarmid substitutes rocht from F and L.

679 Commaund. McDiarmid: Command.

706 tald it to. MS: tald to. McDiarmid's addition from L.

742 thar. McDiarmid: that.

776 Far. So L. MS: For. McDiarmid emends to Fer.

780 till. McDiarmid: til.

810 Fra. The second two letters are smudged in the MS.

825 enterit. McDiarmid: entrit.

838-41 These lines from L are missing from the MS, probably, as McDiarmid suggests (1.134n838-41), because the scribe was misled by the recurrent rhyme haill.

936 repayr. McDiarmid: repair.


Book 7

65 to the kyrk. McDiarmid emends to in to the kyrk.

89 thar descendyt. McDiarmid adopts the reading from L here, which reverses this word order.

115 sowdandly. MS: sowndly. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

116 his entent. MS omits his. McDiarmid's addition from L.

126 thou mon rycht. MS omits thou. McDiarmid's addition (thow) from L.

153 him. McDiarmid: hym.

182 makis. McDiarmid: makes.

209 his. McDiarmid: hys.

253 speryt. MS: sparyt. L: speirit. McDiarmid's emendation.

273 Than. McDiarmid adopts That from L.

290 me thaim all. MS omits thaim. McDiarmid and Jamieson also emend.

291 Marys saik. L: Goddis saik.

310 derffly ded doun. McDiarmid adopts L's reading, which omits ded.

353 selff. McDiarmid: self.

377 Lat. McDiarmid: Latt.

406 breiffly. McDiarmid: brieffly.

420 to the gett. MS: to 3ett. McDiarmid's addition from L.

424 evirilk. MS: ilk. Accepting the reading from L, as McDiarmid and Jamieson do.

440 walkand. McDiarmid adopts walkning from L.

451 beltles. L: belchis. McDiarmid adopts belches, meaning "blazes," but beltles meaning "undressed" (literally, "without a belt") makes good sense.

453 tyll. McDiarmid: till.

454 thar. MS: thai. McDiarrmid's emendation, based on L.

468 hand for. McDiarmid inserts thaim, citing L's thame.

520 sum. McDiarmid's addition from L.

556 Goddis saik. MS: Goddis. McDiarmid's addition from L.

630 was a new-maid lord. MS: was new maid lord. My emendation, based on L. McDiarmid emends to: was new maid a lord.

651 that. MS: quhar. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

713 haiff beyne full. MS omits beyne. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

731 tayne. McDiarmid: tane.

732 he. McDiarmid adopts thai from L.

741 him. McDiarmid: hym.

751 was. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

778 Lundye. McDiarmid: Lundy.

794 is. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

809 ay. MS: thai. McDiarmid and Jamieson emend, following L.

850 wapynnys. McDiarmid: wappynnys.

fra. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

878 Hald in Scotland. MS: Hald Scotland. McDiarmid and Jamieson insert in from L.

899 Weill he eschewit. MS: Weill eschewit. McDiarmid's addition from L.

920 trow. McDiarmid: trew.

924 harmyng. MS: gret harmyng. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

953 All. MS: And. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

982 Rewillyt. McDiarmid: Rewllyt.

992 that. MS: thai. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1037 As McDiarmid notes, this line first appears at 1034 but is scored through and then placed here.

1145 sent. MS: send. McDiarmid's silent emendation.

1152 trest. MS: streit. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1180 hyntyt and couth blaw. McDiarmid adopts reading based on L: hynt and couth it blaw.

1202 quhilk. MS: quhill. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1211 the. McDiarmid adopts in from L.

1218 haist maid. MS: haist thai maid. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1252 Our Lady. L: our Lord.

1262 and to. McDiarmid omits to, citing L.

1268 and fled. McDiarmid adopts thai, citing L's thay.

1281 Jadwort. McDiarmid: Jedwort.


Book 8

46 schaym. MS: schapin. McDiarmid's emendation, derived from L.

48 realme. McDiarmid: Realm.

55 taryit. So L. MS: tary. McDiarmid: taryt.

105 war. McDiarmid: were.

155 bischope. McDiarmid: byschope.

169 gyff. McDiarmid: giff.

200 four. McDiarmid: iii.

213 but. McDiarmid: bot.

231 And Adam. MS omits And. McDiarmid's addition from L.

275 his. McDiarmid: hys.

276 feill. MS: till. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

282 his. McDiarmid: hys.

283 Gud rowme. McDiarmid: And rowme. L: Gude. Compare large rowme at line 300.

289 thai. McDiarmid: they.

303 feill. So L. MS: full feill, followed by McDiarmid.

305 horssit. McDiarmid: horsit.

312 sa. McDiarmid emends to and, following L.

343 thar. McDiarmid: thair.

360 ded. McDiarmid: dede.

526 koffre. MS: troffie. L: trustrie. McDiarmid's emendation.

532 to ces. McDiarmid inserts for, citing L.

564 harmys. The MS folio has been ripped and sewn together again. The first letter has been obliterated, but is probably h as McDiarmid believes. L: harmis.

650 mony. McDiarmid: many.

864 and. MS: of. McDiarmid's emendation, derived from L.

867 fer for to wyn. McDiarmid drops for.

869 warnysoun. MS: warysoun. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

896 Schir. McDiarmid: Schyr.

922 remanent. From L. MS: Ramayn.

939 largely. MS: largly. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

945 Mydlam land. MS: Mydlem. McDiarmid's emendation.

973 ransik. F and L: resolve. McDiarmid: runsik.

973-74 These lines are reversed in F and L.

1008 semely. So F and L. MS: sembly. McDiarmid: semly.

1049 fast. McDiarmid adopts loud from L.

1055 for the defens. McDiarmid emends to for fence, following L.

1060 hidduys. McDiarmid: hidwys.

1082 woman. MS: women. McDiarmid's emendation from L.

1109 curage. So L. MS: curag. McDiarmid's emendation.

1119 men. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

1136 giffyn. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition.

1142 Sa. McDiarmid: So.

1144 quhill. MS: quhilk. McDiarmid's emendation.

1156 the Sotheron. McDiarmid drops the.

1167 stark. MS: stargis. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1170 Tawbawnys. In the MS the t before awbawnys is blurred. See Tawbane at 8.1498.

1172 gud. McDiarmid adopts fud, citing L's fude.

1174 Thai. MS: Than. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

1178 wild. McDiarmid: wyld.

1204 cast. MS: clasp. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1219 Vaillyt. MS: wallyt. McDiarmid's emendation (Waillyt), based on L.

1236 So. McDiarmid: Sa.

1241 Suffer. McDiarmid: Suffyr.

1250 Herfor mon. McDiarmid inserts And from L.

1255 passit. MS: past, McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1287 grant us pees. MS: awcht haiff pes. McDiarmid's emendation.

1300 us. So L. McDiarmid's emendation (ws).

1314 helpys. McDiarmid: helpis.

1330 clemyt. McDiarmid: clempt.

1335 king. McDiarmid: kyng.

1344 Undid. So L. MS: wnd. McDiarmid's emendation.

1344-45 These lines are reversed in L.

1358 dispit. McDiarmid: despit.

1398 but. McDiarmid: bot.

1417 Madem. McDiarmid: Madam.

1421 yow. McDiarmid: you.

1424 Madeym. McDiarmid: Madem.

1439 Apon. McDiarmid: Vpon.

1451 menstraillis, harroldis. McDiarmid: menstrallis, harraldis.

1457 yow. MS omits. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

1462 sall. McDiarmid: sal.

1500 a. MS omits. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

1530 to ask. MS: als till. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1549 thaim. McDiarmid has than.

1555 ocht. MS: och. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1561 he. McDiarmid adopts thai, citing L.

1590 that. McDiarmid adopts the from L.

1601 byg it. MS: byggit. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1616 sayn my wordis. McDiarmid adopts a version of L's reading here: saving me wordis. The sense seems reasonably clear: "With these words I cease my account of this."

1618 Book 8 should end here (as in L), but the scribe errs and continues for another 124 lines.


Book 10

99 Besat. MS: Beset; L: Bissat. The name of a person, as later references make clear (lines 10, 242, 414).

102 unbeset. So L. MS: wnderset. McDiarmid adopts wmbeset.

113 cald it. McDiarmid adopts awfull from L.

131 tak. McDiarmid: take.

132 ar. McDiarmid: are.

148 Bot. McDiarmid: But.

246 metyng. McDiarmid: and metyng.

264 Wythowt. McDiarmid: Withowt.

312 hym. McDiarmid: him.

319 Wytht. McDiarmid: Wyth.

323 bid. McDiarmid: byd.

850 was. MS: wax. McDiarmid's emendation.

871 Till him. McDiarmid adopts Quhill tym from L.

891 his. McDiarmid: hys.

945 Dowglace. McDiarmid: Douglace.

973 Of Lewyhous. McDiarmid emends to Off the Lewynhous.

978 tribut. McDiarmid: trewbut.

981 nane. McDiarmid: nayn.

992 that. McDiarmid omits.

1002 Newbottyll. McDiarmid: Newbottyl.

1004 Berwik. McDiarmid: Berweik.

1222 dyscrecioun. McDiarmid: discrecioun.

1223 dischevill. MS: dissembill. McDiarmid's emendation.

1246 dissayff. McDiarmid: dissayf.

1248 ane. From L. MS: in. McDiarmid: a.

1274 saraly and in. MS: far alyand in. McDiarmid's emendation.

1276 north. McDiarmid inserts land to make northland.

1278 rapent. McDiarmid: repent.


Book 11

126 leyff it. MS: leyff on. McDiarmid's addition, based on L's tyne it on.

131 fairest. MS: farrest. McDiarmid's emendation from L.

146 Thair I have biddin. MS: Thar and I baid. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

151 consaill. MS: conselle. L: counsaill. McDiarmid's emendation,

173 he. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

198 To God. McDiarmid adopts L's reading O god.

200 thar. McDiarmid and Jamieson render as thir.

204 beyn. McDiarmid: been.

227 na. McDiarmid: na the, following L.

236 him. McDiarmid: hym.

251 All. McDiarmid adopts Wer from C.

256 saw that. MS: saw quhen. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

342 of Gawdyfer. MS: the Gawdyfer. McDiarmid's emendation.

352 thre. McDiarmid: three.

355 weryt. McDiarmid adopts reryt, citing L's reirit.

418 on. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

432 amange. McDiarmid: amang.

452 heir. From L. MS: eftir. McDiarmid: her.

481 wagis. McDiarmid: wage.

514 the orient. MS omits the. McDiarmid's addition from L.

520 se me. McDiarmid emends to me se.

522 him. McDiarmid: hym.

528 Lythqwo. McDiarmid: Lythquo.

529 a. McDiarmid adopts be from L.

542 McDiarmid drops that, following L.

1082 endyt. McDiarmid: endit.

1088 Thair to. MS: Thair for. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1090 Marchis. McDiarmid: merchis.

1139 herto. MS: to her. McDiarmid's emendation (her-to), based on L.

1146 haiff. MS: haff. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

1150 this. McDiarmid: his.

1155 Fell thar. MS: Fayr thai. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

1156 That we micht get agane Wallace of France. Like McDiarmid, I insert this line from L.

1169 Cumyn. MS: Eduuard. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.


Book 12

781 thar. McDiarmid: thai. L: thair.

787 Thai. McDiarmid adopts He from L.

799 this. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

802 thow. McDiarmid: thou.

819 thai. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

820 fayn haiff had. MS: fayn had. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

837 tuk. MS: to. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

841 Bretan. McDiarmid: Bretane.

842 had. McDiarmid adopts has, citing L.

843 covatice. McDiarmid: cowatyce.

854 yit. MS omits. McDiarmid's emendation (3eit), based on L.

855 sogeyng. McDiarmid: segeyng.

909 be tak. McDiarmid: betak.

926 it. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

946 past. McDiarmid emends to passit, following L

990 Menteth. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition, based on L.

993 he. McDiarmid emends to thai, following L.

1023 handis mycht on him lay. McDiarmid reads the insertion points under handis and lay in MS to move handis between him and lay.

1044 ma. McDiarmid: may.

1064 Comyns. MS: commounis. L: Cumyngis. McDiarmid's emendation.

1065 awe. McDiarmid: aw.

1075 thai Menteth. MS: that Menteith. McDiarmid's emendation. He suggests the meaning is "these Menteiths," i.e., kinsmen (2.274n1075).

1081 eighteen. MS: xviii. McDiarmid adopts auchtand, citing L.

1097 And. McDiarmid adopts To from L.

1103-04 In the MS these lines are reversed, but the scribe indicates that they should be switched.

1112 best. McDiarmid notes that in the MS best is written faintly above the line. Although I cannot make it out, I accept the emendation, based on L.

1123 help. McDiarmid adopts kepe, citing L.

1153 fer. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition, based on L.

1175 suld had na. MS: suld nocht had na. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1176 falsnes. MS: falnes. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1184 dreid. MS: deid. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1190 it is. MS: it was. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1209 as. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

1220 haiff. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

1255 so. McDiarmid: sa.

1263 lang. McDiarmid: long.

1277 me ken. MS: may ken. McDiarmid's emendation, following L.

1305 Sotheroun. McDiarmid: Sotherun.

1319 said. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

1331 thy. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition (thi) from L.

1335 Inglismen. McDiarmid adopts wyse men from L.

1361 force. McDiarmid: fors.

1365 I. MS omits. McDiarmid's addition from L.

1369 this. McDiarmid: the.

1382 sald. McDiarmid: suld.

1384 smyld a litill. MS: smyld litill. McDiarmid's silent emendation.

1395 viagis. McDiarmid: wiage.

1396 dispolyeid. McDiarmid: dispulyeid.

1405 spreyt. MS: preyt. Damaged folio means some letters are effaced in the following words: spreyt (1405), we (1406), spreyt (1409), blair (1414), compild (1415), mair (1416).

1409 McDiarmid inserts a break after this line so that lines 1410 to the end are presented as an epilogue.

1414 Blair. McDiarmid: Blayr.

1421 was till. MS: was for till. McDiarmid's emendation, based on L.

1427-28 McDiarmid rejects these lines "as an intrusion" on the grounds that "45 years as the age of Wallace at his death is grossly at variance with the life-span presented in the poem and illustrated in my Introduction" (2.281n1426f).

1459 banevolence. McDiarmid: beneuolence.

1461 burel. McDiarmid: burell.

1463 of Pernase. MS: aspernase. McDiarmid's emendation.




















 
Print Copyright Info Purchase

The Wallace: Selections (Books 7-12)

by: Anne McKim (Editor)







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390
Book 7

In Feveryher befell the sammyn cace
That Inglismen tuk trewis with Wallace.
This passyt our till Marche till end was socht.
The Inglismen kest all the wayis thai mocht,
With suttelté and wykkit illusione,
The worthi Scottis to put to confusione.
In Aperill the king of Ingland come
In Cumerland of Pumfrat fro his home;48
Into Carleill till a consell he yeid,
Quhar of the Scottis mycht haiff full mekill dreid.
Mony captane that was of Ingland born
Thiddir thai past and semblit thar king beforn.
Na Scottis man to that consell thai cald
Bot Schir Amer, that traytour was of ald.
At hym thai sperd how thai suld tak on hand
The rychtwys blud to scour out of Scotland.
Schir Amer said, "Thar chyftayne can weill do,
Rychtwys in wer and has gret power to,
And now this trew gyffis thaim sic hardyment
That to your faith thai will nocht all consent.
Bot wald ye do rycht as I wald yow ler,
This pes to thaim it suld be sald full der."
Than demyt he the fals Sotheroun amang
How thai best mycht the Scottis barownis hang.
For gret bernys that tyme stud intill Ayr,
Wrocht for the king quhen his lugyng wes thar,
Byggyt about that no man entir mycht
Bot ane at anys, nor haiff of othir sicht;
Thar ordand thai thir lordis suld be slayne.
A justice maid quhilk wes of mekill mayne.
To lord Persye of this mater thai laid.
With sad avys agayne to thaim he said:
"Thai men to me has kepit treuth so lang
Desaitfully I may nocht se thaim hang.
I am thar fa and warn thaim will I nocht;
Sa I be quytt I rek nocht quhat yhe wrocht.49
Fra thine I will and towart Glaskow draw.
With our byschope to her of his new law."
Than chesyt thai a justice fers and fell
Quhilk Arnulff hecht, as my auctour will tell,
Of South Hantoun, that huge hie her and lord;
He undirtuk to pyne thaim with the cord.
Ane othir ayr in Glaskow ordand thai
For Cliddisdaill men to stand that sammyn day;
Syne chargyt thaim in all wayis ernystfully
Be no kyn meyne Wallace suld nocht chaip by,
For weill thai wyst and thai men war ourthrawin
Thai mycht at will bruk Scotland as thar awin.
This band thai clois undir thar seillis fast;
Syne south our mur agayn King Edward past.
The new justice rasavit was in Ayr;
The lord Persye can on to Glaskow fayr.
This ayr was set in Jun the auchtand day
And playnly criyt na fre man war away.
The Scottis merveld, and pes tane in the land,
Quhy Inglismen sic maistré tuk on hand.
Schir Ranald set a day befor this ayr,
At Monktoun Kyrk; his freyndis mett him thar.
Wilyham Wallace onto that tryst couth pas,
For he as than wardane of Scotland was.
This Maister Jhone, a worthi clerk, was thar;
He chargyt his kyne for to byd fra that ayr.
Rycht weyll he wyst, fra Persey fled that land,
Gret perell was till Scottis apperand.
Wallace fra thaim to the kyrk he yeid;
Pater Noster, Ave he said and Creid,
Syne to the grece he lenyt him sobyrly;
Apon a sleip he slaid full sodandly.
Kneland folowed and saw him fallyn on sleip;
He maid na noyis bot wysly couth him kepe.
In that slummer cummand him thocht he saw
Ane agit man fast towart him couth draw.
Sone be the hand he hynt him haistelé.
"I am," he said, "in viage chargit with thee."
A suerd him gaiff of burly burnist steill.
"Gud sone," he said, "this brand thou sall bruk weill."
Of topaston him thocht the plumat was,
Baith hilt and hand all gliterand lik the glas.
"Dere sone," he said, "we tary her to lang.
Thow sall go se quhar wrocht is mekill wrang."
Than he him led till a montane on hycht;
The warld him thocht he mycht se with a sicht.
He left him thar, syne sone fra him he went.
Tharoff Wallace studiit in his entent;
Till se him mar he had full gret desyr.
Tharwith he saw begyne a felloune fyr
Quhilk braithly brynt on breid throu all the land,
Scotland atour fra Ros to Sulway sand.
Than sone till him thar descendyt a qweyne,
Inlumyt lycht schynand full brycht and scheyne.
In hyr presens apperyt so mekill lycht
At all the fyr scho put out of his sicht;
Gaiff him a wand of colour reid and greyne,
With a saffyr sanyt his face and eyne.
"Welcum," scho said, "I cheis thee as my luff.
Thow art grantyt be the gret God abuff
Till help pepill that sufferis mekill wrang.
With thee as now I may nocht tary lang.
Thou sall return to thi awne oys agayne;
Thi derrast kyne ar her in mekill payne.
This rycht regioun thow mon redeme it all;
Thi last reward in erd sall be bot small.
Let nocht tharfor tak redres of this mys,50
To thi reward thou sall haiff lestand blys."
Of hir rycht hand scho betaucht him a buk.
Humylly thus hyr leyff full sone scho tuk,
Onto the cloud ascendyt of his sycht.
Wallace brak up the buk in all his mycht.
In three partis the buk weill writyn was:
The fyrst writtyng was gross letter of bras,
The secound gold, the thrid was silver scheyne;
Wallace merveld quhat this writyng suld meyne.
To rede the buk he besyet him so fast,
His spreit agayne to walkand mynd is past,
And up he rays, syne sowdandly furth went.
This clerk he fand and tald him his entent
Of this visioun at I haiff said befor,
Completly throuch. Quhat nedis wordis mor?
"Der sone," he said, "my witt unabill is
To runsik sic for dreid I say of mys.
Yeit I sall deyme, thocht my cunnyng be small,
God grant na charge efftir my wordis fall.
Saynct Androw was, gaiff thee that suerd in hand;
Of sanctis he is vowar of Scotland.
That montayne is, quhar he thee had on hycht,
Knawlage to haiff of wrang that thou mon rycht.
The fyr sal be fell tithingis or ye part
Quhilk will be tald in mony syndry art.
I can nocht witt quhat qweyn at it suld be,
Quhethir Fortoun or Our Lady so fre.
Lykly it is be the brychtnes scho brocht,
Modyr of Hym that all this warld has wrocht.
The party wand I trow be myn entent,
Assignes rewlle and cruell jugement.
The red colour, quha graithly understud,
Betaknes all to gret battaill and blud;
The greyn, curage that thou art now amang,51
In strowbill wer thou sall conteyne full lang.
The saphyr stayne scho blissit thee withall
Is lestand grace, will God sall to thee fall.
The thrynfald buk is bot this brokyn land
Thou mon rademe be worthines of hand.
The bras letteris betakynnys bot to this,
The gret oppres of wer and mekill mys
The quhilk thow sall bryng to the rycht agayne;
Bot thou tharfor mon suffer mekill payne.
The gold takynnis honour and worthinas,
Victour in armys that thou sall haiff be grace.
The silvir schawis cleyne lyff and hevynnys blys,
To thi reward that myrth thou sall nocht mys.
Dreid nocht tharfor, be out of all dispayr.
Forthir as now herof I can no mair."
He thankit him and thus his leyff has tayne,
Till Corsbé syne with his uncle raid hayme.
With myrthis thus all nycht thai sojornyt thar.
Apon the morn thai graith thaim to the ar
And furth thai ryd quhill thai come to Kingace.
With dreidfull hart thus sperit wicht Wallace
At Schir Ranald for the charter of pes.
"Nevo," he said, "thir wordis ar nocht les.
It is levyt at Corsbé in the kyst,
Quhar thou it laid; tharoff na othir wist."
Wallace ansuerd, "Had we it her to schaw,
And thai be fals we suld nocht entir awe."
"Der sone," he said, "I pray thee pas agayne.
Thocht thou wald send, that travaill war in vayne;52
Bot thou or I can nane it bryng this tid."
Gret grace it was maid him agayne to ryd.
Wallace raturnd and tuk with him bot thre;
Nane of thaim knew this endentour bot he.
Unhap him led, for bid him couth he nocht;
Of fals dissayt this gud knycht had na thocht.
Schir Ranald raid but restyng to the town,
Wittand nathing of all this fals tresown.
That wykked syng so rewled the planait,
Saturn was than intill his heast stait;
Aboun Juno in his malancoly,
Jupiter, Mars, ay cruell of invy
Saturn as than avansyt his natur.
Of terandry he power had and cur,
Rebell renkis in mony seir regioun,
Trubbill weddir makis schippis to droun.
His drychyn is with Pluto in the se
As of the land full of iniquité.
He waknys wer, waxing of pestilence,
Fallyng of wallis with cruell violence.
Pusoun is ryff amang thir othir thingis,
Sodeyn slauchter of emperouris and kingis.
Quhen Sampsone powed to grond the gret piller
Saturn was than intill the heast sper.
At Thebes als of his power thai tell,
Quhen Phiorax sank throuch the erd till hell;
Of the Trojans he had full mekill cur
Quhen Achilles at Troy slew gud Ectur;
Burdeous schent and mony citeis mo,
His power yeit it has na hap to ho.
In braid Brytane feill vengeance has beyne seyne
Of this and mar, ye wait weill quhat I meyn.
Bot to this hous that stalwart wes and strang
Schir Ranald come and mycht nocht tary lang.
A bauk was knyt all full of rapys keyne;53
Sic a towboth sen syne wes nevir seyne.
Stern men was set the entré for to hald;
Nayne mycht pas in bot ay as thai war cald.
Schir Ranald fyrst, to mak fewté for his land,
The knycht went in and wald na langar stand.
A rynnand cord thai slewyt our his hed
Hard to the bauk and hangyt him to ded.
Schyr Brys the Blayr next with his eyme in past;
Onto the ded thai haistyt him full fast.
Be he entrit his hed was in the swar,
Tytt to the bawk, hangyt to ded rycht thar.
The thrid entrit, that peté was forthy,
A gentill knycht, Schir Neill of Mungumry,
And othir feill of landit men about.
Mony yeid in bot na Scottis com out.
Of Wallace part thai putt to that derff deid;
Mony Craufurd sa endyt in that steid.
Of Carrik men Kennadys slew thai als,
And kynd Cambellis that nevir had beyne fals.
Thir rabellit nocht contrar thar rychtwis croun,
Sotheroun forthi thaim putt to confusioun.
Berklais, Boidis, and Stuartis of gud kyn,
Na Scot chapyt that tyme that entrit in.
Upon the bawk thai hangit mony par;
Besid thaim ded in the nuk kest thaim thar.
Sen the fyrst tyme that ony wer wes wrocht,
To sic a dede so mony sic yeid nocht
Upon a day throuch curssit Saxons seid.
Vengeance of this throuchout that kynrik yeid,
Grantyt wes fra God in the gret hevyn,
Sa ordand he that law suld be thar stevyn
To fals Saxons for thar fell jugement;
Thar wykkydnes our all the land is went.
Yhe nobill men that ar of Scottis kind,
Thar petous dede yhe kepe into your mynd
And us ravenge quhen we ar set in thrang.
Dolour it is heron to tary lang.
Thus eighteen scor to that derff dede thai dycht
Of barronis bald and mony worthi knycht.
Quhen thai had slayne the worthiast that was thar,
For waik peple thai wald na langar spar,
Intill a garth kest thaim out of that sted
As thai war born, dispulyeit, bar, and ded.
Gud Robert Boid ontill a tavern yeid
With twenty men that douchty war in deid,
Of Wallace hous, full cruell of entent;
He governyt thaim quhen Wallace was absent.
Kerle turnyt with his master agayne,
Kneland and Byrd that mekill war of mayn.
Stevyn of Irland went furth apon the streit;
A trew woman full sone with him couth meit.
He speryt at hir quhat hapnyt in the ayr.
"Sorou," scho said, "is nothing ellis thar."
Ferdly scho ast, "Allace, quhar is Wallace?"
"Fra us agayne he passit at Kingace."
"Go warn his folk and haist thaim of the toun.
To kepe himselff I sall be reddy boun."
With hir as than no mar tary he maid.
Till his falowis he went withoutyn baid
And to thaim tald of all this gret mysfair.
To Laglane Wood thai bownyt withoutyn mar.
Be this Wallace was cummand wondir fast;
For his freyndis he was full sar agast.
Onto the bern sadly he couth persew
Till entir in, for he na perell knew.
This woman than apon him loud can call:
"O fers Wallace, feill tempest is befall!
Our men ar slayne that peté is to se,
As bestiall houndis hangit our a tre.
Our trew barrouns be twa and twa past in."
Wallace wepyt for gret los of his kyne,
Than with unes apon his hors he baid.
Mair for to sper to this woman he raid.
"Der nece," he said, "the treuth giff thow can tell,
Is my eyme dede, or hou the cace befell?"
"Out of yon bern," scho said, "I saw him born,
Nakit, laid law on cald erd me beforn.
His frosty mouth I kissit in that sted,
Rycht now manlik, now bar and brocht to ded;
And with a claith I coverit his licaym,
For in his lyff he did nevir woman schayme.
His systir sone thou art, worthi and wicht.
Ravenge thar dede for Goddis saik at thi mycht.
Als I sall help as I am woman trew!"
"Der wicht," he said, "der God sen at thou knew
Gud Robert Boid, quhar at thou can him se,
Wilyham Crawfurd als, giff he lyffand be,
Adam Wallace, wald help me in this striff!
I pray to God send me thaim all in liff.
For Marys saik bid thaim sone cum to me.
The justice innys thow spy for cheryté
And in quhat feir that thai thar lugyne mak.
Son efftir that we will our purpos tak
Into Laglane, quhilk has my succour beyne.
Adew merket and welcum woddis greyne!"
Herof as than till hir he spak no mair,
His brydill turnyt and fra hir can he fair;
Sic murnyng maid for his der worthi kyn
Him thocht for baill his breyst ner bryst in twyn.
As he thus raid in gret angyr and teyne,
Of Inglismen thar folowed him fyfteyn
Wicht vallyt men, at towart him couth draw
With a maser to tach him to the law.54
Wallace raturnd in greiff and matelent,
With his suerd drawyn amang thaim sone he went.
The myddyll of ane he mankit ner in twa,
Ane othir thar apon the hed can ta;
The thrid he straik and throuch the cost him claiff;
The ferd to ground rycht derffly ded doun he draiff;
The fyft he hit with gret ire in that sted;
Without reskew dreidles he left thaim ded.
Than his thre men had slayne the tothir five,
Fra thaim the laiff eschapit into lyff,
Fled to thar lord and tald him of this cas.
To Laglane Wode than ridis wicht Wallas;
The Sotheroun said quhat ane that he hit rycht
Without mercye dredles to ded wes dycht.
Mervell thai had sic strenth in ane suld be,
Ane of thar men at ilk straik he gert de.
Than demyt thai it suld be Wallace wicht.
To thar langage maid ansuer ane ald knycht:
"Forsuth," he said, "be he chapyt this ayr,
All your new deid is eking of our cair."
The justice said, quhen thar sic murmur rais,
"Yhe wald be ferd and thar come mony fais,
That for a man me think yow lik to fle
And wait nocht yeit indeid gyff it be he!
And thocht it be I cownt him bot full lycht.
Quha bidis her, ilk gentill man sall be knycht.
I think to deill thar landis haill to morn
To yow about that ar of Ingland born."
The Sotheron drew to thar lugyng but mar;
Four thousand haill that nycht was intill Ayr.
In gret bernys biggyt without the toun
The justice lay with mony bald barroun.
Than he gert cry about thai waynys wide
Na Scottis born amang thaim thar suld bid.
To the castell he wald nocht pas for eys
Bot sojornd thar with thing that mycht him pleys.
Gret purvians be se to thaim was brocht,
With Irland ayle the mychteast couth be wrocht.
Na wach wes set becaus thai had na dout
Of Scottis men that leiffand was without.
Lawberand in mynd thai had beyne all that day,
Of ayle and wyne yneuch chosyne haiff thai,
As bestly folk tuk of thaimselff no keip.
In thar brawnys sone slaid the sleuthfull sleip,
Throuch full gluttré in swarff swappyt lik swyn;55
Thar chyftayne than was gret Bachus of wyn.
This wys woman besy amang thaim was;
Feill men scho warnd and gart to Laglayne pas,
Hyrselff formest quhill thai with Wallace met.
Sum comfort than intill his mynd was set.
Quhen he thaim saw he thankit God of mycht.
Tithandis he ast; the woman tald him rycht:
"Slepand as swyn ar all yone fals menyhe.
Na Scottis man is in that cumpané."
Than Wallace said, "Giff thai all dronkyn be
I call it best with fyr for thaim to se."
Of gud men than thre hundreth till him socht.
The woman had tald three trew burges at brocht
Out of the toun with nobill aile and breid,
And othir stuff als mekill as thai mycht leid.
Thai eit and drank, the Scottis men at mocht.
The noblis than Jop has to Wallace brocht.
Sadly he said, "Der freyndis, now ye se
Our kyn ar slayn, tharoff is gret peté,
Throuch feill murthyr, the gret dispite is mor.
Now sum rameid I wald we set tharfor.
Suppos that I was maid wardane to be;
Part ar away sic chargis put to me,
And ye ar her cummyn of als gud blud,
Als rychtwis born be aventur and als gud,
Als forthwart, fair, and als likly of persoun,
As evir was I; tharfor, till conclusioun,
Lat us cheys five of this gud cumpanye,
Syne caflis cast quha sall our master be."
Wallace and Boid and Craufurd of renoun
And Adam als than lord of Ricardtoun -
His fadir than wes wesyed with seknes;
God had him tayne intill his lestand grace -
The fyft Awchinlek, in wer a nobill man,
Caflis to cast about thir five began.
It wald on him for ocht thai cuth devys,56
Continualy quhill thai had castyn thrys.
Than Wallace rais and out a suerd can draw.
He said, "I vow to the Makar of aw
And till Mary his modyr, Virgyne cler,
My unclis dede now sall be sauld full der,
With mony ma of our der worthi kyn.
Fyrst or I eit or drynk we sall begyn,
For sleuth nor sleip sall nayne remayne in me
Of this tempest till I a vengeance se."
Than all inclynd rycht humyll of accord
And him resavit as chyftayne and thar lord.
Wallace a lord he may be clepyt weyll
Thocht ruryk folk tharoff haff litill feill,
Na deyme na lord bot landis be thar part.57
Had he the warld and be wrachit of hart
He is no lord as to the worthines.
It can nocht be but fredome, lordlyknes.
At the Roddis thai mak full mony ane
Quhilk worthy ar, thocht landis haiff thai nane.
This disscussyng I leiff herroldis till end;
On my mater now breiffly will I wend.
Wallace commaunde a burges for to get
Fyne cawk eneuch that his der nece mycht set
On ilk yeit quhar Sotheroun wer on raw.
Than twenty men he gert fast wetheis thraw,
Ilk man a pair, and on thar arme thaim threw.
Than to the toune full fast thai cuth persew.
The woman past befor thaim suttelly,
Cawkit ilk gett that thai neid nocht gang by.
Than festnyt thai with wetheis duris fast
To stapill and hesp with mony sekyr cast.
Wallace gert Boid ner hand the castell ga
With fyfté men a jeperté to ma.
Gyff ony ischet the fyr quhen that thai saw,
Fast to the gett he ordand thaim to draw.
The laiff with him about the bernys yheid.
This trew woman servit thaim weill indeid
With lynt and fyr that haistely kendill wald.
In evirilk nuk thai festnyt blesis bald.
Wallace commaund till all his men about
Na Sotheron man at thai suld lat brek out.
"Quhatevir he be reskewis of that kyn
Fra the rede fyr himselff sall pas tharin."
The lemand low sone lanssyt apon hycht.
"Forsuth," he said, "this is a plessand sicht;
Till our hartis it suld be sum radres.
War thir away thar power war the les."
Onto the justice himselff loud can caw:
"Lat us to borch our men fra your fals law
At leyffand ar, that chapyt fra your ayr.
Deyll nocht thar land, the unlaw is our sayr.
Thou had no rycht, that sall be on thee seyne."
The rewmour rais with cairfull cry and keyne.
The bryme fyr brynt rycht braithly apon loft;
Till slepand men that walkand was nocht soft.
The sycht without was awfull for to se;
In all the warld na grettar payne mycht be
Than thai within insufferit sor to duell,
That evir was wrocht bot purgatory or hell:
A payne of hell weill ner it mycht be cauld.
Mad folk with fyr hampryt in mony hauld:
Feill byggyns brynt that worthi war and wicht,
Gat nane away, knaiff, captane, nor knycht,
Quhen brundis fell off ruftreis thaim amang.
Sum rudly rais in byttir paynys strang,
Sum nakyt brynt bot beltles all away,
Sum nevir rais bot smoryt quhar thai lay,
Sum ruschit fast tyll Ayr gyff thai mycht wyn,
Blyndyt in fyr thar deidis war full dym.
The reik mellyt with fylth of carioune
Amang the fyr rycht foull of offensioune.
The peple beryt lyk wyld bestis in that tyd,
Within the wallis rampand on athir sid,
Rewmyd in reuth with mony grysly grayne.
Sum grymly gret quhill thar lyff dayis war gayne,58
Sum durris socht, the entré for to get,
Bot Scottismen so wysly thaim beset,
Gyff ony brak be awnter of that steid
With suerdis sone bertnyt thai war to dede,
Or ellys agayne be force drevyn in the fyr.
Thar chapyt nayne bot brynt up bayne and lyr.
The stynk scalyt of ded bodyis sa wyde
The Scottis abhord ner hand for to byd,
Yeid to the wynd and leit thaim evyn allayne
Quhill the rede fyr had that fals blude ourgayne.
A frer Drumlay was priour than of Ayr,
Sevyn scor with him that nycht tuk herbry thar
In his innys, for he mycht nocht thaim let.
Till ner mydnycht a wach on thaim he set;
Hymselff wouk weyll quhill he the fyr saw rys;
Sum mendis he thocht to tak of that supprys.
Hys brethir sevyn till harnes sone thai yeid,
Hymselff chyftayne the ramanand to leid.
The best thai waill of armour and gud ger,
Syne wapynnys tuk, rycht awfull in affer.
Thir eight freris in four partis thai ga,
With suerdis drawyn till ilk hous yeid twa;
Sone entrit thai quhar Sotheroune slepand war,
Apon thaim set with strakis sad and sar.
Feill frekis thar thai freris dang to dede;
Sum nakit fled and gat out of that sted,
The wattir socht, abaissit out of slepe.
In the furd weill that was bath wan and depe
Feyll of thaim fell that brak out of that place,
Dowkit to grounde and deit withoutyn grace.
Drownyt and slayne was all that herbryt thar.
Men callis it yeit "the freris blyssyng of Ayr."
Few folk of waill was levyt apon cace
In the castell; lord Persye fra that place
Befor the ayr fra thine to Glaskow drew,
Of men and stuff it was to purva new.
Yeit thai within saw the fyr byrnand stout,
With schort awys ischet and had na dout.
The buschement than, as weryouris wys and wicht,
Leit thaim allayne and to the hous past rycht.
Boyd wan the port, entryt and all his men;
Keparis in it was left bot nine or ten.
The formast sone hymselff sesyt in hand,
Maid quyt of hym, syne slew all at thai fand.
Of purvyaunce in that castell was nayne;
Schort tyme befor Persye was fra it gayne.
The erll Arnulff had rasavit that hauld
Quhilk in the toune was brynt to powder cauld.
Boyd gert ramayn of his men twenty still;
Hymselff past furth to witt of Wallace will,
Kepand the toun quhill nocht was levyt mar
Bot the wode fyr and beyldis brynt full bar.
Of lykly men that born was in Ingland
Be suerd and fyr that nycht deit five thousand.
Quhen Wallace men was weill togydder met,
"Gud freyndis," he said, "ye knaw that thar wes set
Sic law as this now into Glaskow toun
Be Byschope Beik and Persye of renoun.
Tharfor I will in haist we thidder fair.
Of our gud kyn sum part ar lossyt thair."
He gert full sone the burges till him caw
And gaiff commaund in generall to thaim aw,
In kepyng thai suld tak the hous of Ayr,
"And hald it haill quhill tyme that we her mayr.
To byd our king castellys I wald we had;
Cast we doun all we mycht be demyt our rad."
Thai gart meit cum, for thai had fastyt lang;
Litill he tuk, syne bownyt thaim to gang.
Horsis thai cheys that Sotheroun had brocht thar,
Anew at will and of the toune can fair.
Thre hundreth haill was in his cumpany.
Richt wondir fast raid this gud chevalry
To Glaskow Bryg that byggyt was of tre,
Weyll passit our or Sotheroun mycht thaim se.
Lorde Persye wyst, that besy wes in wer,
Semblyt his men fell awfull in affer.
Than demyt thai that it was wicht Wallace;
He had befor chapyt throw mony cace.
The byschope Beik and Persye that was wicht
A thousand led of men in armys brycht.
Wallace saw weill quhat nowmyr semblit thar;
He maid his men in twa partis to fair,
Graithit thaim weill without the townys end.
He callit Awchinlek for he the passage kend.
"Uncle," he said, "be besy into wer.
Quhethir will yhe the byschoppys taill upber,
Or pas befor and tak his benysone?"
He ansuerd hym with rycht schort provision,
"Unbyschoppyt yeit forsuth I trow ye be.59
Yourselff sall fyrst his blyssyng tak for me,
For sekyrly ye servit it best the nycht.
To ber his taill we sall in all our mycht."
Wallace ansuerd, "Sen we mon sindry gang
Perell thar is and ye bid fra us lang,
For yone ar men will nocht sone be agast.
Fra tyme we meit for Goddis saik haist yow fast.
Our disseveryng I wald na Sotheroune saw;
Behynd thaim cum and in the northast raw.
Gud men of wer ar all Northummyrland."
Thai partand thus tuk othir be the hand.
Awchinlek said, "We sall do at we may.
We wald lik ill to byd oucht lang away;
A boustous staill betwix us sone mon be,
Bot to the rycht allmychty God haiff e."
Adam Wallace and Awchinlek was boune,
Sevyn scor with thaim on the baksid the toune.
Rycht fast thai yeid quhill thai war out of sycht;
The tothir part arrayit thaim full rycht.
Wallace and Boid the playne streyt up can ga;
Sotheroun merveld becaus thai saw na ma.
Thar senyhe cryit upon the Persys syde,
With Byschop Beik that bauldly durst abide.
A sayr semlay was at that metyng seyne,
As fyr on flynt it feyrryt thaim betweyne.
The hardy Scottis rycht awfully thaim abaid,
Brocht feill to grounde throuch weid that weill was maid,
Perssyt plattis with poyntis stiff of steill,
Be fors of hand gert mony cruell kneill.
The strang stour rais as reik upon thaim fast,
Or myst throuch sone up to the clowdis past.
To help thaimselff ilk ayne had mekill neid.
The worthy Scottis stud in fellone dreid,
Yeit forthwart ay thai pressit for to be
And thai on thaim gret wondir was to se.
The Perseis men in wer was oysit weill,
Rycht fersly faucht and sonyeit nocht adeill.
Adam Wallace and Awchinlek com in
And partyt Sotheron rycht sodeynly in twyn,
Raturnd to thaim as noble men in wer.
The Scottis gat rowme and mony doun thai ber.
The new cowntir assailyeit thaim sa fast,
Throuch Inglismen maid sloppys at the last.
Than Wallace selff into that felloune thrang
With his gud swerd that hevy was and lang,
At Perseis face witht a gud will he bar.
Bath bayne and brayne the forgyt steill throw schair.
Four hundreth men quhen Lord Persie was dede
Out of the gait the byschop Beik thai lede,
For than thaim thocht it was no tyme to bid,
By the frer kyrk till a wode fast besyd.
In that forest forsuth thai taryit nocht;
On fresch horsis to Bothwell sone thai socht.
Wallace folowed with worthi men and wicht;
Forfouchtyn thai war and trawald all the nycht,
Yeit feill thai slew into the chace that day.
The byschope selff and gud men gat away;
Amar Wallang reskewit him in that place.
That knycht full oft did gret harme to Wallace.
Wallace began of nycht ten houris in Ayr,
On day be nine in Glaskow semlyt thair.
Be ane our nowne at Bothwell yeit he was,
Repreiffit Wallang or he wald forthir pas,
Syne turnd agayne, as weyll witnes the buk,
Till Dundaff raid, and thar restyng he tuk,
Tald gud Schir Jhon of thir tithandis in Ayr.
Gret mayne he maid he was nocht with him thar.
Wallace sojornd in Dundaff at his will
Five dayis out, quhill tithandis come him till
Out of the hycht quhar gud men was forlorn,
For Bouchane rais, Adell, Menteth, and Lorn.
Apon Argyll a fellone wer thai mak;
For Eduuardis saik thus can thai undirtak.
The knycht Cambell in Argyll than wes still
With his gud men agayne King Eduuardis will
And kepyt fre Lowchow, his heretage,
Bot Makfadyan than did him gret owtrage.
This Makfadyan till Inglismen was suorn;
Eduuard gaiff him bath Argill and Lorn.
Fals Jhon of Lorn to that gyft can concord;
In Ingland than he was a new-maid lord.
Thus falsly he gaiff our his heretage
And tuk at London of Eduuard grettar wage.
Dunkan of Lorn yeit for the landis straiff,
Quhill Makfadyan ourset him with the laiff,
Put him of force to gud Cambell the knycht
Quhilk into wer was wys, worthi, and wicht.
Thus Makfadyan was entrit into Scotland
And mervalusly that tyrand tuk on hand
With his power, the quhilk I spak of ayr.
Thai four lordschippis all semlyt till him thair,
Fifteen thousand of curssyt folk indeid
Of all gaddryn in ost he had to leid,
And mony of thaim was out of Irland brocht.
Barnys nor wyff thai peple sparyt nocht,
Waistyt the land als fer as thai mycht ga,
Thai bestly folk couth nocht bot byrn and sla.
Into Louchow he entryt sodeynly;
The knycht Cambell maid gud defens forthi.
Till Crage Unyn with thre hundir he yeid:
That strenth he held for all his cruell deid,
Syne brak the bryg that thai mycht nocht out pas
Bot throuch a furd quhar narow passage was.
Abandounly Cambell agayne thaim baid,
Fast upon Avis that was bathe depe and braid.
Makfadyane was apon the tothir sid
And thar on force behuffit him for to byd,
For at the furde he durst nocht entir out,
For gud Cambell mycht set him than in dout.
Makfadyane socht and a small passage fand;
Had he lasar thai mycht pas of that land
Betuix a roch and the gret wattirsid,
Bot four in front, na ma mycht gang nor rid.
Intill Louchow wes bestis gret plenté;
A quhill he thocht thar with his ost to be
And othir stuff that thai had with thaim brocht,
Bot all his crafft availyeit him rycht nocht.
Dunkane of Lorn has seyne the sodeyne cace.
Fra gud Cambell he went to seik Wallace,
Sum help to get of thar turment and teyne.
Togydder befor in Dundé thai had beyne,
Lerand at scule into thar tendyr age.
He thocht to slaik Makfadyanys hie curage.
Gylmychell than with Dunkan furth him dycht;
A gyd he was and fute man wondir wicht.
Sone can thai witt quhar Wallace lugyt was;
With thar complaynt till his presence thai pas.
Erll Malcom als the Lennox held at es,
With his gud men to Wallace can he pres.
Till him thar come gud Rychard of Lundy;
Intill Dundaff he wald no langar ly.
Schir Jhon the Graym als bownyt him to ryd.
Makfadyanis wer so grevit thaim that tid
At Wallace thocht his gret power to se,
In quhat aray he reullyt that cuntré.
The Rukbé than he kepit with gret wrang
Stirlyng Castell that stalwart wes and strang.
Quhen Wallace come be sowth it in a vaill
Till Erll Malcome he said he wald assaill.
In divers partis he gert sevir thar men,
Of thar power that Sotheroun suld nocht ken.
Erll Malcome baid in buschement out of sicht.
Wallace with him tuk gud Schir Jhone the knycht
And a hundreth of wys wermen but dout,
Throuch Stirlyng raid gyff ony wald ysche out.
Towart the bryg the gaynest way thai pas;
Quhen Rukbé saw quhat at thar power was
He tuk sevyn scor of gud archaris was thar.
Upon Wallace thai folowed wondyr sayr.
At fell bykkyr thai did thaim mekill der.
Wallace in hand gryppyt a nobill sper,
Agayne raturnd and has the formast slayne.
Schir Jhon the Grayme, that mekill was of mayn,
Amang thaim raid with a gud sper in hand.
The fyrst he slew that he befor him fand;
Apon anothir his sper in sowndyr yeid;
A suerd he drew quhilk helpyt him in neid.
Ynglis archaris apon thaim can ranew,
That his gud hors with arrowis sone thai slew.
On fute he was; quhen Wallace has it seyne
He lychtyt sone with men of armys keyne,
Amang the rout fechtand full wondyr fast.
The Inglismen raturnyt at the last.
At the castell thai wald haiff beyne full fayne,
Bot Erll Malcome with men of mekill mayne
Betuix the Sotheroun and the gettis yeid.
Mony thai slew that douchty wes in deid.
In the gret pres Wallace and Rukbé met,
With his gud suerd a straik apon him set;
Derffly to dede the ald Rukbé he draiff.
His twa sonnys chapyt amang the laiff.
In the castell be aventur thai yeid
With twenty men; na ma chapyt that dreid.
The Lennox men with thar gud lord at was,
Fra the castell thai said thai wald nocht pas,
For weill thai wyst it mycht nocht haldyn be
On na lang tyme; forthi thus ordand he.
Erll Malcom tuk the hous and kepyt that tyd.
Wallace wald nocht fra his fyrst purpos bid.
Instance he maid to this gud lord and wys,
Fra thine to pas he suld on na kyn wys
Quhill he had tayne Stirlyng the castell strang;
Trew men him tald he mycht nocht hald it lang.
Than Wallace thocht was maist on Makfadyane;
Of Scottis men he had slayne mony ane.
Wallace avowide that he suld wrokyn be
On that rebald or ellis tharfor to de.
Of tyrandry King Eduuard thocht him gud;
Law-born he was and of law, simpill blud.
Thus Wallace was sar grevyt in his entent;
To this jornay rycht ernystfully he went.
At Stirlyng Bryg assemlyt till him rycht
Twa thowsand men that worthi war and wycht.
Towart Argyll he bownyt him to ryd;
Dunkan of Lorn was thar trew sekyr gid.
Of ald Rukbé the quhilk we spak of ayr,
Twa sonnys on lyff in Stirlyng levit thair.
Quhen thai brethir consavit weill the rycht
This hous to hald that thai na langar mycht,
For caus quhi thai wantyt men and meit,
With Erll Malcome thai kest thaim for to treit
Grace of thar lyff and thai that with thaim was;
Gaiff our the hous, syne couth in Ingland pas
On the thrid day that Wallace fra thaim raid.
With King Eduuard full mony yer thai baid,
In Brucis wer agayne come in Scotland.
Stirlyng to kepe the toune of thaim tuk on hand.
Mencione of Bruce is oft in Wallace buk;
To fend his rycht full mekill payne he tuk.
Quharto suld I her of tary ma?
To Wallace furth now schortlye will I ga.
Dunkan of Lorne Gilmychall fra thaim send
A spy to be, for he the contré kend.
Be our party was passit Straith Fulan,
The small fute folk began to irk ilk ane,60
And hors of fors behuffyt for to faill.
Than Wallace thocht that cumpany to vaill.
"Gud men," he said, "this is nocht meit for us;
In brokyn ray and we cum on thaim thus
We may tak scaith and harme our fayis bot small.
To thaim in lik we may nocht semble all.
Tary we lang a playne feild thai will get;
Apon thaim sone sa weill we may nocht set.
Part we mon leiff us folowand for to be;
With me sall pas our power into thre."
Five hundyr fyrst till himselff he has tayne
Of westland men, was worthi knawin ilk ane.
To Schir Jhon Grayme als mony ordand he,
And five hundreth to Rychard of Lundye.
In that part was Wallace of Ricardtoun;
In all gud deid he was ay redy boun.
Five hundreth left that mycht nocht with thaim ga,
Suppos at thai to byd was wondyr wa.
Thus Wallace ost began to tak the hicht,
Our a montayne sone passit of thar sicht.
In Glendowchar thair spy mett thaim agayn,
With Lord Cambell; than was our folk rycht fayn.
At that metyng gret blithnes mycht be seyn;
Thre hundreth he led that cruell was and keyn.
He comford thaim and bad thaim haiff no dreid:
"Yon bestly folk wantis wapynnys and weid.
Sune thai will fle, scharply and we persew."
Be Louchdouchyr full sodeynly thaim drew.
Than Wallace said, "A lyff all sall we ta,
For her is nayne will fra his falow ga."
The spy he send the entré for to se;
Apon the mos a scurrour sone fand he.
To scour the land Makfadyane had him send;
Out of Cragmor that day he thocht to wend.
Gylmychall fast apon him folowed thar;
With a gud suerd that weill and scharply schar
Maid quyt of him; at tithandis tald he nayne;61
The out spy thus was lost fra Makfadyhane.
Than Wallace ost apon thar fute thai lycht;
Thar hors thai left thocht thai war nevir so wicht;
For mos and crag thai mycht no langar dre.
Than Wallace said, "Quha gangis best lat se."
Throuchout the mos delyverly thai yeid,
Syne tuk the hals, quharof thai had most dreid.
Endlang the schoir ay four in frownt thai past
Quhill thai within assemblit at the last.
Lord Cambell said, "We haiff chewyst this hauld.
I trow to God thar wakyning sall be cauld.
Her is na gait to fle yone peple can
Bot rochis heich and wattir depe and wan."
Eighteen hundreth of douchty men in deid
On the gret ost but mar process thai yeid,
Fechtand in frownt and mekill maistry maid.
On the frayt folk buskyt withoutyn baid.
Rudly till ray thai ruschit thaim agayne;
Gret part of thaim wes men of mekill mayne.
Gud Wallace men sa stowtly can thaim ster
The battaill on bak five akyr breid thai ber.
Into the stour feill tyrandis gert thai kneill.
Wallace in hand had a gud staff of steyll;
Quhomevir he hyt to ground brymly thaim bar;
Romde him about a large rude and mar.62
Schir Jhon the Grayme in deid was rycht worthy,
Gud Cambell als, and Rychard of Lundy,
Adam Wallace and Robert Boid in feyr
Amang thar fais quhar deidis was sald full der.
The felloun stour was awfull for to se.
Makfadyane than so gret debait maid he
With Yrage men hardy and curageous;
The stalwart stryff rycht hard and peralous,
Boundance of blud fra woundis wid and wan,
Stekit to deid on ground lay mony man.
The fersast thar ynewch of fechtyn fand;
Twa houris large into the stour thai stand,
At Jop himselff weill wyst nocht quha suld wyn.63
Bot Wallace men wald nocht in sowndyr twyn;
Till help thaimselff thai war of hardy will.
Of Yrage blud full hardely thai spill,
With feyll fechtyn maid sloppys throuch the thrang.
On the fals part our wicht wermen sa dang
That thai to byd mycht haiff no langar mycht.
The Irland folk than maid thaim for the flycht,
In craggis clam and sum in wattir flett,
Twa thousand thar drownyt withoutyn lett.
Born Scottis men baid still into the feild,
Kest wapynnys thaim fra and on thar kneis kneild.
With petous voice thai criyt apon Wallace,
For Goddis saik to tak thaim in his grace.
Grevyt he was bot rewth of thaim he had,
Rasavit thaim fair with contenance full sad.
"Of our awne blud we suld haiff gret peté.
Luk yhe sla nane of Scottis will yoldyn be.
Of outland men lat nane chaip with the liff."
Makfadyane fled for all his felloun stryff
Ontill a cave within a clyfft of stayne,
Undyr Cragmor with fifteen is he gayne.
Dunkan of Lorn his leyff at Wallace ast;
On Makfadyane with worthi men he past;
He grantyt him to put thaim all to ded.
Thai left nane quyk, syne brocht Wallace his hed,
Apon a sper throuchout the feild it bar.
The lord Cambell syne hynt it by the har;
Heich in Cragmor he maid it for to stand,
Steild on a stayne for honour of Irland.
The blessit men that was of Scotland born,
Funde at his faith Wallace gert thaim be sworn,
Restorit thaim to thar landis but les.
He leit sla nayne that wald cum till his pes.
Efftir this deid in Lorn syne couth he fayr;
Reullyt the land had beyne in mekill cayr.
In Archatan a consell he gert cry,
Quhar mony man socht till his senyory.
All Lorn he gaiff till Duncan at was wicht
And bad him: "Hald in Scotland with the rycht,
And thow sall weill bruk this in heretage.
Thi brothir sone at London has grettar wage,
Yeit will he cum he sall his landis haiff.
I wald tyne nayne that rychtwisnes mycht saiff."
Mony trew Scot to Wallace couth persew;
At Archatan fra feill strenthis thai drew.
A gud knycht come and with him men sexté;
He had beyne oft in mony strang jeperté
With Inglismen and sonyeid nocht a deill.
Ay fra thar faith he fendyt him full weill,
Kepyt him fre, thocht King Eduuard had sworn;64
Schir Jhon Ramsay, that rychtwys ayr was born,
Of Ouchterhous and othir landis was lord,
And schirreff als, as my buk will record,
Of nobill blud and als haill ancrasé
Contenyt weill with worthi chevalré.
Intill Straithern that lang tyme he had beyne
At gret debait agaynys his enemys keyne;
Rycht wichtly wan his leving into wer.
Till him and his Sotheroun did mekill der;
Weill he eschewit and sufferyt gret distress.
His sone was cald the flour of courtlyness,
As witnes weill into the schort tretty
Eftir the Bruce, quha redis in that story.
He rewllit weill bathe into wer and pes;
Alexander Ramsay to nayme he hecht but les.
Quhen it wes wer till armes he him kest;
Under the croun he wes ane of the best.
In tyme of pees till courtlynes he yeid,
Bot to gentrice he tuk nayne othir heid.
Quhat gentill man had nocht with Ramsay beyne
Of courtlynes thai cownt him nocht a preyne.
Fredome and treuth he had as men wald as;65
Sen he begane na bettir squier was,
Roxburch Hauld he wan full manfully,
Syne held it lang quhill tratouris tresonably
Causit his dede, I can nocht tell yow how;
Of sic thingis I will ga by as now.
I haiff had blayme, to say the suthfastnes,
Tharfor I will bot lychtly ryn that cace,
Bot it be thing that playnly sclanderit is.
For sic I trow thai suld deyme me no mys;
Of gud Alexander as now I spek no mar.
His fadir come as I tald of befor.
Wallace of hym rycht full gud comford hais
For weill he coud do harmyng till his fais.
In wer he was rycht mekill for to prys,
Besy and trew, bath sobyr, wicht, and wys.
A gud prelat als to Archatan socht;
Of his lordschip as than he brukyt nocht.
This worthi clerk cummyn of hie lynage,
Of Synclar blude, nocht forty yer of age,
Chosyne he was be the papis consent,
Of Dunkell lord him maid with gud entent.
Bot Inglismen that Scotland gryppit all
Of benyfice thai leit him bruk bot small.
Quhen he saw weill tharfor he mycht nocht mute,
To saiff his lyff thre yer he duelt in But;
Leifyde as he mycht and kepyt ay gud part66
Under saifté of Jamys than Lord Stewart,
Till gud Wallace, quhilk Scotland wan with payne,
Restord this lord till his leyffing agayne.
And mony ma that lang had beyne ourthrawin,
Wallace thaim put rychtwisly to thar awn.
The small ost als the quhilk I spak of ayr,
Into the hycht that Wallace lewyt thar,
Come to the feild quhar Makfadyane had beyne,
Tuk at was left, baithe weid and wapynnys scheyne;
Throw Lorn syne past als gudly as thai can.
Of thar nowmir thai had nocht lost a man.
On the fyft day thai wan till Archatan
Quhar Wallace baid with gud men mony ane.
He welcummyt thaim apon a gudly wys
And said thai war rycht mekill for to prys.
All trew Scottis he honourit into wer,
Gaiff that he wan, hymselff kepyt no ger.
Quhen Wallace wald no langar sojorn thar,
Fra Archatan throuout the land thai far
Towart Dunkell, with gud men of renoun.
His maist thocht than was haill on Sanct Jhonstoun.
He cald Ramsai, that gud knycht of gret vaill,
Sadly avysyt besocht him of consaill.
"Of Saynct Jhonstoun now haiff I in remembrance;
Thar I haiff beyne and lost men apon chance,
Bot ay for ane we gert ten of thaim de,
And yeit me think that is no mendis to me.
I wald assay of this land or we gang
And lat thaim witt thai occupy her with wrang."
Than Ramsay said, "That toune thai may nocht kep.
The wallis ar laych suppos the dyk be depe.
Ye haiff enewch that sall thaim cummyr sa;
Fyll up the dyk that we may playnly ga
In haill battaill, a thowsand our at anys;
Fra this power thai sall nocht hald yon wanys."
Wallace was glaid that he sic comfort maid;
Furth talkand thus on to Dunkell thai raid.
Four dayis thar thai lugyt with plesance,
Quhill tyme thai had forseyne thar ordinance.
Ramsay gert byg strang bestials of tre
Be gud wrychtis, the best in that cuntré;
Quhen thai war wrocht betaucht thaim men to leid
The wattir doun quhill thai come to that steid.
Schir Jhon Ramsay rycht gudly was thar gid,
Rewillyt thaim weill at his will for to bid.
The gret ost than about the village past;
With erd and stayne thai fillit dykis fast.
Flaikis thai laid on temir lang and wicht;
A rowme passage to the wallis thaim dycht.
Feill bestials rycht starkly up thai rais;
Gud men of armys sone till assailye gais.
Schir Jhon the Grayme and Ramsay that was wicht
The Turat Bryg segyt with all thar mycht,
And Wallace selff at mydsid of the toun
With men of armys that was to bargane bown.
The Sotheron men maid gret defence that tid
With artailye that felloune was to bid,
With awblaster, gaynye, and stanys fast
And hand gunnys, rycht brymly out thai cast;
Punyeid with speris men of armys scheyn.
The worthi Scottis that cruell war and keyne,
At hand strakis, fra thai togidder met,
With Sotheroun blud thar wapynnys sone thai wet.
Yeit Inglismen that worthi war in wer
Into the stour rycht bauldly can thaim ber,
Bot all for nocht availyeid thaim thar deid;
The Scottis throw force apon thaim in thai yeid.
A thousand men our wallis yeid hastely;
Into the toun rais hidwis noyis and cry.
Ramsay and Graym the turat yet has wown
And entrit in quhar gret striff has begown.
A trew squier quhilk Rwan hecht be nayme
Come to the salt with gud Schir Jhon the Grayme;
Thirty with him of men that previt weill
Amang thar fais with wapynnys stiff of steill.
Quhen at the Scottis semblit on athir sid
Na Sotheroun was that mycht thar dynt abid.
Twa thousand sone was fulyeid under feit
Of Sotheroun blud, lay stekit in the streit.
Schir Jhon Sewart saw weill the toun was tynt,
Tuk him to flycht and wald no langar stynt;
In a lycht barge and with him men sexté
The water doun socht succour at Dundé.
Wallace baid still quhill the ferd day at morn
And left nane thar that war of Ingland born.
Riches thai gat of gold and othir gud,
Plenyst the toun agayne with Scottis blud.
Rwan he left thar capteyn for to be,
In heretage gaiff him office to fee
Of all Straithern, and schirreiff of the toun;
Syne in the north gud Wallace maid him boune.
In Abyrdeyn he gert a consaill cry
Trew Scottis men suld semble hastely.
Till Cowper he raid to wesy that abbay;
The Inglis abbot fra thine was fled away.
Bischop Synclar without langar abaid
Met thaim at Glammys, syne furth with thaim he raid.
Intill Breichyn thai lugyt all that nycht;
Syne on the morn Wallace gert graith thaim rycht,
Displayed on breid the baner of Scotland
In gud aray with noble men at hand;
Gert playnly cry that sawfté suld be nayne67
Of Sotheroun blud quhar thai mycht be ourtayn.
In playne battaill throuch out the Mernys thai rid.
The Inglismen, at durst thaim nocht abid,
Befor the ost full ferdly furth thai fle
Till Dwnottar, a snuk within the se;
Na ferrar thai mycht wyn out of the land.
Thai semblit thar quhill thai war four thousand;
To the kyrk rane, wend gyrth for till haiff tayne.
The laiff ramaynd apon the roch of stayne.
The byschope than began tretty to ma,
Thar lyffis to get out of the land to ga,
Bot thai war rad and durst nocht weill affy.
Wallace in fyr gert set all haistely,
Brynt up the kyrk and all that was tharin.
Atour the roch the laiff ran with gret dyn:
Sum hang on craggis rycht dulfully to de,
Sum lap, sum fell, sum floteryt in the se.
Na Sotheroun on lyff was levyt in that hauld
And thaim within thai brynt in powder cauld.
Quhen this was done feill fell on kneis doun,
At the byschop askit absolucioun.
Than Wallace lewch, said, "I forgiff yow all.
Ar ye wermen, rapentis for sa small?
Thai rewid nocht us into the toun of Ayr,
Our trew barrowns quhen that thai hangit thar."
Till Abyrdeyn than haistely thai pas,
Quhar Inglismen besyly flittand was.
A hundreth schippys that ruthyr bur and ayr,
To turs thair gud, in havyn was lyand thar.
Bot Wallace ost come on thaim sodeynlye;
Thar chapyt nane of all that gret menyhe,
Bot feill servandis in thaim levyt nane.
At ane eb se the Scottis is on thaim gayn,
Tuk out the ger, syne set the schippys in fyr.
The men on land thai bertynyt bayne and lyr;
Yeid nane away bot preistis, wyffis, and barnys;
Maid thai debait thai chapyt nocht but harmys.68
Into Bowchane Wallace maid him to ryd,
Quhar Lord Bewmound was ordand for to bid.
Erll he was maid bot of schort tyme befor;69
He brukit nocht for all his bustous schor.
Quhen he wyst weill that Wallace cummand was,
He left the land and couth to Slanys pas
And syne be schip in Ingland fled agayne.
Wallace raid throw the northland into playne.
At Crummade feill Inglismen thai slew.
The worthi Scottis till him thus couth persew;
Raturnd agayne and come till Abirdeyn
With his blith ost apon the Lammes Evyn;
Stablyt the land as him thocht best suld be,
Syne with ane ost he passit to Dundé,
Gert set a sege about the castell strang.
I leyff thaim thar and forthir we will gang.
Schir Amar Wallang haistit him full fast,
Intill Ingland with his haill houshald past.
Bothwell he left, was Murrays heretage,
And tuk him than bot till King Eduuardis wage.
Thus his awne land forsuk for evirmar;
Of Wallace deid gret tithandis tald he thar.
Als Inglismen sair murnyt in thar mude,
Had lossyt her bathe lyff, landis, and gud.
Eduuard as than couth nocht in Scotland fair,
Bot Kercyingame that was his tresorair,
With him a lord than erll was of Waran,
He chargyt thaim with nowmeris mony ane
Rycht weill beseyn in Scotland for to ryd.
At Stirlyng still he ordand thaim to bid
Quhill he mycht cum with ordinance of Ingland.
Scotland agayne he thocht to tak in hand.
This ost past furth and had bot litill dreid;
The erle Patrik rasavit thaim at Tweid.
Malice he had at gud Wallace befor,
Lang tyme by past and than incressit mor,
Bot throuch a cas that hapnyt of his wyff:
Dunbar scho held fra him into thar striff
Throuch the supplé of Wallace into playne;
Bot he be meyne gat his castell agayne
Lang tyme or than, and yeit he couth nocht ces.
Agayne Wallace he previt in mony pres,
With Inglismen suppleit thaim at his mycht.
Contrar Scotland thai wrocht full gret unrycht.
Thar mustir than was awfull for to se,
Of fechtand men thousandis thai war sexté,
To Stirlyng past or thai likit to bid.
To Erll Malcome a sege thai laid that tid
And thocht to kep the commaund of thar king;
Bot gud Wallace wrocht for ane othir thing.
Dundé he left and maid a gud chyftane
With twa thousand to kepe that hous of stayne,
Of Angwis men and duellaris of Dundé;
The sammyn nycht till Sanct Jhonstoun went he.
Apon the morn till Schirreff Mur he raid
And thar a quhill in gud aray thai baid.
Schir Jhon the Grayme and Ramsay that was wicht,
He said to thaim, "This is my purpos rycht.
Our mekill it is to proffer thaim battaill
Apon a playne feild bot we haiff sum availl."
Schir Jhon the Grayme said, "We haiff undirtayn
With les power sic thing that weill is gayn."
Than Wallace said, "Quhar sic thing cummys of neid,
We suld thank God that makis us for to speid.
Bot ner the bryg my purpos is to be
And wyrk for thaim sum suttell jeperté."
Ramsay ansuerd, "The brig we may kepe weill.
Of way about Sotheroun has litill feill."
Wallace sent Jop the battaill for to set,
The Tuysday next to fecht withoutyn let.
On Setterday onto the bryg thai raid,
Of gud playne burd was weill and junctly maid;
Gert wachis wait that nane suld fra thaim pas.
A wricht he tuk, the suttellast at thar was,
And ordand him to saw the burd in twa,
Be the myd trest that nayne mycht our it ga;
On charnaill bandis nald it full fast and sone,
Syne fyld with clay as nathing had beyne done.
The tothir end he ordand for to be,
How it suld stand on thre rowaris of tre,
Quhen ane war out that the laiff doun suld fall.
Himselff undir he ordand thar withall,
Bownd on the trest in a creddill to sit,
To lous the pyne quhen Wallace leit him witt;
Bot with a horn quhen it was tyme to be,
In all the ost suld no man blaw bot he.
The day approchit of the gret battaill;
The Inglismen for power wald nocht faill.
Ay sex thai war agayne ane of Wallace;
Fyfty thousand maid thaim to battaill place.
The ramaynand baid at the castell still;
Baithe feild and hous thai thocht to tak at will.
The worthi Scottis apon the tothir side
The playne feild tuk, on fute maid thaim to bid.
Hew Kercyngayme the vantgard ledis he
With twenty thousand of likly men to se.
Thirty thousand the erll of Waran had,
Bot he did than as the wys man him bad;
All the fyrst ost befor him our was send.
Sum Scottis men that weill the maner kend
Bade Wallace blaw and said thai war enew.
He haistyt nocht bot sadly couth persew
Quhill Warans ost thik on the bryg he saw.
Fra Jop the horn he hyntyt and couth blaw
Sa asprely and warned gud Jhon wricht.
The rowar out he straik with gret slycht;
The laiff yeid doun quhen the pynnys out gais.
A hidwys cry amang the peple rais;
Bathe hors and men into the wattir fell.
The hardy Scottis that wald na langar duell
Set on the laiff with strakis sad and sar,
Of thaim thar our as than soverit thai war.
At the forbreist thai previt hardely,
Wallace and Grayme, Boid, Ramsay, and Lundy,
All in the stour fast fechtand face to face.
The Sotheron ost bak rerit of that place
As thai fyrst tuk five akyr breid and mar.
Wallace on fute a gret scharp sper he bar;
Amang the thikest of the pres he gais.
On Kercyngaym a strak chosyn he hais
In the byrnes that polyst was full brycht.
The punyeand hed the plattis persyt rycht,
Throuch the body stekit him but reskew.
Derffly to dede that chyftane was adew;
Baithe man and hors at that strak he bar doun.
The Inglis ost, quhilk war in battaill boun,
Comfort thai lost quhen thar chyftayne was slayn,
And mony ane to fle began in playne.
Yeit worthi men baid still into the sted
Quhill ten thousand was brocht onto thar dede.
Than fled the laiff and mycht no langar bid.
Succour thai socht on mony divers sid,
Sum est, sum west, and sum fled to the north.
Sevyn thousand large at anys flottryt in Forth,70
Plungyt the depe and drownd without mercye,
Nayne left on lyff of all that feill menyhe.
Of Wallace ost na man was slayne of vaill
Bot Andrew Murray into that strang battaill.
The south part than saw at thar men was tynt,
Als fersly fled as fyr dois of the flynt.
The place thai left, castell and Stirlyng toun,
Towart Dunbar in gret haist maid thaim boun.
Quhen Wallace ost had won that feild throuch mycht,
Tuk up the bryg and loussit gud Jhon wricht,
On the flearis syne folowed wondir fast.
Erll Malcom als out of the castell past
With Lennox men to stuff the chace gud speid.
Ay be the way thai gert feill Sotheroun bleid;
In the Torwod thai gert full mony de.
The erll of Waran that can full fersly fle,
With Corspatrik that graithly was his gyd,
On changit hors throuchout the land thai rid
Strawcht to Dunbar, bot few with thaim thai led;
Mony was slayne our sleuthfully at fled.
The Scottis hors that had rown wondir lang,
Mony gaiff our that mycht no forthyr gang.
Wallace and Grayme evir togidder baid;
At Hathyntoun full gret slauchter thai maid
Of Inglismen quhen thair hors tyryt had.
Quhen Ramsay come gud Wallace was full glad;
With him was Boid and Richard of Lundy,
Thre thousand haill was of gud chevalry;
And Adam als Wallace of Ricardtoun
With Erll Malcome thai fand at Hathyntoun.
The Scottis men on slauchtir taryt was,
Quhill to Dunbar the twa chyftanys coud pas
Full sitfully for thar gret contrar cas.
Wallace folowed till thai gat in that place.
Of thar best men and Karcyngaym of renoun,
Twenty thousand was dede but redempcioun.
Besyd Beltoun Wallace raturnd agayn;
To folow mar as than was bot in vayn.
In Hathyntoun lugyng thai maid that nycht,
Apon the morn to Stirling passit rycht.
Assumpcioun day of Marye fell this cas;
Ay lowyt be Our Lady of hir grace.
Convoyar offt scho was to gud Wallace
And helpyt him in mony syndry place.
Wallace in haist sone efftir this battaill
A gret haith tuk of all the barrons haill
That with gud will wald cum till his presens;
He hecht thaim als to bid at thar defens.
Schir Jhon Menteth, was than of Aran lord,
Till Wallace come and maid a playne record;
With witnes thar be his ayth he him band
Lauta to kep to Wallace and to Scotland.
Quha with fre will till rycht wald nocht apply
Wallace with force punyst rygorusly,
Part put to dede, part set in prysone strang.
Gret word of him throuch bathe thir regions rang.
Dundé thai gat sone be a schort treté,
Bot for thar lyves and fled away be se.
Inglis capdans that hous had into hand
Left castellis fre and fled out of the land.
Within ten dayis efftir this tyme was gayne
Inglis captanys in Scotland left was nane,
Except Berweik and Roxburch Castell wicht;
Yeit Wallace thocht to bryng thai to the rycht.
That tyme thar was a worthi trew barroun,
To nayme he hecht gud Cristall of Cetoun.
In Jedwort Wod for saiffgard he had beyne,
Agayne Sotheroun full weill he couth opteyn.
In utlaw oys he levit thar but let;71
Eduuard couth nocht fra Scottis faith him get.
Herbottell fled fra Jadwort Castell wycht
Towart Ingland, thar Cetoun met him rycht.
With forty men Cristall in bargane baid
Agayne eight scor and mekill mastré maid,
Slew that captane and mony cruell man.
Full gret ryches in that jornay he wan,
Houshald and gold as thai suld pas away,
The quhilk befor thai kepit mony day.
Jedwort thai tuk; ane Ruwan levit he,
At Wallace will captane of it to be.
Bauld Cetoun syne to Lothiane maid repair;
In this storye ye ma her of him mair,
And into Bruce, quha likis for to rede;
He was with him in mony cruell deid.
Gud Wallace than full sadly can devys
To rewill the land with worthi men and wys.
Captans he maid and schirreffis that was gud,
Part of his kyn and of trew othir blud.
His der cusyng in Edynburgh ordand he,
The trew Crawfurd that ay was full worthé,
Kepar of it with noble men at wage;
In Mannuell than he had gud heretage.
Scotland was fre that lang in baill had beyn,
Throw Wallace won fra our fals enemys keyn.
Gret governour in Scotland he couth ryng,
Wayttand a tyme to get his rychtwis king
Fra Inglismen, that held him in bandoun,
Lang wrangwysly fra his awn rychtwis croun.

Explicit liber septimus
and Incipit ottamus


Book 8

   Fyve monethis thus Scotland stud in gud rest.
A consell cryit, thaim thocht it wes the best
In Sanct Jhonston at it suld haldyn be.
Assemblit thar clerk, barown, and bowrugie;
Bot Corspatrik wald nocht cum at thar call,
Baid in Dunbar and maid scorn at thaim all.
Thai spak of him feill wordis in that parlyment.
Than Wallace said, "Will ye her to consent,
Forgyff him fre all thing that is bypast
Sa he will cum and grant he has trespast,
Fra this tyme furth kepe lawta till our croun?"
Thai grant tharto, clerk, burges, and barroun,
With haill consent thar writyng till him send.
Richt lawly thus till him thai thaim commend,
Besocht him fair as a peyr of the land
To cum and tak sum governaill on hand.
Lychtly he lowch in scorn as it had beyn,
And said he had sic message seyldyn seyne:
"That Wallace now as governowr sall ryng,
Her is gret faute of a gud prince or kyng.
That king of Kyll I can nocht undirstand:
Of him I held nevir a fur of land.
That bachiller trowis, for Fortoun schawis hyr quhell,
Tharwith to lest it sall nocht lang be weill.
Bot to yow lordis, and ye will undirstand,
I mak yow wys I aw to mak na band.
Als fre I am in this regioun to ryng
Lord of myn awne, as evir was prince or king.
In Ingland als gret part of land I haiff;
Manrent tharoff thar will no man me craiff.
Quhat will ye mar? I warne yow I am fre.
For your somoundis ye get no mar of me."
Till Saynct Jhonstone this wryt he send agayne,
Befor the lordis was manifest in playne.
Quhen Wallace herd the erll sic ansuer mais,
A gret hate ire throu curage than he tais;
For weyll he wyst thar suld be bot a king
Of this regioun at anys for to ryng;
A "king of Kyll" for that he callyt Wallace.
"Lordis," he said, "this is ane uncouth cace.
Be he sufferyt we haiff war than it was."
Thus rais he up and maid him for to pas:
"God has us tholyt to do so for the laiff;
In lyff or dede in faith him sall we haiff,
Or ger him grant quhom he haldis for his lord,
Or ellis war schaym in story to racord.
I vow to God with eys he sall nocht be
Into this realme bot ane of us sall de,
Les than he cum and knaw his rychtwis king.
In this regioun weill bathe we sall nocht ryng.
His lychtly scorn he sall rapent full sor,
Bot power faill or I sall end tharfor,
Sen in this erd is ordand me no rest.
Now God be juge, the rycht he kennys best."
At that consaill langar he taryit nocht,
With two hundreth fra Sanct Jhonston he socht.
To the consaill maid instans or he yeid,
Thai suld conteyn and of him haiff no dreid.72
"I am bot ane and for gud caus I ga."
Towart Kyngorn the gaynest way thai ta;
Apon the morn atour Forth south thai past;
On his vyage thai haistit wondir fast.
Robert Lauder at Mussilburgh met Wallace,
Fra Inglismen he kepyt weill his place.
Couth nayne him trete, knycht, squier, nor lord,
With King Eduuard to be at ane accord.
On Erll Patrik to pas he was full glaid;
Sum said befor the Bas he wald haiff haid.
Gude men come als with Crystell of Cetoun;
Than Wallace was four hundreth of renoun.
A Squier Lyll, that weill that cuntré knew,
With twenty men to Wallace couth persew
Besyd Lyntoun, and to thaim tald he than
The erll Patrik, with mony likly man,
At Coburns Peth he had his gaderyng maid,
And to Dunbar wald cum withoutyn baid.
Than Lawder said, "It war the best, think me,
Faster to pas, in Dunbar or he be."
Wallace ansuerd, "We may at laysar ryd.
With yon power he thinkis bargane to bid;
And of a thing ye sall weill understand,
A hardyar lord is nocht into Scotland.
Mycht he be maid trew, stedfast till a king,
Be wit and force he can do mekill thing,
Bot willfully he likis to tyne himsell."
Thus raid thai furth, and wald na langar duell,
Be est Dunbar, quhar men him tald on cas
How Erll Patrik was warnyt of Wallace,
Ner Enerweik chesyt a feild at vaill
With nine hundreth of likly men to waill.
Four hundreth was with Wallace in the rycht
And sone onon approchit to thar sicht.
Gret fawte thar was of gud trety betweyn
To mak concord and that full sone was seyne.
Without rahers of accioun in that tid
On athir part togydder fast thai rid.
The stour was strang and wondir peralous,
Contenyt lang with dedis chevalrous;
Mony thar deit of cruell Scottis blud.
Of this trety the mater is nocht gud,
Tharfor I ces to tell the destruccioun.
Peté it was, and all of a nacioun.
Bot Erll Patrik the feild left at the last,
Rycht few with him to Coburns Peth thai past,
Agrevit sar that his men thus war tynt.
Wallace raturnd and wald no langar stynt
Towart Dunbar, quhar suthfast men him tald73
Na purveance was left into that hald,
Nor men of fens, all had beyne with thar lord.
Quhen Wallace hard the sekyr trew record,
Dunbar he tuk all haill at his bandown,
Gaiff it to kepe to Crystell of Cetoun,
Quhilk stuffit it weill with men and gud victall.
Apon the morn Wallace that wald nocht faill,
With three hundreth to Coburns Peth he socht;
Erll Patrik uschyt, for bid him wald he nocht.
Sone to the park Wallace a range has set;
Till Bonkill Wood Corspatrik fled but let
And out of it till Noram passit he.
Quhen Wallace saw it mycht na bettir be
Till Caudstreym went and lugit him on Tweid.
Erll Patrik than in all haist can him speid.
And passit by or Wallace power rais,
Without restyng in Atrik Forrest gais.
Wallace folowed bot he wald nocht assaill;
A rang to mak as than it mycht nocht vaill;
Our few he had, the strenth was thik and strang,
Sevyn myill on breid and tharto twys so lang.
Intill Gorkhelm Erll Patrk leiffit at rest.
For mar power Wallace past in the west.
Erll Patrik than him graithit hastelye,
In Ingland past to get him thar supplye;
Out throuch the land rycht ernystfully couth pas
To Anton Beik that lord of Durame was.
Wallace him put out of Glaskow befor,
And slew Persye, thar malice was the mor.
The byschope Beik gert sone gret power rys,
Northummyrland apon ane awfull wys.74
Than ordand Bruce in Scotland for to pas
To wyn his awne, bot ill dissavit he was;
Thai gert him trow that Wallace was rabell
And thocht to tak the kynryk to hymsel.
Full fals thai war and evir yeit has beyn.
Lawta and trouth was ay in Wallace seyn;
To fend the rycht all that he tuk on hand,
And thocht to bryng the Bruce fre till his land.
Of this mater as now I tary nocht.
With strang power Sotheroun togidder socht,
Fra Owys Watter assemblit haill to Tweid.
Thar land ost was thirty thousand indeid;
Of Tynnys mouth send schippis be the se
To kep Dunbar at nayne suld thaim supplé.
Erll Patrik with twenty thousand but lett
Befor Dunbar a stalwart sege he sett.
The bischope Beik and Robert Bruce baid still
With ten thousand at Noram at thar will.
Wallace be this that fast was lauborand,
In Lothyane com witht gud men five thowsand,
Rycht weill-beseyn, all into armys brycht,
Thocht to reskew the Cetoun bauld and wicht.
Under Yhester that fyrst nycht lugit he.
Hay com till him with a gud chevalré:
In Duns Forest all that tyme he had beyne;
The cummyng thar of Sotheroun he had seyne.
Fifty he had of besy men in wer;
Thai tald Wallace of Patrikis gret affer.
Hay said, "Forsuth and ye mycht him ourset
Power agayne rycht sone he mycht nocht get.
My consaill is that we gyff him battaill."
He thankit him of comfort and consaill
And said, "Freynd Hay, in this caus that I wend,
Sa that we wyn I rek nocht for till end.
Rycht suth it is that anys we mon de.
Into the rycht quha suld in terrour be?"
Erll Patrik than a messynger gert pas,
Tald Anton Beik that Wallace cummand was.
Of this tithingis the byschope was full glaid,
Amendis of him full fayne he wald haiff haid.
Bot mar prolong throuch Lammermur thai raid,
Ner the Spot Mur in buschement still he baid,
As Erll Patrik thaim ordand for to be.
Wallace of Beik unwarnyt than was he.
Yeit he befor was nocht haisty in deid;
Bot than he put bathe him and his in dreid.
Apon swyft horsis scurrouris past betweyn;
The cummyng than of Erll Patrik was seyn.
The hous he left and to the mur is gayn,
A playne feild thar with his ost he has tayn.
Gud Cetoun syne uschet with few menyhe;
Part of his men intill Dunbar left he;
To Wallace raid, was on the rychtwys sid.
In gud aray to the Spot Mur thai ryd.
Sum Scottis dred the erll sa mony was,
Twenty thousand agayn sa few to pas.
Quhen Jop persavit, he bad Wallace suld bid:
"Tyne nocht thir men, bot to sum strenth ye ryd,
And I sall pas to get yow power mar.
Thir ar our gud thus lychtly for to war."
Than Wallace said, "In trewth I will nocht fle
For four of his ay ane quhill I may be.75
We ar our ner sic purpos for to tak;
A danger chace thai mycht upon us mak.
Her is twenty with this power today
Wald him assay suppos I war away.
Mony thai ar; for Goddis luff be we strang,
Yon Sotheron folk in stour will nocht bid lang."
The brym battaill braithly on athir sid,
Gret rerd thar rais all sammyn quhar thai ryd.
The sayr semblé quhen thai togidder met,
Feyll strakis thar sadly on athir set.
Punyeand speris throuch plattis persit fast;
Mony of hors to the ground doun thai cast;
Saidlys thai teym of hors but maistris thar;
Of the south sid five thousand doun thai bar.
Gud Wallace ost the formast kumraid sa
Quhill the laiff was in will away to ga.
Erll Patrik baid sa cruell of entent
At all his ost tuk of him hardiment.
Agayne Wallace in mony stour was he.
Wallace knew weill that his men wald nocht fle
For na power that leiffand was in lyff,
Quhill thai in heill mycht ay be ane for fyfe.
In that gret stryff mony was handlyt hate;
The feill dyntis, the cruell hard debait,
The fers steking, maid mony grevous wound,
Apon the erd the blud did till abound.
All Wallace ost intill a cumpais baid;
Quharsa thai turnd full gret slauchtir thai maid.
Wallace and Grayme and Ramsay full worthi,
The bauld Cetoun and Richard of Lundy,
And Adam als Wallace of Ricardtoun,
Bathe Hay and Lyll with gud men of renoun,
Boyde, Bercla, Byrd, and Lauder that was wicht,
Feill Inglismen derffly to ded thai dycht.
Bot Erll Patrik full fersly faucht agayn;
Throuch his awn hand he put mony to payn.
Our men on him thrang forthwart into thra,
Maide throuch his ost feill sloppis to and fra.
The Inglismen began playnly to fle;
Than Byschope Beik full sodeynly thai se,
And Robert Bruce contrar his natiff men.
Wallace was wa fra tyme he couth him ken:
Of Brucis deid he was agrevit far mar
Than all the laiff that day at semblit thar.
The gret buschement at anys brak on breid,
Ten thousand haill that douchty war in deid.
The flearis than with Erll Patrik relefd
To fecht agayn, quhar mony war myscheifd.
Quhen Wallace knew the buschement brokyn was,
Out of the feild on hors thai thocht to pas,
Bot he saw weill his ost sownd in thar weid;
He thocht to fray the formast or thai yeid.
The new cummyn ost befor thaim semblit thar
On athir sid with strakis sad and sar.
The worthi Scottis sa fersly faucht agayne
Of Antonys men rycht mony haiff thai slayne;
Bot that terand so usit was in wer
On Wallace ost thai did full mekill der;
And the bauld Bruce sa cruelly wrocht he
Throuch strenth of hand feill Scottis he gert de.
To resist Bruce Wallace him pressit fast,
Bot Inglismen so thik betuixt thaim past;
And Erll Patrik in all the haist he moucht
Throuchout the stour to Wallace sone he socht,
On the the-pes a felloun strak him gaiff,
Kervit the plait with his scharp groundyn glaiff
Throuch all the stuff and woundyt him sumdeill.
Bot Wallace thocht he suld be vengit weill,
Folowed on him and a straik etlyt fast.
Than ane Mawthland rakles betwix thaim past:
Apon the heid gud Wallace has him tane,
Throuch hat and brawn in sondyr bryst the bane,
Dede at that straik doun to the ground him drave.
Thus Wallace was dissevirit fra the lave
Of his gud men, amang thaim him allane.
About him socht feill enemys mony ane,
Stekit his hors; to ground behufid him lycht
To fend himselff als wysly as he mycht.
The worthy Scottis that mycht no langar bid
With sair hartis out of the feild thai ryd.
With thaim in feyr thai wend Wallace had beyn;
On fute he was amang his enemys keyn.
Gud rowme he maid about him into breid
With his gud suerd that helpyt him in neid.
Was nayne sa strang that gat of him a strak
Eftir agayne maid nevir a Scot to waik.76
Erll Patrik than that had gret crafft in wer
With speris ordand gud Wallace doun to ber.
Anew thai tuk was haill into the feild,
Till him thai yeid thocht he suld haiff no beild,
On athir sid fast poyntand at his ger.
He hewid off hedys and wysly coud him wer.
The worthy Scottis of this full litill wyst,
Socht to gud Graym quhen thai thar chyftane myst.
Lauder and Lyle and Hay, that was full wicht,
And bauld Ramsay, quhilk was a worthy knycht,
Lundy and Boid and Crystell of Cetoun
With five hundreth that war in bargan boun,
Him to reskew full rudly in thai raid,
About Wallace a large rowme thai maid.
The byschop Beik was braithly born till erd;
At the reskew thar was a glamrous rerd.
Or he gat up feill Sotheroun thai slew.
Out of the pres Wallace thai couth raskew,
Sone horssit him apon a coursour wicht,
Towart a strenth ridis in all thar mycht,
Rycht wysly fled, reskewand mony man.
The Erll Patrik to stuff the chace began;
On the flearis litill harm than he wrocht.
Gud Wallace folk away togiddyr socht.
Thir five hundreth the quhilk I spak of ayr
Sa awfully abawndownd thaim sa sar
Na folowar durst out fra his falow ga,
The gud flearis sic raturnyng thai ma.
Four thousand haill had tane the strenth befor
Of Wallace ost, his comfort was the mor;
Of Glaskadane that forrest thocht till hauld.
Erll Patrik turnd, thocht he was nevir sa bauld,
Agayne to Beik quhen chapyt was Wallace,
Curssand Fortoun of his myschansit cace.
The feild he wan and sevyn thowsand thai lost,
Dede on that day for all the byschoppis bost.
Of Wallace men five hundreth war slayne I ges,
Bot na chyftayne his murnyng was the les.
Ner evyn it was bot Beik wald nocht abid;
In Lammermur thai tranuntyt that tid,
Thar lugyng tuk quhar him thocht maist availl,
For weyll he trowit the Scottis wald assaill
Apon the feild quhar thai gaiff battaill last.
The contré men to Wallace gaderyt fast.
Of Edynburch wyth Crawfurd that was wicht
Thre hundreth come intill thar armour brycht,
Till Wallace raid be his lugeyng was tayne.
Fra Tavydaill come gud men mony ane
Out of Jedwart with Ruwane at that tyd,
Togidder socht fra mony divers sid.
Schir Wilyham Lang that lord was of Douglas,
With him four scor that nycht come to Wallace.
Twenty hundreth of new men met that nycht
Apon thair fais to veng thaim at thair mycht.
At the fyrst feild thire gud men had nocht beyn.
Wallace wachis thair adversouris had seyn,
Into quhat wis thai had thar lugeyng maid.
Wallace bownyt eftir soupper but baid,
In Lammermur thai passit hastely.
Sone till aray yheid this gud chevalry.
Wallace thaim maid in twa partis to be:
Schir Jhon the Graym and Cetoun ordand he,
Lawder and Hay with thre thousand to ryd;
Hymselff the layff tuk wysly for to gid,
With him Lundy, bathe Ramsay and Douglace,
Berkla and Boid and Adam gud Wallace.
Be this the day approchit wondir neir
And brycht Titan in presens can apper.
The Scottis ostis sone semblit into sycht
Of thar enemys, that was nocht redy dycht;
Owt of aray feill of the Sotheroun was.
Rycht aufully Wallace can on thaim pas.
At this entray the Scottis so weill thaim bar
Feill of thar fais to ded was bertnyt thar.
Redles thai rais and mony fled away;
Sum on the ground war smoryt quhar thai lay.
Gret noyis and cry was raissit thaim amang.
Gud Grayme come in, that stalwart was and strang.
For Wallace men was weill togydder met,
On the south part sa aufully thai set
In contrar thaim the frayt folk mycht nocht stand;
At anys thar fled of Sotheroun five thousand.
The worthi Scottis wrocht apon sic wys
Jop said hymselff thai war mekill to prys.
Yeit Byschope Beik, that felloun tyrand strang,
Baid in the stour rycht awfully and lang.
A knycht Skelton that cruell was and keyn
Befor him stud intill his armour scheyn,
To fend his lord full worthely he wrocht.
Lundy him saw and sadly on him socht,
With his gud suerd ane aukwart straik him gaiff,
Throuch pesan stuff his crag in sondir draiff,
Quharof the layff astunyt in that sted.
The bauld Skelton of Lundyis hand is dede.
Than fled thai all and mycht no langar bid.
Patrik and Beik away with Bruce thai ryd.
Five thousand held intill a slop away
Till Noram Hous in all the haist thai may.
Our men folowed, that worthi war and wicht;
Mony flear derffly to dede thai dycht.
The three lordis on to the castell socht;
Full feyll thai left that was of Ingland brocht.
At this jornay twenty thousand thai tynt,
Drownyt and slayn be sper and suerdis dynt.


February; same case; (see note)
agreed [to a] truce
until the end of March
considered; might
deceit

(see note)

council; went
great fear
Many captains
assembled; before
called
Except; old
They asked him; undertake
rightful; (see note)
Their chieftain is outstanding
war; very powerful too
truce; such courage

exactly; advise
cost them dearly
he gave his opinion; English; (see note)
barons
Four large barns
Made; lodging
Built
Except one at a time; have; sight
these
[They] appointed a judge; great power
They laid this matter before Lord Percy
stern expression
loyalty

foe

From thence
hear; (see note)
they chose; fierce; cruel
was called; (see note)
very powerful high magistrate
torment
justice-ayre

Then ordered; earnestly
By no kind of means; escape
knew; overthrown
possess; own
agreement; concluded; seals
Then; over [the] moor again
received
went on to Glasgow
justice-ayre; June; eighth
proclaimed; should be
since peace [has been] agreed
such [a] display of might; (see note)
appointed
(see note)
meeting passed
Guardian
(see note)
kinsfolk; stay away from
He knew very well, when
imminent
went; (t-note)
Our Father, Hail [Mary]; [the Apostles'] Creed
Then; stair; headed resolutely
fell into a sleep; (see note)

protect
slumber he thought he saw coming
aged
Soon; grabbed
on a journey commanded [to go]
sword; strong burnished steel
sword; make good use of
topaz; pommel
handle
too long
much wrong
high
at a glance
then afterwards
wondered in his mind
To see; more
fierce
vigorously burned extensively
Over Scotland from
soon; (t-note)
Illumined light shining; clear
much
That
red and green
sapphire blessed; eyes; (see note)
choose; beloved
above
To

own way of living
dearest kin; here; great
must
on earth shall

shall have everlasting bliss
From; gave to; book
her leave
from
opened

[in] large; brass
third; bright
mean
busied himself
spirit; waking
then suddenly; (t-note)
described in detail; (t-note)

through; more
unable
interpret such; fear; amiss
Yet; understanding
God grant [that]; blame; befall
[It] was St. Andrew; sword; (see note)
patron
high
Knowledge; must [set] right; (t-note)
disastrous news before
many different directions
do not know what queen that
noble
It is likely by; she
world; made
particolored; believe
fierce
readily
Betokens; blood

painful war; continue
stone with which she blessed
lasting
threefold; simply
must redeem by
only
oppression; war; wrong
Which
for that must endure great suffering
betokens
Victory; through grace
signifies pure life; heaven's
joy; lack
Fear
about this; [say] no more
leave; taken; (t-note)
To Crosbie [Castle] then; rode home
Merrily
set off; justice-ayre
rode until
fearful; asked bold
peace
Nephew; these; lies
left; chest
no one else knows its whereabouts
[If] we had; here; show
they were; all enter
son; go back

Except; time
ride back
returned
indenture
Ill-luck led him (Sir Ranald); await; could
deceit; thought
without
Knowing nothing; treason
sign; ruled; planet
highest state (in the ascendant)
Above
always fierce; malice; (see note)
then displayed
tyranny; responsibility
Rebellious men; different
Troubled weather; ships sink; (t-note)
tarrying

stirs up war
fierce violence
Poison; rife; these

pulled
sphere; (see note)
(see note)
earth
great charge

Bordeaux ruined; many; more; (see note)
destiny to stop
Across great; (see note)
more; know; mean



Such a tolbooth (i.e., Scots jail) since then; (see note)
Strong; guard
except; called
pay homage (fealty); (see note)

running cord (i.e., noose); swung over
beam; to death
uncle; (t-note)
death
As soon as; snare (noose)
Pulled; beam
therefore
Montgomery; (see note)
many others; land-owning
Many went
party; violent death
thus; place; (see note)
also

These did not rebel against
[The] Englishmen therefore; destruction
kin
escaped
beam; nobles
corner cast
Since; any; was waged
such a death; such went
In a [single] day; accursed; (see note)
kingdom (i.e., England) went
heaven
So decreed; doom
cruel judgement

descent
Their wretched deaths
revenge; placed in danger; (see note)
It is distressing on this
they killed in that violent way
bold

helpless; would no longer forbear
garden; place
stripped of belongings, naked
tavern went
bold
household, fiercely enterprising

turned back
strength

loyal; soon met him
enquired of her; justice-ayre; (t-note)
else
Full of fear; asked
He left us again
hurry; from
protect; all prepared
her
delay
disaster
headed immediately
By this [time]; had come speedily
extremely fearful
barn resolutely; made his way

then
fierce; great disaster

bestial dogs; over
loyal; in pairs
kin
difficulty; stayed; (t-note)
More; ask; rode
kinswoman; if
uncle; how this came about?
carried
low; cold earth; before
place
One moment . . . the next bare; death; (see note)
cloth; dead body
shame
nephew (sister's son); bold
Revenge their deaths
Also
creature; since that

if; is living; (see note)

alive; (t-note)
immediately come; (t-note)
love of God
company; lodging
it is our purpose to go

Adieu worldliness; green woods
About this; then to her; more
went

sorrow; breast; burst; two
rode; grief

Specially picked strong; that; drew

turned back; wrath
sword; right away
one [of them]; severed almost
struck
struck; side of the body; split
fourth; violently cut down; (t-note)
place
for sure

rest; with their lives

bold
English; whichever one
assuredly was killed
such; one [man] should
each blow; caused to die
thought; bold
talk
if he escaped; justice-ayre
action; increasing; distress
such [a] complaint rose
would be frightened if; foes
one man
know not yet indeed if
although it is
Whoever remains here, each noble
deal [out] all their lands tomorrow; (see note)
To [those of] you around
English; lodging straightaway
in all
barns built outside
many bold
had proclaimed; camps (lit. carts)
stay
comfort (ease)
stayed; please
supplies by sea
Irish ale; strongest; (see note)
watch; fear
living; outside
Laboring
enough; (see note)
care
limbs; slid; slothful



Many; caused
leading the way until; (t-note)


News; asked; told
Sleeping as swine; company


to provide fire to see them

loyal burgesses that brought; (see note)
ale; bread
provisions as much; lead
ate; that might
nobles then
Resolutely

large scale murder; contempt; more
amends; arrange
Although
Some; such responsibilities placed on
as good blood (birth)
well-born by [good] fortune; as
As promising; well-built

Let us choose; (t-note)
Then cast lots [to decide]

(see note)
afflicted; sickness
taken into; lasting
war
Lots; these
(see note)
until
rose; sword drew
vow; of all
to; bright
dearly paid for
more; kin
before
sloth; none
disaster
bowed; humbly in agreement
received
may well be called a lord
Although rustic; understanding

base; (see note)
He is not worthy to be a lord
without magnanimity
Rhoddes; many [a] one; (see note)
though
discussion; leave
On my subject-matter; (t-note)
ordered
chalk enough; mark; (see note)
each gate; [the] English together
made quickly twist withies
Two for each man
made their way
ahead of them inconspicuously
Chalked each gate; go
they fastened; doors
staple and clasp; secure fastenings
on the near side
surprise attack; make
If; left; fire
gate; (t-note)
barns went
indeed
flax; kindle
nook; torches bold; (t-note)

No English
Whoever rescues [any] of; kin
red fire
gleaming flame; soon leapt high
Truly; pleasant
redress
these; less
call
give surety for; (see note)
That are living; escaped
Deal; penalty; too severe
made clear to you
alarm; painful; sharp
fierce; burned; vigorously on high
To; waking; gentle; (see note); (t-note)
outside

compelled sorely

called
trapped in many houses
Many buildings burned; noble
None got away, knave
burning pieces of wood; rafters
rose violently; strong; (see note)
undressed; (t-note)
[were] smothered [by smoke]
(see note); (t-note)
(t-note)
smoke mingled; foul carrion
Amidst; vile and offensive
[were] buried; at that time
raging; either side
Lamented ruefully; horrible groans

doors; reach

[That] if any broke by chance out of that place
swords soon put; to death
back by force driven into
escaped; [were] burned; bone and flesh
spread; widely
nearby; remain; (t-note)
Went; windward; left; alone indeed
Until; red fire; blood overwhelmed
friar; prior; (see note)
Seven; refuge
dwelling-places; stop
guard
kept good watch until
amends; outrage
seven brethren soon armed themselves
rest; lead
chose
Then; awesome; appearance
These; directions; go
swords; each; went
[the] English; were
Set upon them; blows firm; severe
Many men; slaughtered
got; place
startled
ford-well; dark; (see note)
Many; broke
Plunged to [the] bottom; died
lodged; (see note)
yet; friar's blessing
worth; left by chance

justice-ayre from there
provisions; furnish anew
Yet; strong
Without delay came out; hesitation
ambush; warriors; bold
Left; alone; castle; directly
reached; gate
Defenders
soon; seized
Dispatched him, then; that; found
provisions
gone
received; castle
burnt; cold ashes
made twenty of his men remain
learn
Guarding; of which no more was left
Except; houses burned
war-like
By sword; died

know; appointed
Such [a] law-court

go
kin; lost; (t-note)
had; soon; called to him
all
[That] they should defend the castle
safeguard it until; hear more
await
[If] we cast down; considered too rash
had food fetched; fasted
then they prepared to go
chose; [the] English
Newly; went
in all
band of knights
Bridge; built; wood
Passed safely across before
knew; diligent; war
Assembled; very awesome; appearance
they believed; stalwart
escaped many times by chance
active
Led a thousand men
numbers assembled
divisions to go
Equipped themselves; outside
knew
prepare for battle
Whether; carry
in front; blessing
little hesitation


surely; deserved; tonight
carry; with all our might
must go separately
if you stay [away] from us [for] long
those; afraid
From [the] time we meet; (t-note)
separation; no English
north-east row
war; (see note)
parting; [each] other by
what
not like to stay away long at all
strong force; soon must
give heed
were ready
Seven; back end [of]
went until
The other division arrayed; directly
open street went up
[The] English marveled; no more
signal
boldly dared withstand
painful encounter; seen
sparked
awesomely; withstood
Struck many down; armor
Pierced plate-armor; strong; steel
By force; made fierce men to kneel
dense dust rose; smoke; (see note)
Before; sun
each one; great need
stood; terrible danger
Yet forward ever

were experienced in war; (see note)
fiercely fought; hesitated not at all

parted [the] English; two
Rallied; war
mastery; many
encounter attacked
breaches
[threw] himself; terrible press
sword; heavy
he struck vigorously; (see note)
bone; brain; forged steel cut

street; lead
stay
friars' church to a forest close by
indeed
soon; made their way
strong
Exhausted [from fighting]; toiled
many; in the pursuit
himself
(see note)
often
(see note)
by nine o'clock; assembled
By one o'clock; gate
Denounced; before
Then; back, as the book well attests; (see note)
To; rode; there
Told; these tidings
He greatly lamented that
stayed; (see note)
altogether, until news; to
highlands; lost
Buchan; Atholl; (see note)
grievous war; (see note)
did they undertake
(see note)

kept independent Loch Awe
MacFadden; wrong; (see note)
to; sworn
both
gift; agree
(t-note)
handed over
payment
still; contended; (see note)
Until; overcame; rest
Entrusted himself of necessity
war


spoke; earlier
assembled
accursed; indeed
gathering; lead
many; the Hebrides; (see note)
Children; wives; spared
Laid waste; as far; go
burn; slay
Loch Awe; (see note)
therefore
To; went; (see note)
stronghold; despite; fierce action
Then broke; bridge; pass over; (t-note)
ford
Boldly; stood
[Loch] Awe; both; wide

of necessity behooved; stay

place; at risk
found
leisure
rock; lochside
Only; no more; go; ride
beasts [in] great plenty
[In] a [little] while; army

skill availed
seen; sudden danger
From; seek
anguish; trouble
Dundee; (see note)
Learning at school
extinguish; high
prepared; (see note)
guide; foot soldier; nimble
Soon; know
grievance
also; in comfort
did he press
(see note)
lie
also prepared himself; ride
war; vexed; time
That
state; governed; region
wrong; (see note)
was
by [the] south [of] it (the castle); valley
To; attack
parties; caused to divide
[the] English should not know
waited in ambush

fearless warriors
rode if any; sally out
bridge; nearest
the size of their army
seven; archers
extremely hard
fierce encounters; great harm
gripped; spear
Turned back
was very powerful
rode
found
shattered
sword
English; renewed [the attack]
soon
foot
dismounted right away; fierce
throng fighting
turned back
have liked to be; (t-note)
great strength
English; gates went
Many; valiant; deeds

sword; stroke
Violently to death; old; dashed [him]
escaped; rest
by [good] luck; went
more escaped; peril
that was; (see note)

knew; be held [against attack]
For a long time; therefore; ordered
castle; held [it at] that time
stray
He entreated
From there; no kind of way
Until; captured; strong; (t-note)
told; hold; (t-note)
mostly
many [a] one
vowed; avenged
rebel; else die in the attempt
For oppression; good
Low-born; low; blood
extremely vexed; mind
feat of arms; earnestly
Bridge; directly; (t-note)
were; strong
prepared; ride
reliable guide
old; earlier
alive; lived there
those brothers understood
castle; keep
Because; lacked; food
prepared; negotiate
Saving their lives; those; were; (t-note)
Handed over the castle, then did
rode
very many years; remained
Bruce's war; (see note)
keep
(see note)
defend; great trouble
should; here; make
shortly; go
sent
region knew

(see note)
horses of necessity behooved
help
fitting
array if
receive injury; foes only a little
in the same way; gather
[If] we tarry long; open battlefield
Soon we may not set upon them so well
Part [of our company]; leave

hundred; taken
known each one; (see note)
as many he decreed
(t-note)
division
deeds; always ready and willing
go
Even though; remain behind; very loath
army; highlands
Over; soon; [out] of their sight
Glen Dochart
very glad
joy
fierce; bold
comforted them; commanded; fear
Those; lack; armor
Soon; and we [will] pursue keenly
By Loch Dochart; came
take
here; no one; fellow go; (t-note)

moor; scout soon found
search; sent
go; (see note)

sword; pierced

spy sent out
on foot; alighted
strong
bog; rock; endure
Let's see who makes his way best
nimbly; went
Then entered the pass; fear
Along; shore [of the loch] always; front; (t-note)
Until
chosen; stronghold
trust; awakening shall; cold
Here; way; those
Except [by] high rocks; dark
valiant; action
without further delay; advanced
Fighting; front; deeds of arms achieved
scared; set on; hesitation
Strongly; array
great strength
boldly bestirred themselves
breadth of five acres; conducted
fighting many oppressors made
sword of steel
Whomever; hit; fiercely; dashed

action
also
together
Among; foes; were paid very dearly
cruel fighting
resistance
Highlanders
struggle
Abundance of blood; wide and deep
Stabbed to death; many men
fiercest; enough; fighting found
long; battle; stood their ground

asunder break
To
Highlander blood; (see note)
fierce fighting; gaps; throng
party; strong warriors; struck
stay
Highland; prepared for flight
crags climbed; floated
at once
remained; (see note)
Threw; knees kneeled; (t-note)
piteous

Vexed; pity
Received; stern
[On those]; own
who will surrender
foreign
fierce opposition
stone cliff

asked Wallace's permission to leave
followed
granted him [permission]; death
none alive; head
spear; carried
then seized; hair
High
Placed; stone; clansmen
fortunate
Found in his allegiance
indeed
let [them] kill no one who; peace
After; feat; afterwards; go
Governed; much suffering
Ardchattan; council; had proclaimed
flocked to; leadership
strong
commanded; (t-note)
enjoy possession
(i.e., nephew); reward; (see note)
If he will come [into Wallace's grace]
lose none; protect
Many; flocked to Wallace
many strongholds

dangerous exploits
hesitated
Ever; allegiance; defended

rightful heir; (see note)

also
sound ancestry
continued

Offering great resistance; cruel
vigorously; livelihood in war
To; [the] English; great injury
He accomplished much; (t-note)
son; called; flower; (see note)
account

governed; war; peace
name; called indeed
war; he devoted himself

peace; courtly pursuits; turned
noble birth; heed
noble
[worth] a pin

Since
Roxburgh Castle; conquered; (see note)
Then; until traitors
death
such; pass over for now
been reproached; truth; (see note)
lightly touch on that case
Unless; something censured
such; not find fault with me; (t-note)
more

comfort has
certainly; harm; foes; (t-note)
war; greatly to prize
Diligent; both steadfast, strong
prelate; made his way; (see note)
possessed
high lineage
Sinclair blood
by the pope's
Dunkeld bishop; purpose
seized
benefice; allowed him [to] possess
treat
save; Bute

protection; (see note)
Until; won; difficulty
land
many more; overthrown
restored rightfully; own
also; earlier
In the highlands; left there
Came
what; both armor; bright
then; well
number
reached
camped; many [a] one
warmly
greatly to prize
war; (t-note)
Gave [away] what; won; gear
stay
From; traveled

His mind was set then wholly
summoned; worth
Firmly resolved beseeched; advice
memory
by misfortune
always for one [of ours]; caused
amends
attack; before; go
let them know; here wrongly
keep
low; ditch
enough; harass
Fill; go
full battle order; across at once
force; these buildings
such
Forth talking; rode
lodged comfortably
Until; made ready their preparations
had built; siege machines; wood
wrights; region
made assigned men to lead them
Down the river until; came; place; (see note)
was their excellent guide; (see note)
Directed; to follow his will; (t-note)
army; around; (see note)
earth; stones; ditches
Hurdles; timber long; strong
clear path; prepared
Many siege engines; strongly; raised
soon; attack went
powerful
besieged; (see note)
middle way
were ready to fight; (t-note)
English; time
artillery; grievous; endure
crossbow, crossbow bolts; stones
guns; fiercely; shot
Pierced; bright
fierce; bold
In close combat, from [when]
English
Yet; war
fighting; boldly conducted themselves
availed; actions
forced their way in
hurried over walls
rose hideous noise
turret; reached
battle; begun
was called; name
assault
proved [their mettle]
Among; foes; strong of steel
that; assembled; either
[There] was no Englishman; blows endure
soon; trampled; foot
Englishmen; stabbed; street
lost; (see note)
fled away; stay
light
Down the river; help; Dundee
stayed until; fourth

got; goods
Settled; Scottish people
(see note)
As heritable office
[to be] sheriff
Then; set off
council
[To which] loyal Scottish; assemble
To Coupar; inspect; (see note)
from there
delay
then forth; rode
In Brechin; lodged
Then; prepare [equip]
abroad; banner; (t-note)
battle order

English; overtaken
open; Mearns; rode
that dared
fled in terror
Dunnottar [Castle]; promontory; (see note)
No farther; escape
assembled; until
church ran, thought sanctuary
rest remained; stone rock
negotiations; make
lives; save; go
afraid; dared; trust
on fire
Burnt; church
Over; rock (castle); rest; din
hung onto rocks; painfully; die
leapt; floundered
Englishman was left alive; stronghold
burnt; cold ashes
many fell down on [their] knees

laughed
warriors, [that] repent; little
had no pity on us
hanged there
To Aberdeen
busily were removing
hundred ships; rudder carried; oar
pack; goods; haven
Wallace's army
None escaped there; company
Except many servants; left
an ebb tide; went on them
goods, then; on fire
battered bone; flesh


Buchan; went on horseback
commanded; stay; (see note)
(see note)
did not enjoy possession; rude threatening
knew
traveled to Slains; (see note)
then by ship
rode; openly
Cromarty many
flocked
Returned; came
pleased army; July 31; (see note)
Settled; should; (see note)
Then; army; (see note)
Caused a siege to be laid
leave; go
hurried very quietly
entire retinue
[which] was
only to; hire
own; forsook
Wallace's deeds; news told
profoundly lamented; minds
[For they] had lost here both
go
treasurer; (see note)
(see note)
ordered; large numbers [of troops]
well equipped; ride
commanded; wait
Until; supplies from
subdue
fear
received; [the River] Tweed; (see note)
Ill will; towards
then [it] increased more
circumstance; [on account] of
struggle
assistance; indeed
means
before then; desist
Against; proved [his mettle]; combats
supported
Against; wrought; injustice
muster; awesome
fighting; there were sixty thousand
before; chose to stop [stay]
siege; time
keep
planned

stone
Angus; inhabitants; (see note)
same
rode
while; order; stayed
strong

It is too ambitious
a battlefield unless; advantage
undertaken
less; such; has gone well
such; of necessity
succeed
near; bridge
plan; a surprise attack

knowledge; (see note)
[time of] the battle; appoint; (see note); (t-note)
fight; delay
bridge; rode
board; firmly
sentries; knew; none should from
carpenter; most skilled
ordered; board
By; middle beam; over; (t-note)
hinges nailed
Then filled; as [if] nothing

wooden rollers
rest
underneath; ordered
beam; wooden support
loosen; pin; let him know

blow


six; were against one
went
remainder stayed
Both; castle; capture
other side
field of battle entered; foot; stand; (see note)
vanguard; led
war-like

wise man; (see note)
army; across
thought they knew better
Told; blow [his horn]; enough
did not rush; resolutely came on
Until; bridge
seized; (t-note)
sharply; John [the] carpenter
roller; knocked; cunning
rest went down; went out
hideous; rose
Both

rest; blows firm; sore
over; secured [from attack]
van of the army; proved [themselves]

battle; fighting
English; drew back from
breadth of an acre; more
spear; carried
press; goes
stroke delivered; has
corslet; polished
piercing head; penetrated right through
stabbed him fatally
That chieftain was violently killed
Both; dashed
English army, which; ready; (t-note)
They lost courage
many [a] one openly began to flee
Yet; remained; place
brought to their deaths
rest; stay
Help; many diverse sides


depths; (t-note)
were left alive; large company
no man of worth was slain
Except; hard; (see note)
were lost
As fiercely

made their way; (t-note)

Raised the bridge; released
those fleeing then
also; (see note)
provide pursuit speedily
Ever by; caused many; [to] bleed
caused a great many [to] die
fiercely flee
readily; guide
harnessed
Straight
Many; that fled too slowly
galloped (run) a very long time
Many collapsed; go
stayed
(see note)
tired


in all; horsemen
also Adam Wallace
found
were occupied with slaughter
Until; passed
Very sadly; adverse fortune
got

without ransoming
Beside; returned
[any] more; then
lodging
directly
On Assumption Day (August 15); happened; (see note)
Ever praised; her; (see note); (t-note)
Protector often she
many diverse places
soon after; (see note)
oath; every single baron
into his presence
also gave them an undertaking; work for

To; plain statement
Before witnesses there by his oath; bound
Loyalty; (t-note)
Who; agree
punished rigorously
Some . . . some
news; both these
Dundee; got soon; negotiation
Escaped with their lives; (t-note)
castle; occupied

past
none
strong


name; was called; (see note)
refuge
Against [the] English; win

get him [to leave] his Scottish faith
strong; (see note); (t-note)
where
battle stood
Against; bold actions
many fierce men
enterprise (day's work); won
General provisions
which; kept many a
captured; left
Wallace's will
Bold; then; went
narrative; may hear; more
in The Bruce, whoever likes to read; (see note)
fierce deeds
firmly arranged
rule
sheriffs
Some; kin; other true blood
cousin; decreed; (see note)
always
Keeper; in his pay
(see note)
free; woe
won from; fierce
ruled
Awaiting; rightful; (see note)
From; subjection
wrongfully; own







enjoyed peace; (see note)
council proclaimed
that it should be held
clerks, barons; burgesses
summons
Stayed
many
here
fully
If; admit
maintain loyalty to
granted
full; petition to
humbly
Beseeched; peer
government
Contemptuously; laughed
such [an] embassy seldom seen
rule
Here; lack
(see note)
furrow
believes; displays her wheel; (see note)
last
if you will
let you know; ought
As I am free to rule in this region
own
also; quantity; (see note)
Homage thereof
independent
summons; more
To; writ
plainly declared
such; make
hot anger
knew; only one king; (see note)


strange
[If] he is allowed; worse
rose
permitted; rest
Alive or dead
make; admit; regards as
[it] were [a] shame; history; record; (t-note)
ease
die; (t-note)
Unless; acknowledges; rightful
we shall not both reign
contemptuous; repent; extremely
Unless [my] power fails or I die in the attempt
Since; earth; decreed
[the] judge; knows
council; (t-note)
left Perth
Entreated the council before he left

only one; go
Kinghorn; shortest; take
over [the River] Forth
expedition
(see note)
defended
None could persuade him
in agreement
advance
had; (see note)
also
Wallace's [army]
region; (see note)
did come on
told; then
many warlike men
Trail (Path); mustered his men
delay

go; before
leisure ride
that force; battle
one thing

loyal; to
great things
ruin himself

men happened forth to tell him
warned about
Innerwick chose; to advantage
warriors to choose
(i.e., on the side of) right
forthwith
want; good negotiation


either
fighting
Continued
Many; died; fierce
account; subject

Pity; of one


Grief-stricken; lost; (t-note)


No provisions; castle
defense
reliable; report
completely; will
into the keeping of
furnished; good

made his way; (see note)
sallied forth; await
pursuit
without delay


Coldstream; lodged
speed
before; awakened
went; (see note)
attack
chase; avail
Too; stronghold
miles wide; twice as long
In; lived in peace
more forces; went into
prepared
supplies
earnestly passed

had put him out
[so] their; more
caused; army

Bruce prepared; (see note)
own; deceived
made him believe; [a] rebel
kingdom; himself
They were
Loyalty; trustworthiness; always
defend
freely
will not linger
[the] English came together
[the] Ouse River; [the River] Tweed
army; indeed
Tynemouth; ships
guard [entry to]; [so] that; supply
straightaway

stayed; (t-note)

by this [time]
Lothian; (see note)
well-equipped
bold and valiant
Yester [Castle]; camped; (see note)
company of knights; (see note)
(see note)
[the] English
active; war
array
overthrow
[An] army
counsel; (t-note)
for his comforting words and advice
go
So long as; care not to die
we must die once
On the [side of] right
sent a messenger
[Who] told
this news; very pleased
Amends; he was very keen to have
Without further delay; (see note)
ambush quietly; waited
ordered
was not warned then
Yet; before [then]
both; danger
scouts
coming
castle (i.e., Dunbar); moor; gone
An open
then sallied forth; [a] small company

rode; rightful
array; rode
feared; had so many
against; advance
saw [this]; begged; wait
Lose; these; strong positions; ride
go; more forces
These are too great; lightly; fight

(t-note)
too close such; take [up]
dangerous chase
Here
[Who] would attack him
staunch
Those English; battle; endure
fierce; violently; either
Great din rose there all together
painful encounter
Many blows; firmly
Piercing spears; armor penetrated
Many
Saddles; empty; (t-note)
they overthrew
foremost overthrew in this way
While; rest wished to go away
remained so fiercely determined
That; courage
Against; battles

no power alive
strength; one against five
were dealt with violently
many blows; fierce strife
ferocious stabbing; painful
ground; flowed
ring formed
Wherever

bold
also Adam Wallace; (t-note)

valiant
Many; they violently killed
fiercely fought back
own; distress
pressed forward boldly
many breaches


against; compatriots
grieved; knew
distressed; more
Than all the rest; that
ambush; once burst out
in all; valiant; deeds
Those fleeing; rallied
many; destroyed
ambush had broken
battlefield
swooned; armor
scare; before; went
newly arrived army; assembled
either side; grave and sore
fiercely fought back
many
tyrant; practiced; war
a great deal of harm
bold; fiercely
many Scots he caused to die


might
battle; soon
thigh-piece; grievous blow
Cleft; armor; sharply ground sword
cloth; somewhat
revenged
stroke aimed deftly
Maitland recklessly; (see note)
head; struck
helmet; brain; shattered; bone
stroke
separated; rest
them (i.e., the English); alone; (t-note)
drew; many; (t-note)
stabbed; [he was] compelled to dismount
defend; prudently
withstand
heavy; rode
in company; thought
cruel; (t-note)
space; all around him; (t-note)
sword; need


knowledge of war
to bear down [on] good Wallace
Enough; unhurt; (t-note)
went; escape (refuge)
either side; stabbing; armor
hacked; defend himself prudently
knew very little
Sought out; missed
extremely vigorous
bold

ready for fighting
vigorously rode
space
violently knocked down to the ground
noisy uproar
Before; many; (t-note)
press [of battle]; rescued
Soon; bold steed; (t-note)
stronghold rode
wisely; rescuing many men
prepare; pursuit
On those withdrawing
slipped away together
These; earlier
So well defended themselves; fiercely; (t-note)
dared go ahead of his fellows
such counter-attacking; make; (see note)
in all; reached the stronghold
more
hold; (see note)
returned; bold
escaped
unlucky circumstances
won
Died; boast
estimate
mourning; less
It was nearly evening; remain
moved camp; time
lodging; most advantage
believed; attack
gave
men of the region
From; strong
came
To; rode by [the time]; chosen
From Teviotdale; many [a] one; (see note)
Jedburgh; time
approached; many different directions
(see note)


their foes; avenge; with their
field [of battle] these; been
Wallace's sentries
In what manner; camp; (t-note)
set out; without delay

Soon; battle order went
two
commanded

rest; guide
both

By this [time]; close
(i.e., the sun); appeared
soon assembled within sight
ready [for them]
array many
Relentlessly; did
onset; conducted
Many; foes were put to death there; (t-note)
In confusion; many
crushed where

powerful
Because
awesomely
Against them; frightened
once
performed in such [a] way
greatly to be praised
Yet; fierce; powerful
Remained; battle; starkly
ferocious; bold; (see note)
bright
defend
resolutely approached him
sword; cross-wise blow
Right through the gorget; neck; dashed
Whereof; remainder were dismayed; place
bold; dead
stay

gap
Castle; (see note)
valiant
Many; violently they killed
went
Very many; brought
clash; lost
spear; sword blows
 
[After wasting and plundering Earl Patrick's lands in Merse and Lothian, Wallace attends a council of barons in Perth (lines 405-07), while Patrick goes to Edward in England, in pursuit of lands there. Wallace becomes governor, the barons pay homage to him, and he rewards the faithful, taking care not to give lands, only office, to his own family members. The Scots start to feel optimism for the first time in a long while. (Lines 391-434)]
 
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Tithandis than come King Eduuard grevit was,
With his power in Scotland thocht to pas,
For Erll Patrik had gyffyn him sic consaill.
Wallace gat wit and semblit power haill,
Forty thousand on Roslyn Mur thar met.
"Lordis," he said, "thus is King Eduuard set
In contrar rycht to sek us in our land.
I hecht to God and to yow be my hand,
I sall him meit for all his gret barnage
Within Ingland to fend our heretage.
His fals desyr sall on himselff be seyn;
He sall us fynd in contrar of his eyn.
Sen he with wrang has ryddyn this regioun
We sall pas now in contrar of his crown.
I will nocht bid gret lordis with us fayr,
For myn entent I will playnly declar.
Our purpos is othir to wyn or de.
Quha yeildis him sall nevir ransownd be."
The barrons than him ansuerd worthely
And said thai wald pas with thar chevalry.
Himselff and Jop providyt that menyhe.
Twenty thousand of vaillit men tuk he;
Harnes and hors he gert amang thaim waill,
Wapynnys enew at mycht thaim weill availl,77
Grathyt thar men that cruell wes and keyn.
Bettir in wer in warld coud nocht be seyn.
He bad the laiff on laubour for to bid.
In gud aray fra Roslyn Mur thai ryd.
At thar muster gud Wallace couth thaim as.
Quhat mysteryt ma in a power to pas?78
"All of a will, as I trow set ar we,
In playne battaill can nocht weill scumfit be.
Our rewme is pur, waistit be Sotheroun blud.
Go wyn on thaim tresour and othir gud."
News; vexed
army
given; such counsel
got [to] know; assembled [his] whole army
Roslin Moor; (see note)

Against [the] right; seek
vow; by
meet; great baronage
defend
be paid back

ridden [over]
in opposition to
command; [to] go
intention
die
Whoever surrenders; ransomed

followers
made that company ready
distinguished


Equipped; fierce; bold
war; world
commanded; rest
array from
asked them [to be]

believe determined
defeated
realm is poor, laid waste; English
win from
[Wallace's leading supporters are named, and Earl Malcom in particular is praised. Wallace takes a small force to Roxburgh and demands that the constable hand over the keys; a similar demand is sent to Berwick. (Lines 469-511)]  



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The ost but mar full awfully he dycht,
Began at Tweid and spard nocht at thai fand,
Bot brynt befor throuch all Northummyrland.
All Duram toun thai brynt up in a gleid.
Abbays thai spard and kyrkis quhar thai yeid.
To York thai went but baid or thai wald blyn;
To byrn and sla of thaim he had na syne.
Na syn thai thocht the sammyn thai leit us feill,79
Bot Wilyam Wallace quyt our quarell weill.
Fortrace thai wan and small castellis kest doun,
With aspre wapynnys payit thar ransoune.
Of presonaris thai likit nocht to kep;
Quhom thai ourtuk thai maid thar freyndis to wepe.
Thai sawft na Sotheroun for thar gret riches;
Of sic koffre he callit bot wrechitnes.
On to the gettis and faboris of the toun
Braithly thai brynt and brak thar byggyngis doun;
At the wallys assayed fifteen dayis,
Till King Eduuard send to thaim in this wayis
A knycht, a clerk, and a squier of pes,
And prayit him fayr of byrnyng to ces,
And hecht battaill or forty dayis war past,
Soverance so lang gyff him likit till ast;80
And als he sperd quhy Wallace tuk on hand
The felloun stryff in defens of Scotland,
And said he merveld on his wyt forthy
Agayn Inglande was of so gret party:
"Sen ye haiff maid mekill of Scotland fre
It war gret tym for to lat malice be."
Wallace had herd the message say thar will;
With manly wytt rycht thus he said thaim till:
"Yhe may knaw weill that rycht ynewch we haiff.
Of his soverance I kepe nocht for to craiff.
Becaus I am a natyff Scottis man
It is my dett to do all that I can
To fend our kynrik out of dangeryng.
Till his desyr we will grant to sumthing;
Our ost sall ces, for chans that may betid,
Thir forty dayis bargane for till bid.
We sall do nocht les than it move in yow;
In his respyt myselff couth never trow."
King Eduuardis wrytt undir his seill thai gaiff,
Be fourty dayis that thai suld battaill haiff.
Wallace thaim gaiff his credence of this thing.
Thair leyff thai tuk syne passit to the king
And tauld him haill how Wallace leit thaim feill:
"Of your soverance he rekis nocht adeill.
Sic rewllyt men, sa awfull of affer,
Ar nocht crystynyt than he ledis in wer."
The king ansuerd and said, "It suld be kend
It cummys of witt enemys to commend.
Thai ar to dreid rycht gretly in certane.
Sadly thai think of harmys thai haiff tane."
army without delay; awesomely; readied
spared none that; found; (see note)
burned [all] before them
burnt to an ember
spared; churches; went
without delay before; stop


settled; dispute
Fortresses; captured; cast down
sharp; ransom; (see note)
keep
overtook; weep
saved; Englishmen
such bargaining; (t-note)
gates; suburbs
Fiercely; burned; broke; buildings
Assailed the walls
Until; (see note)
in peace
courteously; to cease burning; (t-note)
called for; before; were

also; inquired
fierce struggle
in his mind therefore
Against; [which] was so huge
Since; much

heard; messengers

enough
safe conducts I care not to crave

duty
defend; kingdom from all harm

cease, whatever happens
battle; await
nothing unless; you begin it
reprieve; trust
writ; seal
In forty days

leave; then
told; completely; know
safe conduct; cares not at all
Such well-led; terrifying in appearance
christened (baptized); leads; war
known
It is wise; praise
to be feared; greatly for certain
Gravely; suffered; (t-note)

[Wallace marches from York to Northallerton, observing the forty days peace. He successfully ambushes an English force planning to attack his army, killing the leader, Richard Rymunt. Malton is plundered, and carriage-loads of supplies removed and sent to his host. At a parliament at Pomfrey the English debate whether to battle with Wallace or not: they fear the consequences of defeat. (Lines 565-629)]
 
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And this decret thar wit amang thaim fand,81
Gyff Wallace wald apon him tak the croun
To gyff battaill thai suld be redy boun.
The sammyn message till him thai send agayn
And thar entent thai tald him into playn.
Wallace thaim chargyt his presens till absent,
His consaill callyt and schawit thaim his entent.
He and his men desyrit battaill till haiff
Be ony wayis of Ingland our the laiff.
He said, "Fyrst it war a our hie thing
Agayne the faith to reyff my rychtwis king.
I am his man, born natiff of Scotland;
To wer the croun I will nocht tak on hand.
To fend the rewm it is my dett be skill;
Lat God above reward me as He will."
Sum bad Wallace apon him tak the croun.
Wys men said, "Nay, it war bot derysioun
To croun him king but voice of the parlyment,"
For thai wyst nocht gyff Scotland wald consent.
Othir sum said it was the wrangwis place.
Thus demyt thai on mony divers cace.
This knycht Cambell, of witt a worthi man,82
As I said ayr was present with thaim than,
Herd and ansuerd quhen mony said thar will:
"This war the best, wald Wallace grant thartill,
To croun him king solemply for a day,
To get ane end of all our lang delay."
The gud Erll Malcome said that Wallace mycht
As for a day, in fens of Scotlandis rycht,
Thocht he refusyt it lestandly to ber,
Resawe the croun as in a fer of wer.
The pepill all till him gaiff thar consent:
Malcome of auld was lord of the parlyment.
Yeit Wallace tholyt, and leit thaim say thar will.
Quhen thai had demyt be mony divers skill,
In his awn mynd he abhorryt with this thing.
The comouns cryit, "Mak Wallace crownyt king."
Than smylyt he and said, "It suld nocht be.
At termys schort, ye get no mar for me.
Undyr colour we mon our ansuer mak,
Bot sic a thing I will nocht on me tak.
I suffer yow to say that it is sa.
It war a scorn the croun on me to ta."
Thai wald nocht lat the message of Ingland
Cum thaim amang or thai suld understand.
Twa knychtis passit to the message agayn,
Maid thaim to trow Wallace was crownyt in playn,
Gart thaim traist weill that this was suthfast thing.

If; (i.e., crown of Scotland)
all ready
same messengers to
intention; told; plainly
ordered them to leave his presence
council; revealed; (see note)

By any means; above all else
were an overly ambitious; (see note)
Against good faith; deprive; rightful

wear; undertake
defend; realm; duty by reason
Let; above
beseeched; [to] take
would be only
without approval
knew not if
Some others; wrong
they offered diverse opinions; (t-note)
(see note)
earlier; then
many expressed their wishes
were; [if] Wallace will agree to it
solemnly
bring to an end

Only for a day; defense
Although; to bear it lastingly
Accept; circumstance of war

old; (see note)
Yet; was patient; let
considered by many; arguments
own; abhorred
common people

In a few words; more from
Using pretense; must
such; take on me
so
mockery; place
let; English messengers
before they reached an understanding
messengers
Made them believe; openly
Gave them to understand

[On Woodstock's advice, the English decide to avoid open battle with the Scots and to seek some way of picking off Wallace. In retaliation, the Scots ravage Northallerton and Yorkshire, besieging York itself. When the Scots retire to rest, the English plan a surprise skirmish, but Wallace and his night watch spy them, sound the alarm and the Scots, still in battle dress, rally and trounce them. (Lines 678-855)]
 




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The layff raturnyt into the toun agayn
And ruyt full sar that evyr thai furth coud found;
Amang thaim was full mony werkand wound.
The ost agayn ilk ane to thar ward raid,
Comaundyt wachis and no mayr noyis maid,
Bot restyt still quhill that the brycht day dew,
Agayne began the toun to sailye new.
All thus thai wrocht with full gud worthines,
Assailyeit sayr with witt and hardines.
The ostis victaill worth scant and failyeit fast;
Thus lay thai thair quhill divers dayis war past.
The land waistyt and meit was fer for to wyn,
Bot that wyst nocht the stuff that was within;
Thai drede full sar for thar awn warnysoun.83
For soverance prayed the power of the toun;
To spek with Wallace thai desyryt fast
And he aperyt and speryt quhat thai ast.
The mayr ansuerd, said, "We wald gyff ransoun
To pas your way and der no mayr the toun.
Gret schaym it war that we suld yoldyn be
And townys haldyn of les power than we.
Yhe may nocht wyn us, suthlie, thocht ye bid.
We sall gyff gold and yhe will fra us rid.
We may gyff battaill, durst we for our king;
Sen he has left, it war ane our hie thing
Till us to do without his ordinance.
This toun of him we hald in governance."
Wallace ansuerd, "Of your gold rek we nocht;
It is for battaill that we hydder socht.
We had levir haiff battaill of Ingland
Than all the gold that gud King Arthour fand
On the Mont Mychell, quhar he the gyand slew.
Gold may be gayn, bot worschip is ay new.
Your king promyst that we suld battaill haiff;
His wrytt tharto undyr his seyll he gaiff.
Letter nor band ye se may nocht availl.
Us for this toun he hecht to gyff battaill.
Me think we suld on his men vengit be;
Apon our kyn mony gret wrang wrocht he.
His devyllyk deid he did into Scotland."
The mayr said, "Schir, rycht thus we understand;
We haiff no charge quhat our king gerris us do,84
Bot in this kynd we sall be bundyn yow to,
Sum part of gold to gyff you with gud will
And nocht efftyr to wait yow with na ill,
Be no kyn meyn, the power of this toun,
Bot gyff our king mak him to battaill boun."
Into the ost was mony worthi man
With Wallace, ma than I now rekyn can.
Bettir it was for at his will thai wrocht,
Thocht he wes best, no nothir lak we nocht.85
All servit thank to Scotland evir mar
For manheid, wit, the quhilk thai schawit thar.
The haill consaill thus demyt thaim amang,
The toun to sege thaim thocht it was to lang,
And nocht apayn to wyn it be no slycht.
The consaill fand it was the best thai mycht
Sum gold to tak gyff that thai get no mar,
Syne furth thar way in thar viage thai far.
Than Wallace said, "Myselff will nocht consent
Bot gyff this toun mak us this playne content:
Tak our baner and set it on the wall
(For thar power our rewme has ridyn all),
Yoldyn to be quhen we lik thaim to tak,
Intill Ingland residence gyff we mak."
This ansuer sone thai send into the mair.
Than thai consent, the remanent that was thar,
The baner up and set it in the toun,
To Scotland was hie honour and renoun.
That baner thar was fra eight houris to none.
Thar finance maid, delyverit gold full sone.
Ten thousand pund all gud gold of Ingland
The ost rasavit with victaill haboundand.
Baith breid and wyne rycht gladly furth thai gaiff
And othir stuff at thai likit to haiff.
Twenty dais owt the ost remaynit thar,
Bot want of victaill gert thaim fra it far;
Yeit still of pees the ost lugyt all nicht
Quhill on the morn the sone was ryssyn on hycht.
In Aperill amang the schawis scheyn,
Quhen the paithment was cled in tendir greyn,
Plesand war it till ony creatur
In lusty lyff that tym for till endur.
Thir gud wermen had fredome largely,
Bot fude was scant, thai mycht get nayn to by,
Tursyt tentis and in the contré raid.
On Inglismen full gret herschipe thai maid,
Brynt and brak doun, byggyngis sparyt thai nocht;
Rycht worthi wallis full law to ground thai brocht.
All Mydlam land thai brynt up in a fyr,
Brak parkis doun, distroyit all the schyr.
Wyld der thai slew for othir bestis was nayn,
Thir wermen tuk of venysoune gud wayn.
Towart the south thai turnyt at the last,
Maid byggyngis bar als fer as evir thai past.
The commons all to London ar thai went
Befor the king and tald him thar entent,
And said thai suld, bot he gert Wallace ces,
Forsaik thair faith and tak thaim till his pes.
Na herrald thar durst than to Wallace pas,
Quharoff the king gretly agrevit was.
Thus Eduuard left his pepill into baill.
Contrar Wallace he wald nocht giff battaill,
Nor byd in feild, for nocht at thai mycht say,
Gayff our the caus, to London past his way.
At men of wit this questioun her I as,
Amang noblis gyff evir ony that was,
So lang throw force in Ingland lay on cas
Sen Brudus deit, but battaill, bot Wallace.86
Gret Julius, the empyr had in hand,
Twys of force he was put of Ingland.
Wytht Arthour als, of wer quhen that he previt,
Twys thai fawcht, suppos thai war myschevit.
Awfull Eduuard durst nocht Wallace abid
In playn battaill, for all Ingland so wid.
In London he lay and tuk him till his rest,
And brak his vow. Quhilk hald ye for the best?
Rycht clayr it is to ransik this questioun.
Deyme as ye lest, gud men of discrecioun.
rest returned
profoundly regretted; forth had gone
many painful
each one; section rode
sentries; more noise
until; dawned
attack anew

Attacked hard; prudence; (t-note)
army's provisions grew
until; were
land wasted; [too] far away to obtain; (t-note)
knew not; garrison
(t-note)
assurance of safety entreated; forces

appeared; inquired; asked
mayor; would give ransoms
[If you would]; harm; more
were; surrender
[have] held; less
conquer; though; wait
give; if you will ride [away] from us
[if] we dared
too ambitious a thing
For us; orders
hold and govern on his behalf
We care nothing for your gold
came here
rather
found; (see note)
Mont St. Michel; giant
gone, but honor; always

writ; seal
agreement
He promised to give us battle for this town
be revenged
kin; many great wrongs
devilish deed
mayor; (t-note)

manner; bound to you

afterwards to lie in wait for; ill-will
manner of means; garrison
Unless; prepares for battle
Within; many valiant men
more; reckon (calculate)
performed

deserved; more
prudence; demonstrated there
whole council; considered
besiege; would take too long
practicable; by stratagem

if they could get; more
Then; journey; went

satisfaction
Take
army; realm; ridden all [over]
Prepared to surrender
If we stay in England
mayor
consented; rest; (t-note)

high
from eight o'clock to noon
payment; soon
pounds
received; abundant food
Both bread; wine
that
altogether
lack; provisions; go
Yet; [in time] of peace; lodged
sun; high
fair woods
path; clad; green
to any
vigorous life
These; warriors; (t-note)
none; buy
Packed up; country rode
destruction
Burned; buildings spared
sturdy; low
Middleham; burned; (see note); (t-note)
woodlands; shire; (see note)
deer; none
These warriors; quantity

Stripped buildings everywhere

told; intention
should, unless; made; cease; (see note)
to his peace
No; dared; (see note)
annoyed
people; woe
Against; give
stay in battlefield
Gave up
knowledge; here; ask; (see note)
Among nobles if; any
[Who] so long; happened to lie


Twice through force; [out] of
With; also; war; attempted
Twice; fought; undone
Formidable; dared
open; wide

broke; Which hold; (see note)
clear; examine; (t-note)
Judge; wish

[Short of food, the Scots head for Richmond where they not only find plentiful supplies, but reinforcements. (Lines 975-1002)]
 


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In Richmunt schyr thai fand a gret boundans,
Breid, ayll, and wyn, with othir purveans;
Brak parkis doun, slew bestis mony ane,
Of wild and tayme forsuth thai sparyt nane.
Throuchowt the land thai past in gud aray.
A semely place so fand thai in thar way
Quhilk Ramswaith hecht, as Jop himselff thaim tald.
Fehew was lord and captayne in that hald.
Five hundreth men was semblit in that place
To save thaimselff and thar gud fra Wallace.
A ryoll sted fast by a forest sid,
With turrettis fayr and garrettis of gret prid
Beildyt about, rycht lykly to be wicht,
Awfull it was till ony mannis sicht.
Feill men abown on the wallis buskyt beyn
In gud armour that burnyst was full scheyn.
The ost past by and bot vesyt that place,
Yeit thai within on lowd defyit Wallace
And trumpattis blew with mony werlik soun.
Than Wallace said, "Had we yon gallandis doun
On the playn ground thai wald mor sobyr be."
Than Jop said, "Schir, ye gart his brodyr de
In harrold weid, ye wait, on Tynto Hill."
Wallace ansuerd, "So wald I with gud will
Had I hymselff; bot we may nocht thaim der.
Gud men mon thoill of harlottis scorn in wer."87
Schir Jhon the Graym wald at a bykkyr beyn,
Bot Wallace sone that gret perell has seyn,
Commaundit him to lat his service be.
"We haiff no men to waist in sic degré.
Wald ye thaim harm I knaw ane othir gait
How we throuch fyr within sall mak thaim hait.
Fyr has beyn ay full felloun into wer:
On sic a place it ma do mekill der.
Thar auld bulwerk I se of wydderyt ayk;
War it in fyr thai mycht nocht stand a straik.
Housis and wod is her enewch plenté.
Quha hewis best of this forest lat se.
Pow housis doun we sall nocht want adeill;
The auld temyr will ger the greyn byrn weill."
At his commaund full besyly thai wrocht;
Gret wod in haist about the hous thai brocht.
The bulwerk wan thir men of armys brycht,88
To the barmkyn laid temyr apon hycht.
Than bowmen schot to kep thaim fra the cast;
The wall about had festnyt firis fast.
Women and barnys on Wallace fast thai cry;
On kneis thai fell and askit him mercy.
At a quartar quhar fyr had nocht ourtayn,
Thai tuk thaim out fra that castell of stayn,
Syn bet the fyr with brundys brym and bauld.
The rude low rais full heych abown that hauld.
Barrellis of pyk for the defens was hungyn thar,
All strak in fyr, the myscheiff was the mar.
Quhen the brym fyr atour the place was past
Than thai within mycht nothir schut no cast.
Als bestiall as hors and nowt within
Amang the fyr thai maid a hidduys dyn.
The armyt men in harnes was so hait,
Sum doun to ground duschit but mar debait;
Sum lap, sum fell into the felloun fyr,
Smoryt to dede and brynt bathe bayn and lyr.
The fyr brak in at all opynnys about;
Nayn baid on loft, so felloun was the dout.
Fehew himself lap rudly fra the hycht,
Throuch all the fyr can on the barmkyn lycht.
With a gud suerd Wallace strak off his hed;
Jop hynt it up and turst it fra that sted.
Five hundreth men that war into that place,
Gat nayne away bot dede withoutyn grace.
Wallace baid still with his power that nycht;
Apon the morn the fyr had failyeit mycht.
Beffor the gett quhar it was brynt on breid
A red thai maid and to the castell yeid,
Strak doun the gett and tuk that thai mycht wyn,
Jowellys and gold, gret riches war tharin;
Spulyeit the place and left nocht ellis thar
Bot bestis brynt, bodyis, and wallis bar.
Than tuk thai hyr that wyff was to Fehew,
Gaiff this commaund, as scho was woman trew,
To turs that hed to London to King Eduuard.
Scho it rasavyt with gret sorow in hart.
Wallace himselff thir chargis till hyr gaiff:
"Say to your king, bot gyff I battaill haiff,
At London gettis we sall assailye sayr.
In this moneth we think for to be thair.
Trastis in treuth, will God, we sall nocht faill,
Bot I rasyst throw chargis of our consaill.
The southmaist part of Ingland we sall se
Bot he sek pes or ellis bargan with me.
Apon a tym he chargyt me on this wys,
Rycht boustously, to mak till him service:
Sic sall he haiff as he us caus has maid."
Than movit thai without langer abaid.
Deliverit scho was fra this gud chevalry.
Towart London scho socht rycht ernystfully,
On to the tour but mar proces scho went,
Quhar Eduuard lay sayr murnand in his entent.
His nevois hede quhen he saw it was brocht,
So gret sorow sadly apon him socht,
With gret unes apon his feit he stud,
Wepand for wo for his der tendyr blud.
The consaill rais and prayit him for to ces:
"We los Ingland bot gyff ye purches pes."
Than Wodstok said, "This is my best consaill:
Tak pees in tyme as for our awn availl,
Or we tyne mar yeit slaik of our curage.
Erest ye may get help to your barnage."
The king grantyt and bad thaim message send;
Na man was thar that durst to Wallace wend.
The queyn apperyt and saw this gret distance.
Weill born scho was, of the rycht blud of France;
Scho trowit weill tharfor to speid the erar.
Hyrselff purpost in that message to far.
Als scho forthocht at the king tuk on hand
Agayn the rycht so oft to reyff Scotland.
And feill men said the vengeance hapnyt thar,
Of gret murthyr his men maid intill Ayr.
Thus demyt thai the consaill thaim amang.
To this effect the queyn bownyt to gang.
Quhen scho has seyn ilk man forsak this thing
On kneis scho fell and askyt at the king:
"Soverane," scho said, "gyff it your willis be,
At I desyr yon chyftayn for to se.
For he is knawin bath hardy, wys, and trew,
Perchance he will erar on wemen rew
Than on your men; yhe haiff don him sic der,
Quhen he thaim seis it movis him ay to wer.
To help this land I wald mak my travaill;
It ma nocht scaith suppos it do na vaill."
The lordis all of hir desir was fayn;
Onto the king thai maid instans in playn
That scho mycht pas. The king with aukwart will,
Halff into yr, has giffyn consent thartill.
Sum of thaim said the queyn luffyt Wallace
For the gret voice of his hie nobilnas.
A hardy man that is lykly withall
Gret favour will of fortoun till him fall
Anent wemen, is seyne in mony place.
Sa hapnyt it in his tyme with Wallace.
In his rysing he was a luffar trew
And chesit ane, quhill Inglismen hir slew.
Yeit I say nocht the queyn wald on hir tak
All for his luff sic travaill for to mak.
Now luff or leiff, or for help of thar land,
I mak rahers as I in scriptour fand.
Scho graithit hir apon a gudlye wis
With gold and ger and folk at hir devis;
Ladyis with hir, nane othir wald thai send,
And ald preystis that weill the cuntré kend.
Lat I the queyn to message redy dycht
And spek furth mar of Wallace travaill rycht.
The worthy Scottis amang thar enemys raid;
Full gret distruccioun amang the Sotheron thai maid;
Waistit about the land on athir sid.
Na wermen than durst in thar way abid.
Thai ransoun nane bot to the dede thaim dycht,
In mony steid maid fyris braid and brycht.
The ost was blith and in a gud estate,
Na power was at wald mak thaim debate;
Gret ryches wan of gold and gud thaim till,
Leyffyng enewch to tak at thar awn will.
In awfull fer thai travaill throuch the land,
Maid byggynis bar that thai befor thaim fand,
Gret barmkynnys brak of stedis stark and strang,
Thir wicht wermen of travaill thocht nocht lang.
South in the land rycht ernystfully thai socht
To Sanct Tawbawnys, bot harm thar did thai nocht.
The priour send thaim wyne and venesoun,
Refreshyt the ost with gud in gret fusioun.
The nycht apperyt quhen thai war at the place:
Thai herbreyt thaim fra thine a litill space,
Chesyt a sted quhar thai suld bid all nycht;
Tentis on ground and palyonis proudly pycht
Intill a vaill be a small ryver fayr,
On athir sid quhar wild der maid repayr;
Set wachis owt that wysly couth thaim kepe,
To souppar went and tymysly thai slepe.
Of meit and sleip thai ces with suffisiance.
The nycht was myrk, our drayff the dyrkfull chance;
The mery day sprang fra the oryent,
With bemys brycht enlumynyt the occident.
Eftir Titan Phebus up rysyt fayr,
Heich in the sper the signes maid declayr.
Zepherus began his morow cours,
The swete vapour thus fra the ground resours,
The humyll breyth doun fra the hevyn availl,
In every meide, bathe fyrth, forrest, and daill,
The cler rede amang the rochis rang,
Throuch greyn branchis quhar byrdis blythly sang,
With joyus voice in hevynly armony.
Than Wallace thocht it was no tyme to ly.
He croyssit him, syne sodeynli up rais;
To tak the ayr out of his palyon gais.
Maister John Blar was redy to rawes,
In gud entent syne bownyt to the mes.
Quhen it was done Wallace can him aray
In his armour, quhilk gudly was and gay.
His schenand schoys that burnyst was full beyn,
His leg harnes he clappyt on so clene;
Pullane greis he braissit on full fast,
A clos byrny with mony sekyr cast
Breyst plait, brasaris, that worthy was in wer.
Besid him furth Jop couth his basnet ber;
His glytterand glovis gravin on athir sid,
He semyt weill in battaill till abid.
His gud gyrdyll and syne his burly brand,
A staff of steyll he gryppyt in his hand.
The ost him blyst and prayit God of his grace
Him to convoy fra all mystymyt cace.
Adam Wallace and Boid furth with him yeid
By a revir throwout a floryst meid.
And as thai walk atour the feyldis greyn
Out of the south thai saw quhar at the queyn
Towart the ost come ridand sobyrly,
And fyfty ladyis was in hyr cumpany,
Vaillyt of wit and demyt of renoun;
Sum wedowis war and sum of religioun,
And sevyn preistis that entrit war in age.
Wallace to sic did nevir gret owtrage
Bot gyff till him thai maid a gret offens.
Thus prochyt thai on towart thar presens.
At the palyoun quhar thai the lyoun saw
To ground thai lycht and syne on kneis can faw;
Prayand for pece thai cry with petous cher.
Erll Malcom said, "Our chyftayn is nocht her."
He bad hyr rys and said it was nocht rycht,
A queyn on kneis till ony lauar wycht.
Up by the hand the gud erll has hyr tayn,
Atour the bent to Wallace ar thai gayn.
Quhen scho him saw scho wald haiff knelyt doun.
In armys sone he caucht this queyn with croun
And kyssyt hyr withoutyn wordis mor;
So dyd he nevir to na Sotheron befor.
"Madem," he said, "Rycht welcum mot ye be.
How plesis yow our ostyng for to se?"
"Rycht weyll," scho said, "of frendschip haiff we neid.
God grant ye wald of our nesis to speid.
Suffer we mon suppos it lik us ill,
Bot trastis weyll it is contrar our will."
"Ye sall remayn. With this lord I mon gang.
Fra your presens we sall nocht tary lang."
The erll and he on to the palyon yeid
With gud avys to deym mar of this deid.
Till consell son Wallace gart call thaim to.
"Lordys," he said, "ye wait quhat is ado.
Of thar cummyng myselff has na plesance;
Herfor mon we wyrk with ordinance.
Wemen may be contempnyng into wer
Amang fullis that can thaim nocht forber.
I say nocht this be thir, nor yeit the queyn;
I trow it be bot gud that scho will meyn.
Bot sampyll tak of lang tym passit by.
At Rownsyvaill the tresoun was playnly
Be wemen maid, that Ganyelon with him brocht,
And Turke wyn; forber thaim couth thai nocht.
Lang us in wer gert thaim desyr thar will,
Quhilk brocht Charlis to fellon los and ill.
The flour of France withoutyn redempcioun
Throuch that foull deid was brocht to confusioun.
Commaund your men tharfor in prevay wys
Apayn of lyff thai wyrk nocht on sic wys;
Nane spek with thaim bot wys men of gret waill,
At lordis ar and sworn to this consaill."
Thir chargis thai did als wysly as thai mocht;
This ordynance throw all the ost was wrocht.
He and the erll bathe to the queyn thai went,
Rasavyt hyr fayr and brocht hyr till a tent;
To dyner bownyt als gudly as thai can
And servit was with mony likly man.
Gud purvyance the queyn had with hyr wrocht;
A say scho tuk of all thyng at thai brocht.
Wallace persavyt and said, "We haiff no dreid.
I can nocht trow ladyis wald do sic deid
To poysoun men, for all Ingland to wyn."
The queyn ansuerd, "Gyff poysoun be tharin
Of ony thyng quhilk is brocht her with me,
Apon myselff fyrst sorow sall ye se."
Sone eftir meit a marchell gart absent
Bot lordis and thai at suld to consaill went.
Ladyis apperyt in presens with the queyn.
Wallace askyt quhat hir cummyng mycht meyn.
"For pes," scho said, "at we haiff to yow socht.
This byrnand wer in baill has mony brocht.
Ye grant us pees for Him that deit on Tre."
Wallace ansuerd, "Madeym that may nocht be.
Ingland has doyne sa gret harmys till us
We may nocht pas and lychtly leiff it thus."
"Yeis," said the queyne, "for Crystyn folk we ar.
For Goddis saik, sen we desyr no mar,
We awcht haiff pes." "Madeym, that I deny.
The perfyt caus I sall yow schaw forquhy;
Ye seke na pes bot for your awn availl.
Quhen your fals king had Scotland gryppyt haill,
For na kyn thing that he befor him fand
He wald nocht thoill the rycht blud in our land,
Bot reft thar rent, syne put thaimselff to ded.
Ransoun of gold mycht mak us na remed.
His fell fals wer sall on himselff be seyn."
Than sobyrly till him ansuerd the queyn,
"Of thir wrangis amendis war most fair."
"Madeym," he said, "of him we ask no mar
Bot at he wald byd us into battaill,
And God be juge, he kennys the maist haill."
"Sic mendis," scho said, "war nocht rycht gud, think me.
Pes now war best, and it mycht purchest be.
Wald yhe grant pes and trwys with us tak,
Throuch all Ingland we suld gar prayeris mak
For yow and thaim at in the wer war lost."
Than Wallace said, "Quhar sic thing cummys throuch bost,89
Prayer of fors, quharso at it be wrocht,
Till us helpys litill or ellis nocht."
Warly scho said, "Thus wys men has us kend,
Ay efftir wer pees is the finall end,
Quharfor ye suld of your gret malice ces;
The end of wer is cheryté and pes.
Pees is in hevyn with blys and lestandnas.
We sall beseke the pape of his hie grace
Till commaund pes sen we may do na mar."
"Madeym," he said, "or your purches cum thar
Mendys we think of Ingland for to haiff."
"Quhat set yow thus," scho said, "so God yow saiff,
Fra violent wer at ye lik nocht to duell?"
"Madem," he said, "the suth I sall yow tell.
Eftir the dayt of Alexanderis ryng
Our land stud thre yer desolate but king,
Kepyt full weyll at concord in gud stait.
Throuch two clemyt thar hapnyt gret debait,
So ernystfully, accord thaim nocht thai can.
Your king thai ast for to be thar ourman.
Slely he slayd throuch strenthis of Scotland;
The kynryk syne he tuk in his awn hand.
He maid a king agayn our rychtwys law
For he of him suld hald the regioun aw.
Contrar this band was all the haill barnage
For Scotland was yeit nevir into thrillage.
Gret Julius that tribut gat of aw,
His wynnyng was in Scotland bot full smaw.
Than your fals king, under colour but mar,
Throuch band he maid till Bruce that is our ayr,
Throuch all Scotland with gret power thai raid,
Undid that king quhilk he befor had maid.
To Bruce sen syne he kepit na connand.
He said he wald nocht ga and conques land
Till othir men, and thus the cas befell.
Than Scotland throuch he demayned himsell,
Slew our elderis, gret peté was to se.
In presone syne lang tyme thai pynit me
Quhill I fra thaim was castyn out for ded.
Thankit be God he send me sum remed!
Vengyt to be I prevyt all my mycht;
Feyll of thar kyn to dede syn I haiff dycht.
The rage of youth gert me desyr a wyff;
That rewit I sayr and will do all my liff.
A tratour knycht but mercy gert hyr de,
Ane Hessilryg, bot for dispit of me.
Than rang I furth in cruell wer and payn
Quhill we redemyt part of our land agayn.
Than your curst king desyryt of us a trew,
Quhilk maid Scotland full rathly for to rew.
Into that pes thai set a suttell ayr,
Than eighteen scor to dede thai hangyt thair
At noblis war and worthi of renoun,
Of cot armys eldest in that regioun;90
Thar dede we think to veng in all our mycht.
The woman als that dulfully was dycht,
Out of my mind that dede will nevir bid
Quhill God me tak fra this fals warld so wid!
Of Sotheroun syn I can no peté haiff.
Your men in wer I think nevirmor to saiff."
The breith teris, was gret payn to behald,
Bryst fra his eyn be he his taill had tald.
The queyn wepyt for peté of Wallace.
"Allace," scho said, "wa worth the curssyt cace!
In waryit tym that Hesilryg was born!
Mony worthi throuch his deid ar forlorn.
He suld haiff payn that saikles sic ane slewch.91
Ingland sen syn has bocht it der enewch,
Thocht scho had beyn a queyn or a prynsace."
"Madem," he said, "as God giff me gud grace,
Intill hir tym scho was als der to me,
Prynsace or queyn, in quhat stait so thai be."
"Wallace," scho said, "of this talk we will ces;
The mendis heroff is gud prayer and pes."
"I grant," he said, "of me as now na mayr.
This is rycht nocht bot ekyng of our cayr."
The queyn fand weyll langage nothing hyr bet.92
Scho trowit with gold that he mycht be ourset.
Thre thousand pound of fynest gold so red
Scho gert be brocht to Wallace in that sted.
"Madeym," he said, "na sic tribut we craiff.
Anothir mendis we wald of Ingland haiff
Or we raturn fra this regioun agayn,
Of your fals blud that has our elderis slayn.
For all the gold and ryches ye in ryng.
Ye get no pes but desir of your king."
Quhen scho saw weill gold mycht hyr nocht releiff,
Sum part in sport scho thocht him for to preiff.
"Wallace," scho said, "yhe war clepyt my luff;
Mor baundounly I maid me for to pruff,93
Traistand tharfor your rancour for to slak.
Me think ye suld do sumthing for my saik."
Rycht wysly he maid ansuer to the queyn:
"Madem," he said, "and verité war seyn
That ye me luffyt, I awcht yow luff agayn.
Thir wordis all ar nothing bot in vayn.
Sic luff as that is nothing till avance,
To tak a lak and syne get no plesance.
In spech of luff suttell ye Sotheroun ar;
Ye can us mok, suppos ye se no mar."
"In London," scho said, "for yow I sufferyt blaym;
Our consall als will lauch quhen we cum haym.
So may thai say, wemen ar fers of thocht
To seke frendschip and syne can get rycht nocht."
"Madem," he said, "we wait how ye ar send.
Yhe trow we haiff bot litill for to spend.
Fyrst with your gold, for ye ar rych and wys,
Yhe wald us blynd, sen Scottis ar so nys;
Syn plesand wordis of yow and ladyis fair,
As quha suld dryff the byrdis till a swar
With the small pype, for it most fresche will call.
Madeym, as yit ye ma nocht tempt us all.
Gret part of gud is left amang our kyn;
In Ingland als we fynd enewch to wyn."
Abayssyt scho was to mak ansuer him till.
"Der schir," scho said, "sen this is at your will,
Wer or pes, quhatso yow likis best,
Lat your hye witt and gud consaill degest."
"Madem," he said, "now sall ye understand
The resone quhy that I will mak na band.
With yow ladyis I can na trewis bynd
For your fals king hereftir sone wald fynd,
Quhen he saw tyme, to brek it at his will
And playnly say he grantyt nocht thartill.
Than had we nayn bot ladyis to repruff.
That sall he nocht, be God that is abuff!
Apon wemen I will no wer begyn;
On you, in faith, no worschip is to wyn.
All the haill pas apon himselff he sall tak
Of pees or wer, quhat hapnyt we to mak."
The qweyn grantyt his ansuer sufficient;
So dyd the layff in place that was present.
His delyverance thai held of gret availl
And stark enewch to schaw to thar consaill.
Wa was the qweyn hyr travaill helpyt nocht.
The gold scho tuk that thai had with hyr brocht;
Into the ost rycht frely scho it gayff
Till evirylk man that likyt for till haiff.
Till menstraillis, harroldis, scho delt haboundanlé,94
Besekand thaim hyr frend at thai wald be.
Quhen Wallace saw the fredom of the queyn
Sadly he said, "The suth weyll has beyn seyn,
Wemen may tempt the wysest at is wrocht.
Your gret gentrice it sall nevir be for nocht.
We yow assuuer our ost sall muff nathing
Quhyll tym ye may send message fra your king.
Gyff it be sa at he accord and we,
Than for your saik it sall the better be.
Your harroldys als sall saiffly cum and ga;
For your fredom we sall trowbill na ma."95
Scho thankit him of his grant mony sys
And all the ladyis apon a gudly wys.
Glaidly thai drank, the queyn and gud Wallace,
Thir ladyis als and lordis in that place.
Hyr leyff scho tuk without langar abaid,
Five myile that nycht south till a nonry raid.
Apon the morn till London passit thai.
In Westmenster quhar at the consaill lay
Wallace ansuer scho gart schaw to the king.
It nedis nocht her rahers mar of this thing.
The gret commend that scho to Wallace gaiff
Befor the king in presens of the laiff,
Till trew Scottis it suld gretly apples,
Thocht Inglismen tharoff had litill es.
Of worschip, wyt, manheid, and governans,
Of fredom, trewth, key of remembrans,
Scho callyt him thar into thar hye presens,
Thocht contrar thaim he stud at his defens.
"So chyftaynlik," scho said, "as he is seyn,
Intill Inglande I trow has nevir beyn.
Wald ye of gold gyff him this rewmys rent
Fra honour he will nocht turn his entent.
Sufferyt we ar quhill ye may message mak.
Of wys lordis sum part I reid yow tak
To purches pees withoutyn wordis mar;
For all Ingland may rew his raid full sayr.
Your harroldys als to pas to him has leyff,
In all his ost thar sall no man thaim greiff."
Than thankit thai the queyn for hir travaill,
The king and lordis that was of his consaill.
Of hyr ansuer the king applessit was.
Than thre gret lordys thai ordand for to pas.
Thar consaill haill has fownd it was the best
Trewis to tak, or ellis thai get no rest.
A harrold went in all the haist he may
Till Tawbane waill quhar at the Scottis lay,
Condeyt till haiff quhill thai haiff said thar will.
The consaill sone a condeyt gaiff him till.
Agayn he past with soverance till his king.
Than chesyt thai thre lordis for this thing.
The keyn Clyffurd was than thar warden haill,
Bewmont, Wodstok, all men of mekill waill;
Quhat thir thre wrocht the layff suld stand thartill.
The kingis seyll was gyffyn thaim at thar will.
Sone thai war brocht to spekyng to Wallace.
Wodstok him schawit mony suttell cace.
Wallace he herd the sophammis evire deill.
"As yeit," he said, "me think ye meyn bot weill.
In wrang ye hald, and dois us gret owtrage,
Of housis part that is our heretage.
Owt of this pees in playn I mak thaim knawin,
Thaim for to wyn, sen that thai ar our awin,
Roxburch, Berweik, at ouris lang tym has beyn,
Into the handis of you fals Sotherone keyn.
We ask her als be vertu of this band
Our ayris, our king, be wrang led of Scotland.
We sall thaim haiff withoutyn wordis mar."
Till his desyr the lordis grantis thair,
Rycht at his will thai haiff consentit haill,
For na kyn thing the pees thai wald nocht faill.
The yong Randell at than in London was,
The lord of Lorn, in this band he can as,
Erll of Bowchane bot than in tendyr age -
Eftir he grew a man of hycht, wys and large.
Cumyn and Soullis he gart deliver als,
Quhilk eftir was till King Robert full fals.
Wallang fled our, and durst nocht bid that mute,
In Pykardté; to ask him was na bute,
Bot Wallace wald erar haff had that fals knycht
Than ten thousand of fynest gold so brycht.
The Bruce he askit, bot he was had away
Befor that tym till Calys mony day.
King Eduuard prevyt that thai mycht nocht him get;
Of Glosister his uncle had him set,
At Calys than had haly in kepyng.
Wallace that tym gat nocht his rychtwys king.
The erll Patrik fra London alsua send
Wyth Wallace to mak, as weill befor was kend,
Of his mater a fynaill governance;
Till King Eduuard gaiff up his legeance
And tuk till hald of Scotland evirmar.
With full glaid hart Wallace resavit him thar.
Thai honowryt him rycht reverendly as lord;
The Scottis was all rejosyt of that conford.
A hundreth hors with yong lordis of renoune
Till Wallace com, fred out of that presoune.
Undyr his seill King Eduuard thaim gert send
For till gyff our and mak a fynaill end
Roxburch, Berweik, quhilk is of mekill vaill,
To Scottis men and all the boundis haill.
To fyve yer trew thai promyst be thar hand.
Than Wallace said, "We will pas ner Scotland
Or ocht be seld, and tharfor mak us boun.
Agayn we will besid Northallyrtoun
Quhar King Eduuard fyrst battaill hecht to me;
As it began thar sall it endyt be.
Gret weyll your queyn," he chargyt the message,
"It is for hyr at we leyff our viage."
A day he set quhen he suld meit him thar
And seill this pees withoutyn wordis mar.
Apon the morn the ost but mar avys
Tranountyt north apon a gudly wys
To the set tryst that Wallace had thaim maid.
The Inglis message com but mar abaid;
Thai seyllyt the pes without langar delay.
The message than apon the secund day
Till London went in all the haist thai can.
The worthi Scottis with mony gudly man
Till Bambwrch com with all the power haill,
Sexté thousand, all Scottis of gret waill.
Ten dayis befor All Halow Evyn thai fur;
On Lammes Day thai lycht on Caram Mur.
Thar lugyt thai with plesance as thai mocht,
Quhill on the morn at preistis to thaim socht
In Caram Kyrk, and sessyt in his hand
Roxburch keyis as thai had maid connand,
And Berweik als, quhilk Sotheroun had so lang.
Thai frede the folk in Ingland for to gang,
For thar lyffis uschet of athir place;
Thai durst nocht weill bid rekynnyng of Wallace.
Capdane he maid in Berweik of renoun
That worthy was, gud Crystell of Cetoun.
Kepar he left till Roxburch Castell wicht
Schir Jhon Ramsay, a wys and worthi knycht.
Syn Wallace selff with Erll Patrik in playn
To Dunbar raid and restoryt him agayn
In his castell and all that heretage,
With the consent of all that haill barnage.
Quhen Wallace was agreit and this lord,
To rewll the rewm he maid him gudly ford.
Scotlande atour fra Ros till Soloway Sand
He raid it thrys and statut all the land.
In the Leynhous a quhyll he maid repayr;
Schyr Jhon Menteth that tym was captane thar.
Twys befor he had his gossep beyn,
Bot na frendschip betwix thaim syn was seyn.
Twa monethis still he duelt in Dunbertane;
A hous he foundyt apon the Roch of stayne.
Men left he thar till byg it to the hycht,
Syn to the March agayn he rydis rycht.
Into Roxburch thai chesyt him a place,
A gud tour thar he gert byg in schort space.
The kynrik stud in gud worschip and es;
Was nayn so gret durst his nychtbour disples.
The abill ground gert laubour thryftely,
Victaill and froyte thar grew aboundandly.
Was nevir befor, syn this was callyt Scotland,
Sic welth and pes at anys in the land.
He send Jop twys to Bruce in Huntyntoun,
Besekand him to cum and tak his croun.
Conseill he tuk at fals Saxionis, allace!
He had nevir hap in lyff to get Wallace.
Thre yer as thus the rewm stud in gud pes.
Of this sayn my wordis for to ces,
And forthyr furth of Wallace I will tell
Intill his lyff quhat aventur yeit fell.


Book 9
In [the] shire [of] Richmond; abundance
Bread, ale, and wine; provisions
woods; many [a] one
truly; spared none
order
handsome; found; (t-note)
Which was called Ravensworth; (see note)
stronghold; (see note)
were assembled
save; goods from
royal dwelling

Built; strong
Awesome; to any
Many; above; were prepared
burnished; fair
only inspected
Yet; aloud
many war-like sounds
those gallants
temperate
caused the death of his brother; (see note)
herald's clothing, you know
would I [deal with him]
injure

would [have] been at an encounter
soon
let; (see note)
in such [a] way
way
hot
ever; harmful in war
may; great damage
old; dried oak
on fire; withstand an attack
here enough
hews; let's see
Pull; at all
old timber; make; green [wood] burn
worked
castle

rampart piled up timber; high
Then; protect; discharge [of missiles]; (see note)
[they] had fastened torches
children; cry [out]; (t-note)

place where; overtaken
took; stone
Then beat; brands fierce; bold
strong flame rose; high above; castle
pitch; (t-note)
burst into flames; damage; more
flaming; through
neither shoot nor throw [missiles]
Also; [such] as horses and cattle
hideous din; (t-note)
armor; hot
fell without further resistance
leapt; terrible fire
Crushed; burnt both bone; flesh
openings
None stayed above; grave; risk
leapt swiftly; top
ramparts alight
sword; struck; head
grabbed; threw; place

None got away; died
remained quietly
diminished in strength
In front of; gate; burned widely
clearing; went
Struck; gate; pillage

Plundered
charred beasts, corpses, and bare walls
her; (see note)
she; (t-note)
carry that head in a pack
She received it; heart
these orders gave to her
unless
gates; attack strenuously
month; there
Believe [that] in truth
Unless; stop; orders; council
southern-most
Unless; sues for peace; else fights
commanded; manner
menacingly; subjection
Such shall
moved [on]; longer delay
Released; from
went; earnestly
tower [of London] without further delay
deeply lamenting; mind
nephew's head
gravely welled in him
difficulty
relation

[will] lose; unless; solicit peace
counsel; (see note)
[a] truce; own advantage
Before; lose; lessen; spirit; (t-note)
Soonest; baronage
ordered them a messenger
go
queen; reluctance; (see note)
true
trusted; succeed sooner
proposed; embassy; go
Also; regretted that; undertook
Against; take Scotland by force
many; had come; (t-note)
For; murder; (see note)
deliberated
With this object; prepared; go
each; refuse
knees
Sovereign
That; that chieftain
known as
Perhaps; sooner; have pity
done; such injury
moves; always; war
labor hard
may do no harm; good (avail)
were glad
entreated openly

Half in anger; (t-note)
(see note)
reputation; high
well-made besides
favor
With respect to women
(t-note)
true lover
chose one, until; her; (t-note)
take
such [an] undertaking
(see note)
recite; writing found
furnished herself; handsome fashion
equipment; according to her plan
no others
old priests; knew
Leave; preparing for her embassy
more; Wallace's right actions
rode
(t-note)
Laid waste [to]; either
No warriors; dared
ransomed none; death; consigned
many places; broad
condition
[There] was no army; offer them resistance

Provisions enough; own
awesome state; journeyed
Stripped buildings
defense walls broke; places; powerful; (t-note)
These bold; labor did not weary
earnestly; went
St. Albans; (t-note)
wine
good [things]; plenty; (t-note)

sheltered; thence; while; (t-note)
Chose a place; stay
pavilions; pitched
valley by; fair river
either side where; (t-note)
sentries; guard
supper; duly
refrained [when they had] plenty
murky, passed over; dark
merry; rose; east; (see note)
illuminated the west
(i.e., the sun)
High; sphere; planets decreed
(i.e., the west wind); morning course
rose
mild breath; heaven descended
meadow, both stream; dale
clear voice; rocks

voice
lie [in bed]
made the sign of the cross; arose
take; air; tent went
ready to put on priestly vestments
With good intent then prepared for the mass
dressed himself
fine; handsome
shining shoes; burnished; well
leg harness
Knee-armor greaves; clasped
tight corslet; many firm clasps; (t-note)
Breast; armor for the arms; war
helmet carry
gloves engraved; either
seemed well; withstand
belt; then; strong sword
steel
blessed
preserve; unlucky circumstances
went
river; flowery meadow
across; green fields; (see note)
where
demurely
her
Distinguished; held in; (t-note)
Some were widows; nuns
were advanced in age
such; violence
Unless; wrongdoing
they approached; presence
pavilion; (see note)
alight; fell
peace; piteous countenance
here
asked her [to] rise
any lower person
taken
Around the field; gone

soon; caught

Englishmen; (t-note)
You are very welcome; (see note)
pleases; muster
need
help us in our hour of need
Endure; must; (t-note)
trust; against
must go
From; tarry
pavilion went
consideration; ponder more; action
council soon; had them summoned
know
pleasure
Therefore must; proceed with caution; (t-note)
Women; cause of shame; war
Among fools; cannot keep away from them
these [women]; yet
believe it is only good; mean
example take; (t-note)
(see note)
By women devised
[the] Turks conquered; resist
war made
Charlemagne; grievous loss; evil

destruction
secret wise
On penalty of [losing their] lives
No one; worth
That
These commands; carried out as; might
decree; conveyed

Greeted her
made their way as well
fitting
supplies; carried
sample; that
observed; fear
believe; such [a] deed

If
any
grief (ill-effects) shall
[the] meal; steward dismissed all; (see note)
Except; that should go to council

her coming; mean
that; sought
burning campaign; sorrow; many; (see note)
Grant us peace; died; Tree (i.e., Cross); (t-note)

done so; injuries to us
go away; leave

since
ought [to] have
show why
seek; own advantage
seized entirely
no kind of thing; found
permit; blood (lineage)
took by force; property, then; death
[A] ransom; reparation; (t-note)
disastrous; war he shall pay for dearly
gravely
For these wrongs; were
more
that he would stand against
knows; most righteous
Such amends
Peace; were; obtained
truce; agree
have prayers offered
those who; war were

of necessity, where; offered
To; else not [at all]; (t-note)
Carefully; taught
Always after war peace
cease
war; charity; peace
bliss; lastingness
beseech; pope; high; (see note)
To; since; more
before; soliciting comes there
Amends
determined; save
From; war that; stay away
truth
After; time; reign; (see note)
stood three years; without [a] king
Maintained; in harmony; state
[who] claimed [the throne]; happened; (t-note)
earnestly, they could not agree
asked; arbiter
Slyly; passed; strongholds
kingdom then; own
contrary to; righteous; (see note); (t-note)
from him should hold [in fealty]; all
Against; bond; entire baronage
subjection
got from everyone; (see note)
conquest; only very small
Then; under pretense forthwith; (see note)
bond; heir

Undid; (i.e., Balliol) which; (t-note)
afterwards; no covenant; (see note)
go and conquer
For other; case
throughout; ruled himself
ancestors; pity
afterwards; tormented
Until; from; dead
remedy (cure)
Avenged; tried with
Many; kin I have since killed
passion; made; desire
sorely regretted; life
traitor; without; caused her
One; only; malice towards; (t-note)
prevailed; fierce war
Until; redeemed
accursed; truce
Which; quickly; repent
During; arranged; perfidious justice-ayre
death; hanged there
That were nobles

Their deaths; avenge
also; painfully was killed; (see note)
stay
Until; takes; world; wide
On Englishmen's sins; pity
war; spare
vehement tears; pain
Burst; when; account; told

woe betide; accursed case
[a] blighted time
Many worthy [men]; action; lost

afterwards; paid dearly enough for it
[As] though; princess
so God grant
While she lived; as dear . . . [as]
estate
cease
amends hereof
no more
increasing; distress

trusted; won over (overcome)
(see note)
caused to be brought; place
no such tribute we crave
Other amends; would
Before; remove
forebears
you possess
without; (t-note)
help
Some; play; test
you were called; love

Trusting; assuage
sake
wisely
if it were truly so
ought to love you in return; (see note)
These
Such love; not praiseworthy
suffer censure; then; pleasure
wily; English are
mock

council also; laugh; come home
boldly think
seek; then
know; you are sent; (t-note)
You believe
rich; wise
You would; since; foolish
Then pleasing; from; (t-note)
drive; to; snare
the whistle; vigorously
yet; may; (t-note)
kinsfolk
also; enough; capture
Afraid; make him an answer
since; pleasure
War or peace, whatever
Let; noble mind; counsel settle
shall you
why; no bond
agree no truce
hereafter soon would find
pleasure
thereto
none except; reprove
by; above
war; (t-note)
honor; win
the whole responsibility upon; take
war, whatever we decide

others that were present in [the] place
decision; advantage
powerful enough; reveal; council
Dejected; effort
she took; her
Unto; army; generously; gave
To every; have [it]
(t-note)
Beseeching; her friend that
generosity
Sternly; truth
wisest [creature]
noble conduct
assure; not move at all; (t-note)
Until [such] time as
If; he and we agree

also shall safely come; go
(t-note)
concession many times
goodly manner

These; also
Her leave; took; delay
miles; to a nunnery rode

parliament
caused to be shown
It is not necessary to repeat here more
praise; gave
others
To; please
comfort
honor, intelligence; leadership
(see note)
in their august presence
Though against; stood in his resistance
chieftain-like
believe
realm's revenue
From; mind
We are assured of safety until; send
some; advise; take
solicit peace; more
repent; extremely
also; permission
harm
endeavor
council
was pleased
(see note)
found
To take [a] truce; else

St. Albans bulwark where
[Safe] conduct
soon; (t-note)
assurance of safety to
chose
bold; wholly
great worth
these three; others; stand by it
king's seal; given; pleasure
Soon; speak with
presented many cunning arguments
every one of the sophisms
mean only
Wrongfully you occupy; do us great injury
some castles
Out; clearly; known
win [back], since; own
that ours long time
fierce English
here also by virtue; agreement
justice-ayres; wrong led [out] of
have [back]; more
To; granted there
according to; all
no kind of thing
who then; (see note)
under this agreement did ask [to be released]
but then; youthful; (see note)
After; tall; generous
had freed also; (see note)
Who afterwards; to
overseas; stay in that court
futile; (t-note)
would sooner have

asked [for]; taken
Calais many [a]
proved
placed [there]; (see note)
That; wholly; keeping
got
also; (see note)
known
affairs; settlement
gave up; allegiance
undertook to remain true to
received; there
honored; respectfully
gladdened; comfort
hundred horses
freed
seal; had sent; (t-note)
hand over; final settlement
worth
bounds entirely
A five-year truce; their signatures

Before anything is sealed; ready; (t-note)
We will return
promised

Greet well; charged; messengers
that; leave [off]; campaign
meet; there; (t-note)
seal; peace; more
without further delay
Marched; in good order
appointed meeting
messengers; straightaway
sealed the peace immediately
messengers then

many good men
Bamburgh; complete
Sixty; great worth
Halloween; went; (see note)
dismounted; Carham Moor
lodged; gladly; might
that priests sought them
delivered into
agreement
[the] English; held so long
freed; go
lives sallied forth from other places
dared; wait for Wallace's reckoning
(see note)

Keeper; strong

Then; himself; openly
rode; restored

the entire baronage; (t-note)
agreed
rule the realm; ready

rode it thrice and ruled
Lennox he went frequently

(see note)
then was seen

castle
build it high; (t-note)
Then; (see note)
chose
tower; had built; short time
kingdom stood; prosperity

fertile
Food
since
at once

Asking
English
[the good] fortune

(see note); (t-note)

(t-note)



[Impressed by his fame, the king of France invites Wallace to come to his realm. Wallace sets sail with a few companions and a small armed force. On the voyage he defeats the pirate, the Red Reiver, who reveals to him that he is the exiled French knight Thomas of Longueville and one of Wallace's greatest admirers. As a favor to Wallace, the French king is reconciled with Longueville. Wallace, with Longueville, attacks the English settlement in Guyenne. When Edward learns of this he resolves to take advantage of Wallace's absence to invade Scotland and occupy the major strongholds. Wallace hurries back to Scotland as soon as he is told that the truce has been so blatantly broken.]
 

Book 10

[Wallace seizes three passing English hay carts and, disguised, he, Bisset, and Guthrie, with fifteen men concealed in the carts, gain entry to Perth, kill the English occupants, and install Sir John Ramsay as captain with other Scottish officers. Wallace makes his way to Fife, followed by Sir John Siward. (Lines 1-92)]
 


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Thar Wallace was and mycht no message send
Till Sanct Jhonstoun to mak this jornay kend,
For Inglismen that full sutell has beyn
Gart wachis walk that nayn mycht pas betweyn.
Than Wallace said, "This mater payis nocht me."
He cald till him the squier gud Guthré,
And Besat als, that knew full weyll the land,
And ast at thaim quhat deid was best on hand,
"Message to mak our pouer for to get;
With Sotheroun sone we sall be unbeset;
And wykked Scottis that knawis this forest best,
Thai ar the caus that we may haiff no rest.
I dreid fer mar Wallang that is thar gyd,
Than all the layff that cummys on that syd."
Than Guthré said, "Mycht we get ane or tway
To Saynct Jhonstoun, it war the gaynest way,
And warn Ramsay, we wald get succour sone.
Our suth it is it can nocht now be don.
Rycht weyll I wait veschell is levyt nayn
Fra the Woodhavyn to the ferry cald Aran."
Than Wallace said, "The water cald it is.
Myselff can swym, I trow, and fall na mys,
Bot currours oys that gaynis nocht for me;
And leyff yow her yet had I levir de.96
Throw Goddis grace we sall better eschew;
The strenth is stark, als we haiff men inew.
In Elchoch Park bot fourty thar war we
For sevyn hundreth and gert feill Sothron de,
And chapyt weill in mony unlikly place;
So sall we her throw help of Goddis grace.
Quhill men may fast thir woddis we may hauld still;
Forthi ilk man be of trew hardy will,
And at we do so nobill into deid
Of us be found no lak efter to reid.
The rycht is ouris, we suld mor ardent be.
I think to freith this land or ellis de."
His waillyt spech, with wit and hardyment,
Maid all the layff so cruell of entent
Sum bad tak feyld and gyff battaill in playn.97
Wallace said, "Nay, thai wordys ar in vayn.
We will nocht leyff that may be our vantage.
The wod till us is worth a yeris wage."
Of hewyn temir in haist he gert thaim tak,
Syllys of ayk and a stark barres mak
At a foyr frount, fast in the forest syd,
A full gret strenth quhar thai purpost to bid;
Stellyt thaim fast till treis that growand was
That thai mycht weyll in fra the barres pas,
And so weill graithit on athir sid about
Syn com agayn quhen thai saw thaim in dout.
Be that the strenth arayit was at rycht,
The Inglis ost approchyt to thair sycht.
Than Sewart com that way for till haiff wend
As thai war wount, so his gydis thaim kend.
At that entré thai thocht till haiff passage,
Bot sone thai fand that maid thaim gret stoppage.
A thousand he led of men in armes strang;
With five hundreth he gert Jhon Wallang gang
Without the wod that nayn suld pas thaim fra.
Wallace with him had fourty archarys thra;
The layff was speris, full nobill in a neid.
On thar enemys thai bykkyr with gud speid.
A cruell cuntyr was at the barres seyn.
The Scottis defens so sykkyr was and keyn
Sotheroun stud aw to enter thaim amang.
Feill to the ground thai ourthrew in that thrang.
A rowm was left quhar part in frount mycht fayr;
Quha entrit in agayn yeid nevirmar.
Fourty thai slew that formast wald haiff past.
All dysarayit the ost was and agast,
And part of hors throw schot to dede was brocht,
Brak to a playn, the Sotheroun fra thaim socht.98
The Sewart said, "Allace, how may this be
And do no harm? Our gret rabut haiff we."99
He cald Wallang and askyt his consaill.
"Schyrreff thow art. Quhat may be our availl?
Bot few thai ar that makis this gret debait."
Jhon Wallang said, "This is the best I wait:
To ces herof and remayn her besyd,
For thai may nocht lang in this forest byd;
For fawt of fud thai mon in the cuntré.
Than war mar tym to mak on thaim mellé.
Or thai be won be fors into this stryff
Feyll at ye leid sall erar los the lyff."
Than Sewart said, "This reid I will nocht tak;
And Scottis be warnyt reskew sone will thai mak.
Of this dispyt amendys I think to haiff,
Or de tharfor in nowmer with the laiff.
Intill a rang myselff on fut will fayr."
Eight hundreth he tuk of liklyest that was thair,
Syn bad the layff bid at the barres still
With Jhon Wallang to rewyll thaim at his will.
"Wallang," he said, "be forthwart in this cace.
In sic a swar we couth nocht get Wallace.
Tak hym or sla, I promes thee be my lyff
That King Edwart sall mak thee erll of Fyff.
At yon est part we think to enter in.
I bid no mar. Mycht ye this barres wyn,
Fra thai be closyt graithly amang us sa,
Bot mervell be, thai sall na ferrer ga.
Assailye sayr quhen ye wit we cum ner;
On athir sid we sall hald thaim on ster."
Thus semlyt thai apon ane awfull wys
Wallace has seyn quhat was thair haill devys.
"Gud men," he said, "understud ye this deid?
Forsuth thai ar rycht mekill for to dreid.
Yon Sewart is a nobill, worthy knycht,
Forthwart in wer, rycht worthy, wys, and wicht.
His assailye he ordannys wondir sayr
Us for to harm, no mannys wyt can do mar.
Plesand it is to se a chyftane ga
So chyftanlyk; it suld recomfort ma
Till his awn men, and thai of worschip be,
Than for to se ten thousand cowartis fle.
Sen we ar stud with enemys on ilk sid
And her on fors mon in this forest bid,
Than fray the fyrst for Goddis saik cruellye,
That all the layff of us abayssyt be."
Crawfurd he left and Longaweill the knycht,
Fourty with thaim to kepe the barres wicht.
With him saxté of worthy men in weid
To meit Sewart with hardy will thai yeid.
A maner dyk into that wod wes maid
Of thuortour rys, quhar bauldly thai abaid.
Adoun with vaill the Sothroun to thaim had.
Son semblyt thai with strakis sar and sad.
Scharp sperys fast duschand on athir sid
Throw byrnys brycht maid woundis deip and wid.
This vantage was, the Scottis thaim dantyt swa,
Nayn Inglisman durst fra his feris ga
To brek aray or formast enter in.
Of Crystin blud to se it was gret syn
For wrangwis caus, and has beyn mony day.
Feyll Inglismen in the dyk deid thai lay.
Speris full sone all into splendrys sprang;
With scharp suerdys thai hew on in that thrang.
Blud byrstyt out throw fyn harnes of maill.
Jhon Wallang als full scharply can assaill
Apon Crawfurd and the knycht Longaweill,
At thar power kepyt the barres weill,
Maid gud defens be wyt, manheid, and mycht,
At the entré feyll men to dede thai dycht.
Thus all at anys assailyeit in that place,
Nayn that was thar durst turn fra the barrace
To help Wallace, nor none of his durst pas
To reskew thaim, so feyll the fechtyng was.
At athir ward thai handelyt thaim full hayt;
Bot do or de na succour ellis thai wayt.
Wallace wes stad into that stalwart stour,
Guthré, Besat with men of gret valour,
Rychard Wallace that worthi was of hand.
Sewart merveillyt that contrar thaim mycht stand,
That evir so few mycht byd in battaill place
Agaynys thaim metyng face for face.
He thocht hymselff to end that mater weill,
Fast pressyt in with a gud suerd of steill;
Into the dyk a Scottis man gert he de.
Wallace tharoff in hart had gret pyté;
Amendis till haiff he folowit on him fast,
Bot Inglismen so thik betwex thaim past
That apon him a strak get mycht he nocht;
Uthyr worthy derffly to dede he brocht.
Sloppys thai maid throu all that chevalry,
The worthy Scottis thai wrocht so worthely.
Than Sothron saw of thar gud men so drest,
Langar to bid thai thocht it nocht the best.
Four scor was slayn or thai wald leyff that steid
And fyfty als was at the barrace deid.
A trumpet blew and fra the wod thai draw;
Wallang left off, that sycht fra that he saw,
To sailye mar thaim thocht it was no speid.
Wythowt the wod to consaill son thai yeid.
The worthy Scottis to rest thaim was full fayn;
Feyll hurtis had, bot few of thaim was slayn.
Wallace thaim bad of all gud comfort be:
"Thankit be God, the fayrer part haiff we.
Yon knycht Sewart has at gret jornay beyn;
So sair assay I haiff bot seildyn seyn.
I had levir of Wallang wrokyn be
Than ony man that is of yon menyhe."
The Scottis all on to the barres yeid,
Stanchit woundis that couth full braithly bleid.
Part Scottis men had bled full mekill blud.
For faut of drynk and als wantyng of fud
Sum feblyt fast that had feill hurtis thar.
Wallace tharfor sichit with hart full sar.
A hat he hynt, to get water is gayn;
Othir refut as than he wyst of nayn.
A litill strand he fand that ran hym by;
Of cler watter he brocht haboundandly,
And drank himselff, syn said with sobyr mud,
"The wyn of Frans me thocht nocht halff so gud."
Than of the day thre quartaris was went.
Schir Jhon Sewart has castyn in his entent:
To sailye mar as than he couth nocht preiff,
Quhill on the morn that mar men couth raleiff
And kep thaim in, quhill thai for hungyr sor
Cum in his will or ellis de tharfor.
"Wallange," he said, "I charge thee for to bid
And kep thaim in. I will to Coupar rid.
Thow sall remayn with five hundreth at thi will
And I the morn sall cum with power thee till."
Jhon Wallange said, "This charg her I forsaik.
Eftir this day all nycht I may nocht waik,
For trastis weill, thai will ische to the playn
Thocht ye bid als, or ellis de in the payn."
Sewart bad him byd undyr the blaym:
"I thee commaund on gud King Eduuardis naym,
Or thar to God a vow I mak beforn,
And thai brek out, to hyng thee heych tomorn!"
Of that commaund Jhon Wallang had gret dreid.
Sewart went fra thaim with nine scor into deid
Next hand the wod and his gud men of Fyff,
That with him baid in all term of thar lyff.
Wallace drew ner, his tym quhen that he saw,
To the wod syd and couth on Wallang caw:
"Yon knycht to morn has hecht to hyng thee hie.
Cum intill us. I sall thi warrand be
In contrar him and all King Eduuardis mycht.
Tak we hym quyk I sall him hyng on hycht,
And gud lordschip I sall gyff thee hereft
In this ilk land, that thi brothir has left."
Wallange was wys, full sone couth understand
Be lyklynes Wallace suld wyn the land,
And better him war into the rycht to bid
Than be in wer apon the Sotheroun sid.
Wytht schort vysment to Wallace in thai socht.
Than Sewart criyt and said, "That beis for nocht,
And fals of kynd thow art in heretage.
Eduuard on thee has waryt evill gret wage.
Her I sall bid my purpos to fullfill,
Othir to de or haiff thee at my will."
For all his spech to pas he wald nocht spar;
Wyth full glaid hart Wallace resavyt thaim thar.
Be that Ruwan and Ramsay of renown,
Be a trew Scot that past to Sanct Jhonstoun,
Thaim warnyng maid that Sewart folowit fast
Apon Wallace, than war thai sayr agast.
Owt of the toun thai uschit with all thar mycht,
With thre hundreth that worthi war and wicht,
Till Blak Irnsid assemblyt in that place
As Wallang was gayn into gud Wallace.
The knycht Sewart has weill thar cummyng seyn;
A fayr playn feild he chesyt thaim betweyn.
(see note)
military action known
cunning
Made sentries watch; no one
pleases not
(see note)
also; (t-note)
asked; action
Messengers to bring our forces
[the] English soon; beset; (t-note)
(i.e., collaborators)

fear far more; guide
others; come
one or two
shortest
inform; help soon
Too true; done
know no boats are left
(see note)
cold; (t-note)
suffer no harm


achieve better [than that]
stronghold; stalwart; enough; (see note)
only
caused many English to die
escaped
here
As long as; these; keep
Therefore each; steadfast

no fault be found; read

liberate; die; (see note)
well-chosen words
rest; fierce; purpose
(t-note)
(t-note)
leave; advantage
wood; payment
hewn timber
Beams; oak; strong barrier
forward position, close to
place of defense
Fixed; to trees that were growing
barrier
arranged; either
Then; danger
By [the time] the barrier; all ready

gone
accustomed; knew
entrance
soon; found; (t-note)

ordered; go; (see note)
outside; from
bold
others were spear-carriers; necessity
attack quickly
fierce encounter; barrier
sure; strong
stood [in] awe
Many; press
clearing; go
never left again
would have entered first
disarrayed; afraid
some horses; shot; death




advantage
They are only [a] few; resistance
know
cease hereof; here

lack; must [go] into
more time to do battle
Before; conquered by force
Many that you lead; sooner
counsel
If; informed; soon
defiance
die; company; rest
In a column; foot; go

Then ordered; remain; barrier
rule
active
such a snare
Take him [alive] or dead
(see note)
that eastern part
I stay no longer; capture
quickly
Saving a miracle; further go
Attack forcefully; know
either; a stir
assembled; formidable way
entire plan
action
many to fear
That
Active; war; bold
attack; marvelously
more

encourage more
if; honor
cowards
are placed; each side
here of necessity must
scare the first [of them]
[So] that; are terrified of us

defend; boldly
sixty; armor
went
A kind of ditch
brushwood placed crosswise; waited
Downward; advantage
Soon they gathered; blows
striking; either
corslets
daunted so
No; dared; companions


wrongful
Many; ditch dead
splinters broke
swords; hacked; press of battle
Blood gushed; fine mail armor


That; defended
manliness
many; killed
once assailed
None; dared; barrier

terrible; fighting
In either group; hotly
die no other help; sought
beset; battle
valor

marveled
withstand
face to face (i.e., in close combat); (t-note)

sword; steel
ditch; made; die

To get retribution

blow
Other; violently
Breaches

[the] Englishmen; roughly handled
Longer
before; leave; place
barrier dead
from the wood; withdraw

attack; no use
Outside; soon; went; (t-note)
content
Many had injuries
told to be of good heart

exerted himself today
severe attack; seldom
rather; revenged
company
barrier went
Stanched; profusely bled
Some; a great deal of blood
want; also
weakened; great
sighed with [a] very heavy heart
helmet; seized
help; knew; none
stream; found
plentifully
then; seriously


considered in his mind
attack again; try
Until; more; relieve
until; acute hunger
die
stay
(see note)
command
[in] the morning; reinforcements
commission here; refuse
watch
sally forth
Although; wait also; attempt
charged him to stay; reproach
name

If; escape; hang thee high
dread

Nearby
remained for the entire term

call
promised; hang
protection; (see note)

alive; high; (t-note)
hereafter
same

likelihood

war
With; consideration; (t-note)

nature
wasted his expense
Here; stay; (t-note)

refrain
received
By then
By

greatly aghast
sallied forth
bold




 

[Joined by Ruthven and Ramsay, Wallace prepares to battle Siward's much larger army. Siward kills Bisset and in turn is killed by Wallace. The Scottish leaders disperse to different parts of Fife, ejecting the English and destroying strongholds. With his army camped near Scotlandwell, Wallace swims across Loch Leven and steals a boat in which he and a small band of men cross to an island for a night attack on the English. Having stormed the stronghold, Wallace summons his army to a celebratory feast. Wallace then goes to the west where he rescues his uncle from one Thomlyn of Ware's prisons. He then attacks and wins Dumbarton. (Lines 337-830)]
 




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At Cristinmes thar Wallace sojornyt still.
Of his modyr tithandis was brocht him till
That tym befor scho had left Elrisle;
For Inglismen in it scho durst nocht be.
Fra thine dysgysyt scho past in pilgrame weid,
Sum gyrth to sek to Dunfermlyn scho yeid.
Seknes hyr had so socht into that sted
Decest scho was, God tuk hir spreit to leid.
Quhen Wallace hard at that tithandis was trew,
How sadnes so in ilka sid can persew,
In thank he tuk becaus it was naturaill.
He lowyt God with sekyr hart and haill.
Better him thocht that it was hapnyt sa;
Na Sotheroun suld hyr put till othir wa.
He ordand Jop and als the maister Blayr
Thiddyr to pas and for no costis spayr,
Bot honour do the corp till sepultur.
At his commaund thai servit ilka hour,
Doand tharto as dede askis till hav.
With worschip was the corp graithit in grave.
Agayn thai turnyt and schawit him of hir end.
He thankit God quhat grace that evir he send;
He seis the warld so full of fantasie.
Confort he tuk and leit all murnyng be.
His most desyr was for to freith Scotland.
Now will I tell quhat new cas com on hand.
Schyr Wilyam Lang, of Douglace Daill was lord,
Of his fyrst wyff, as rycht was to record,
Decest or than out of this warldly cair,
Twa sonnys he had with hyr that leyffyt thair
Quhilk likly war and abill in curage,
To sculle was send into thar tendre age.
James and Hew, so hecht thir brethyr twa;
And eftir sone thar uncle couth thaim ta,
Gud Robert Keth had thaim fra Glaskow toun,
Atour the se in Frans he maid thaim boun.
At study syn he left thaim into Parys
With a maister that worthy was and wys.
The king Eduuard tuk thar fadir that knycht
And held him thar thocht he was nevir so wicht,
Till him, he said, assentit till his will.
A mariage als thai gert ordand him till
The lady Fers, of power and hye blud,
Bot tharoff com till his lyff litill gud.
Twa sonnys he gat on this lady but mar.
With Eduuardis will he tuk his leiff to far,
In Scotland com and brocht hys wyff on pes,
In Douglas duelt, forsuth this is no les.
Kyng Eduuard trowyt that he had stedfast beyn,
Fast to thar faith, bot the contrar was seyn.
Ay Scottis blud remaynyt into Douglace;
Agayn Ingland he prevyt in mony place.
The Sawchar was a castell fayr and strang;
Ane Inglis capdane that dyd feyll Scottis wrang
Intill it duelt, and Bewffurd he was cauld,
That held all waist fra thine to Douglace Hauld.
Rycht ner of kyn was Douglace wiff and he,
Tharfor he trowyt in pes of hym to be.
Schyr Wylyham saw at Wallace rais agayn
And rycht likly to freyth Scotland of payn.
Till help him part intill his mynd he kest,
For in that lyff rycht lang he coud nocht lest.
He thocht na charge to brek apon Ingland;
It was throuch force that evir he maid thaim band.
A yong man than that hardy was and bauld,
Born till himselff and Thom Dycson was cauld,
"Der freynd," he said, "I wald preyff at my mycht
And mak a fray to fals Bewfurd the knycht,
In Sawchar duellys and dois full gret owtrage."
Than Dycson said, "Myselff in that viage
Sall for yow pas with Anderson to spek;
Cusyng to me, frendschip he will nocht brek.
For that ilk man thar wod ledys thaim till,
Throuch help of him purpos ye may fullfill."
Schyr Wilyham than in all the haist he mycht
Thirty trew men in this viage he dycht,
And tauld his wyff till Drumfres he wald fayr.
A tryst, he said, of Ingland he had thair.
Thus passyt he quhar that na Sotheroun wyst
With thir thirty throw waistland at his lyst.
Quhill nycht was cummyn he buschit thaim full law
Intyll a clewch ner the wattyr of Craw.
To the Sauchar Dykson allayn he send
And he son maid with Anderson this end,
Dicson suld tak bathe his hors and his weid
Be it was day a drawcht of wod to leid.
Agayn he past and tauld the gud Dowglace,
Quhilk drew him sone intill a prevay place.
Anderson tauld quhat stuff that was tharin
Till Thom Dicson, that was ner of his kyn:
"Forty thai ar of men of mekill vaill;
Be thai on fute thai will yow sayr assayll.
Gyff thow hapnys the entré for to get
On thi rycht hand a stalwart ax is set,
Tharwith thow may defend thee in a thrang.
Be Douglace wys he bydis nocht fra thee lang."
Anderson yeid to the buschement in hy;
Ner the castell he drew thaim prevaly
Intill a schaw Sotheroun mystraistyt nocht.
To the next wode wyth Dycson syn he socht,
Graithyt him a drawcht on a braid slyp and law,
Changyt a hors and to the hous can caw.
Arayit he was in Andersonnis weid
And bad haiff in. The portar com gud speid.
"This hour," he said, "thow mycht haiff beyn away.
Untymys thow art, for it is scantly day."
The yet yeid up, Dicson gat in but mar.
A thourtour bande that all the drawcht upbar,
He cuttyt it; to ground the slyp can ga,
Cumryt the yet, stekyng thai mycht nocht ma.
The portar son he hynt into that stryff,
Twys throuch the hede he stekit him with a knyff.
The ax he gat that Anderson of spak,
A bekyn maid; tharwith the buschement brak.
Dowglace himselff was formest in that pres,
In our the wod enteryt or thai wald ces.
Fifty-two wachmen sa, of wallis was cummyn new,
Within the clos the Scottis son thaim slew.
Or ony scry was raissyt in that stour
Douglace had tane the yet of the gret tour,
Rane up a grece quhar at the capdane lay,
On fut he gat and wald haiff beyn away.
Our lait it was; Dowglace strak up the dur,
Bewfurd he fand into the chawmir flour;
With a styff suerd to dede he has him dycht.
His men folowit that worthy was and wycht.
The men thai slew that was into thai wanys,
Syn in the clos thai semblit all at anys.
The hous thai tuk and Sotheroun put to ded,
Gat nane bot ane with lyff out of that sted,
For that the get so lang unstekit was.
This spy he fled, till Dursder can pas,
Tauld that captane that thai had hapnyt sa.
Ane othir he gert into the Enoch ga;
In Tybris Mur was warnyt of this cas,
And Louchmaban all semblyt to that place.
The cuntré rais quhen thai herd of sic thing
To sege Dowglace, and hecht thai suld him hyng.
Quhen Douglace wyst na wayis fra thaim chaip,
To sailye him he trowyt thai wald thaim schaip.
Dicson he send apon a cursour wycht
To warn Wallace in all the haist he mycht.
Of Lewyhous Wallace had tayn in playn
Witht thre hundreth gud men of mekill mayn.
Kynsith, a castell, he thocht to vesy it;
Ane Ravynsdaill held, bot trew men leit him wyt
That he was out that tym of Cummyrnauld.
Lord Cumyn duelt on tribut in that hauld.
Quhen Wallace wyst, he gert Erll Malcom ly
With two hundreth in a buschement ner by,
To kep the hous that nane till it suld fayr.
He tuk the layff and in the wod ner thar
A scurrour he set, to warn quhen he saw ocht
Son Ravynsdaill com; of thaim he had na thocht.
Quhen he was cummyn the twa buschementis betweyn,
The scurrour warnd the cruell men and keyn.
Than Wallace brak and folowit on thaim fast;
The Sotheroun fled for thai war sar agast.
Ravynsdaill had than bot fifty men;
Amang the Scottis thar deidis was litill to ken.
Quhen Erll Malcom had bard thaim fra the place,
Na Sotheroun yeid with lyff that thai did grace.
Part Lennox men thai left the hors to ta;
On spulyeyng than thai wald na tary ma.
To sege the hous than Wallace coud nocht bid;
Throuout the land in awfull feyr thai ryd.
Than Lithquow toun thai brynt into thar gayt;
Quhar Sotheroun duelt thai maid thar byggyngis hayt.
The peyll thai tuk and slew that was tharin;
Of Sotheroun blud thai Scottis thocht na syn.
Syn on the morn brynt Dawketh in a gleid,
Than till a strenth in Newbottyll Wod thai yeid.
Be that Lawder and Crystall of Cetoun
Com fra the Bas and brynt North Berwik toun,
For Inglismen suld thar na succour get;
Quham thai ourtuk thai slew withoutyn let.
To meit Wallace thai past with all thar mycht,
A hundreth with thaim of men in armes brycht.
A blyth metyng that tym was thaim betweyn.
Quhen Erll Malcom and Wallace has thaim seyn,
Thom Dycson than was met with gud Wallace,
Quhilk grantyt sone for to reskew Douglace.
"Dicson," he said, "wait thow thar multiple?"
"Three thowsand men thar power mycht nocht be."
Erll Malcom said, "Thocht thai war thousandys five
For this accioun me think that we suld stryff."
Than Hew the Hay, that duelt undyr trewage,
Of Inglismen son he gaiff our the wage;
Mar for to pay as than he likyt nocht.
With fyfté men with Wallace furth he socht,
To Peblis past, bot no Sotheroun thar baid.
Thar at the croice a playn crya thai maid.
Wallace commaund quha wald cum to his pes
And byd tharat reward suld haiff but les.
Gud Ruthirfurd that evir trew has beyn,
In Atryk Wode agayn the Sotheroun keyn
Bydyn he had and done thaim mekill der;
Saxté he led of nobill men in wer.
Wallace welcummyt quha com in his supplé
With lordly feyr, and chyftaynlik was he.
Thaim till aray thai yeid without the toun;
Thar nowmir was six hundreth of renoun,
In byrneis brycht, all men of mekill vaill.
With glaid hartis thai past in Clyddisdaill.
The sege be than was to the Sauchar set.
Sic tithingis com quhilk maid tharin a let:
Quhen Sotheroun hard that Wallace was so ner,
Throw haisty fray the ost was all on ster.
Na man was thar wald for ane othir byd;
Purpos thai tuk in Ingland for to ryd.
The chyftane said, sen thar king had befor
Fra Wallace fled, the causis was the mor.
Fast south thai went; to bid it was gret waith.
Douglace as than was thus quyt of thar scaith.

news; to
[some] time before; Elderslie
dared
From there disguised; (see note)
refuge; Dunfermline; went
affected her; place
Deceased; spirit; lead
heard; news
each side
thanks; took [it]
praised; sure; whole

No Englishman; cause; suffering
commanded; also
Thither; spare no expense
corpse; burial

as befits the dead
placed in the grave; (t-note)
They returned; made known to

sees; illusion
let; mourning
free
event
(see note)

Deceased before then; care
her; left there
well-made
school
these two brothers were called
soon after
(see note)
Across the sea; go; (see note)
then


strong
Until he; assented to; (t-note)
commanded
(see note)

forthwith
approval; go
in peace
these are no lies
believed
Firmly; opposite
Ever; blood
proved himself
Sanquhar Castle; (see note)
wronged many Scots
called; (see note)
[as] wasteland from thence; Castle
near of kin
believed
that; had risen
[was] very likely to free; suffering
some way; cast; (t-note)
life; last
[there was] no blame; break [his bond]
homage
bold
Born on his land; (see note)
attempt what I can
make a surprise attack on
violence
enterprise

My cousin
same; leads them to


expedition; readied
told; go
meeting; with
no Englishman knew
these; pleasure

ravine near the River Craw; (see note)

arrangement
both; clothes
By [the time]; load; lead
told
secret
garrison

great power
severely assail
If you happen


If Douglas is wise; stays
went; haste
Near
thicket; did not suspect
then; went
Prepared; load; broad and low sledge
called
Dressed; Anderson's clothes
quickly

Untimely; hardly
gate went up; forthwith
cross-wise band; load
sledge went
Blocked; shutting; more
soon; pulled; fighting
stabbed

signal; ambush broke
foremost; press (melee); (t-note)
across; before; cease
guards saw
courtyard; soon
Before any cry
gate; tower
Ran; flight of stairs
[his] feet he got
Too late; struck down
found on; chamber floor
sword; death; delivered
strong
those dwellings
Then; courtyard; assembled; once
castle; captured; death
Got none but one; place
Because; gate; unshut
Durisdeer [Castle] went; (see note)
Told; what had happened to them
Enoch [Castle] go; (see note)
Tibbers Moor; warned
Lochmaben; gathered
such [a] thing
besiege; vowed; hang
knew; to escape
attack; proceed
strong courser

Lennox; taken to the open; (t-note)
With; great strength
inspect
One Ravensworth held [it]; let; (see note)
Cumbernauld
stronghold; (see note); (t-note)
knew; lie
an ambush nearby
guard; none; go; (t-note)
rest; near there
spy; anything
Soon

spy alerted; fierce
Wallace['s ambush] broke
English; greatly afraid

mentioned
barred
No Englishmen went (escaped); (t-note)
Some; take
plundering; make
besiege; castle, stay
frightening array; rode
Linlithgow; burned; way; (see note)
set fire to their buildings
peel (stockade); captured
[Spilling] of; sin
Then; burned Dalkeith to an ember
stronghold; Newbattle; went; (t-note)
By then
Bass; burned; (t-note)
help
Whoever; overtook; immediately
meet

happy meeting


agreed soon; rescue
know; number

Although
strive
tribute; (see note)
soon; gave up; payment
More; liked not
forth he went
Peebles; remained
[market] cross; proclamation
peace
without a lie
(see note)
Ettrick Forest; cruel
Waited; great harm
Sixty; war
to support him
manners
went outside

corslets; great worth

siege by then
Such tidings; delay
close
confusion; astir
No; there; stay

since
reasons were all the more
stay; peril
repaid for the damage they did

[Wallace and three hundred Scots follow and attack the English army as it moves south. The English withdraw from all the Scottish castles except Dundee, which Wallace proceeds to besiege. Edward prepares to return from France to mount a third invasion of Scotland; meanwhile the French king requests Wallace's assistance in Guyenne.(Lines 1045-1214)]
 
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The wyt of Frans thocht Wallace to commend.
Into Scotland with this harrold thai send
Part of his deid, and als the discriptioune
Of him tane thar be men of discrecioun,
Clerkis, knychtis, and harroldys that him saw,
Bot I herof can nocht rehers thaim aw.
Wallace statur, of gretnes and of hycht,
Was jugyt thus be dyscrecioun of rycht,
That saw him bath dischevill and in weid.
Nine quartaris large he was in lenth indeid;
Thryd part that lenth in schuldrys braid was he,
Rycht sembly strang and lusty for to se;
Hys lymmys gret, with stalwart pais and sound,
Hys browys hard, his armes gret and round;
His handis maid rycht lik till a pawmer,
Of manlik mak, with nales gret and cler;
Proporcionyt lang and fair was his vesage,
Rycht sad of spech and abill in curage;
Braid breyst and heych with sturdy crag and gret,
His lyppys round, his noys was squar and tret;
Bowand bron haryt on browis and breis lycht,100
Cler aspre eyn lik dyamondis brycht.
Undir the chyn on the left sid was seyn
Be hurt a vain; his colour was sangweyn.
Woundis he had in mony divers place,
Bot fair and weill kepyt was his face.
Of ryches he kepyt no propyr thing,
Gaiff as he wan, lik Alexander the king.
In tym of pes mek as a maid was he;
Quhar wer approchyt the rycht Ector was he.
To Scottis men a gret credens he gaiff,
Bot knawin enemys thai couth him nocht dissayff.
Thir properteys was knawin into Frans
Of him to be ane gud remembrans.
Maister Jhon Blayr that patron couth rasaiff,
In Wallace buk brevyt it with the layff.
Bot he herof as than tuk litill heid,
His lauborous mynd was all on othir deid.
At Dundé sege thus ernystfully thai lay.
Tithandis to him Jop brocht on a day,
How Eduuard king with likly men to waill,
A hundyr thowsand com for to assaill.
Than Scotland ground thai had tane apon cace.
Into sum part it grevyt gud Wallace.
He maid Scrymiour still at the hous to ly
With two thousand, and chargyt him forthi
That nayn suld chaip with lyff out of that sted
At Sotheroun war, bot do thaim all to ded.
Scrymgeour grantyt rycht faithfully to bid.
With eight thousand Wallace couth fra him ryd
To Sanct Jhonstoun; four dayis he graithit him thar,
With sad avys towart the south can fayr;
For King Eduuard that tym ordand had
Ten thousand haill to pas at was full glaid,
With yong Wodstok, a lord of mekill mycht.
At Sterlyng Bryg he ordand thaim full rycht
And thar to bid the entré for to wer;
Of Wallace than he trowit to haiff no der.
Thar leyff thai laucht and past but delay,
Rycht saraly and in a gud aray,
To Sterlyng com and wald nocht thar abid;
To se the north furth than can he ryd,
Sic new curage so fell in his entent,
Quhilk maid Sotheroun full sar for to rapent.

& Incipit decimus


Book 11
best minds

An account of his deeds; also
taken there by

repeat; all
figure; size; height; (see note)
by right judgement [of those]; (t-note)
both unarmed and in armor; (t-note)
quarters [of an ell] (i.e., about 8'5" tall)
[A] third part [of]; broad
seemly; pleasing
limbs large; step

palm tree leaf
make
face
serious
Broad chest; high; neck
well-shaped

sharp eyes

Through injury a scar; sanguine
many different places

things of his own
[He] gave; won; (see note)
peace; meek
war; Hector
credence; gave
known; deceive; (t-note)
These attributes
(t-note)
description; receive
wrote; rest
hereof; then took little heed
busy; deeds


in [his] command

Scottish territory; taken
grieved
to remain; (see note)

none; escape alive; place
That English were; put them; death
stay

prepared
serious deliberation; went

together
great might
Stirling Bridge
wait; signal for war
expected; injury
took their leave; without
closely; (t-note)
wait
see; (t-note)
Such; mind
repent full dearly; (t-note)






[While English ships arrive in the Tay, Woodstock rides to Dundee and is killed in a battle with the Scots. Then Wallace meets various Scottish forces at Stirling Bridge before moving to Falkirk. (Lines 1-72)]
 


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The Scottis chyftane than owt of Stirlyng past;
To the Fawkyrk he sped his ost full fast.
Wallace and his than till aray he yeid
With ten thousand of douchty men in deid.
Quha couth behald thar awfull lordly vult,
So weill beseyn, so forthwart, stern, and stult,
So gud chyftanys as with sa few thar beyn,
Without a king was nevir in Scotland seyn.
Wallace himselff and Erll Malcom that lord,
Schir Jhon the Graym and Ramsay at accord,
Cetoun, Lawder, and Lundy that was wicht,
Adam Wallace to that jornay him dycht,
And mony gud quhilk prevyt weill in pres.
Thar namys all I may nocht her rehres.
Sotheroun or than out of Torfychan fur,
Thar passage maid into Slamanan Mur;
Intill a playn set tentis and palyon,
South hald Fawkyrk, a litill abon the ton.
Gud Jop himselff jugit thaim be his sycht
In haill nowmir a hundyr thousand rycht.
Of Wallace com the Scottis sic comfort tuk,
Quhen thai him saw all raddour thai forsuk,
For of invy was few thar at it wyst.
Tresonable folk thar mater wyrkis throu lyst,
Poyson sen syn "at the Fawkyrk" is cald,
Throu treson and corrupcion of ald.
Lord Cumyn had invy at gud Wallace,
For Erll Patrik that hapnyt upon cace;
Cunttas of Merch was Cumyns sister der.
Undyr colour he wrocht in this maner,
Into the ost had ordand Wallace dede
And maid Stewart with him to fall in pled.
He said that lord at Wallace had no rycht
Power to leid and he present in sycht.
He bad him tak the vantgard for to gy;
So wyst he weyll at thai suld stryff forthi.
Lord Stewart ast at Wallace his consaill,
Said, "Schir, ye knaw quhat may us maist availl.
Yon felloun king is awfull for to bid."
Rycht unabasyt Wallace ansuerd that tyd:
"And I haiff seyn may twys into Scotland
Wytht yon ilk king, quhen Scottis men tuk on hand
Wytht fewar men than now ar hydder socht
This realm agayn to full gud purpos brocht.
Schyr, we will fecht, for we haiff men inew
As for a day, sa that we be all trew."
The Stewart said he wald the vantgard haiff.
Wallace ansuerd and said, "Sa God me saiff,
That sall ye nocht als lang as I may ryng,
Nor no man ellis quhill I se my rycht king.
Gyff he will cum and tak on him the croun
At his commaund I sall be reddy boun.
Throw Goddis grace I reskewed Scotland twys.
I war to mad to leyff it on sic wys,
To tyn for bost that I haiff governd lang."
Thus halff in wraith frawart him can he gang.
Stewart tharwith all bolnyt into baill.
"Wallace," he said, "be thee I tell a taill."
"Say furth," quod he, "of the fairest ye can."
Unhappyly his taill thus he began.
"Wallace," he said, "thow takis thee mekill cur.
So feryt it, be wyrkyng of natur,
How a howlat complend of his fethrame,
Quhill Deym Natur tuk of ilk byrd but blame
A fayr fethyr and to the howlat gaiff.
Than he throuch pryd reboytyt all the layff.
Quharoff suld thow thi senye schaw so he?
Thow thinkis nan her at suld thi falow be;
This makis it thow art cled with our men.
Had we our awn thin war bot few to ken."
At thir wordis gud Wallace brynt as fyr.
Our haistely he ansuerd him in ire.
"Thow leid," he said. "The suth full oft has ben,
Thair I have biddin quhar thow durst nocht be seyn,
Contrar enemys, na mar for Scotlandis rycht
Than dar the howlat quhen that the day is brycht.
That taill full meit thow has tauld be thisell;
To thi desyr thow sall me nocht compell.
Cumyn it is has gyffyn this consaill;
Will God, ye sall of your fyrst purpos faill.
That fals traytour that I of danger brocht
Is wondyrlik till bryng this realm till nocht.
For thi ogart othir thow sall de,
Or in presoun byd, or cowart lik to fle.
Reskew of me thow sall get nane this day."
Tharwith he turnd and fra thaim raid his way.
Ten thousand haill fra thaim with Wallace raid.
Nan was bettir in all this warld so braid
As of sic men at leiffand was in lyff.
Allace, gret harm fell Scotland throuch that stryff!
Past till a wod fra the Fawkyrk be est,
He wald nocht byd for commaund na request,
For charge of nan bot it had ben his king,
At mycht that tym bryng him fra his etlyng.
The tothir Scottis that saw this discensioun
For dysconford to leiff the feild was boun,
Bot at thai men was natyff till Stuart,
Principaill of But, tuk hardement in hart.
Lord Stuart was at Cumyn grevyt thar,
Hecht and he leiffd, he suld repent full sar
The gret trespace that he throw raklesnace
Had gert him mak to Wallace in that place.
For thair debait it was a gret peté;
For Inglismen than mycht na treté be,
Haistyt sa fast a battaill to the feild,
Thirty thowsand that weill coud wapynnys weild.
Erll of Harfurd was chosyn thar chyftane.
The gud Stewart than till aray is gane;
The feild he tuk as trew and worthy knycht.
The Inglismen come on wytht full gret mycht.
Thar fell metyng was awfull for to se;
At that countour thai gert feill Sotheroun de.
Quhen speris was spilt hynt owt with suerdis son;
On athir sid full douchty deid was don.
Feill on the ground was fellyt in that place.
Stewart and his can on his enemys race;
Blud byrstyt out throuch maile and byrneis brycht.
Twenty thowsand with dredfull wapynnys dycht
Of Sotheroun men derffly to dede thai dyng;
The ramanand agayn fled to thar king.
Ten thousand thar that fra the dede eschewyt
With thar chyftane into the ost relevyt.
Agayn to ray the hardy Stuart yeid.
Quhen Wallace saw this nobill, worthi deid,
Held up his handys with humyll prayer prest.
To God he said, "Gyff yon lord grace to lest
And power haiff his worschip till attend,
To wyn thar folk and tak the haill commend.
Gret harm it war at he suld be ourset
With new power thai will on him rebet."
Be that the Bruce ane awfull battaill baid,
And Byschop Beik, quhilk oft had beyn assayd,
Forty thowsand apon the Scottis to fair.
With fell affer thai raissit up rycht thair
The Bruce baner, in gold of gowlis cler.
Quhen Wallace saw battallis approchyt ner,
The rycht lyon agayn his awn kynryk,
"Allace," he said, "the warld is contrar lik!
This land suld be yon tyrandis heretage,
That cummys thus to stroy his awn barnage.
Sa I war fre of it that I said ayr,
I wald forswer Scotland for evirmar.
Contrar the Bruce I suld reskew thaim now,
Or de tharfor, to God I mak a vow."
The gret debait in Wallace wit can waid
Betwix kyndnes and wyllfull vow he maid.
Kyndnes him bad reskew thaim fra thar fa,
Than Wyll said, "Nay, quhy, fuyll, wald thow do sa?
Thow has na wyt wyth rycht thiselff to leid
Suld thow help thaim that wald put thee to deid?"
Kyndnes said, "Yha, thai ar gud Scottis men."
Than Will said, "Nay, veryté thow may ken,
Had thai bene gud all anys we had ben;
Be reson heyr the contrar now is seyn,
For thai me hayt mar na Sotheroun leid."
Kyndnes said, "Nay, that schaw thai nocht in deid.
Thocht ane of thaim be fals intill his saw,
For caus of him thow suld nocht los thaim aw.
Thai haiff done weill into yon felloun stour;
Reskew thaim now and tak a hye honour."
Wyll said, "Thai wald haiff reft fra me my lyff.
I baid for thaim in mony stalwart stryff."
Kyndnes said, "Help, thar power is at nocht;
Syn wreik on him that all the malice wrocht."
Wyll said, "This day thai sall nocht helpyt be.
That I haiff said sall ay be said for me.
Thai ar bot dede; God grant thaim of his blys!
Invy lang syn has done gret harme bot this."
Wallace tharwith turnyt for ire in teyn,
Braith teris for baill byrst out fra bathe his eyn.
Schyr Jhon the Graym and mony worthi wicht
Wepyt in wo for sorow of that sycht.
Quhen Bruce his battaill apon the Scottis straik,
Thar cruell com maid cowardis for to quaik:
Lord Cumyn fled to Cummyrnauld away.
About the Scottis the Sotheroun lappyt thay.
The men of But befor thar lord thai stud,
Defendand him quhen fell stremys of blud
All thaim about in flothis quhar thai yeid.
Bathid in blud was Bruce suerd and his weid
Throw fell slauchtir of trew men of his awn.
Son to the dede the Scottis was ourthrawn;
Syn slew the lord, for he wald nocht be tayn.
Quhen Wallace saw that thir gud men was gayn,
"Lordis," he said, "quhat now is your consaill?
Twa choys thar is, the best I rede us waill:
Yonder the king his ost abandonand,
Heyr Bruce and Beyk in yon battaill to stand.
Yon king in wer has wys and felloun beyn;
Thar capdans als full cruell ar and keyn.
Bettir of hand is nocht leiffand, iwys,
In tyrandry, ye trow me weill of this,
Than Bruce and Beik, to quhat part thai be set.
We haiff a chois quhilk is full hard but let.
And we turn est for strenth in Lowtheane land
Thai stuff a chas rycht scharp, I dar warrand.
Tak we the mur, yon king is us befor.
Thar is bot this, withoutyn wordis mor,
To the Tor Wod, for our succour is thar.
Throuch Brucis ost forsuth fyrst mon we far;
Amang us now thar nedis no debayt.
Yon men ar dede. We will nocht stryff for stayt."
Thai consent haill to wyrk rycht as he will;
Quhat him thocht best thai grantyt to fullfill.
Gud Wallace than, that stoutly couth thaim ster,
Befor thaim raid intill his armour cler,
Rewellyt speris all in a nowmir round:
"And we have grace for to pas throw thaim sound
And few be lost, till our strenth we will ryd.
Want we mony, in faith we sall all byd."
Thai hardnyt hors fast on the gret ost raid.
The rerd at rays quhen sperys in sondyr glaid.
Duschyt in glos, devyt with speris dynt.
Fra forgyt steyll the fyr flew out but stynt.
The felloun thrang quhen hors and men removyt
Up drayff the dust quhar thai thar pithtis provyt.
The tothir ost mycht no deidis se
For stour at rais quhill thai disseverit be.
The worthy Scottis eight thousand doun thai bar;
Few war at erd at gud Wallace brocht thar.
The king criyt hors apon thaim for to ryd,
Bot this wys lord gaiff him consaill to bid:
The erll of York said, "Schir, ye wyrk amys
To brek aray. Yon men quyt throuch thaim is.
Thai ken the land and will to strenthis draw;
Tak we the playn we ar in perell aw."
The king consavyt at his consaill was rycht,
Rewllyt his ost and baid still in thar sycht.
Or Bruce and Beik mycht retorn thar battaill
The Scottis was throuch and had a gret availl.
Wallace commaund the ost suld pas thar way
To the Tor Wod in all the haist thai may.
Hymselff and Graym and Lawder turnyt in
Betwex battaillys prys prowys for to wyn;
And with thaim baid in that place hundrethis thre
Of westland men, was oysyt in jeperté,
Apon wycht hors that weselé coud ryd.
A slop thai maid quhar thai set on a syd;
Na speris thai had bot suerdys of gud steyll;
Tharwith in stour thai leit thar enemys feill
How thai full oft had prevyt beyn in pres.
Of Inglismen thai maid feill to deces.
Or Bruce tharoff mycht weill persavyng haiff
Thre hundreth thar was graithit to thar graiff.
The hardy Bruce ane ost abandownyt;
Twenty thowsand he rewllyt be force and wit
Upon the Scottis his men for to reskew.
Servyt thai war with gud speris enew,
And Byschop Beik a stuff till him to be.
Quhen gud Wallace thar ordinans coud se
"Allace," he said, "yon man has mekill mycht
And our gud will till undo his awn rycht."
He bad his men towart his ost in rid;
Thaim for to sayff he wald behynd thaim byd.
Mekill he trowys in God and his awn weid;
Till sayff his men he did full douchty deid.
Upon himselff mekill travaill he tais;
The gret battaill compleit apon him gais.
In the forbreyst he retornyt full oft;
Quhamevir he hyt thar sawchnyng was unsoft.
That day in warld knawin was nocht his maik;
A Sotheroun man he slew ay at a straik.
Bot his a strenth mycht nocht agayn thaim be;
Towart his ost behuffyd for to fle.
The Bruce him hurt at the returnyng thair,
Undyr the hals a deip wound and a sayr.
Blude byrstyt owt braithly at speris lenth;
Fra the gret ost he fled towart his strenth.
Sic a flear befor was nevir seyn!
Nocht at Gadderis of Gawdyfer the keyn,
Quhen Alexander reskewed the foryouris,
Mycht tyll him be comperd in tha houris,
The fell turnyng on folowaris that he maid,
How bandounly befor the ost he raid;
Nor how gud Graym wyth cruell hardement,
Na how Lawder, amang thar fayis went;
How thaim allayn into that stour thai stud
Quhill Wallace was in stanchyng of his blud.
Be than he had stemmyt full weill his wound,
With thre hundreth into the feild can found
To reskew Graym and Lawder that was wicht;
Bot Byschop Beik com with sic force and slycht
The worthy Scottis weryt fer on bak,
Sevyn akyrbreid in turnyng of thar bak.
Yeit Wallace has thir twa delyveryt weill
Be his awn strenth and his gud suerd of steill.
The awfull Bruce amang thaim with gret mayn
At the reskew three Scottis men he has slayn;
Quham he hyt rycht ay at a straik was ded.
Wallace preyst in tharfor to set rameid;
With a gud sper the Bruce was servyt but baid.
With gret invy to Wallace fast he raid
And he till him assonyeit nocht forthi.
The Bruce him myssyt as Wallace passyt by.
Awkwart he straik with his scharp groundyn glave;
Sper and horscrag intill sondyr he drave.
Bruce was at erd or Wallace turned about.
The gret battaill of thousandis, stern and stout,
Thai horssyt Bruce with men of gret valour.
Wallace allayn was in that stalwart stour.
Graym pressyt in and straik ane Inglis knycht
Befor the Bruce apon the basnet brycht.
That servall stuff and all his othir weid,
Bathe bayn and brayn, the nobill suerd throuch yeid.
The knycht was dede; gud Graym retornet tyte.
A suttell knycht tharat had gret despyt,
Folowyt at wait and has persavyt weill
Gramys byrny was to narow sumdeill
Beneth the waist, that clos it mycht nocht be.
On the fyllat full sternly straik that sle,
Persyt the bak, in the bowalys him bar
Wyth a scharp sper, that he mycht leiff no mar.
Graym turnd tharwith and smate that knycht in teyn
Towart the vesar, a litill beneth the eyn.
Dede of that dynt to ground he duschyt doun.
Schyr Jhon the Graym that swonyt on his arsoun
Or he ourcom till pas till his party,
Feill Sotheroun men that was on fute him by
Stekit his hors, that he no forthir yeid;
Graym yauld to God his gud speryt and his deid.
Quhen Wallace saw this knycht to dede was wrocht,
The pytuous payn so sor thyrllyt his thocht
All out of kynd it alteryt his curage.
His wyt in wer was than bot a wod rage.
Hys hors him bur in feild quharso him lyst,
For of himselff as than litill he wyst.
Lik a wyld best that war fra reson rent,
As wytlace wy into the ost he went
Dingand on hard; quhat Sotheroun he rycht hyt
Straucht apon hors agayn mycht nevir syt.
Into that rage full feill folk he dang doun;
All hym about was reddyt a gret rowm.
Quhen Bruce persavyt with Wallace it stud sa,
He chargyt men lang sperys for to ta
And sla hys hors, sa he suld nocht eschaip.
Feyll Sotheroun than to Wallace fast can schaip,
Persyt hys hors wyth sperys on athir syd;
Woundys thai maid that was bathe deip and wyd.
Of schafftis part Wallace in sondyr schayr,
Bot fell hedys intill his hors left thair.
Sum wytt agayn to Wallace can radoun,
In hys awn mynd so rewllyt him resoun;
Sa for to de him thocht it no vaslage.
Than for to fle he tuk no taryage,
Spuryt the hors, quhilk ran in a gud randoun
Till his awn folk was bydand on Carroun.
The sey was in, at thai stoppyt and stud.
On loud he criyt and bad thaim tak the flud,
"Togyddyr byd, ye may nocht los a man."
At his commaund the watter thai tuk than;
Hym returned the entré for to kepe,
Quhill all his ost was passyt our the depe;
Syn passyt our and dred his hors suld faill,
Hymselff hevy, cled into plait of maill.
Set he couth swom he trowit he mycht nocht weill.
The cler watter culyt the hors sumdeill.
Atour the flud he bur him to the land,
Syn fell doun dede and mycht no langar stand.
Kerle full son a cursour till him brocht;
Than up he lap, amange the ost he socht.
Graym was away and fifteen othir wicht.
On Magdaleyn Day thir folk to ded was dycht:
Thirty thousand of Inglismen for trew
The worthy Scottis apon that day thai slew,
Quhat be Stuart, and syn be wicht Wallace.
For all his prys King Eduuard rewyt that race.
To the Tor Wod he bad the ost suld ryd;
Kerle and he past upon Caroun syd,
Behaldand our apon the south party.
Bruce formast com and can on Wallace cry:
"Quhat art thow thar?" "A man," Wallace can say.
The Bruce ansuerd, "That has thow prevyt today.
Abyd," he said, "thow nedis nocht now to fle."
Wallace ansuerd, "I eschew nocht for thee,
Bot that power has thi awn ner fordon.
Amendis of this, will God, we sall haiff son."
"Langage of thee," the Bruce said, "I desyr."
"Say furth," quod he; "thow may for litill hyr.
Ryd fra that ost and gar thaim bid with Beik.
I wald fayn heir quhat thow likis to speik."
The ost baid styll, the Bruce passyt thaim fra;
He tuk wyth him bot a Scot that hecht Ra.
Quhen that the Bruce out of thar heryng wer,
He turned in and this question can sper:
"Quhy wyrkis thow thus and mycht in gud pes be?"
Than Wallace said, "Bot in defawt of thee,
Throuch thi falsheid thin awn wyt has myskend.
I cleym no rycht bot wald this land defend,
At thow undoys throu thi fals cruell deid.
Thow has tynt twa had beyn worth fer mair meid
On this ilk day with a gud king to found,
Na five mylyon of fynest gold so round
That evir was wrocht in werk or ymage brycht!
I trow in warld was nocht a bettir knycht
Than was the gud Graym of trewth and hardement."
Teris tharwith fra Wallace eyn doun went.
Bruce said, "Fer ma on this day we haiff losyt."
Wallace ansuerd, "Allace, thai war evill cosyt
Throuch thi tresson, that suld be our rycht king,
That willfully dystroyis thin awn offspryng."
The Bruce askyt, "Will thow do my devys?"
Wallace said, "Nay, thow leyffis in sic wys
Thow wald me mak at Eduuardis will to be;
Yeit had I levir tomorn be hyngyt hye."
"Yeit sall I say as I wald consaill geyff,
Than as a lord thow mycht at liking leiff
At thin awn will in Scotland for to ryng
And be in pece and hald of Eduuard king."
"Of that fals king I think nevir wagis to tak
Bot contrar him with my power to mak.
I cleym nothing as be titill of rycht,
Thocht I mycht reiff, sen God has lent me mycht,
Fra thee thi crowne of this regioun to wer,
Bot I will nocht sic a charge on me ber.
Gret God wait best quhat wer I tak on hand
For till kep fre that thow art gaynstandand.
It mycht beyn said of lang gone herof forn,
In cursyt tym thow was for Scotland born.
Schamys thow nocht that thow nevir yeit did gud,
Thow renygat devorar of thi blud?
I vow to God, ma I thi maister be
In ony feild, thow sall fer werthar de
Than sall a Turk, for thi fals cruell wer.
Pagans till us dois nocht so mekill der."
Than lewch the Bruce at Wallace ernystfulnas
And said, "Thow seis at thus standis the cas.
This day thow art with our power ourset,
Agayn yon king warrand thow may nocht get."
Than Wallace said, "We ar be mekill thing
Starkar this day in contrar of yon king
Than at Beggar, quhar he left mony of his,
And als the feild; sa sall he do with this
Or de tharfor, for all his mekill mycht.
We haiff nocht losyt in this feild bot a knycht,
And Scotland now in sic perell is stad
To leyff it thus myselff mycht be full mad."
"Wallace," he said, "it prochys ner the nycht.
Wald thow to morn quhen at the day is lycht
Or nyn of bell, meit me at this chapell
Be Dunypas? I wald haiff your consell."
Wallace said, "Nay, or that ilk tyme be went,
War all the men hyn till the orient
Intill a will with Eduuard, quha had suorn,
We sall bargane be nine houris to morn;
And for his wrang reyff othir he sall think scham,
Or de tharfor, or fle in Ingland haym.
Bot and thow will, son be the hour of thre
At that ilk tryst, will God, thow sall se me.
Quhill I may lest this realme sall nocht forfar."
Bruce promest him with twelve Scottis to be thar,
And Wallace said, "Stud thow rychtwys to me,
Cownter palys I suld nocht be to thee.
I sall bryng ten, and for thi nowmer ma,
I gyff no force thocht thow be freynd or fa."
Thus thai departyt. The Bruce past his way,
Till Lythqwo raid quhar that King Eduuard lay,
The feild had left and lugyt a south the toun,
To souper set as Bruce at the palyoun
So entryt in and saw vacand his seit.
No watter he tuk bot maid him to the meit.
Fastand he was and had beyn in gret dreid;
Bludyt was all his wapynnys and his weid.
Sotheroun lordys scornyt him in termys rud.
Ane said, "Behald, yon Scot ettis his awn blud."
The king thocht ill thai maid sic derisioun.
He bad haiff watter to Bruce of Huntyntoun.
Thai bad hym wesche. He said that wald he nocht.
"This blud is myn, that hurtis most my thocht."
Sadly the Bruce than in his mynd remordyt
Thai wordis suth that Wallace had him recordyt.
Than rewyt he sar, fra resoun had him knawin
At blud and land suld all lik beyn his awin.
With thaim he was lang or he couth get away,
Bot contrar Scottis he faucht nocht fra that day.
(see note)
hurried; army
[battle] array; went
valiant; action
awesome; bearing (face)
well turned-out; active; valiant




strong
undertaking; rallied
good [men]; proved; battle
names; recite
[The] English before; Torphichen went
Slamannan Moor
On a plain set [up]; pavilions
towards; above the town
judged them [to be] by
In total
Of Wallace's coming; such
fear
envy; knew
Treacherous; cunning
since then; called
old

On account of; happened once
Countess; dear; (see note)
pretense
Wallace's death
argument


vanguard; guide
knew; that; argue therefore
asked
most help
That cruel; formidable; withstand
undismayed; time
more than twice
With that same king; undertook


fight; enough
so long as; steadfast


govern
until; rightful
If
ready [and] prepared

too; leave; such [a] way; (t-note)
lose for [a] threat; governed
anger away from
swelled with anger
by
(t-note)

take [on]; great responsibility
It happened, in the course of nature
an owl complained; feathers; (see note)
Until; without reproach
gave
repulsed; others
ensign display so high
none; that; fellow
clad
own your; indeed
these; flared; fire
Too
lied; truth; been
There I stood firm where; (t-note)
more
dares; owl
fittingly; illustrated; yourself

given; counsel; (see note); (t-note)
God willing
from; (see note)
very likely to
pride either
stay; like a coward

rode

None; wide
such; that living were

to a wood; to the east
stay; command
On the orders; no one unless
That; intention
other
Through discouragement; leave; ready
Except that these
Lord Superior; courage
vexed
Vowed if he lived; exceedingly
wrong; recklessness; (t-note)
made him
dispute
reconciliation

weapons wield
(see note)
[battle] order; gone


terrible; awesome
encounter; many; die
destroyed drew; swords soon
either; valiant
Many; felled
did; press
mail-armor; corslet
equipped
English; violently; dashed
remainder
death escaped
rallied
[battle] order; went

humble; joined
Give that; (t-note)
honor
defeat; whole praise; (t-note)
that; overthrown
forces; renew the attack
By that time; battalion commanded; (see note)
who often; attacked; (t-note)
advance
fierce array; rose
gules (heraldic red); (see note)
battalions
upright lion against; own kingdom
upside-down
that oppressor's
destroy; own lords
If I were; earlier
renounce
In opposition to
die
Wallace's mind raged; (see note)
[the] willful vow
charged; from their foe
Will; why, fool, would; so
no mind (inclination)
death

[the] truth; know
united; been
here; opposite; seen
more than English people; (t-note)
show; their deeds
in his word
Because; lose; all
that cruel battle
high
deprived me of my life
stood; severe combats
very small
Then take revenge; (t-note)

always
[all] but dead
Envy long since; apart from
from anger to grief
Profuse tears; sorrow burst
many; people

Bruce's battalion; struck
ferocious coming; quake

drew close
stood
many streams of blood
floods; went; (t-note)
sword; armor
cruel; own (i.e., his countrymen)
Soon; overpowered
(i.e., Stewart); taken [prisoner]
these; gone; (t-note)
advice
advise us to choose
army
there; that battalion
war; wise; cruel
their; fierce; bold
living, certainly
domination; believe me
whatever they are set to do
without doubt
If; a stronghold
will mount a chase; keenly
If we take to the moor, that
only; more
salvation
must we go
there is no need
Those; stand on ceremony
consented completely; work

boldly; lead
rode; bright
Directed spears; (see note)
whole (safely)
stronghold
If we lose many [men]; stay
Those emboldened horsemen; rode
noise that rose; went easily
Struck with dizziness, deafened; din of spears
From forged steel; sparks; endlessly
grievous press of battle; moved away
Drove up; strength proved
action
dust that rose; were separated
struck
(i.e., Scots) were on the ground
commanded [his] horsemen
wait
(see note)
break [battle] array. Those; quite
know; strongholds
[If] we take to the plain; all
realized that; advice
Directed; remained
Before; rally; battalion
advantage
ordered

returned
Between battles worthy reputation; win
stayed
experienced; feats of arms
strong; skillfully
breach; attached
No spears; swords; steel
With those in the fighting; let; feel
proved; battle
many
Before; perceiving have
sent to their graves
allowed to charge
commanded by

spears enough
support
strategy
that; great power
overly great; to undo; own
ordered
save; stay
Much; trusts; armor
protect; brave deeds
a great deal of labor; takes
entire battalion; approaches
van of the army
Whomever; peace-making; rough
his match was not known
at every stroke
single; against
it was necessary
as he returned there
neck; grievous [one]
burst; profusely; spear's
forces
fugitive
bold; (see note); (t-note)
forayers
at that time
many
boldly; rode
fierce courage
Nor; foes
they singly; fighting; withstood

By the time; stanched
go; (t-note)
bold
such; cunning
wearied far back; (t-note)
breadths of an acre
these two rescued
By; own; sword
formidable force

Whomever; hit; always; stroke; (see note)
remedy the situation
without delay
malice
did not refuse the challenge therefore

Cross-wise; struck; sword
horse's neck he dashed to pieces
on the ground before
battalion; strong; bold
put Bruce back on a horse
alone; vigorous fighting
struck
In front of; helmet
inferior equipment; armor
brawn; sword; went
quickly
cunning; spite; (see note)
Followed watching his opportunity
Graham's corslet; too
closed
loin; forcefully; rogue
hit
live no more
struck; anger
visor
blow; fell
swooned; saddle-bow
Before; overcame to pass towards
Many English; foot
Stabbed; went
yielded; spirit; deeds
death
piteous; pierced
nature; spirit
skill; war; mad
carried; wished
knew little
beast; was; reason torn
Behaving like a madman; host
Striking hard; English; directly
Upright
many; struck
cleared; space
perceived; stood so
long spears; take
escape
Many English; made their way
pierced; spears; either

shafts [of spears]; cut
many spear heads in their
sense; returned
own
So to die in such a way; honor
made no delay
Spurred; swift course
[who] were waiting; at [the River] Carron; (t-note)
sea; that
Aloud; enter the river
Stay together
took to the water
entrance; guard
across the deep water
Then crossed over; feared
heavy, clad; plate
Although; swim; believed
cooled
Over; he (the horse) carried him (Wallace)
Then
soon; courser to
leapt; (t-note)
people
(i.e., July 22) these; death; done; (see note)
truly

by; then by bold
reputation; regretted; encounter
commanded
(see note)
Looking across

said
proved
Wait
flee
own [countrymen]; destroyed
soon
Speech
cost
make them wait
gladly hear; say; (t-note)
stayed
was called; (see note)
their hearing was
asked
do you work thus
Only in your absence
your own; deceived
claim
That; undoes; fierce
lost two; reward
same; go
Than
in deed
believe
loyalty; courage
Tears thereupon; eyes
Far more
evilly exchanged
treason
own; (see note)
follow my advice
you live; such [a] way
would
Yet I would rather; hanged high
give
in comfort live
own liking; live
hold [land]
payment; (t-note)
against
claim; title
take by force, since
From; wear
such a responsibility; bear
knows; war; undertake
standing against
long ago formerly

Are you not ashamed
renegade devourer; (see note)
may I overpower you
any; more deservedly die
war
much injury
laughed; earnestness
You see that
overwhelmed
Against that; protection
by a great deal
Stronger; against that

also
die

such peril; placed
leave
approaches near
that
Before nine o'clock
By
before; same; passed
from here to; (t-note)
in submission to; sworn [to the contrary]
fight by nine o'clock tomorrow
wrongful plunder either; shame
home
if; soon by
same meeting; (t-note)
last; perish
(t-note)
correctly
[An] opponent
more
do not care
parted
To Linlithgow rode; (t-note)
to [the] south [of] the town; (t-note)
pavilion
vacant; seat
made his way
Fasting; danger
Bloodied; armor
rough
that; eats; own blood
thought [it] wrong; such
ordered water be brought to
wash

regretted
These; true; said; (t-note)
repented; deeply; he understood
That; all alike
before
against; fought; from

[The Scots bury their dead, and Wallace delivers a eulogy over the body of Sir John Graham, before he is interred at Falkirk. At a meeting with Bruce, Wallace, upset by Graham's death in particular, accuses him of killing his own people. When Bruce expresses his remorse and vows never to fight against his countrymen again, they are reconciled. When battle resumes, Bruce refuses to attack Scots, and eventually the English flee and Edward is forced to retreat, pursued by the Scots. Edward realizes that Bruce's support for him is shaky and so keeps a close eye on him. The Scots eventually turn back, Wallace makes for Edinburgh, and peace is restored in Scotland. Morton is executed and Dundee razed. Wallace resigns as Guardian and sets sail for France, with his close companions, on a merchant ship, which is attacked near the Humber by pirates led by a notorious Scot-hater, John of Lyn. Thomas Gray, one of Wallace's companions, is said to be the authority for this account. He kills John of Lyn. Wallace arrives in Paris, and is welcomed by the French king who offers him Guyenne, which is occupied by the English. All Scots in the area flock to his support and go to war on the English. Wallace finds an ally in the duke of Orleans. Meanwhile John of Menteith makes a pact with Amer of Valence, and Edward marches into Scotland again, meeting little opposition, and installs English officers in key towns and strongholds. Boyd, Sinclair, and others write to Wallace, seeking his aid. (Lines 547-1076)]
 



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Of King Eduuard yeit mar furth will I meill,
Into quhat wys that he couth Scotland deill.
In Sanct Jhonstoun the erll of York he maid
Capdane to be of all thai landis braid
Fra Tay to Dee, and undyr him Butlar.
His grantschyr had at Kynclevin endyt thar,
His fadyr als; Wallace thaim bathe had slayn;
Eduuard tharfor maid him a man of mayn.
The lord Bewmound into the north he send.
Thai lordschippys all thai gaiff him in commend.
To Sterlyn syn fra Sanct Jhonstoun he went,
Thair to fulfill the layff of his entent.
The lord Clyffurd he gaiff than Douglace Daill,
Rewllar to be of the South Marchis haill.
All Galloway than he gaiff Cumyn in hand:
Wyst nayn bot God how lang that stait suld stand.
The gentill lord, gud Byschop Lammyrtoun
Of Sanct Androws, had Douglace of renoun.
Befor that tyme Jamys, wicht and wys,
Till him was cummyn fra scullis of Parys.
A preva favour the bischop till him bar;
Bot Inglismen was so gret maisteris thar
He durst nocht weill in playn schaw him kindnes,
Quhill on a day he tuk sum hardines.
Douglace he cald and couth to Stirlyng fayr,
Quhar King Eduuard was deland landis thair.
He proferd him into the kingis service
To bruk his awin; fra he wist in this wys
Douglace he was, than he forsuk planlé,
Swor, "Be Sanct George, he brukis na landis of me!
His fadir was in contrar of my crown,
Tharfor as now he bidis in our presoun."
To the byschop nane othir grant he maid,
Bot as he plesd delt furth thai landis braid.
To the lord Soullis all haill the Mers gaiff he
And captane als of Berweik for to be.
Olyfant than, that he in Stirlyng fand,
Quhen he him had he wald nocht kep his band,
The quhilk he maid or he him Stirlyng gaiff.
Desaitfully thus couth he him dissayff:
Intill Ingland send him till presoun strang;
In gret distres he levyt thar full lang.
Quhen Eduuard king had delt all this regioun,
His leyff he tuk, in Ingland maid him boun.
Out of Stirlyng southward as thai couth ryd
Cumyn hapnyt ner hand the Bruce to bid.
Thus said he, "Schir, and yhe couth keip consaill
I can schaw her quhilk may be your availl."
The Bruce ansuerd, "Quhatevir yhe say to me
As for my part sall weill conseillyt be."
Lord Cumyn said, "Schir, knaw ye nocht this thing,
That of this realm ye suld be rychtwys king?"
Than said the Bruce, "Suppos I rychtwys be
I se no tym to tak sic thing on me.
I am haldin into my enemys hand
Undyr gret ayth, quhen I com in Scotland
Nocht part fra him for profyt nor request,
Na for na strenth bot gyff ded me arest.
He hecht agayn to gyff this land to me.
Now fynd I weill it is bot sutelté,
For thus thow seis he delys myn heretage
To Sotheroun part, and sum to traytouris wage."
Than Cumyn said, "Will ye herto accord,
Of my landys and ye lik to be lord,
Ye sall thaim have for your rycht of the croun;
Or, and ye lik, schir, for my warisoun
I sall yow help with power at my mycht."
The Bruce ansuerd, "I will nocht sell my rycht.
Bot on this wys, quhat lordschip thou will craiff
For thi supplé I hecht thou sall it haiff."
"Cum fra yon king, schir, with sum jeperté.
Now Eduuard has all Galloway geyffyn to me.
My nevo Soullis, that kepis Berweik toun,
At your commaund this power sall be boun.
My nevo als, a man of mekill mycht,
The lord of Lorn has rowme into the hycht.
My thrid nevo, a lord of gret renoun,
Will rys with us, of Breichin the barroun."
Than said the Bruce, "Fell thar sa far a chance
That we micht get agane Wallace of France;
Be witt and force he couth this kynryk wyn.
Allace we haiff our lang beyn haldyn in twyn!"
To that langage Cumyn maid na record,
Of ald deidis intill his mynd remord.
The Bruce and he completyt furth thar bande,
Syn that sammyn nycht thai sellyt with thar hande.
This ragment left the Bruce with Cumyn thar;
With King Eduuard haym in Ingland can far
And thar remaynyt quhill this ragment war knawin,
Thre yer and mar or Bruce persewyt his awin.
Sum men demys that Cumyn that ragment send;
Sum men tharfor agaynys makis defend.
Nayn may say weill Cumyn was saklasing
Becaus his wiff was Eduuardis ner cusing.
He servyt dede be rycht law of his king,
So raklesly myskepyt sic a thing.
Had Bruce past by but baid to Sanct Jhonstoun
Be haill assent he had rasavyt the croune.
On Cumyn syn he mycht haiff done the law.
He couth nocht thoill fra tym that he him saw,
Thus Scotland left in hard perplexité.
Of Wallace mar in sum part spek will we.

Explicit decimus passus
et Incipit undecimus passus


Book 12
tell
way; he divided Scotland

Captain; wide
From
grandfather; Kinclaven; (t-note)
also; both
power
(see note)
Those; assigned to him
Stirling then from
rest of his purpose; (t-note)
(see note)
Warden; entirely; (t-note)
Comyn
Knew none but; condition
noble; (see note)

strong
[the] schools
secret; carried

openly show
Until one day; courage
called; went
dividing

possess as; when he knew

By; possesses
opposition to
stays
no
dealt out there
all of the Merse; (see note)
also
found; (see note)
(see note)
which; before; gave
Deceitfully; he deceived him

lived there

leave; bound
they rode
happened nearby; stay
counsel
show here; advantage

advised

rightful

such [a] thing

oath
Not [to]
Nor; unless death; stop
promised
deception
apportions
[the] English some; [as] reward
hereto agree; (t-note)

in exchange; claim
if; reward



your assistance I promise; (t-note)
stratagem
given
nephew
ready; (t-note)
nephew also; great
space; the highlands
third nephew

fair; (t-note)
(t-note)
By wisdom; kingdom
too long; separated
speech; reply
old deeds; remorse
bond
Then; same; sealed
bond
home; went
remained until; bond; disclosed
before; sought; own [claim]
judge

guiltless; (t-note)
cousin
deserved death
recklessly failed to keep
without delay
By total; received
applied
endure









[Wallace overcomes the English in Guyenne and then deals with various disaffected Frenchmen, including a knight, two champions at court, and two squires, who all use trickery to trap him. The final insult for Wallace is when he is led to believe that the French king wishes him to fight a captured lion. Having dispatched the animal, Wallace demands: "Is thar ma doggis at ye wald yeit haiff slayne?" (line 256) and resolves to return to Scotland. He and his men leave, against the French king's wishes.
     He arrives at Elcho, on the shores of the Earn and, keeping under cover, stays with his cousin Crawford. When Crawford goes to St. Johnston (Perth) for more meat than usual, the suspicions of the English are roused and they imprison and interrogate him. When they release him he is followed by Butler and a large armed force. Forewarned of the danger in a dream, Wallace and his men leave the house to avoid open battle because they are heavily outnumbered, and hide in Elcho Park. But when the English threaten to burn Crawford's wife unless she reveals his whereabouts, Wallace comes out to accuse Butler of shameful behavior. Incensed and desperate to avenge the deaths of his father and grandfather, Butler pursues Wallace to the park where, through strategic deployment of his twenty men and with the help of a misty night, Wallace manages to kill Butler and make his way to Methven where he can supply his hungry men with food and reinforcements. Finding food continues to be a problem so Wallace and his men move from Birnam to Lorne. Wallace separates from his men to seek food for them, but as he sleeps under an oak five traitors who have been bought by the earl of York try unsuccessfully to capture him and are killed. After feasting, Wallace and his men make their way to Rannock where they are looked after by friends and acquire more support. Wallace then decides to stop skulking in mountains and woods and to seek open battle. He goes to Dunkeld and then north to be united with Scottish supporters there. (Lines 1-729)]
 
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Fra he com haym, to fle thai mak thaim boun
And Scottis men semblyt to Wallace fast.
In awfull feyr throuchowt the land thai past;
Strenthis was left, witt ye, all desolate;
Agayn thir folk thai durst mak no debate.
In raid battaill thai raid till Abyrdeyn;
The haill nowmyr, sevyn thousand, than was seyn;
Bot Inglismen had left that toun all waist,
On ilka syd away thai can thaim haist,
In all that land left nothir mar nor les.
Lord Bewmound tuk the sey at Bowchan Nes,
Throu Scotland than was manifest in playn;
The lordis that past in hart was wondir fayn.
The knycht Climes of Ross com sodeynly
In Murray land with thar gud chevalry.
The hous of Narn that gud knycht weill has tane,
Slew the capdane and strang men mony ane.
Out of Murray in Bowchane land com thai
To sek Bewmound be he was past away.
Than thir gud men to Wallace passyt rycht.
Quhen Wallace saw Schir Jhon Ramsay the knycht
And othir gud at had bene fra him lang,
Gret curag than was rasyt thaim amang.
The land he reullyt as at him likit best,
To Sanct Jhonstoun syn raid or thai wald rest.
At everilk part a stalwart wach he maid,
Fermyt a sege and stedfastly abaid.
Byschop Synclar intill all haist him dycht,
Com out of Bute with symly men to sycht;
Owt of the ilys of Rauchlé and Aran
Lyndsay and Boid with gud men mony ane.
Adam Wallace, barroun of Ricardtoun,
Full sadly socht till Wallace of renoun,
At Sanct Jhonstoun baid at the sailye still.
For Sotheroun men thai mycht weill pas at will,
For in thar way thar durst na enemys be
Bot fled away be land and als be se.
About that toun thus semblyt thai but mor,
For thai had beyn with gud Wallace befor.
Cetoun, Lauder, and Richard of Lundé,
In a gud barge thai past about be se.
Sanct Jhonstoun havyn thar ankyr haiff thai set.
Twa Inglys schippys thai tuk withoutyn let:
The tane thai brynt, syn stuffyt the tothir weill
With artailye and stalwart men in steyll,
To kep the port; thar suld cum na victaill
Into that toun, nor men at mycht thaim vaill
Fra south and north mony of Scotland fled,
Left castellys waist; feill lost thar lyff to wed.
The south byschop, befor at left Dunkell,
Tyll London past and tald Eduuard himsell
In Scotland thar had fallyn a gret myschance.
Than send he son for Amar the Wallance
And askyt him than quhat war best to do.
He hecht to pas and tak gret gold tharto,
Into Scotland sic menys for to mak
Agane Wallace, on hand this can he tak.
Thai said he wald undo King Eduuardis croun
Bot gyff thai mycht throu tresoun put him doun.
King Eduuard hecht quhat thing at Wallang band
He suld it kep, war it bathe gold and land.
Wallange tuk leyff and is in Scotland went;
To Bothwell com, syn kest in his entent
Quhat man thar was mycht best Wallace begyll;
And sone he fand within a litill quhill
Schyr Jhon Menteth. Wallace his gossop was.
A messynger Schir Amar has gert pas
Onto Schir Jhon and sone a tryst has set;
At Ruglyn Kyrk thir twa togydder met.
Than Wallang said, "Schir Jhon, thow knawis this thing.
Wallace agayn rysis contrar the king,
And thow may haiff quhat lordschip thow will
And thow wald wyrk as I can gyff consaill.
Yon tyrand haldys the rewmys at trowbill bathe;
Till thryfty men it dois full mekill scaith.
He traistis thee. Rycht weyll thow may him tak.
Of this mater ane end I think to mak.
War he away, we mycht at liking ryng
As lordys all and leiff undyr a king."
Than Menteth said, "He is our governour.
For us he baid in mony felloun stour,
Nocht for himselff bot for our heretage.
To sell him thus, it war a foull owtrage."
Than Wallang said, "And thow weill undyrstud,
Gret neid it war; he spillis so mekill blud
Of Crystin men, puttis saullis in peraill.
I bynd me als he sall be haldyn haill
As for his lyff and kepyt in presoune;
King Eduuard wald haiff him in subjeccioun."
Than Menteth thocht sa thai wald kepe connand,
He wald full fayn haiff had him of Scotland.
Wallange saw him intill a study be,
Thre thowsand pundys of fyn gold leit him se
And hecht he suld the Lewynhous haiff at will.
Thus tresonably Menteth grantyt thartill;
Obligacioun with his awn hand he maid.
Syn tuk the gold and Eduuardis seill so braid
And gaiff thaim his, quhen he his tym mycht se
To tak Wallace our Sulway, giff him fre
Till Inglismen. Be this tresonabill concord
Schyr Jhon suld be of all the Lennox lord.
Thus Wallace suld in Ingland kepyt be,
So Eduuard mycht mak Scotland till him fre.
Thar covatys was our gret maister seyn;
Nane sampill takis how ane othir has beyn
For covatice put in gret paynys fell,
For covatice the serpent is of hell.
Throuch covatice gud Ector tuk the ded,
For covatice thar can be no ramed;
Throuch covatice gud Alexander was lost,
And Julius als, for all his reiff and bost;
Throuch covatice deit Arthour of Bretan,
For covatice thar had deit mony ane;
For covatice the traytour Ganyelon
The flour of France he put till confusion;
For covatice thai poysound gud Godfra
In Antioche, as the autor will sa;
For covatice Menteth apon fals wys
Betraysyt Wallace at was his gossop twys.
Wallang in haist with blyth will and glaid hart
Till London past and schawit till King Eduuart.
Of this contrak he had a mar plesance
Than of fyn gold had geyffyn in balance.
A grettar wecht na his ransoun mycht be.
Of Wallace furth yit sumthing spek will we,
At Sanct Jhonstoun was at the sogeyng still.
In a mornyng Sotheroun with egyr will,
Five hundreth men in harnas rycht juntly,
Thai uschet furth to mak a jeperty
At the south port apon Scot and Dundas,
Quhilk in that tym rycht wys and worthy was
Agayn thar fayis rycht scharply socht and sayr.
In that cownter sevyn scor to ded thai bayr.
Yeit Inglismen at cruell war and keyn
Full ferely faucht quhar douchty deid was seyn.
Fra the west gett drew all the Scottis haill
To the fechtaris. Quhen Sotheroun saw na vaill
Bot in agayn, full fast thai can thaim sped.
The knycht Dundas prevyt so douchty deid;
Our neyr the gett full bandounly he baid,
Wyth a gud suerd full gret maistré he maid,
Nocht wittandly his falowis was him fra.
In at the gett the Sotheroun can him ta;
Onto the erll thai led him haistelé.
Quhen he him saw he said he suld nocht de:
"To slay this ane it may us litill rameid."
He send him furth to Wallace in that steid.
On the north syd his bestials had he wrocht.
Quhill he him saw of this he wyst rycht nocht;
Send to the erll and thankit him largelé,
Hecht for to quyt quhen he sic cace mycht se.
Bot all her for soverance he wald nocht grant,
Thocht thai yoldin wald cum as recreant;
For gold na gud he wald no trewbut tak.
A full strang salt than he begouth to mak.
The erll of Fyf duelt under trewage lang
Of King Eduuard, and than him thocht it wrang
At Wallace sa was segeand Sanct Jhonstoun,
Bot gyff he com in rycht help of the croun.
Till Inglismen he wald nocht kep that band.
Than he come sone with gud men of the land,
And Jhon Wallang, was than schirreff of Fyff,
Till Wallace past, starkyt him in that stryff.
That erll was cummyn of trew, haill nobill blud,
Fra the ald thane, quhilk in his tym was gud.
Than all about to Sanct Jhonstoun thai gang
With felloun salt, was hydwys, scharp, and strang.
Full feill fagaldys into the dyk thai cast,
Hadyr and hay bond apon flakys fast.
Wyth treis and erd a gret passage thai maid;
Atour the wallis thai yeid with battaill braid.
The Sotheroun men maid gret defens agayn,
Quhill on the wallys thar was a thousand slayn.
Wallace yeid in and his rayit battaill rycht;
All Sotheroun men derffly to ded thai dycht.
To sayff the erll Wallace the harrald send,
Gud Jop himselff, the quhilk befor him kend.
For Dundas saik thai said he suld nocht de;
Wallace himselff this ordand for to be.
A small haknay he gert till him be tak,
Silver and gold his costis for to mak;
Set on his clok a takyn for to se,
The lyoun in wax that suld his condet be;
Convoyit him furth and na man him with all.
Wemen and barnys Wallace gert freith thaim all,
And syn gart cry trew Scottis men to thar awn;
Plenyst the land quhilk lang had beyn ourthrawn,
Than Wallace past the south land for to se.
Eduuard the Bruce, in his tym rycht worthé,
That yer befor he had in Irland ben
And purchest thar of cruell men and keyn.
Fyfty in feyr, was of his moderys kyn,
At Kyrkubré on Galloway entryt in.
With thai fyfté he had vencust nine scor.
And syn he past withoutyn tary mor
Till Wygtoun sone and that castell has tane.
Sotheroun was fled and left it all allane.
Wallace him met with trew men reverently;
To Lowmabane went all that chevalry.
Thai maid Eduuard bath lord and ledar thar.
This condicioun Wallace him hecht but mar,
Bot a schort tym to bid Robert the king;
Gyff he come nocht in this regioun to ryng,
At Eduuard suld resaiff the croun but faill.
Thus hecht Wallace and all the barnage haill.
In Louchmabane Prynce Eduuard levyt still
And Wallace past in Cumno with blith will.
At the Blak Rok, quhar he was wont to be,
Apon that sted a ryall hous held he.
Inglis wardans till London past but mar
And tauld the king of all thar gret mysfar,
How Wallace had Scotland fra thaim reduce
And how he had rasavyt Eduuard the Bruce.
The commouns suor thai suld cum nevermar
Apon Scotland and Wallace leiffand war.
Than Eduuard wrayt till Menteth prevali,
Prayit him till haist; the tym was past by
Of the promes the quhilk at he was bund.
Schyr Jhon Menteth intill his wit has fund
How he suld best his purpos to fullfill.
His systir son in haist he cald him till
And ordand him in duellyng with Wallace.
Ane ayth agayn he gert him mak on cace,
Quhat tym he wyst Wallace in quiet draw
He suld him warnd, for aventur mycht befaw.
This man grantyt at sic thing suld be done;
With Wallace thus he was in service sone.
As of tresoun Wallace had litill thocht;
His lauborous mynd on othir materis wrocht.
Thus Wallace thrys has maid all Scotland fre.
Than he desyryt in lestand pees to be,
For as of wer he was in sum part yrk.
He purpost than to serve God and the kyrk,
And for to leyff undyr hys rychtwys king;
That he desyryt atour all erdly thing.
The harrold Jop in Ingland sone he send
And wrayt to Bruce rycht hartlie this commend,
Besekand him to cum and tak his croun;
Nane suld gaynstand, clerk, burges, no barroun.
The harrald past. Quhen Bruce saw his credans,
Tharoff he tuk a perfyt gret plesans.
With hys awn hand agayn wrayt to Wallace
And thankyt him of lauta and kyndnas,
Besekand him this mater to conseill,
For he behuffyd owt of Ingland to steill;
For lang befor was kepyt the ragment
Quhilk Cumyn had, to byd the gret parlement
Into London; and gyff thai him accus,
To cum fra thaim he suld mak sum excus.
He prayit Wallace in Glaskow Mur to walk
The fyrst nycht of Juli, for his salk,
And bad he suld bot into quiet be,
For he with him mycht bryng few chevalré.
Wallace was blyth quhen he this writyng saw;
His houshauld sone he gert to Glaskow draw.
That moneth thar he ordand thaim to byd.
Kerle he tuk ilk nycht with him to ryd,
And this yong man that Menteth till him send -
Wyst nane bot thir quhat way at Wallace wend -
The quhilk gart warn his eym the auchtand nycht.
Sexté full sone schyr Jhone Menteth gert dycht
Of hys awn kyn and of alya born.
To this tresoun he gert thaim all be suorn.
Fra Dunbertane he sped thaim haistely,
Ner Glaskow Kyrk thai bownyt thaim prevaly.
Wallace past furth quhar at the tryst was set;
A spy thai maid and folowed him but let
Till Robrastoun, was ner be the way syd
And bot a hows quhar Wallace oysyt to byd.
He wouk on fut quhill passyt was mydnycht;
Kerle and he than for a sleip thaim dycht.
Thai bad this cuk that he suld wache his part
And walkyn Wallace, com men fra ony art.
Quhen thai slepyt this traytour tuk graith heid.
He met his eym and bad him haiff no dreid:
"On sleip he is and with him bot a man.
Ye may him haiff for ony craft he can;
Without the hous thar wapynnys laid thaim fra."
For weill thai wyst, gat Wallace ane of tha
And on his feyt, hys ransoun suld be sauld.
Thus semblyt thai about that febill hauld.
This traytour wach fra Wallace than he stall
Bathe knyff and suerd, his bow and arowis all.
Eftir mydnycht in handis thai haiff him tane,
Dyschovyll on sleipe, wyth him na man bot ane.
Kerle thai tuk and led him of that place,
Dyd him to ded withoutyn langar space.
Thai thocht to bynd Wallace throu strenthis strang.
On fute he gat the feill traytouris amang,
Grippyt about, bot na wapyn he fand.
Apon a syll he saw besyd him stand
The bak of ane he byrstyt in that thrang
And of ane othir the harnes out he dang.
Than als mony as handis mycht on him lay,
Be force hym hynt for till haiff him away,
Bot that power mycht nocht a fute him leid
Owt of that hous quhill thai or he war deid.
Schir Jhon saw weill be force it coud nocht be,
Or he war tayne he thocht erar to de.
Menteth bad ces and thus spak to Wallace,
Syn schawyt him furth a rycht sutell fals cace:
"Yhe haiff so lang her oysyt yow allane
Quhill witt tharoff is intill Ingland gane.
Tharfor her me and sobyr your curage.
The Inglismen with a full gret barnage
Ar semblyt her and set this hous about
That ye be force on na wayis may wyn out.
Suppos ye had the strenth of gud Ectour
Amang this ost ye may nocht lang endour.
And thai yow tak, in haist your ded is dycht.
I haiff spokyn with Lord Clyffurd that knycht,
Wyth thar chyftanys weill menyt for your lyff.
Thai ask no mar bot be quyt of your stryff.
To Dunbertane ye sall furth pas with me;
At your awn hous ye ma in saifté be."
Sotheroun sic oys with Menteth lang had thai
That Wallace trowyt sum part at he wald say.
Menteth said, "Schir, lo, wappynnys nane we haiff;
We com in trayst your lyff gyff we mycht saiff."
Wallace trowyt weill, and he his gossep twys,
That he wald nocht be no maner of wys
Him to betrays for all Scotland so wyd.
Ane ayth of him he askit in that tid.
Thar wantit wit. Quhat suld his aythis mor?
Forsuorn till him he was lang tym befor.
The ayth he maid. Wallace com in his will;
Rycht frawdfully all thus schawyt him till.
"Gossep," he said, "as presoner thai mon yow se,
Or thai throu force wyll ellis tak yow fra me."
A courch with slycht apon his handys thai laid,
And undyr syn with sevir cordys thai braid,
Bath scharp and tewch, and fast togydder drew.
Allace, the Bruce mycht sayr that byndyng rew,
Quhilk maid Scotland sone brokyn apon cace,
For Comyns ded and los of gud Wallace!
Thai led him furth in feyr amang thaim awe.
Kerle he myst; of na Sotheroun he saw.
Than wyst he weyll that he betraysyt was.
Towart the south with him quhen thai can pas,
Yeit thai him said in trewth he suld nocht de,
King Eduuard wald kep him in gud saufté
For hie honour in wer at he had wrocht.
The sayr bandys so strowblyt all his thocht,
Credence tharto forsuth he coud nocht geyff.
He wyst full weyll thai wald nocht lat him leiff.
A fals foull caus thai Menteth for him tauld,
Quhen on this wys gud Wallace he had sauld.
Sum of thaim said it was to saiff thar lord;
Thai leid all owt that maid that fals record.
At the Fawkyrk the gud Stewart was slayn,
Our corniclis rehersis that in playn,
On Madelan Day, that eighteen yer befor.
Comyns ded tharoff it wytnesis mor.
At Robrastoun Wallas was tresonabilly,
Thus falsly, stollyn fra his gud chevalry,
In Glaskow lay and wyst nocht of this thing.
Thus he was lost in byding of his king.
South thai him led, ay haldand the west land,
Delyverit him in haist our Sullway Sand.
The lord Clyffurd and Wallang tuk him thar;
To Carleyll toun full fast with him thai fayr,
In presoun him stad. That was a gret dolour.
That hous efter was callyt Wallace tour.
Sum men syn said, that knew nocht weill the cas,
In Berweik thai to ded put gud Wallace.
Contrar is knawin fyrst be this opinioun;
For Scottis men than had haly Berweik toun
And Scotland fre, quhill that Soullis it gaiff,
For Lord Cumyn till Ingland with the layff.
Ane othir poynt is, the traytouris durst nocht pas
At sauld him sa quhar Scottis men maisteris was.
The thrid poynt is, the commouns of Ingland,
Quhat thai desyr, thai will nocht understand
That thing be done, for wytnes at may be,
Na credence geyff forthyr than thai may se.
To se him de Eduuard had mar desyr
Than to be lord of all the gret empyr.
For thir causis thai kepyt him sa lang,
Quhill the commouns mycht on to London gang.
Allace, Scotland, to quhom sall thow compleyn?
Allace, fra payn quha sall thee now restreyn?
Allace, thi help is fastlie brocht to ground:
Thi best chyftane in braith bandis is bound.
Allace, thow has now lost thi gyd of lycht.
Allace, quha sall defend thee in thi rycht?
Allace, thi payn approchis wondyr ner,
With sorow sone thow mon bene set in feyr.
Thi gracious gyd, thi grettast governour,
Allace, our neir is cumyn his fatell hour.
Allace, quha sall thee beit now of thi baill?
Allace, quhen sall of harmys thow be haill?
Quha sall thee defend? Quha sall thee now mak fre?
Allace, in wer quha sall thi helpar be?
Quha sall thee help? Quha sall thee now radem?
Allace, quha sall the Saxons fra thee flem?
I can no mar bot besek God of grace
Thee to restor in haist to rychtwysnace,
Sen gud Wallace may succour thee no mar.
The los of him encressit mekill cair.
Now of his men, in Glaskow still at lay,
Quhat sorow rais quhen thai him myst away.
The cruell payn, the wofull complenyng,
Tharoff to tell it war our hevy thing.
I will lat be and spek of it no mar.
Litill rehers is our mekill of cair
And principaly quhar redempcioun is nayn.
It helpys nocht to tell thar petous mayn;
The deid tharoff is yeit in remembrance.
I will lat slaik of sorow the ballance.101
Bot Longawell to Louchmabane coud pas
And thar he hecht, quhar gud Prince Eduuard was
Out of Scotland he suld pas nevermor.
Los of Wallace socht till his hart so sor
The rewlm of France he vowit he suld never se,
Bot veng Wallace or ellis tharfor to de.
Thar he remaynd quhill cummyn of the king;
With Bruce in wer this gud knycht furth can ryng.
Remembrance syn was in the Brucys buk:
Secound he was quhen thai Saynct Jhonstoun tuk,
Folowed the king at wynnyng of the toun.
The Bruce tharfor gaiff him full gret gardoun;
All Charterys land the gud king till him gaiff;
Charterys sen syn of his kyn is the laiff.
Quharto suld I fer in that story wend?
Bot of my buk to mak a fynaill end:
Robert the Bruce com hame on the ferd day
In Scotland, eft Wallace was had away,
Till Louchmabane, quhar that he fand Eduuard,
Quharoff he was gretlie rejossyt in hart;
Bot fra he wyst Wallace away was led,
So mekill baill within his breyst thar bred
Ner out of wytt he worthit for to weyd.
Eduuard full sone than till hys brothir yeid.
A sodane chance this was in wo fra weill.
Gud Eduuard said, "This helpys nocht a dell.
Lat murnyng be; it may mak na remeid.
Ye haiff him tynt. Ye suld ravenge his deid.
Bot for your caus he tuk the wer on hand,
In your defens, and thrys has fred Scotland,
The quhilk was tynt fra us and all our kyn;
War nocht Wallace we had never entryt in.
Merour he was of lauta and manheid,
In wer the best that ever sall power leid.
Had he likyt for till haiff tane your croun
Wald nane him let that was in this regioun.
Had nocht beyne he, ye suld had na entres
Into this rewlm, for tresoun and falsnes.
That sall ye se. The traytour that him sauld,
Fra yow he thinkys Dunbertane for till hauld.
Sum comfort tak and lat slaik of this sorou."
The king chargyt Eduuard apon the morou
Radres to tak of wrang that wrocht him was.
Till Dallswyntoun he ordand him to pas,
And men of armys; gyff thai fand Cumyn thar,
Put him to ded; for na dreid thai suld spar.
Thai fand him nocht. The king himselff him slew
Intill Drumfres, quhar witnes was inew.
That hapnys wrang, our gret haist in a king;
Till wyrk by law it may scaith mekill thing.
Me nedis heroff na forthyr for till schaw;
How that was done is knawin to yow aw.
Bot yong Douglace fyrst to the king can pas,
In all hys wer bath wicht and worthi was;
Nor how the king has tane on him the croun;
Of all that her I mak bot schort mencioun;
Nor how lord Soullis gaiff Berweik toun away,
How eftir syn sone tynt was Galloway;
How Jhon of Lorn agayn his rycht king rais;
On athir sid how Bruce had mony fais;
How bauld Breichin contrar his king coud ryd;
Rycht few was than in wer with him to byd;
Nor how the north was gyffyn fra the gud king,
Quhilk maid him lang in paynfull wer to ryng.
Ay trew till him was Jamys the gud Douglace,
For Brucis rycht baid weill in mony place.
Undyr the king he was the best chyftayn,
Bot Wallace rais as chyftane him allayn;
Tharfor till him is no comparisoun
As of a man, sauff reverence of the croun.
Bot sa mony as of Douglace has beyn
Gud of a kyn was never in Scotland seyn.
Comparisoun that can I nocht weill declar.
Of Brucis buk as now I spek no mar.
Master Barbour, quhilk was a worthi clerk,
He said the Bruce amang his othir werk.
In this mater prolixit I am almaist;
To my purpos breiffly I will me haist,
How gud Wallace was set amang his fayis.
To London with him Clyffurd and Wallang gais,
Quhar King Eduuard was rycht fayn of that fang.
Thai haiff him stad intill a presone strang.
Of Wallace end myselff wald leiff for dredis
To say the werst, bot rychtwysnes me ledis.
We fynd his lyff was all swa verray trew,
His fatell hour I will nocht fenye new.
Menteth was fals and that our weill was knawin;
Feill of that kyn in Scotland than was sawyn,
Chargyt to byd undir the gret jugement
At King Robert ackyt in his parlement.
Tharoff I mak no langar contenuans.
Bot Wallace end in warld was displesans,
Tharfor I ces and puttis it nocht in rym.
Scotland may thank the blyssyt, happy tym
At he was born, be prynsuall poyntis two.
This is the fyrst, or that we forthyr go,
Scotland he fred and brocht it of thrillage;
And now in hevin he has his heretage,
As it prevyt be gud experians.
Wys clerkys yeit it kepis in remembrans,
How that a monk of Bery abbay than,
Into that tym a rycht religious man;
A yong monk als with him in ordour stud,
Quhilk knew his lyff was clene, perfyt, and gud.
This fader monk was wesyd with seknace,
Out of the warld as he suld pas on cace.
His brothir saw the spret lykly to pas.
A band of him rycht ernystly he coud as,
To cum agayn and schaw him of the meid
At he suld haiff at God for his gud deid.
He grantyt him, at his prayer, to preiff
To cum agayn gyff God wald geiff him leiff.
The spreyt changyt out of this warldly payn,
In that sammyn hour com to the monk agayn.
Sic thing has beyn and is be voice and sycht.
Quhar he apperyt thar schawyt sa mekill lycht,
Lyk till lawntryns it illumynyt so cler
At warldly lycht tharto mycht be no peyr.
A voice said thus, "God has me grantyt grace
That I sall kep my promes in this place."
The monk was blyth of this cler fygur fayr;
Bot a fyr brund in his forheid he bayr
And than him thocht it myslikyt all the lave.
"Quhar art thow spreyt? Ansuer, sa God thee save."
"In purgatory." "How lang sall thow be thair?"
"Bot halff ane hour to cum and litill mair.
Purgatory is, I do thee weill to wit,
In ony place quhar God will it admyt.
Ane hour of space I was demed thar to be
And that passis, suppos I spek with thee."
"Quhy has thow that and all the layff so haill?"
"For of science I thocht me maist availl.
Quha pridys tharin that laubour is in waist,
For science cummys bot of the Haly Gaist."
"Eftir thi hour quhar is thi passage evyn?"
"Quhen tym cummys," he said, "to lestand hevin."
"Quhat tym is that, I pray thee now declar?"
"Twa ar on lyff mon be befor me thar."
"Quhilk two ar thai? The verité thow me ken."
"The fyrst has bene a gret slaar of men.
Now thai him kep to martyr in London toun
On Wednysday, befor king and commoun.
Is nayn on lyff at has sa mony slayn."
"Brodyr," he said, "that taill is bot in vayn,
For slauchter is to God abhominabill."
"Than," said the spreyt, "forsuth this is no fabill.
He is Wallace, defendour of Scotland,
For rychtwys wer that he tuk apon hand.
Thar rychtwysnes is lovyt our the lave;
Tharfor in hevyn he sall that honour have.
Syn, a pure preist, is mekill to commend.
He tuk in thank quhat thing that God him send.
For dayly mes and heryng of confessioun
Hevin he sall haiff to lestand warysoun.
I am the thrid grantyt throw Goddis grace."
"Brothir," he said, "tell I this in our place,
Thai wyll bot deym I othir dreym or rave."
"Than," said the spreyt, "this wytnes thow sall have.
Your bellys sall ryng, for ocht at ye do may,
Quhen thai him sla, halff ane hour of that day."
And so thai did. The monk wyst quhat thaim alyt.
Throuch braid Bretane the voice tharoff was scalyt.
The spreyt tuk leyff at Goddis will to be.
Of Wallace end to her it is peté,
And I wald nocht put men in gret dolour,
Bot lychtly pas atour his fatell hour.
On Wednysday the fals Sotheroun furth brocht
Till martyr him, as thai befor had wrocht.
Rycht suth it is a martyr was Wallace,
As Osuuald, Edmunt, Eduuard, and Thomas.
Of men in armes led him a full gret rout.102
Wyth a bauld spreit gud Wallace blent about.
A preyst he askyt, for God at deit on Tre.
King Eduuard than commaundyt his clergé
And said, "I charge, apayn of los of lyve,
Nane be sa bauld yon tyrand for to schryve.
He has rong lang in contrar my hienace."
A blyst byschop sone present in that place,
Of Canterbery he than was rychtwys lord,
Agayn the king he maid this rycht record
And said, "Myself sall her his confessioun.
Gyff I haiff mycht, in contrar of thi croun.
And thou throu force will stop me of this thing,
I vow to God, quhilk is my rychtwys king,
That all Ingland I sall her enterdyt
And mak it knawin thou art ane herretyk.
The sacrament of kyrk I sall him geiff.
Syn tak thi chos, to sterve or lat him leiff.
It war mar vaill in worschip of thi croun
To kepe sic ane in lyff in thi bandoun,
Than all the land and gud at thow has refyd,
Bot covatice thee ay fra honour drefyd.
Thow has thy lyff rongyn in wrangwis deid:
That sall be seyn on thee or on thi seid."
The king gert charge thai suld the byschop ta,
Bot sad lordys consellyt to lat him ga.
All Inglismen said at his desyr was rycht.
To Wallace than he rakyt in thar sicht
And sadly hard his confessioun till ane end.
Humbly to God his spreyt he thar comend,
Lawly him servyt with hartlye devocioun
Apon his kneis and said ane orysoun.
His leyff he tuk and to Westmonaster raid.
The lokmen than thai bur Wallace but baid
Ontill a place his martyrdom to tak;
For till his ded he wald no forthyr mak.
Fra the fyrst nycht he was tane in Scotland
Thai kepyt him into that sammyn band.
Nathing he had at suld haiff doyn him gud
Bot Inglismen him servit of carnaill fud.
Hys warldly lyff desyrd the sustenance,
Thocht he it gat in contrar of plesance.
Thai thirty dayis his band thai durst nocht slaik,
Quhill he was bundyn on a skamyll of ayk
With irn chenyeis that was bath stark and keyn.
A clerk thai set to her quhat he wald meyn.
"Thow Scot," he said, "that gret wrangis has don,
Thi fatell hour thou seis approchis son.
Thow suld in mynd remembyr thi mysdeid
At clerkys may quhen thai thar psalmis reid
For Crystyn saullis that makis thaim to pray,
In thar nowmyr thow may be ane of thai,
For now thow seis on force thou mon deces."
Than Wallace said, "For all thi roid rahres
Thou has na charge, suppos at I did mys.
Yon blyst byschop has hecht I sall haiff blis
And I trow weill at God sall it admyt.
Thi febyll wordis sall nocht my conscience smyt.
Conford I haiff of way at I suld gang;
Maist payn I feill at I bid her our lang."
Than said this clerk, "Our king oft send thee till.
Thow mycht haiff had all Scotland at thi will
To hald of him and cessyt of thi stryff,
So as a lord rongyn furth all thi lyff."
Than Wallace said, "Thou spekis of mychty thing.
Had I lestyt and gottyn my rychtwys king,
Fra worthi Bruce had rasavit his croun
I thocht haiff maid Ingland at his bandoun;
So uttraly it suld beyn at his will,
Quhat plessyt him to sauff thi king or spill."
"Weill," said this clerk, "than thow repentis nocht;
Of wykkydnes thow has a felloun thocht.
Is nayn in warld at has sa mony slane,
Tharfor till ask, me think thow sald be bane,
Grace of our king and syn at his barnage."
Than Wallace smyld a litill at his langage.
"I grant," he said, "part Inglismen I slew
In my quarell, me thocht nocht halff enew.
I movyt na wer bot for to wyn our awin;
To God and man the rycht full weill is knawin.
Thi fruster wordis dois nocht bot taris me.
I thee commaund, on Goddis halff lat me be."
A schyrray gart this clerk son fra him pas;
Rycht as thai durst thai grant quhat he wald as.
A psalter buk Wallace had on him ever,
Fra his childeid fra it wald nocht desever.
Better he trowit in viagis for to speid,
Bot than he was dispolyeid of his weid.
This grace he ast at Lord Clyffurd that knycht,
To lat him haiff his Psalter buk in sycht.
He gert a preyst it oppyn befor him hauld
Quhill thai till him had done all at thai wauld.
Stedfast he red for ocht thai did him thar.
Feyll Sotheroun said at Wallace feld na sayr.
Gud devocioun so was his begynnyng
Conteynd tharwith, and fair was his endyng,
Quhill spech and spreyt at anys all can fayr
To lestand blys, we trow forevermayr.
I will nocht tell how he devydyt was
In five partis and ordand for to pas;
Bot thus his spreyt be liklynes was weill.
Of Wallace lyff quha has a forthar feill
May schaw furth mair with wit and eloquence;
For I to this has done my diligence,
Efter the pruff geyffyn fra the Latyn buk
Quhilk Maister Blair in his tym undyrtuk,
In fayr Latyn compild it till ane end;
With thir witnes the mair is to commend.
Byschop Synclar, than lord was of Dunkell,
He gat this buk and confermd it himsell
For verray trew; tharof he had no dreid,
Himselff had seyn gret part of Wallace deid.
His purpos was till have send it to Rom,
Our fader of kyrk tharon to gyff his dom.
Bot Maister Blayr and als Schir Thomas Gray,
Efter Wallace thai lestit mony day,
Thir twa knew best of gud Schir Wilyhamys deid
Fra sixteen yer quhill twenty-nine yeid.
Forty and five of age Wallace was cauld
That tym that he was to the Sotheroun sauld.
Thocht this mater be nocht till all plesance,
His suthfast deid was worthi till avance.
All worthi men at redys this rurall dyt,
Blaym nocht the buk, set I be unperfyt.
I suld have thank, sen I nocht travaill spard.
For my laubour na man hecht me reward;
Na charge I had of king nor othir lord;
Gret harm I thocht his gud deid suld be smord.
I haiff said her ner as the proces gais
And fenyeid nocht for frendschip nor for fais.
Costis herfor was no man bond to me.
In this sentence I had na will to le;
Bot in als mekill as I rahersit nocht
Sa worthely as nobill Wallace wrocht,
Bot in a poynt I grant I said amys.
Thir twa knychtis suld blamyt be for this,
The knycht Wallas, of Cragge rychtwys lord,
And Liddaill als, gert me mak wrang record.
On Allyrtoun Mur the croun he tuk a day
To get battaill, as myn autour will say.
Thir twa gert me say that ane othir wys;
Till mayster Blayr we did sum part of dispys.

Go nobill buk, fulfillyt of gud sentens,
Suppos thow be baran of eloquens.
Go worthi buk, fullfillit of suthfast deid,
Bot in langage of help thow has gret neid.
Quhen gud makaris rang weill into Scotland
Gret harm was it that nane of thaim thee fand.
Yeit thar is part that can thee weill avance;
Now byd thi tym and be a remembrance.
I yow besek of your banevolence,
Quha will nocht low lak nocht my eloquence:
It is weill knawin I am a burel man.
For her is said als gudly as I can;
My spreyt felis na termys of Pernase.
Now besek God that gyffar is of grace,
Maide hell and erd and set the hevyn abuff,
That He us grant of His der lestand luff.

Explicit vita nobilisum . . . .
When; ready
flocked
awesome array
Castles
Against these; dared; resistance
In battle order; rode to
entire number

every; did; hasten
neither more
took to sea; (see note)
openly
were very glad
(see note)
company of knights
castle; taken
many [a] one

seek; but; gone
these

good [men] that had been from
evoked among them
ruled; that
then rode before
every place; watch
Established; waited
prepared
good
isles; Rathlin
many [a] one

resolutely
remained; siege
English
dared
also by sea
gathered; immediately


by sea
haven; anchor
hindrance
one; burned, then supplied
artillery
defend; gate
help
From; many from
wasted; many; pledge
English-appointed
told; himself
disaster; (t-note)
soon

vowed; go
such means; use
Against; undertake
rule; (t-note)
Unless
promised; contracted
keep (honor)
leave; (see note)
then considered
beguile
while
[children's] godfather
made
soon; meeting
Rutherglen Church these two
you know; (t-note)

choose
If; advise; (t-note)
That; both realms
To thriving; harm
trusts; take
matter
Were; pleasure reign
live

stood; grievous battle

betray

much blood
souls; peril
pledge; also; kept safe


so [long as]; the agreement; (t-note)
gladly; [out] of; (t-note)
deep in thought

promised; Lennox
agreed to that
A compact
Then took; broad

over; freely
To; By; agreement


subject to his sole authority
covetousness (covetise)
No one example
extreme; (see note)

Hector died; (t-note)
remedy

plundering
died; (t-note)
(t-note)
(t-note)
death
betrayed
author; say
in a false manner
Betrayed; that; twice

To; showed [the agreement] to
contract; more joy
given
weight than; ransom
(t-note)
siege; (t-note)
[the] English; eager
armor in close order
issued; surprise attack
gate
Who
Against; foes; fiercely; intensely
encounter; bore down
that fierce; bold
actively fought; brave
From; gate; completely
fighters; avail
[to go] in again; speed
proved so bold indeed
Too near; gate; boldly; stayed
sword; deeds of arms
Not realizing; were away from him
gate; brought him

die
one; help
place
siege engines; set up
Until; knew
Sent; generously
Promised; repay; such [an] opportunity
here; safe conducts
surrendered; admitting defeat
nor goods; tribute
assault; began
tribute a long time; (see note)

That; so; laying siege to
Unless; properly to help
To; keep; bond

then
supported; struggle
true, completely
old thane; (see note)
went
fierce attack; hideous
many faggots; ditch
Heather; bound; bundles
trees; earth
Across; went
English
Until
went; ordered battalion
English; violently killed
save; herald sent
knew
sake
ordered
hackney; caused; taken; (t-note)
to meet his expenses
Placed; cloak; token
[safe] conduct
Escorted
children; made free
then caused to be called; own
Stocked; overthrown

(see note)
year
obtained; bold; fierce
company; mother's kin
Kirkcudbright in
vanquished
after; more delay
Wigton soon; taken
[The] English; (t-note)
respectfully
Lochmaben; army; (see note)
leader there
promised immediately
Only; await
reign
without fail
promised; whole
lived
Cumnock; happily
(see note)
place; royal castle
wardens; straightaway
told; disaster
recovered
welcomed
swore; nevermore
while; living was
wrote; privately
hurry; (t-note)
to which he was bound
wisdom; found

called to
ordered; to dwell
An oath; in the event
knew; withdrew
alert, whatever might befall
that such
soon

busy; worked
thrice; (see note)
lasting; (see note)
war; weary
church; (see note)
live; rightful
above; earthly
herald; soon; sent
wrote; commendation
Beseeching
None; oppose
credentials
pleasure
own; wrote
loyalty
Praying; conceal
needed; steal
bond
Which; await
if; accused
come away
keep watch
sake
ordered
companions

carried; (see note)
month; ordered; remain
each
to; sent
Knew none; these; went
Who caused; uncle; eighth
caused to be ready; (t-note)
kin; allies
sworn
From; (t-note)
prepared; secretly
forth; meeting
immediately
Robroyston (near Glasgow) by
only one; used to stay
stood watch until
got ready
traitor; take his turn on watch
waken; any direction
prompt heed
uncle; fear
only one
skill; knows
Outside; are laid
one of them
dearly paid for
abode
guard; stole
Both; sword
laid hands on him
Unarmed in sleep; one
out of
Put him to death; time

foot; many
Felt; weapon; found
beam
back; one; broke; crowd
brains dashed
as many as might hands; (t-note)
By; seized
foot; lead
until
by
Before; taken; sooner; die
ordered [them to] stop
Then displayed
here been accustomed; alone
While word
listen to me; moderate

gathered; surround this house
by; escape
Even if; Hector

If they take you; death; certain

well disposed
leave off your struggle

own castle; safety; (t-note)
[The] English; practice
believed; that

good faith; if; save
believed; godfather separated from
[So] that

oath; at that time
lacked wisdom; should [he want with]
Perjured
oath; submitted to him
appeared to him
Godfather
will otherwise take
kerchief; cunning
then; strong ropes; bound
tough
sorely; rue; (see note)
soon
death; (t-note)
company; all; (t-note)
missed; no English
knew; betrayed

die
safety
high; war that
severe bindings; troubled
give
knew; let; live
told; (see note); (t-note)
way; betrayed
(see note)
lead

chronicles recount; plainly
(i.e., July 22); (see note); (t-note)
testified further; (see note)

stolen; host

waiting for
always keeping to
over Solway
(see note)
Carlisle; went
placed; distress
building; tower
afterwards; case
Berwick; death
[The] contrary; known; by
held wholly; (see note)
until; gave [up]; (t-note)
others
dared
That betrayed; so; masters


is done; that; (t-note)
No; give further
more desire

these reasons
Until; go
(see note)
who; keep away
savior; quickly
strong; (t-note)
guiding light

suffering
soon; must; fear
guide
too near; destined
relieve; woe
whole

war
redeem; (t-note)
expel
[do] no more; beseech
[your] rightful place
Since; help; more
increased great suffering
who still lay in Glasgow
rose; missed
fierce suffering
too heavy [a]
let; more
reciting; too much; sorrow

wretched lament


past; (see note)
vowed

troubled his heart so much
vowed
avenge; else
until [the] arrival of the king (Bruce)
did rule
afterwards; (see note)


gave; reward
(see note)
afterwards; descendant
go; (t-note)

came home; fourth
after; taken away
found Edward (his brother)
Whereof; rejoiced
when; knew
much grief; breast
nearly went mad
went
change of fortune; (see note)
at all; (see note)
Let mourning
lost; should revenge; death
Only; war
freed
taken from; kin
Were [it] not [for]
Mirror; loyalty
war; army lead
taken
None would have stopped him
entrance; (t-note)
on account of; (t-note)
betrayed
possess
let this sorrow be assuaged
the next morning
Redress; had been done to him
ordered
if they found; (see note)
death; danger; spare; (t-note)
found
there were enough witnesses
too great haste
harm
demonstrate
known; all; (t-note)
went
(i.e., Bruce's war); strong
taken
here
gave; (see note)
soon afterwards; lost
against; rose
either side; foes
bold; against; rode
war; withstand
given away
war; reign
Ever true to
remained
(see note)
rose; alone

with the exception respectfully
(t-note)
kind
state
more
who
composed; work
prolix; almost

placed; enemies
went
glad; capture
confined; strong; (t-note)
would leave [out details]; fear
worst; [a] sense of right; leads
so
fated; falsify
too; known
Many; were scattered; (see note)
Commanded; decree
That; enacted
continuance
distress
rhyme
blessed
That; two principal points
before
freed; [out] of thraldom
heaven; inheritance
proved
still
then; (see note)
At that time
also; holy orders
Who
afflicted; illness
From this world; passed in time
brother [monk]; spirit
promise; asked
reveal to; reward
That; good deeds
try
if; give him leave
translated
same
Such
shone so much
lanterns; (t-note)
That; equal


bright
brand; forehead; bore; (see note)
made all the rest displeasing
spirit
(t-note)
more
know

time; judged

rest so sound; (see note)
knowledge; avail
Whoever takes pride
only; Holy Ghost
proper
everlasting heaven

are alive must
tell; (t-note)
slayer

commons; (see note)
that


truly; lie

righteous war
praised above the rest

Then; poor; greatly to be commended
gratefully

Heaven; everlasting reward


only believe

anything; (see note)
for half an hour
knew; them ailed
Throughout; fame; spread
spirit; leave
hear
sadness
over; fateful
English; (see note); (t-note)
To
true


bold; looked
asked [for]; who died on [the] Cross
clergy; (see note)
on pain; life
bold; confess
prevailed; against; highness (i.e., royal rule)
holy
Canterbury; (i.e., bishop)
Against; statement
hear; (t-note)
If; power; opposition
If you; prevent

here interdict
known; heretic
church; give
Then; choice; let him live or die
more advantage; honor
such [a] one; subjection to you
that; plundered
covetousness; always; drove
ruled; wrongful deeds; (t-note)
offspring
ordered; take
grave; counseled; let; go
that; (t-note)
went
gravely heard
commended
Meekly; heartfelt
prayer
leave; Westminster rode
executioners; brought; without delay

until; go
taken
those same bindings
that; done
fleshly

against pleasure
loosen
fastened; oak bench
iron chains; strong; cruel
hear

destined; soon
wrongdoing
[So] that priests; read


of necessity; die; (t-note)
severe recital
commission, even if I did wrong
That; promised; bliss
believe; that; grant; (t-note)
stir
Comfort; that; go
[is] that; too long
(t-note)

struggle
held sway


received
subject to him
entirely
save; destroy
nothing
grievous
that; many slain
ready; (t-note)
afterwards of
speech; (see note); (t-note)
some
enough
began no war; what is ours
known
useless; delay
for God's sake let
sheriff caused; soon
dared; ask
psalm
From; childhood; be separated
believed; expeditions; (t-note)
stripped; clothing; (t-note)
asked
let
hold
that they would; (see note)

Many English; felt; pain

Continued
Until; once; did go; (t-note)
lasting bliss; forevermore
divided

in all likelihood; (t-note)
greater knowledge
show forth more

evidence given
undertook; (see note); (t-note)
compiled
testimonies; more
Dunkeld; (see note)
himself
very truth; doubt
deeds
(t-note)
(i.e., the pope); judgment
also
survived
These; deeds
had passed
called; (see note); (t-note)
betrayed
to all [a] pleasure
true deeds; to praise
who read; unpolished composition
[although] my writing be imperfect
have thanks, since; labor spared
work; promised
command
lost sight of
narrative
not falsified; foes
Payment; bound; (see note)
narrative; lie
related

one
These
(see note)
wrongful


These
To; disdain

filled with; subject-matter; (see note)
Even if; barren
true deeds
need
poets flourished
found you
some; recommend you [to readers]
bide your time
pray; benevolence; (t-note)
praise do not find wanting
rustic; (t-note)
here; as well
spirit; knows; (t-note)
pray; giver
heavens above
lasting love