Third Book Of Kings (1 Kings)

THIRD BOOK OF KINGS (1 KINGS): EXPLANATORY NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: CA: Gower, Confessio Amantis; CM: Cursor mundi; CT: Chau­cer, Canterbury Tales; DBTEL: A Dic­tionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature, ed. Jeffrey; HS: Peter Comes­tor, Historia Scholastica, cited by book and chapter, followed by Patrologia Latina column in paren­theses; K: Kalén-Ohlander edition; MED: Middle English Dictionary; NOAB: New Oxford Annotated Bible; OED: Oxford English Dictionary; OFP: Old French Paraphrase, British Library, MS Egerton 2710, cited by folio and column; Whiting: Whiting, Proverbs, Sentences, and Pro­verbial Phrases; York: York Plays, ed. Beadle. For other abbreviations, see Textual Notes.

9680 K notes comparison with Genesis and Exodus, lines 1425–26: “Siðen men auen holden skil, / first to freinen ðe wimmanes will” (Story of Genesis and Exodus, ed. Morris).

9714 heldyd. See the note to line 9986.

9734 Ebron. As K notes, 3 Kings (1 Kings) 3:4 and HS 3 Reg. 5 (1351) call the place Gibeon, whereas Hebron appears in OFP 79c. This alternative location is mentioned in HS as being that given by Josephus, which is true (Jewish Antiquities 8.2.1).

9783, 86 delyver . . . delyver. In both cases, the word is being used as an adjective. K notes a parallel in Purity, line 1084.

9821–22 Thei say, “Yt wele is sene this tyd / of a new kyng a new comyn case.” K calls attention to OFP 80b, which reads: “sa gent se gabent, se jurent lur lei: “ceste semble agard (“decision”) de jovene rei.” Compare lines 9829–40.

9849–52 K notes to compare HS 3 Reg. 7 (1352): “admirati sunt assessores ejus, qui prius sententiam, quasi ab adolescente prolatam deridebant.”

9883 Fawr thowssand yeres fyfty and fyve. 3 Kings (1 Kings) 6:1 dates the start of the building to 480 years after the Exodus (440 years in the Septuagint), though HS 3 Reg. 9 (1354) notes that Josephus gives a different date, including the fact that from the creation of Adam 3,102 years had passed (compare Jewish Antiquities 8.3.1). The number of years here, 4,455, might, as K observes, be compared to OFP (see Baker, Die versifizierte Übersetzung, p. 37).

9893 The suteltes of science sevyn. K notes the similarity to Seven Sages, line 48 (in Weber, Metrical Romances, 3:5): “The suteltè of science seuyn.” The seven sciences are the seven liberal arts that were the mainstay of a medieval education. These seven areas of learning were divided into the trivium — grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic (also sometimes called logic) — and the quadrivium — music, mathematics, geometry, astronomy.

9951 Synophogy. “The Feast of Tabernacles.” Compare Leviticus 23:33, Numbers 29:12, 1 Kings 8:65, and 2 Chronicles 7:8, as well as HS 3 Reg. 21 (1366–67).

9961–63 Another hows then ordand he . . . mad in yeres thre. The sequence here is not biblical, which presents the details of Solomon’s house between those about the Temple and its dedication, but it corresponds to that in many sources, such as Josephus and HS.

9963 yeres thre. According to 3 Kings (1 Kings) 7:1, Solomon’s palace was thirteen years in the making, not three. I have found no source for the lower number and can only speculate either scribal contamination or, as a distant possibility, the poet’s interest in having Solomon spend fewer years on his palace than were spent on the Temple (seven). In the latter case, the numerology of the figures used could come into play.

9974 K notes a parallel usage of this use of “reason” in Purity, line 194.

9986 held. From OE heldan, meaning “to incline or bow.” K notes (3:17) that the “associative influence from hold is suggested by with for normal (un)to,” and compares lines 1194 (which K, 1:lxviii, had wrongly defined as “hold”), 1412, 9714, and 10121.

9988 fyrth. K notes (3:17) comparison with lines 7866 and 8854.

10037–40 God was greved . . . And sent the prophet Achyas / to warn hym. In 1 Kings (3 Kings) 11:11–13 God directly rebukes Solomon; here, in accordance with HS 3 Reg. 27 (1371), it is God’s prophet who delivers God’s condemnation, a scene brought forward from Ahijah’s encounter with Jeroboam on the road (1 Kings [3 Kings] 11:29–39).

10161–63 Faur score . . . nyne score yere and faur. 3 Kings 11:42 and 2 Chronicles 9:30 record Solomon’s reign as lasting forty years, as does HS 3 Reg. 27 (1371), which also states that the length of Solomon’s life is ninety-four years. Josephus, in Jewish Antiquities 8.7.8, gives the numbers as eighty and ninety-four, respectively, as does OFP 85d. It would seem, therefore, that either score, in this poet’s hands, unique in Middle English, means “ten” rather than “twenty”; or, more likely, the score of line 10163 is a scribal error.

10317–452 Beginning here the poet moves far from the 3 Kings (1 Kings) narrative to tell the story of Rehoboam, about whom little is said in that book or in HS; the details here derive from 2 Chronicles 11–12. The sequence of the narrative is likewise distant from the Bible and HS. In both these characteristics he follows Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 8.10, though presumably the poet’s immediate source is OFP.
10317 Aght milia knyghtes kene. 2 Chronicles 11:1 reports 180,000 rather than 8,000; Josephus says “many ten thousand men” (Jewish Antiquities 8.10.1).

10330 other thryty and one. 2 Chronicles 11:21 gives the number of other concubines as sixty; Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 8.10.1, claims thirty, as does HS 3 Reg. 30 (1375) and OFP 87b.

10331–32 Thamar, / the doyghtur of Absolon. The syntax here is difficult, since the meaning must be “the daughter of Tamar by Absolom,” a woman named Maacah (compare 2 Chronicles 11:20–21 and HS 3 Reg. 31 [1375]). 3 Kings (1 Kings) 15:2 also gives the wife’s name as Maacah but says nothing of this ancestry, instead calling her simply the daughter of Abishalom. We find the same apparent error in OFP 87b. If someone has mistaken the name of Maacah for Tamar, it may well be due to HS, which reads “nomen matris ejus Maacha, filia Thamar, filiae Abessalon,” and thus could easily have been corrupted by eye-skip.

10371–76 A mille charyottes had he . . . And knyghtes . . . sexty milia . . . And folke on fote . . . faurty milia. 2 Chronicles 12:3 cites 1,200 chariots, 60,000 cavalry (“knights”), and countless infantry. Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 8.10.2, numbers the footmen as 400,000. OFP 87c follows the Bible up to the numbering of the footmen, which are, as in Paraphrase, accounted to be 40,000. The origin of the Paraphrase-poet’s specific sequence of numbers is thus unknown.

10443–45 In aghtene yeres his lordschep last . . . fyfty yeres. According to 3 Kings (1 Kings) 14:21, 2 Chronicles 12:13, and Josephus, Jewish Antiquties 8.10.4, Rehoboam’s reign lasted seventeen, not eighteen, years. HS 3 Reg. 30 (1374) gives the number of years as twenty-six. In addition, these sources agree that Rehoboam took the throne at the age of forty-one, leaving his age at his death as either fifty-eight or, in HS, sixty-seven. We find the same numbers as the Paraphrase in OFP 88c.

10633–56 That the false prophet knows his fault and the truth of God’s prophet yet nevertheless works to convince Jeroboam that he should rebuild the altar and thus continue to provoke God’s wrath is contrary to 3 Kings (1 Kings) 13:33 and HS 3 Reg. 29 (1374), which places guilt upon Jeroboam alone, not on the further machinations of the false prophet. For the tradition followed here, see Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 9.1.

10669–728 As with the story of Rehoboam (see note to lines 10317–452, above), the poet makes heavy use of 2 Chronicles to tell the story of Jeroboam’s war against Abijah, which is only given passing reference in 1 Kings (3 Kings) and HS.

10679–80 He had at his ledyng / fayr folke fawrty thowssand. According to 2 Chronicles 13:3, Abijah’s army numbered 400,000. So, too, Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 8.11.2. The number here also appears in OFP 89d, however.

10726 fyve thowssand sloyn. 2 Chronicles 13:17 numbers the fallen as 500,000. So, too, Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 8.11.3.

10747 Thre yere. So OFP 90a. 3 Kings (1 Kings) 15:25 states that Nadab ruled two years, as does Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 8.11.4, and HS 3 Reg. 32 (1376).

10761–64 Thas that in towns war dede / howndes laped ther blode. / That dyed in other sted / ware leved to foyles fode. The gruesome specificity of the murder of Jeroboam’s family comes not from the Bible or HS but from Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 8.11.4.

10823–24 kyng of Matenours, / Benedab by name. S gives his name, here and elsewhere, as Amynadab. Compare 3 Kings (1 Kings) 15:18 and 2 Chronicles 16:2, where Ben-hadad is the king of Syria. HS 3 Reg. 32 (1376) reads “Benadad regem Syriæ,” and OFP 91a has the similar “Benadab”; so the origin of S’s Amyna-dab is unclear. The Paraphrase-poet does seem indebted to something like OFP in replacing “Syria” or “Damascus” with Matenours (the reading in both S and L): OFP introduces him as king of “Mascedonurs,” a reference I can find nowhere else.

10847–48 He byged yt wele and fayre / with store that he thore fand. This stands contrary to 3 Kings (1 Kings) 15:22 (and Josephus and HS), which clearly states that, rather than finishing Baasha’s fortification of Ramah, Asa razed the con-structions and used the materials to build Geba and Mizpah.

10859 Agary. 3 Kings (1 Kings) 16:9 calls him Zimri, as does Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 8.12.4, and HS 3 Reg. 32 (1377). The source for the Paraphrase here appears to be OFP 91a: “Edementers le trahi azarie, un son ebreu, si li toli la vie” — though where OFP derived this unique form of his name remains unknown.

10966 Tyre. Compare 3 Kings (1 Kings) 16:31, or HS 3 Reg. 34 (1378), where he is simply king of the Zidonians. Our poet is here following the OFP 91d: “la fille al rei de tir e de sydun” — though this connection between Tyre and Sidon is made clear earlier in 3 Kings (1 Kings) 5:1–6.

11365–11460 In the Bible (3 Kings [1 Kings] 20–21), the Naboth episode follows the siege of Samaria, whereas here it precedes it. HS 3 Reg. 37–39 (1381–86) follows the Bible. The change is in accordance with OFP (see Bonnard, Les Traductions de la Bible, p. 102) and in line with Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 8.13.7–8.

11502 Chylder. While the primary meaning of the word, “children,” cannot be wholly discounted here — it would almost certainly call up images of the so-called Children’s Crusade of 1212 — it is more likely that a secondary use of the term, meaning “youth in service” is meant here (MED child, n.5b). This latter option would be consistent with 3 Kings (1 Kings) 20:14, which calls them “servants of the princes of the provinces” (so, too, HS 3 Reg. 37 [1382]).

11506 faur hunderth. 3 Kings (1 Kings) 20:15 gives the number of servants as 232, as do Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 8.14.2, HS 3 Reg. 37 (1382), and OFP 94c.

11513 Fyve thowsand. That 5,000 were slain is not recorded in either the biblical source (3 Kings [1 Kings] 20:20–21) or HS 3 Reg. 37 (1382). K notes (3:59) that the number derives from OFP 94c: “Si unt Ebreu plus de cinc mile ocis.”

11545 A hunderth thowssand and wele mo. The wele mo includes, as related in 3 Kings (1 Kings) 20:29, 27,000 men killed when the wall falls upon them. HS 3 Reg. 38 (1383) omits this detail, as does OFP 94d.

11589 A prophett, Machias. 3 Kings (1 Kings) 20:35 does not name the prophet, though Micaiah’s subsequent antagonistic appearance at 22:8 might well explain his association with this earlier prophet. This identification appears in HS 3 Reg. 38 (1383), but it goes back to Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 8.14.5.

11650 In preson he dyd hym cast. Ahab takes no such action to the unnamed prophet in 3 Kings (1 Kings) 20:43. The response to imprison him appears in Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 8.14.5, and thereafter in HS 3 Reg. 38 (1383), probably coinciding with the king’s response to Micaiah’s predictions of failure at 22:26–28.

11670 Godely. See 4 Kings (2 Kings) 8:18, 26 and 2 Chronicles 21:6, 22:2, where she is called “Athaliah,” as she is in HS 3 Reg. 39 (1384). Nevertheless, the Paraphrase-poet follows OFP in consistently terming her “Godolie.”

11733–44 I sall hym stryke in the face . . . and he stroke hym with all his mayn. This test by striking is far different than 3 Kings (1 Kings) 22:24–25 and HS 3 Reg. 39 (1385), though it is that presented by Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 8.15.5.

11745–52 This digression on the paradoxical failure and success of testing a prophet appears to be unique to the Paraphrase. Not even Josephus, who appears to be the ultimate source for this particular test (see note to lines 11733–44, above), bothers to address the issue.


THIRD BOOK OF KINGS (1 KINGS): TEXTUAL NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: L: MS Longleat 257; H: Heuser edition (partial); K: Kalén-Ohlander edition; O: Ohlander’s corrigenda to K; P: Peck edition (partial); S: MS Selden Supra 52 (base text for this edition).

9625, 27 Lines indented to leave space for an initial capital; first letter of line 9625 written in the middle of the space.

9640 forto. So L, K. S: so to.

9647 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 90v): no heading.

9657 bargan. So L, K. S: barga.

9682 that. S: altered from þou.

9699 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 91r): no heading.

9703 so. S: inserted above canceled l.
so had ther. So L, K. S: so þer had þer.


9706 as. So L, K. S: a.

9710 als. So L, K. S: and als.

9718 all folke. So L, K. S: all þo folke.

9732 on. So L, K. S: inserted above canceled of.

9737 then. So L, K. S: þe.

9738 calves. So L, K. S: camels.

9741 what thou. So L, K. S: what at þou.

9742 thou. So L, K. S: þat.

9748 on. So K. S, L omit.

9749 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 91v): liber iijus Regum.

9750 boyth. S: y inserted above the line.

9755 mas. So L, K. S: mad.

9762 thei. So L, K. S: þou.

9770 a torfer. So L, K. S: aftur.

9774 myght. S: inserted above the line.

9776 dome. So L, K. S: domes.

9803 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 92r): iudicium Salamonis.

9805 fyrst unto the kyng then cryse. So L, K. S: fyrst þen vnto þe kyng cryse.

9809 full lowde. So L, K. S: and foly sayd.

9810 bot. So L, K. S: bo.

9821 is. So L, K. S omits.

9824 graunt me. So L, K. S: graunt to me.

9832 is. So L, K. S omits.

9856 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 92v): no heading.

9858 named. So L, K. S: name.

9863 his bokes. So L. S, K: þis boke.
here. So L, K. S: lere.


9866 drese. So L, K. S: dryse.

9879 strykes. So L, K. S: mesurs.

9885 Marginalia in S (at left of fol. 92v): Templum.

9888 ymages. So L, K. S: ymage.

9890 flygh. S: inserted above the line.

9901 sett. So L, K. S: sell.

9913 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 93r): no heading.

9941 space. So L, K. S: place.

9950 dene. S: inserted above canceled twen.

9951 named. So L, K. S: made.

9958 city. So L, K. S: sett.

9961 Another. So L, K. S: And other.

9963 was. So L, K. S: wad.

9965 the thryd. So L, K. S: þer.

9966 when. So L, K. S: whe.

9969 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 93v): no heading.

9975 full fayre. So L, K. S: fayre full.

9986 wyll. S: altered from with.

9998 on mys. So L, K. S: onnys.

10010 wold. S: inserted above the line.

10025 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 94r): no heading.

10026 ever had. So L, K. S: euer he had.

10035 he. So K. S, L omit.

10051 saw. So L, K. S: sal be.

10062 that. S: corrected from ther.

10063 have. So L, K. S omits.

10064 be. So L, K. S omits.

10076 thi. So L, K. S: þou.

10081 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 94v): no heading.

10097 bed. So L, K. S: boyd.

10102 kyn. So L, K. S: kyn told.

10104 So L, K. S: to stroy both 3yng and old.

10111 A new. So L, K. S: Anab.

10118 seys. So L, K. S: sesys.
twyn. S: corrected from twon.


10136 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 95r): no heading.

10139 mo commynté. So K. S: mo of þe commynte. L: more commonalte.

10146 bot fro his welth. So L, K. S omits.

10153 prowyse. So L, K. S: promyse.

10157 So. S: Sor.

10161 Faur. So L, K. S: ffor IIII.

10166 gyfyn. So L, K. S: yfyn.

10172 man. So L, K. S omits.

10173 Sychem. So L, K. S: sych.

10185 fayne. So L, K. S omits.
plese. S: followed by three canceled letters.


10191 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 95v): no heading.

10201 When. So L, K. S: whem.

10209 then. So L, K. S: end.

10219 yf. So L, K. S omits.

10224 a. So L, K. S omits.

10225 hers. So L, K. S: herd.

10226 this. So L, K. S: and þis.

10229 Omys this men. So L, K. S: onys þis mon.

10232 schortly. So L, K. S: chortly.

10235 The. S: þe sall.

10243 scorpions. So L, K. S: scoppions.

10247 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 96r): no heading.

10252 lent. So L, K. S: went.

10256 the. S: thei.

10257 sen. So L, K. S: so.

10299 Jeroboam. So L, K. S: Ioroboam.

10301 Israel. So O. S, K: Israhel.

10305 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 96v): liber iijus Regum.

10306 barn. S: one letter canceled after.

10309 two. So L, K. S omits.

10319 clene. So L, K. S: kene.

10322 stif. So L, K. S: fyrst.

10332 doyghtur. So L, K. S: systur.

10341 No. S: No na.

10344 fulli. S: i inserted above the line.

10351 nevyn. So L, K. S: euyn.

10361 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 97r): no heading.

10362 noyght. So L, K. S: noyt.

10370 Egyp. S: egyp, with a letter canceled after.

10376 wyll noyght. So L, K. S: well my3t.

10385 forto. S: to inserted above line.
grete. So L, K. S: wepe.


10392 gretand. So L, K. S: wepand.
sore. S: corrected from sory.


10404 or. S: of or.

10408 bot this connand. So L, K. S: be þis commaundment.

10415 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 97v): no heading.
is. So L, K. S: was.


10417 S: stanza marker missing.
Thor. S: þor thr.


10422 well. S: a word canceled after.

10423 Potes. So L, K. S: Petes.

10425 kynges. S: three letters canceled after (pab?).

10435–42 S is deficient here, as line 10435 leads into 10442. The scribe has copied some of the missing lines into the left margin and (wrongly) marked them for insertion before 10435. Lines 10437–38 are clearly visible, as are the letter tops of what seems to be line 10439. Unfortunately, the trimming of the outer edge has removed the rest of the correction. I have followed K in liberally emending from L here.

10436 So L, K. S omits line.

10437–38 S: written along left margin.

10439–41 So L, K. S omits lines.

10447 so. So L, K. S omits.

10450 wher his. So L, K. S: wher oþer of his.

10455 Jeroboam. So L, K. S: Ioroboam.

10460 governyng. So L, K. S: gouerdyng.

10477 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 98r): liber iijus Regum.

10481 there. So L, K. S: so.

10495 we are as. So L, K. S: we aftur are.

10504 you. So L, K. S: your.

10506 space. S: place space.

10511 have. So L, K. S omits.

10512 Marginalia in S: De vitulo aureo.

10531 The. So L, K. S: þei.

10534 ther. So L, K. S: þei.

10537 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 98v): De distruccione altaris et De vindicatione Ieroboam.

can begyn. So L, K. S: hath be gun.


10539 Thou. So L, K. S: The.

is. So L, K. S omits.


10543 myn. S: ny myn.

10587 pas. So L, K. S: past.

10591 as. So L, K. S: has.

10595 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 99r): liber iijus Regum.

10599 agayn. So L, K. S: agay.

10620 to. S: inserted above the line.

10621 By. S: inserted above canceled bott.

10627 he suld. So L, K. S: he beryd suld.

10628 beryd. So L, K. S omits.

10653 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 99v): liber iijus Regum.

kyng ay. So L, K. S: kyng þen ay.


10669 mynd. So L, K. S: tyme.

10672 noyght. So L, K. S: noyt.

10685 are. So L, K. S omits.

one. So L, K. S: ones.


10690 cause thou. So L, K. S: cause þat þou.

10694 forfett. So L, K. S: for sett.

10701 thi. So L, K. S: þou.

10706 his. So L, K. S: þis.

10711 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 100r): liber iijus Regum.

10715 As. So L, K. S: Hase.

10718 strake. So K. S: stared. L: faght.

10726 feld. So L, K. S: fele.

10728 noyght. S: o noy3t.

10730 turned agayn. So L, K. S: turned sone agayn.

10735 yll. So K. S: styll. L: evyll.

10740 cald. So L, K. S: cale.

10756 Nabad. So L, K. S: Naab.

10766 was for. S: was sen for. L: was sent for. K retains sen.

10769 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 100v): liber iijus Regum.

10771 sayd. S: d inserted above the line.

10774 in hand. So L, K. S: in his hand.

10787 him. So L, K. S: he.

10789 ay. S: all ay.

10790 be. So K. L, S: he.

10798 mystrewth hym betrayd. So L, K. S: myse mad hym to be trayd.

10808 gyle. S: inserted above canceled whylle.

10813 make. So L, K. S: be in.

10814 for2. So L, K. S omits.

10821 socours. So L, K. S: socour.

10824 Benedab. So L, K. S: Amynadab. See the explanatory note to lines 10823–24.

10827 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 101r): liber iijus Regum.

10829 Benedab. So L, K. S: Amynadab.

10840 rescow. So L, K. S: rescows.

10842 burgh. So L, K. S: burght.

10845 Rama. So L, K. S: Ramatha.

10849 Benedab. So L, K. S: Amynadab.

10859 An. So L, K. S: And.

10860 slogh. So L, K. S omits.

10863 progeny. S: pgeny (missing mark of abbreviation).

10867 kyng. S: inserted above canceled kny3t.

10868 Israels. So S, L. K: israel.

10881 furth. So S. L, K omits.

10887 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 101v): no heading.

10905 send. S: inserted above canceled sented.

10906 unto. So L, K. S: to.

10909 Marginalia in S (at left of fol. 101v, partially cut off): . . . Rex . . . [Aas]a discipli . . . deo.

10911 told. S: hym told.

10915–16 So L, K. S omits lines.

10927 bounté. So L, K. S: bewte.

10940 mys. So L, K. S: myrth.

10949 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 102r): liber iijus Regum.

10955 Marginalia in S (at left of fol. 102r): Acab.

10965 Jesabell. So L, K. S: Iosabell.

10973 Beall. S: inserted above canceled B be all.

10974 god of Tyre. So L, K. S: gud of tre.

10995 has His. So L, K. S: hyr.
slayn. So L, K. S: slyn.


10997 Within. S: with with in.

10998 apeyre. So L, K. S: ayre.

11002 begyld. S: altered from be gyled.

11005 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 102v): no heading.
in. S: inserted above the line.


11011 rayvyns. So L, K. S: raymyns.

11015 monthes. So L, K. S: mothnes.

11019 hym. So L, K. S omits.

11025 ther. So L, K. S: thor.

11035 to. So L, K. S omits.

11041 affrayd. So L, K. S: amate.

11057 ete. S: eteþ.
and. So L, K. S omits.


11059 both. So L, K. S: bot.

11062 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 103r): no heading.

11071 wold. So L, K. S omits.
fyne. So L, K. S omits.


11081 gretand. So L, K. S: wepand.

11082 be. So L, K. S: be þe.

11083 Schew. S: Schew thou.

11089 hyr. So L, K. S: his.

11101 then. So L, K. S: þer.

11104 forto. S: forto cr.

11105–06 So L, K. S omits lines.

11111 or. S: inserted above the line.

11113 then. So L, K. S omits.

11115 Obedyas. So K. S: þen Elydeas. L: Abdias.

11117 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 103v): no heading.

11120 day. S: day s.

11121 hid. So L, K. S: his.

11125 Acab. S: Acab m.

11151 gyfyn. So L, O. S, K: yfyn.

11155 I. S: corrected from &.

11173 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 104r): De rege Acab et seruo eius. liber iijus Regum.

11188 dekyns. So L, K. S: dekyng.

11189 he thus. So L, K. S: is.

11222 hunderth. L, K: C. S: s.

11229 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 104v): liber iijus Regum.

11243 kepe. So L, K. S: hede.

11254 was agrayd. So L, K. S: was it agrayd.

11272 on hym. So L, K. S: þen cowd.

11273–76 Lines 11273–74 and 11275–76 are transposed in S.
11273 mad thei. So L, K. S: had mad þer.


11276 send. S: y has been inserted and then canceled above d.

11283 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 105r): liber iijus Regum.

11306 ferre. S: fr ferre.

11307 alone. S: inserted above canceled anone.

11315 Marginalia in S (at right of fol. 105r): De dormicione Ely sub iunipero.

11319 come and. So L, K. S: con.
spake. So L, K. S: speke.


11329 tyme. So L, K. S: þat.

11333 grayd. S: y inserted above the line.

11335 Marginalia in S (at right of fol. 105r, partially cut off): Et ambula[t] in fortitudi[ne] cibi illius vsque ad m[ontem] dei.

11336 thynke. S: h inserted above the line.

11339 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 105v): no heading.

11342 into. S: to inserted above the line.

11344 and. S: inserted above the line.
ete. So L, K. S: hete.


11372 os. So L, K. S: of.

11374 God. So L, K. S: go.

11376 Nabod. S: naabod.

11377 Jezerael. So L, K. S: israel.

11389 And. S: Ante And.

11391–99 The overall numbering of these lines in K is incorrect due to miscounting.

11394 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 106r): no heading.

11397 thynke. So L, K. S: thynkes.

11400 bot. So L, K. S: bo.

11413 hand. S: hand, with a canceled nasal abbreviation over the n.

11424 sayd. S: sayd b.
sore be. So K. S: be sore. L: dere be.


11444 Ely. So K. S: in hy. L: hely.

11453 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 106v): no heading.

11458 thryty. So L, K. S: thryrty.

11481 that. So L, K. S omits.

11485 Marginalia in S (at left of fol. 106v): Rex Acab.

11491 erthe. So L, K. S: hyll.

11502 no chyvalry. So L, K. S: chylualry.

11503 the. So L, K. S omits.

11508 with. S: with w.

11511 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 107r): no heading.
paynyms. S: corrected from paymyms.


11512 thei. So S. L, K: þai.

11534 in. So K. S: i. L omits.

11535 noyght. So L, K. S omits.

11540 as. S: als as.

11541 assayld. So L, K. S: assayd.

11544 done. So L, K. S: donyng.

11555 soght and. S: sogh and, with t inserted above line.

11569 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 107v): liber iijus Regum.
S: line 11581 mistakenly copied here before being canceled and replaced.


11572 with. S: inserted above the line.

11574 when. So L, K. S whe.
fun. So L, K. S: wun.


11584 tyme. So L, K. S omits.
were. So L, K. S: we.


11590 lendyd. S: yd inserted above the line.

11597 breke. S: gayr breke.

11600 me. So L, K. S omits.
never. S: corrected from mever.


11608 Have. S: and haue.

11609–12 Lines 11609–10 and 11611–12 are transposed in S and marked for correction in the margin.

11611 hed. So L, K. S omits.

11621 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 108r): no heading.

11622 away. So L, K. S: sway.

11623 tane. So K. S: tone.

11625 Sine. So L, K. S: sone.

11630 this. So S. L omits. K: þat.
the. S: þi, with e inserted below line.


11634 dowm to have thou aw. S: dowm þou aw to have, with to have then added above the line.

11642 pawsté. S: inserted above canceled power.

11668 S: lines 11669 and an incorrect 11672 (by Iesabell his moyder ry3t) copied as one line here and then canceled.

11675 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 108v): no heading.

11679 frend. S: n and d share a minim in an inadvertent ligature.

11680 conferm cours. So L, K. S: comfern corns.

11686 hend. So L, K. S: hand.

11692 burghes. So L, K. S: burgh.

11694 dwels. So L, K. S: dewels.

11701 now. So L, K. S: we now.

11714 S: an incorrect line 11727 (Swylke cause he may not before knaw) copied and canceled here.

11722 beforn. S: be fore forn.

11728 privaté. So S. L, K: prevate.

11729 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 109r): no heading.

11730 heyght. S: t inserted above the line.

11733 hym stryke. So L, K. S: stryke hym.

11735 I. S: inserted above canceled he.

11743 kynges. So L, K. S: kyng.

11747 mirakle. So L, K. S: murake.

11748 the. So L, K. S: to.

11751 And. So L, K. S: þen.

11756 hym. So L, K. S omits.

11761 whore. S: þei whore.

11773 rewled. So K. S: dewled. L: ordand.

11774 fro. So K. S: fore. L: for.

11785 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 109v): liber iijus Regum.

11787 with. So L, K. S omits.

11795 he dyed. So L, K. S: ded.

11802 sayd. So L, K. S: profecyd.

11804 awn. So L, K. S: aw.

11819 His. So L, K. S: hym.

11822 Ser. So L, K. S omits.

11823 Acab. So L, K. S omits.

11824 Goddes. S: of goddes.

11826 suld. So L, K. S: sal.

11827 Bot that. So L, K. S: waryn.

11832 or. S: and or.

11834 kyn. So L, K. S: his.

11837 thei. So S. L, K: ther.

11841 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 110r): liber iijus Regum.

11845 sone. S: sone sone.

11853 the. S: inserted above the line.
prayd. So L, K. S omits.


11861 Out. So L, K. S: gate.

11865 swylk. S: sent swylk.

11867 paynym. So L, K. S: paymyn.

11882 kin. So L, K. S: in.

11883 gold. So L, K. S: wold.

11886 come. So L, K. S: como.

11892 Commawndmentes. So L, K. S: commawndment.

11898 then. So L, K. S omits.

11899 Marginalia in S (at top of fol. 110v): liber iijus Regum.

11904 Amen. So L, K. S: Ame.
 
Print Copyright Info Purchase

Third Book Of Kings (1 Kings)


LIBER TERTIUS REGUM.

[SOLOMON CONSOLIDATES HIS THRONE (2:13–46)]
 

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803.
In the Secund Boke before is told
   how David, sun of Jesse,
In barnhed he began to be bold
   whyls that he keped his fader fee,
And sythyn how he had welth in wold
   and honerd God in gud degree,
And afturward how he was old
   and went whor God wold hym to be.
This Thryd Boke is begun
   when Kyng David was dede,
How Salamon, his sun,
   was sett in that same stede.

804.
In this same boke before is rede
   how Adhony toyght full gret hethyng
That Salamon suld so be sted
   of Ebrews folke forto be kyng.
With all his forse fast he hym sped
   and sett hymselfe to that same thyng.
Bot sythyn he and his felows fled
   becawse thei fayled of ther fowlyng.
For he was elder brother,
   well knawn in ylke cuntré,
Hym toyght ther suld non other
   be kyng bot only he.

805.
Therfor to seke sum sutell gyn
   he besys hym erly and late.
Abysag was comyn of gentyll kyn,
   that maydyn that held his fader hate.
He toyght myght he hyre to wyfe win,
   so suld he governd grett astate.
And then he toyght forto begyn
   agayns his brother sum grett debate.
To make this bargan be
   he pursewed fast ther on
Unto the qwene Barsabé,
   the moyder of Salamon.

806.
When he come thor, on knese he kneled
   full softly os a sympyll knave.
“I pray your sun to be my beld,
   my dame,” he sayd, “and ye vouchsave.
I am his brother elder of eld,
   all thof he all this kyngdom have.
Bot Abysag to wyfe at weld
   I kepe not ellys at hym to crave.
And ye wyll aske this bone,
   full mekyll yt mend me may.”
Scho sayd, “This sal be done.”
   And sone scho went hyr way.

807.
Unto the kyng scho come in hy
   and haylssed hym be stevyn full styll.
He welcumd hyr full curtasly
   and sayd, “Moyder, what is your wyll?”
Scho sayd, “Sun, grett erand have I,
   qwylke I wyll pray thee to fulfyll,
Towchand thi brother Adony,
   and to helpe hym I hald yt skyll.
That woman wold he wed
   to wyf yf that thou wold,
That warmed thi fader bed
   and hym when he was cold.

808.
“For this, sun, hath he me besogh,
   and I beseke thee for the same.”
The kyng wyst full well his toyght
   that all was forto schape hym schame.
“Moyder,” he sayd, “meynys yow noyght,
   when we ware with my fader at hame,
How Joab and he wunders wroyght
   to make hym kyng and call be name?
And the same se I now
   he purpase more and more.
To God I make my vowe:
   he sal be dede therfore.”

809.
He cald a knyght heyght Banay,
   and bad he suld tyte vengance take
Of Duke Joab and Adony
   for fals maystry that thei con make,
And sythyn also of Symey
   that with stonys at his fader strake.
Tho thre so had ther hyre in hy,
   aftur ther werkes ware worthy wrake.
Abyathar was demed
   as byschop aght to be.
For falshed was he flemed
   and degrade of his degré.

810.
And Sadoke was made soveran hed
   als byschope stably forto stand.
And when Duke Joab thus was dede,
   Duke Banay was thore ordand
Forto be stewerd in his sted,
   and all the folke heldyd to his hand,
And he them forto rewle and rede
   agayn ther enmys in ylka land.
Then to Kyng Salamon
   was all folke fayn to plese.
And in the werld was non
   that durst do hym dysesse.
 

(t-note)

childhood
father’s inheritance (estate)
then; prosperity on earth


desired



place



Adonijah considered [it a]; contempt
placed
(t-note)


then
evil plan


thought; (t-note)



subtle trick
busies
Abishag; family
kept his father warm




(t-note)

Bathsheba





protection

elder in age
although








haste
hailed; voice





(see note)

(t-note)




besought



do you not remember









Benaiah
quickly
(t-note)

Shimei
struck
their payment at once; (t-note)

Abiathar
(t-note)
exiled
removed from his office



(t-note)



inclined; (see note)



(t-note)

dared; distress

 
[SOLOMON MARRIES; GOD GRANTS HIM WISDOM (3:1–15)]
 





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811.
Kyng Salamon governd hym so
   that ylk land had of hym aw.
He toke a wyfe wonder fayr hym to
   and that lyfed by another law.
Scho was the doyghtur of Pharo,
   of Egyp kyng, cumly to knaw.
Bot evyn als Salamon wold do,
   assented scho in dede and saw.
He lyfed withoutyn lese
   aftur the Law lely
That God gaf unto Moyses
   on the Mownt of Synay.

812.
Kyng Salamon then and his men
   unto Ebron ther gattes hath grayd
With sacrafyce ther God to ken,
   and of ther purpase was God payd.
Thei offerd mo then hunderthes ten
   of calves and lambs on auters layd.
And on the nyght nex foloand then
   God spake to Salamon and sayd,
“Aske of Me what thou wyll,
   and wheder thou wynke or wake,
I graunt yt to fulfyll
   for thi gud faders sake.”

813.
Then Salamon aspyse gud sped
   what hym ware best of God to crave:
“To aske ryches, that is no ned,
   I have enogh on all sydes to save.
And power nedes me non for dred,
   all dowtes me boyth knyght and knave.
Bot wytt Thi folke by law to led
   and wyll to werke wele wold I have.”
God answerd then and sayd,
   “Thou askys all skylfull thyng.
This purpas mas Me payd.
   I graunt thee thin askyng.

814.
“More wyse and wytty sall thou be
   then Jew or panym that ever er past.
And ose thou trewly trestes in Me,
   fro thi kyngdom sall non thee kast,
Ne thin ayres that cumys aftur thee
   as lang os thei in Law wyll last.”
Of this forward full fayn was he
   and thanked God fully and fast.
Then wentt thei fro Ebron
   to Jerusalem agayn.
So was Kyng Salamon
   sett in his power playn.
 



wondrously beautiful
law (faith)


deed and word
without lie

loyally

(t-note)



their paths have taken; (see note)
worship
pleased
more than 1,000; (t-note)
altars; (t-note)
next following that

(t-note)
(t-note)







(t-note)
(t-note)
fears; (t-note)
wisdom



makes; happy; (t-note)




pagan; before lived


Nor your heirs
(t-note)
glad





 
[SOLOMON’S WISDOM: CUTTING THE CHILD IN TWO (3:16–28)]
 


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815.
In this meyn tyme that I of tell
   a torfer in the town betyde:
Two wemen in a hows con dwell,
   and both thei ware for comyn kyd.
A myschef was mevyd them omell
   that myght noght then be hyld ne hyd.
Befor the kyng on knese thei fell
   forto gyf dome, and so he dyd.
Unto hym told the on
   the cause of ther comyng ydder:
“My lord, we two alon
   dwelled in a hows togeyddyr.

816.
“And we ware both be seson ryght
   as grett with chyld os we myght go.
I was delyver thrugh Goddes myght
   of a fayr son; so ware we two.
And this woman of the thryd nyght
   was delyver of a sun also.
Scho overlay yt withowtyn lyght,
   and when scho wakyd, then was scho wo.
Bot a fals wyle scho wroyght,
   lord, os I slepand lay:
Hyr ded barn scho me broyght
   and toke myn qwyk away.

817.
“And when I wakynd of my slepe
   and fand a ded chyld me beforne,
No wunder was yf I wold wepe,
   for that I lufed I had forlorn.
By clere lyght then toke I kepe
   that yt was never of my body born.
My sun I saw bysyd hyr crepe;
   thus has scho turment me this morn.”
That other answerd agayn,
   “My lord, scho beyrs the wrang.
Hyr awn sun has scho slayn;
   myn lyfes and may lyfe lang.”

818.
The fyrst unto the kyng then cryse,
   hyr hert was hevy os lether or lede,
“Ser, I say yow the sothe assyse
   as ever I styre owt of this stede.”
That other cryd full lowde, “Thou leys,
   bot my sun lyfes, and thin ys dede.”
What was to werke now in this wyse,
   the kyng asked all his consell rede.
Thei sayd thei had not lered
   swylke case forto declare.
Then bad he bryng a sword
   belyve befor hym thare.

819.
“And the qwyke chyld that thei fore chyd
   depart sonder here in this place
And gyf to ayder of them a syd!”
   The pepyll then grett murmur mase.
Thei say, “Yt wele is sene this tyd
   of a new kyng a new comyn case.”
Bot the moyder kneled and lowd scho cryde,
   “A mercy, lord, graunt me this grace:
Gyfe my chyld leve to lyfe,
   I make no more debate.
All hole to hyr yt gyfe
   and lett me go my gate!”

820.
That other sayd, “So sall noyght be,
   bot to be departed evyn yt aw.
And take that on half unto thee;
   that other is myn, now well I knaw.”
And when the kyng this syght con se,
   syttand in dowm, he sayd this saw,
“The moyder of the chyld hath peté.
   Delyver yt hyr; this lore ys law.”
Then wex the folke full fayn
   for joye of this jugment.
And that he was wyse certan,
   the word full wyd whore went.
 


trouble; town (i.e., Jerusalem); (t-note)

known to be common (i.e., prostitutes)
among
healed nor hid; (t-note)

judgment; (t-note)
one
coming there






(see note)



smothered

trick
sleeping
child
my living [one]






notice

beside


bears the guilt
(t-note)
mine lives


(t-note)
lead
truth test
place
lie; (t-note)
(t-note)

council’s advice
learned


quickly


living; before quarreled about
cut in two
either
make
(see note); (t-note)


(t-note)
permission

whole
way



ought
one
(t-note)

judgment

word is binding
grew; glad



 
[SOLOMON’S WISDOM AND ORGANIZATION (4:1–34)]
 





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821.
Kyng Salamon then con assay
   to sett Goddes servyce ever in syght
And sythyn his reme forto aray
   and rewle his men by reson ryght.
In certan placeys he con purvay
   princes to purge the pepyll plyght,
And dukes full dere be dyverse day
   dewly ther dome to dele and dyght.
Of folke that to hym fell
   myght no man tell the teynd.
Of all wytt was he well
   in werld, wher he suld wende.

822.
And by his wytt and his wysdom
   us menes that he made bokes thre.
Ane Cantica Canticorum,
   that is a boke of grett bonité.
Ecclesiastecen kennes sum
   the secund boke named sal be.
Proverbes and Psalmes then, as thei com
   forto be sayd in sere degree.
Who lykes of wytt to lere
   or of counsell to crave,
In his bokes may thei here
   what so ther hert wold have.
 

endeavor

realm




duly their judgments; make
(see note)
trouble





we believe
Canticle of Canticles (Song of Songs)
bounty (goodness); (t-note)
Ecclesiastes some acknowledge
(t-note)

various
wisdom to learn

hear; (t-note)

 
[SOLOMON COMPLETES THE TEMPLE OF GOD (5:1–6:38)]
 

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823.
Then nyght and day was his desyre
   the Tempyll of God to dyght and drese,
Als Kyng David, his soverayn syre,
   had laft ther to enogh ryches.
Iram, that was kyng of Tyre,
   sent word by letturs, more and lesse,
That he suld have withoutyn hyre
   tymber of syder and of cypresse.
So had he all that nedes
   enogh, and wanted none.
And to do dyverse dedes
   werke men had he gud woyne.

824.
Kyng David, whyls he was on lyve,
   full gradly all that ground began.
Agayns his strykes wold no man stryve,
   bot held his mesurs ylka man.
Than ware past to make rekenyng ryve,
   as cunnand clerkes declare yt can,
Fawr thowssand yeres fyfty and fyve
   fro this werld was begun to than.
In sevyn yeres was yt sett,
  the substance, tre and stone;
Bot afturward was yett
   ymages of gold gud woyne.

825.
Ther was never beste that man myght nevyn,
   ne fulle that was formed to flygh,
That ne yt was ther ordand full evyn
   of fyne gold and besandes bryght.
The suteltes of science sevyn
   thor ware to red on raw full ryght.
Yt myght be lykynd unto Hevyn,
   for yt was ever lemand and lyght.
Then was wunder to tell,
   or to declare by skyll
Of gold what grett vessell
   that ware ordand ther tyll.

826.
All ryches sere ther was to sett
   may no man say ne syng in sang.
Of sylver myght thei go and gete
   als men may now for marber gang.
And gold was no more to be mett
   then other metall ys us amang.
To tell the lele withoutyn lett
   sum suld suppose my wordes ware wrang;
Wher for who lykes to loke
   how all that werke was wroyght,
Go to the Bybyll boke!
   Thore sall thei se unsoght.
 


make; arrange; (t-note)


Hiram

payment
cedar

lacked nothing

in abundance


alive
precisely; prepared
lines; (t-note)
maintained his measurements
a complete reckoning

4,055 years; (see note)

(t-note)


in abundance; (t-note)


beast; mention
fowl; (t-note)
wrought
bezants
(see note)
there were to be read in order

shining






various; (t-note)


marble go
more difficult to find

truth without lie





 
[SOLOMON DEDICATES THE TEMPLE OF GOD (7:40–8:66)]
 



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827.
When all was done thus daynthyly
   that to that Tempyll suld pertene,
To halo yt thei hasted in hy
   that Goddes servyce myght thore be sene.
Thar congregacion of clergy
   cald thei fro all cuntré clene.
Thor was all maner of melody
   that men be museke myght of mene.
Sothyn Salamon the wyse
   of bestes, wyld and tame,
Made solempne sacrafyce;
   all other dyd the same.

828.
To Hevyn held he up then his hend
   and prayd to God thus with gud wyll,
“Gud Lord that ylk myse may mend,
   I love Thi love both lowd and styll
That unto me this grace hath send
   my faders forward forto fulfyll
And of this hows forto make end,
   als Thou that tym told hym untyll.
And als my fader prayd,
   I pray with wyll and toyght
That Thou be plessed and payde
   of this werke that is wroyght.

829.
“And all that enturs in this place
   aftur Thi helpe to cry and call,
Lord, of Thi gudnese graunt them grace
   of all ther grevance, grett or small!”
And als he spake so in that space,
   God sent a sygne amang them all:
A flawm of fyre before ther face
   evyn on ther sacrafyce con fall
And hent yt up to Hevyn
   with mynstralsy and sang.
The myrth myght no man nevyn
   that was made them amang.

830.
Then held thei with solempnité
   a fest full fyftene days be dene.
The fest was named Synophogy,
   whylke Jews maynteyns yett them betwen.
The Arke of God in grett degree
   thor sett thei up forto be sene.
Thei went ylkon to ther cuntré
   to abyd before whore thei had bene.
Kyng Salamon con byd
   in his city at hame.
In all the werldes wyde
   of his wytt went the fame.
 

properly; (t-note)

hallow













sin
publicly and privately





heart and head








(t-note)

flame

carried

account




forthwith; (t-note)
Feast of Tabernacles; (see note); (t-note)




dwell
live
(t-note)


 
[SOLOMON COMPLETES HIS PALACE AND OTHER BUILDINGS (7:1–39)]
 





9965




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831.
Another hows then ordand he
   all only for his awn wonyng.
And that was mad in yeres thre,
   all of ryches and ryall thyng.
And then the thryd in forto be
   when he suld deme of old and yyng.
Swylke a hows was never sett forto se
   in erth to emperour, ne kyng.
The fawrt then for his qwene
   qwer scho with blyse myght byde,
And for lades be dene
   serely on ylka syde.

832.
That hows was paynted with peramour,
   with resons ryall forto rede,
And fowls full fayre of favour,
   with sang and spekyng full gud spede,
And flours in ther kyndly colour,
   os thei in feld ar folke to fede,
And ylkon in the same savour
   as yt suld in the burgeon bred.
All myrth that men may tell
   was mad withoutyn myse.
Who in that hows myght dwell
   thurt abyd no bettur blyse.
 

(see note); (t-note)
living
(see note); (t-note)
royal things
third [building]; (t-note)
(t-note)


fourth; (t-note)
blissfully might dwell
straightway
many


courteousness
royal pronouncements to be read; (see note)
(t-note)
song
flowers


bud

flaw

needs await no better bliss

 
[SOLOMON’S WIVES LEAD HIM INTO IDOLATRY (11:1–8)]
 

9985




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833.
Kyng Salamon ys now certan
   that all the werld with hym wyll held,
For all the Phylysteyns ar full fayn
   to forther hym in fyrth and feld.
Ther was never man so mekyll of main,
   ne that so grett wyt had to weld.
Yett at the last yt is not to layn:
   with lust was all lost in his eld.
Wemen that he con take
   with lust to lyg them by,
Gart hym his God forsake
   and turnd to mawmentry.

834.
Fyrst of his state to understand
   how he began on mys to go,
He wed a wyf of paynyms land,
   was kynges doyghthur Pharo.
For hyr this hows was new ordand
   and for other of hyr meneye mo.
Thei mad hym fond, and that he fand,
   for his best frend becom his foo.
Whyls he his God cowd knaw,
   all welthes he had gud woyne.
And when he left His Law,
   God leved hym then allon.

835.
Of qwennes then had he hunderthes sevyn
   to weld at wyll ay when he wold,
And thre hunderth of other evyn,
   doyghturs of dukes and barons bold,
Ay forto stand unto his stevyn,
   and all thei used crowns of gold.
Swylke howshald was noyght under Hevyn,
   bot for this myse yt myght not hold.
Of Ebrews had he qwennes
   that full wyse wemen wore,
Bot most part was paynyms
   that plessed hym mekyll more.

836.
Thei fed hym fere in foly
   that all his forse fouly he fyled.
He made tempyls to mawmentry
   and to fals goddes that hym begyld.
So he forgate God Allmighty
   that ever had bene his bote or beld,
And lyfed in lust and lechery
   aftur the wylles of wemen wyld.
So Adam and Sampson,
   our forfaders, ware flayd,
David and Salamon
   with wemen ware betrayde.
 


incline; (see note); (t-note)
glad
assist; (see note)
of so much strength
wield
lie
age
lie

Caused
idolatry



in sin; (t-note)
pagan’s
[who] was the daughter of the king, Pharaoh

company

became his foe






queens (concubines); 700
use at will whenever he wanted; (t-note)
others as well

Always; command
wore
[a] household
sin


[for the] most part [they] were pagans
pleased him much


together
strength foully he defiled
idolatry
that beguiled him
(t-note)
help and protection; (t-note)


Just as
flayed


 
[SOLOMON REBUKED BY AHIJAH (11:9–13, 29–39)]
 



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10080
 
837.
He that so wyse and wytty was
   that under Hevyn he had no make,
That he for lust suld be lorn, alas,
   and wast his wytt for wemens sake!
God was greved with his grett trespase,
   for he to fals goddes con hym take,
And sent the prophet Achyas
   to warn hym how he wold take wrake.
The prophett sone was grayd,
   and to that courte come he.
“Kyng Salamon,” he sayd,
   “take tent what I tell thee!

838.
“Thou wott wele how God gafe the Law
   to Moyses in the hyll on heyght,
Qwylke wele thou wott all Ebrews aw
   to maynteyn ever with all ther myght.
And now thou wenes He con not knaw
   how thou refusys yt all unryght.
He hath me sent to say this saw:
   thi synes ar fowle before His syght.
Hard vengance wold He take
   so that thou suld be lorne,
Bot for thi faders sake
   sum dele sal be forborne.

839.
“Hee honerd God erly and late.
   therfor God heyght, qwen he was past,
That thou suld stand with his astate
   in lordschep whyls thi lyf myght last.
All yf here thou wyll Hym hate,
   that forward sal be full and fast.
Bot thou sall have bale and debate
   and with thin enmys oft be umcast.
And whore thou and no mo
   ys kyng of kynred twelfe,
Thi sun sall have bot two
   assygned to hymselfe.

840.
“And so mony suld he noyght have
   bot for David, thi fader dere,
And als the heritage forto save
   that all sall noyght be sunderd sere.
Jeroboam to thee is bot a knave,
   sal be kyng of ten kynredes clere.
And so for thou wold rudly rave,
   thi sun sall part fro his power,
qwylke he suld have haly
   had noyght thi boldnese bene.”
Then Salamon was sory,
   no wunder was to wene.
 


match
lost; (t-note)
waste
(see note)

Ahijah [the Shilonite]
take vengeance
soon was prepared


take heed [of] what


know well

ought
power
believe

pronouncement; (t-note)




some part shall



promised; dead


Even
(t-note)
sorrow; (t-note)
afflicted; (t-note)
though you
twelve tribes







completely sundered

[but he] shall

(t-note)




 
[SOLOMON BESET WITH TROUBLES (11:14–40)]
 





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10140
 
841.
Then gretand unto God he prayd,
   bot for all that note was never the nerre.
All behoved be os the prophett sayd.
   Ylk day wex with hym werre and werre.
So owt of Egyp land was grayd
   A cumly knyght, was cald Ader.
A ryall ost sone he arayd
   Kyng Salamon of his myght to marre.
Duke Joab slow his syre;
   then myght he yt not aqwyte,
Bot now he had desyre
   to do Ebrews dyspytte.

842.
When Ader herd David was ded
   and Joab, that his fader had slayn,
And Salamon als soveran hed
   sett in all his power playn,
Then wold he byd no bettur bed
   bot went to werre Ebrews agayn.
He brent and stroyd in mony a styd,
   and therfor ware Phylysteyns fayn.
And on that other syde
   Jeroboam of Joseph kyn,
He redyd hym to ryde
   the reaume to weld and wyn.

843.
Wele-hernest men with hym he has.
   Jerusalem he hasted hym untyll.
Thore come the prophett Achias
   and warned hym what was Goddes wyll.
The pepyll lete he playnly pase,
   and in a sted he stud hym styll.
A new mantyll abowt hym was;
   that sped he hym fast forto spyll.
On the ground ther he yt spredes,
   and his sword owt he brayd
And schare yt in twelf shredes,
   and on this wyse he sayd,

844.
“Jeroboam, thou sall understand,
   os thou seys me this mantyll twyn,
So sall the lordschep of this land
   be departed in sonder all for syne.
Ten kynredes sall held to thi hand,
   and thou sall were them wele with wyn.
And two are to the hayre ordand,
   that ar of Juda and of Bynjamyn.
And Jerusalem cyté
   sall he have in his wald,
And thiselfe sall kyng be
   of ten. Thus hath God told.

845.
“And als lang os thou lufes His Law
   sall grett lordschep to thee be lent.
And yf thou kest not Hym to knaw,
   thi welth wyll sone fro thee be went.”
Jeroboam, sone aftur this saw,
   gret heghnes in his hert he hent.
The lordes he con fast to hym draw
   and made them sone of his assent,
So that full sone had he
   mo lordes at his ledyng
And wele mo commynté
   then had Salamon the kyng.
 

weeping; (t-note)
sorrow [God]; nearer

grew more and more wars
sent
Hadad
army quickly

had slain his father
at that time; avenge








(t-note)
war against the Hebrews
burned; place


(t-note)
readied himself
realm; (t-note)


Well-harnessed

Ahijah

allowed him (i.e., Ahijah) to pass easily
place
cloak; (t-note)
drop

he took out
sheared




you see; cut; (t-note)



wear
heir










taken
pronouncement
took

(t-note)


commonalty; (t-note)

 
[SOLOMON’S DEATH (11:41–43)]
 





10145




10150






10155




10160




 
846.
Kyng Salamon then fand and feld
   that God was not fully his frend.
Qwat for grett dewle, qwat for eld,
   in lyf he myght no langer lend.
Then myght no boldnes be his beld,
   bot fro his welth behoved hym wende.
All wysdom that he had to weld
   was turned to foly befor his end.
Ryches rewled unryght
   is nothyng forto nevyn;
Ne wytt may have no myght
   withowtyn helpe from Hevyn.

847.
Ne prowyse ys nothyng in prise
   withoutyn grace of God Allmighty,
Bot He that ys the Hegh Justyce
   may mend all myse thrught His mercy.
So endyd Salamon the wyse;
   I wott not what he was worthy.
Thei layd hym whore his fader lyse
   in that same cyté solemply.
Faur score yeres ware past our
   whyls he had kynges power.
And nyne score yere and faur
   was all his wonnyng here.
 

discovered and felt

Whether for great grief, [or]; age


(t-note)



mention




(t-note)



(t-note)
whether


eighty; (see note); (t-note)

184 years
living

 
[REHOBOAM CROWNED; ISRAEL DIVIDED (11:43–12:24)]
 

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10170




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10305



 
848.
When Salamon thus had mad end
   and gyfyn his gast to Goddes grace,
The lordes that in that land con lend;
   thei toke ther counsell in that case
Who suld have force them to dyffend
   agayns the Phylysteyns, ther fase.
And Roboam, his sun, thei kend
   for myghty man and most ryght has.
Thei sembled in Sychem,
   a cyté of grett renown,
Nere to Jerusalem,
   a kyng ther forto crown.

849.
When thei ware geydderd grett and small,
   unto ther werke sone thei went.
An alderman spake for them all
   and told to Roboam ther entent
And sayd, “Ser Roboam, thou sall
   be our sufferan, so have we ment.
And we sall com unto thi call
   so that thou tyll our sawes assent.
We ware fayne forto plese
   thi fader, ose for our kyng.
And he dyd us dysesse
   and wrang in sum werkyng.

850.
“Thou wot full wele Ebrews ar we
   to lyf be the maners of Moyses.
Thi fader greved us in degré;
   of our assyse he made us sesse
And to be thrall, whore we ware free,
   agayns the Law; this ys no lese.
Of all swylke poyntes aske we thee
   all holy forto have releyse.
And yf thou graunt this thyng,
   then wyll we graunt agayne
That thou be crowned kyng
   and we thi pepyll playn.”

851.
When Roboam herd how he says,
   he thynkes the pepyll rudly rave.
That purpase nothyng to hym pays
   forto graunt them so that thei crave.
He sayd, “Ser, respeytt of thre days,
   and then your answer sall ye have.”
Them toyght he suld make no delays,
   bot neverthelese thei vouchsave.
And in thies thre days then,
   whyls thei this convent held,
He asked red at old men
   that with his fader dweld.

852.
Thei sayd, “Ser, we assent ther tyll
   that thei be als there elders wore
And have ther fredoms to fulfyll,
   als ther faders had before.
Yf thou wyll graunt them with gud wyll,
   then wyll thei lely luf thi lore.
And yf thou part from them with yll,
   of counsell then can we no more.
Syr, yt is wysdom,
   and wys men hath bene lefe
To suffer a lese yll com
   and lett a more myschefe.”

853.
When Roboam thies wordes hers,
   this purpase was not to his pay.
He cald to hym yyng bachelers
   that he was wonnt with forto play.
He says, “Omys this men me lerys
   to make my lordschep les for ay.
Wyll ye assent to swylke maners?”
   Thei answerd and sayd schortly, “Nay!
Bot os thei boun have bene
   to thi fader before,
The same sall thou maynteyn
   and make them sugettes more.

854.
“And tell them this to understand:
   thou hath more strenght maystrys to make
In the lest fynger of thi hand
   then was in all thi fader bake.
And whore he bett them with a wand
   to hold them law withoutyn lake,
Bett thou with scorpions, we warand.”
   All thus dyspytfully thei spake.
Then Roboam was well payd;
   hym lyked to frayn no ferre,
Bot to the pepyll he sayd
   he suld do so or warre.

855.
Thies wys men red refused he has,
   and aftur yong men ways he went.
Therfor the pepyll fast fro hym pas;
   Non bot two lyneg with hym lent.
So was the wordes of Achyas
   fullfylled that told thus his entent:
Ryght ose his mantyll revyn was,
   so suld the reme be raysed and rent.
The same was sen that day;
   God wold that yt ware so.
Ten kynredes turned away
   and with hym left bot two.

856.
A redlese man was Roboam
   when the pepyll went ther ways.
He sent a prince heyght Adoram,
   and to the pepyll full fayr he prays.
And lordes ylkon he nevynd by name.
   “Comys agayn, gud sers!” he says.
“My lord says ye sall have the same
   that ye had in your fader days
Or bettur, yf that he myght;
   I undertake to yow.”
That spekyng was for noyght;
   his tayles thei wold noyght trow.

857.
Them lyst not bow, ose he them bade,
   bot with dyspytt hym to dyspyse.
His messynger thei stoned to ded
   and send hym word on this kyn wyse:
Thei wold never hald hym for ther hede
   that made them fayle of ther fraunchese.
Then Roboam was full wyll of rede;
   he went whore no relevyng lyse.
So folke may frenschepe fayle
   and oft sythys harmes hent
Because of yll counsell,
   yf thei sone wyll assent.

858.
He saw the pepyll ware past hym fro
   And Adoram his cosyn slayn.
Fro Sychem then fast con he go
   unto Jerusalem evyn agayn.
And with hym went the kynredes two
   that ware ever to his bedyng bayn.
Of all the twelfe he had no moo;
   so ware thei sonderd for certayn.
Tho kynredes mad hym kyng
   of them and ther cuntré
And oblyst, old and yyng,
   at his bedyng to be.

859.
Then is yt tym furth forto tell
   what betyd of the other ten.
Jeroboam was ferse and fell
   and the most cumly that thei ken.
Thei mad hym kyng of Israel,
   and holy thei become his men.
Thore was no more ther kynges omell
   bot Roboam and Jeroboam then.
Both byschopes, prestes, and clerkes
   with all ther barn teme
That gaf them to Goddes werkes
   wuned all in Jerusalem.
 


soul; (t-note)
gather


foes
Rehoboam
(t-note)
Shechem; (t-note)










sovereign

words
glad; (t-note)

But; caused us anxiety (dis-ease)





(t-note)
cease

lie








(t-note)







(t-note)

counsel



to that




loyally love your wisdom
(t-note)


spared
lesser ill
stop a greater; (t-note)


hears; (t-note)
satisfaction; (t-note)
young

I’ve learned these men aim; (t-note)
less for ever

(t-note)
were sworn [to]

(t-note)
subjects



masteries
smallest
back

in line without fault
(t-note)

pleased
inquire no further
(t-note)



The counsel of these wise men


tribes; remain; (t-note)
Ahijah

cut
realm; (t-note)
seen; (t-note)





An unwise

called Adoram

invoked






stories; trust


desired not [to]

(i.e., Adoram)
in just this way
king




often times receive harm









command obedient




promised




occurred with
fierce and hard; (t-note)
fair; knew
(t-note)

among [them]

(t-note)
their children; (t-note)


 
[REHOBOAM’S REIGN (14:21–24)]
 


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860.
Now ware ther two kynges in a cuntré,
   and so the folke ware sunderd sere.
Jeroboam now lett we be
   that hath to hym ten kynredes clere.
Of Roboam furth speke wyll we
   more of his lyfyng forto lere.
He sojorns in his awn cyté
   and full fayr folke with hym in fere.
Aght milia knyghtes kene
   had he of his assent
And other folke full clene
   that to hym wold take tent.

861.
He made in the cuntré of Juda
   a dossan cytes stif of stone.
To Bynjamyns he made wele ma,
   for gold ne werkmen want he none.
And wele he ordand in all tha
   of whett and oyle and wyn gud woyne
And armours both to frend and fa
   to have new when old ware gone.
Aghtene qwenes with hym ware
   and of other thryty and one;
Bot the chefe yett was Thamar,
   the doyghtur of Absolon.

862.
He spake with hyr most specially,
   for scho was of his kyn most nere.
His ayre was born of hyr body,
   heyght Abyam, ose men may here.
He had of qwenes and other by
   twenty and aght sons all sere,
And sexty doyghturs, I dar not ly.
   The feleschep was fayr in fere.
No man on mold myght knaw
   of his tresour the tend.
Ay whyls he lufed Goddes law,
   all folke ware fulli his frend.

863.
Bot oft sythyes have we sene the same:
   grett ryches makes men myse to spede.
So ferd yt with Kyng Roboam,
   als wyttenes boyth his word and dede.
He was so ryche in hows at ham
   that unto Hevyn toke he no hede.
He loved noyght nevyn God by His name,
   for of His helpe he had no nede.
He forgatte God Allmighty
   that all his sele had sent.
In prid and lychery
   was all his lykyng lent.

864.
So lyfed lordes of his land be dene,
   and aftur all the pepyll playn.
By yll exempyls oft tyms is sene
   full mony sawlys with syns slayn.
Also we se sum men wyll wene
   thei be noyght sure with ther sufferayn
Bot yf thei of his maners mene
   and maynten them with all ther mayn.
Foule syn of sodomyte
   used thei ever ylk man.
God was noyght worthy to wyte
   yf he toke vengance then.
 

(t-note)
apart



learn

together
8,000; (see note)

(t-note)
take heed



dozen; (t-note)
Benjaminites
lacked

in abundance
friend and foe (i.e., to everyone)

Eighteen queens
others (concubines); (see note)
Tamar; (see note)
Absalom; (t-note)




heir
Abijam

twenty-eight sons all together

altogether
(t-note)
amount

(t-note)


often times; seen
sin
So it was
witnessed in
home

invoke; (t-note)


happiness




forthwith


souls with sin [are]
(t-note)
(t-note)

strength
sodomy



 
[EGYPT SACKS JUDAH AND JERUSALEM (14:25–28)]
 


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10440
 
865.
Kyng Sysoc come to that cuntré;
   fro Egyp broyght he his baytell.
A mille charyottes had he,
   all full of armours and vytall,
And knyghtes full semly forto se
   sexty milia trew to trayvall,
And folke on fote full fayre plenté
   faurty milia that wyll noyght fayle.
Thei wasted all that was wroyght
   in burghes abowt Sychem.
And so sadly thei soyght
   ryght to Jerusalem.

866.
The cyté thynke thei sun to wen
   and conquere yt be clene maystry.
Kyng Roboam that was within
   to see that syght was full sary.
Then forto grete he con begyn
   and unto God fast call and cry.
He sayd, “This sorow is for my syn,
   and all this wo am I worthy.”
To the Tempyll went thei all
   that in that cyté ware,
And thore on knese thei fall,
   gretand to God full sore.

867.
God sent word with his prophett playn
   when thei so ther defawtes feld,
And sayd that thei suld noght be slayn,
   bot that thei suld that cyté yeld
To Sysoc als ther soyverayn,
   and that he suld ther wrschep weld
And that thei suld serve hym for certayn.
   Of God thei gate no bettur beld.
He sayd, “So sall ye see
   wheder yt be more honoure
Sisoc servandes to be
   or Goddes, your Cryature.”

868.
Then had Kyng Roboam mekyll kare,
   for this forward bus hym fulfyll.
The cyté he delyverd thare,
   bot this connand he toke ther tyll
So that thei suld the pepyll spare
   and do no greve to gud ne yll.
Kyng Sysoc and all that with hym ware
   enterd then at ther awn wyll.
Thore fand thei grett ryches
   that Salamon sett to save.
How so ther connand is,
   that thynke thei forto have.

869.
Thor thurt no man ther traveyll tyne,
   for thresour thei fand full gud woyne
All vesels mad for mete and wyn
   ware pyght with mony a prescius stone,
And all of gold full fayr and fyne
   and well enamyld ylkone.
Potes, pans, and caldrons in kechyn,
   wars then of sylver was ther none.
Within the kynges palyse,
   of all that thei ther fand,
Thei left noyght forto prays
   to valow of a besand.

870.
Then to the Tempyll past thei playn
   and spoled yt full dyspytfully.
Ther gate thei gold that wele myght gayne
   grett cytes forto byg and by.
The folke was of that fare full fayn,
   als thei had grett encheson why.
Kyng Sysoc went so home agayn,
   grete mirth mad all that cumpany.
For was never folke befor,
   als ferre os men may thynke,
That wan so grete tresour
   and with so litle swink.
 

Shishak
(t-note)
1,000 chariots; (see note)
provisions

60,000

40,000; (t-note)

towns




win


sorry
weep; (t-note)






(t-note)









better cure



Creator; (t-note)


much woe


covenant; (t-note)






(t-note)
keep [the city]


There needs; their work lose; (t-note)
found in abundance

adorned

(t-note)
kitchen; (t-note)
were made of silver or not at all
(t-note)

praise
value; bezant



despoiled

build and buy

reason
(t-note)
(t-note)
(t-note)
as far as; remember
(t-note)
toil

 
[DEATH OF REHOBOAM (14:29–31)]
 





10445




10450


 
871.
Kyng Roboam then in kare was cast;
   no comforth in this case he kend.
In aghtene yeres his lordschep last,
   God lyst no langer to lett hym lend.
When fyfty yeres ware fully past
   fro his begynnyng untyll his ende,
Then seknes fell on hym so fast
   that no fysyke myght hym dyffend.
Bot sone enturd he was
   wher his elders lay,
And his sun Abias
   was kyng aftur his day.
 

sorrow

eighteen years; (see note)
desire


(t-note)
doctor

(t-note)
Abijah

 
[JEROBOAM’S IDOLATRY (12:25–13:34)]
 



10455




10460






10465




10470




10475






10480




10485






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10495




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10505




10510






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10520






10525




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10545






10550




10555




10560






10565




10570






10575




10580






10585




10590




10595






10600




10605






10610




10615




10620






10625




10630






10635




10640






10645




10650




10655

 
872.
Now of Abyas lett we be
   forto be yemyd whyls he be yyng,
And of Jeroboam speke we
   that of ten kynredes then was kyng.
He had slyke prid for his pausté
   that he sett by none erthly thyng;
Ne unto God no hede toke he
   that gaf hym all that governyng.
The Law that God had lent,
   that lykes hym noyght to lere,
Bot brake His Commawndment,
   and how sone sall we here.

873.
The Jews used forto make a fest
   at the Tempyll ylke yere onys or twyse.
And ydder suld come both most and lest
   and make thore solempne sacrafyce,
Sum with fowle and sum with best
   to offer ylkon on ther wyse.
Jeroboam was so with prid encrest
   he wold not seke to that assyse.
Sone in his hert he cast
   a wylle with wekyd wyll,
And hasted hym full fast
   that falshed to fulfyll.

874.
“To Jerusalem yf I suld ga
   and all my frendes with me in fere,
The Bynjamyns and of Juda
   suld make my men so mery chere,
And thei suld there be charest swa
   with servyce and with solace sere
That full fell folke suld turne me fra.
   Therfor a new law wyll I lere.”
In Bethel so he spake,
   a cyté of grett pryse,
A calf of gold to make
   evyn at his awn devyse.

875.
He cyted to that same cyté
   all that come of kynredes ten,
And unto them than thus sayd he,
   “Sers, our costom wele ye ken:
How our hye fest sall halowd be
   ever ylk yer, ye wot wele when.
And als ye wott, we are as fre
   as Bynjamyns or Judeys men.
And Jerusalem is farre
   als febyll folke suld fele.
I have ordand uus nerre
   to hald our fest full wele.

876.
“For wele we wott, els wene we wrang,
   God hath power in ylka place.
Ye sall have here a god full strang
   to governe you and graunt yow grace.
We sall ordand our self amang
   prestes and dekyns in dyverse space.
And I myself befor sall gang
   forto gyf sense befor your face.”
This poynt the pepyll plese.
   Thei say, “Assent wyll we;
So sall we have more ese
   then kayre to farre cuntré.”

877.
Then with all craftes he cowth controve
   a tempyll sone he hath ordand
And made an auter noyght to move
   bot stably in that sted to stand.
The calf of gold he sett above,
   and all the folke then he commawnd
Ryght os ther Lord yt forto love
   that led them owt of Egyp land.
He says, “This same is He
   that our formfaders led
Safe throwghowt the se
   when thei fro Pharo flede.”

878.
Fals prophettes wund in that toun
   that of this fare was ferly fayn
And sayd thei suld be ryght resoun
   maynteyn all that purpase playn.
Thei went and dyd devocion
   to that mawment with myght and mayn.
The kyng arayd thei redy boun
   forto gyfe sense als ther soyverayn.
Als thei with werke and wyll
   thor mad ther mawmentry,
A prophett com them tyll,
   was sent from God Allmighty.

879.
To greve them thus he can begyn
   that all the folke myght here on hyght,
“Thou auter that is sollyed with syn,
   I warne thee here and ylka wyght:
Ther sall spryng owt of David kyn
   a kyng, Joas his name full ryght.
He sall dystroye both more and myn
   that mayntenys thee with any myght.
Both prophettes, prestes, and clerkes
   that now are mad on new:
He sall wast all ther werkes.
   And that this tale be trew

880.
“A sygne here sal be redy grayd:
   all this fals fare sall fall as fast.
Thou and all that on thee is layd
   sodanly sall doun be cast.”
And als sone as this word was sayd,
   all syd fro syd in sunder brast.
Then ware tho folke full yll affrayd
   and Jeroboam gretly agast.
He turned hym in grett tene,
   for the prophett harme suld have.
Bot vengance sone was sene;
   God wold His servand save.

881.
Evyn os he ryched owt his ryght hand
   and presed the prophett forto sloo,
Starke ase a stafe his arme con stand
   and wold not bow his body to.
So all his falshed sone he fand,
   and fayn he was to flee ther fro.
He cryd mercy to God Weldand
   and prayd the prophett he suld do so.
The prophett for hym prayd,
   als all the pepyll hym prays.
And sone by he had sayd,
   his arme was all at eys.

882.
Then had the kyng comforth full grett
   and prayd to the prophett specially
That he wold dwell with them to mete.
   Therto the prophett sayd in hy,
“God bad I suld noyght drynke ne ette
   with none of all this cumpany.
His bedyng wyll I not forfeytt;
   therfor my way fast wend wyll I.”
He left that folke in fere,
   and furth he wentt them fro.
Then was the kyng in were
   what hym was best to do.

883.
A fals prophett thor wonnand was
   that had rewled all that yll aray.
When he wyst how the prophett pas,
   he thynkes to marre hym and he may.
Fast aftur hym hasted he has
   and overtoke hym by tym of day.
And hertly cause of hym he as
   why that he went so sone away,
And sayd, “Ser, certes, I wend
   that thou wold dyne with me.”
He sayd, “God me dyffend
   to dyne in this cuntré.”

884.
The fals prophett sayd, “Ser, certayn
   I am in message sent Hym fro.
He bydes that thou sall turn agayn
   and dyne with me, now or thou go.”
So sayd that traytour for this trayn
   to gare hym breke Goddes bedyng so
That thei myght have ther purpase playn.
   To Bethell then turned thei two.
That fals prophett hym plese
   and mad grett myrth omell,
Bot sone amang ther meses
   he had messag more fell.

885.
God sayd hym in that same sesoun,
   “For thou so sone was of assent
Att turn agayn unto this toun
   and dyne agayns My commawndment,
Thou sal be slayn with a lyon,
   and to thi cors he sall take tent.”
All this he fand full redy boun
   or he ferre fro that cyté went.
A lyon hym devored,
   and other bestes to lett
Styll be the cors he cowred
   tyll folke com yt to fett.

886.
By men that kayred thore in cuntré
   sone ware ther tydynges told that tyd.
The fals prophett then hasted he
   aftur that cors to ryn and ryd.
And be lyve in that same cyté
   to byre yt he wold not abyd,
And bad his barns that he suld be
   beryd that same body besyd.
For wele he wyst that noe
   suld fall aftur therfor,
When Joas suld dystroy
   that lynag, lese and more.

887.
Bott yett his lyes he wold not layn;
   full wyghtly with the kyng he mette
And sayd, “Ser, a lyon hath slayn
   that lurdan that our servyce lett.
All that he told was bot a trayn;
   therfor he hath his dome by dett.
Be lyve gete up our geyre agayn
   and lett us hald that we have hett.
Our auter was full strang;
   over grett charge gart yt fall.
And ser, thou sensed over lang
   and noyed thin arme with all.

888.
“Ser, thou suld leve thi frendes of old
   bettur then a boy for swylke a brayd.”
The kyng then trowd all that he told
   and sone assent evyn ase he sayd.
The auter up fast con thei fold;
   gayly agayn sone was yt grayd
And honerd thore the calf of gold.
   Thus ware thos folke foly betrayd.
The kyng ay more and more
   kest hym Goddes men to mare.
Yf he dyd yll before,
   then wold he werke wele werre.
 


looked after; young
(t-note)

power


(t-note)










fowl; beast
in their ways



wile; will




(t-note)
together


entertained; (t-note)
many solaces











know


(t-note)



nearer






(t-note)

(t-note)

incense


(t-note)
(t-note)




permanent altar











lived
extremely glad



idol; power
(t-note)


(t-note)




(t-note)

Your altar; (t-note)

David’s line
Josiah
(t-note)




be seen as truthful


made




broke


anger






approached; slay
Withered


glad
All-ruling




cured





at once




together





dwelling
wicked people
passed; (t-note)
if he might


asks; (t-note)



(t-note)





(t-note)
before you leave
treachery
to cause him [to]



among [them]
meals
terrible







take possession
prepared
before he far



fetch; (t-note)


traveled; (t-note)



quickly
bury; wait
children; (t-note)
(t-note)
trouble


(i.e., entirely)


(see note)


villain; ceased
betrayal
judgment
Quickly

altar; heavy
weight
incensed
troubled



[no] better; trick
believed

altar


foully
(t-note)
harm

worse

 
[AHIJAH’S WORDS AGAINST JEROBOAM (14:1–18)]
 




10660




10665



 
889.
A holy prophett that heght Achy
   sent hym word with his awn qwene
That his falshed and his foly
   with sorows suld on themself be sene,
And that his ayrs suld have forthi
   aftur his tyme full mekyll tene.
Jeroboam sett noyght ther by
   bot wex wers then he ayr had bene.
The folke full fast can fayle
   als thei ther soyverayn saw.
Thei made goddes of metall
   and left all Moyses Law.
 

Ahijah



heirs; therefore
sorrow

grows worse; before




 
[JEROBOAM DEFEATED BY ABIJAH (13:19; 2 CHRONICLES 13:1–20)]
 


10670




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10695




10700






10705




10710




10715






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10725



 
890.
He had no mynd of Goddes myght;
   so fell he fowly in dyspare.
And by Goddes Law he sett full lyght;
   therfor he fell fowle and noyght fayre.
He sembled men full wyld and wyght;
   to Jerusalem he cast to kayre
Abiam forto fell with fyght
   that of that reme was ryghest ayre.
Bot sone when the yyng kyng
   herd tell of that tythand,
He had at his ledyng
   fayr folke fawrty thowssand.

891.
To Jeroboam sone he remewes,
   and both thei mett apon a playn.
He carped to hym and told in trewes,
   “Ser, thou wott thiself certayn
We are one men and all Ebrews;
   therfor yf auder syd be slayn,
That other syde full sore yt rewes.
   Therfor is gud to turn agayn.
And als thou hath no ryght
   by no cause thou con fynd
Agayns me forto fyght,
   for I am ayre of kynd.

892.
“Kyng Roboam by yll counsell
   he forfett yt; bot noyght forthi
He was my fader, this is no fayle,
   and thou his servand sothly.
And my God may me mekyll avayle
   and make me have the vyctory.
And thi goddes ar made of metayle;
   thou may not be beld them by.
All yf thi folke be fell,
   our God ther forse may fele.
Forto hald all in hele
   I rede no more we mell.”

893.
Jeroboam soyght a sutell gyn
   in his carpyng with kynredes ten.
Prevely he parted his pepyll in twyn
   so that non suld ther cowntenance ken,
And bad them warly thei suld wyn
   behynd Abyam and his men.
Bot God that all his treyst was in
   wold noyght suffer hym be dyssayved then.
Thar falshed he aspyed
   how thei hym umbecast.
“As armes!” be lyve he cryde
   and fowled them doun full fast.

894.
Thor was talkyng of no trews,
   full styfly strake thei in that stoure.
Jeroboam had mony Jews,
   bot God was noyght ther governoure.
Therfor that semble sone he rews,
   and sadly sekes he to socoure.
Kyng Abiam prestly persewes
   and wan ther gold with grett honoure.
Jeroboam folke thei fynd
   in feld fyve thowssand sloyn.
Tho leved he hym behynd,
   and Abiam noyght on.
 

(see note); (t-note)


(t-note)
strong


realm was the true heir
young

(see note)
good men


engages



(t-note)
either



(t-note)

heir by birth



(t-note)





protected
many; (t-note)

health
fight


trick
(t-note)
in two

quietly
Abijah
(t-note)


surrounded
quickly; (t-note)



truce
hard they struck; place; (t-note)


gathering; rues
he seeks to [find a] refuge
rapidly


slain; (see note); (t-note)
Those he (Jeroboam) left behind
while Abijah [left] not one; (t-note)

 
[ABIJAH’S DEATH; ASA CROWNED IN JUDAH (15:8)]
 


10730




10735




10740
 
895.
When Kyng Abiam had his wyll,
   to Jerusalem he turned agayn.
In that cyté he sojornes styll
   with mekyll solace for certayn
Thre yeres his tym forto fulfyll
   and honerd God with all his mayn.
And then he dyed with angers yll,
   als ylka man bus pase with payn.
And sone when he was dede,
   his eldest sone Asa
Was crowned in his sted
   and cald kyng of Juda.
 


(t-note)



strength
(t-note)
must



(t-note)

 
[JEROBOAM’S DEATH; NADAB CROWNED IN ISRAEL (15:25–26)]
 





10745




10750


 
896.
This yyng kyng Asa lett we dwell
   styll in strengh, os he is stad.
Jeroboam, kyng of Israel,
   dyed aftur sone with sorows sade.
And then was crowned in Bethell
   his eldest sun, that heght Nabad.
Thre yere was all his tym to tell;
   in lyfe no langer hele he had.
On Baasa hym betrayd
   that he was done to dede,
And hymself he arayd
   to stand kyng in his stede.
 






Nabad
(see note)

Basha
death


 
[NADAB KILLED BY BAASHA; JEROBOAM’S FAMILY ERADICATED (15:27–31)]
 



10755




10760




 
897.
Baasa began to styre swylke stryve,
   for he wold gofern grett degré.
And for Jeroboam sede suld noyght thryve,
   Nabad his sun dyssayved he.
Sythyn stroyd he up man, chyld, and wyve
   of his kynred in that cuntré.
Of that lyne leved he none o lyve.
   The prophett said yt suld so be.
Thas that in towns war dede
   howndes laped ther blode.
That dyed in other sted
   ware leved to foyles fode.
 



family
(t-note)
Then; every

he left not one alive
(i.e., Ahijah)
Those; were; (see note)
lapped their blood

carrion good

 
[BAASHA’S IDOLATRY (15:32–16:4)]
 

10765




10770




10775






10780




10785






10790




10795




10800
 
898.
Thei ware dystroyd both yyng and old,
   and all that sorow was for syne.
Kyng Baasa then was brym and bold;
   bale forto brew wold he not blyne.
He was rych of gud and gold.
   To mak hym goddes he con begyn
And sayd thei suld werke ase he wold,
   and so he suld all wrschep wyne.
He forgatt God of Hevyn,
   that hath all hele in hand,
And his condicions evyn
   held the lordes of his land.

899.
He lyfed in lust and lechery,
   in hatred and in hertly pryde.
To gud men had he grett envy
   that served God on any syde.
And for he wroyght so wekydly,
   God wold not lett hym lang abyd.
A prophett Jew he sent in hy
   to tell hym all what suld betyd.
He sayd bycause he dyd
   like to Jeroboam,
Evyn als him betyd,
   so suld he have the same,

900.
He and his kynred ever ay whore
   be dystroyd, in what eld so thei ere.
Then wex his malyce mekyll more;
   that mater meynys he forto mere.
The prophett gart he slay ryght thore,
   for this tale suld be told no fere.
And yf he had done yll before,
   then kest he forto werke mekyll werre.
He honerd goddes of metall,
   that mystrewth hym betrayd,
for all behoved befall
   als Goddes prophett had sayd.
 


due to sin; (t-note)

sorrow; stop
(t-note)

(t-note)


(t-note)











happen


(t-note)



kindred everywhere; (t-note)
regardless of age; (t-note)
grew
stop
did
further

much worse

(t-note)


 
[BAASHA AT RAMAH; ASA TURNS TO BEN-HADAD (15:16–22)]
 





10805




10810






10815




10820






10825




10830




10835






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10845



 
901.
Bot fyrst he wroyght full mekyll wa
   be were and be wyked wyle
And most unto the kyng Asa,
   that honerd God in all that whyle.
He had a cyté heyght Ramatha,
   from Jerusalem full fawrty myle
And langed to the lynage of Juda.
   That cyté gatt he sone with a gyle.
Thore thynkes he forto dwell
   and do Kyng Asa skathe.
The land of Israel
   so myght he were fra wathe.

902.
He meneys to make that cyté strang
   for hym and for his frendes ylkone.
Wyght men on ylka syd gart he gang
   and broyght ydder both tre and stone.
Kyng Asa toyght that layke full lang,
   and power to hym had he none.
Therfor to wreke hym of that wrang
   a purpase playnly hath he tone.
He sentt sone for socours
   wher the hethyn holdyn ther hame,
To the kyng of Matenours,
   Benedab by name.

903.
Bycause he was his fader frend,
   in hym full fast he con affy.
That Kyng Baasa suld not hym shend,
   of helpe he prayd hym specially.
Kyng Benedab with wordes hend
   sayd he suld have helpe in hy
And wyghtly ordand hym to wend
   to Israel with grett cumpany.
Cytes and burghes thei bryntt
   and slow men lese and more.
Cornys and wynys thei shent,
   all that thei fand before.

904.
When tythynges com to Kyng Baasa
   of the Phylesteyns ferse and fell,
Then bud hym refuse Ramatha
   and wend to rescow Israel.
Els wold the enmys byrn and sla
   and dystroye the burgh of Bethell.
Lo, how God comforth Kyng Asa,
   and he meved hym nothyng omell.
To Rama he con repayre
   and toke yt into his hand.
He byged yt wele and fayre
   with store that he thore fand.
 

woes
by war; wicked deceits


Ramah

belonged
obtained; guile; (t-note)

harm

danger


intends; (t-note)
(t-note)




avenge
taken
(t-note)
pagans held their home
Damascus; (see note)
Ben-hadad; (t-note)



trust
overcome; (t-note)

courteous; (t-note)
at once


burned

Crops and vineyards; destroyed
found before [them]



fierce and cruel

(t-note)
Otherwise
(t-note)

among [them]
(t-note)

fortified; (see note)
[the] stores; found there

 
[BAASHA’S DEATH; REIGN AND DEATH OF ELAH (16:5–10)]
 


10850




10855




10860
 
905.
Kyng Benedab grett welth had wun,
   and home he wentt warly and wele.
Kyng Baasa sone in bale was bun
   and dyed with dole and dred sum dele.
And aftur regnyd Helam, his sun,
   and mad maystryce and mekyll unsele;
For yf the fader fell was fun,
   the sun was feller be fere to fele.
Therfor he last not lang:
   within two yeres sesoun
An Agary heyght hym wrang,
   slogh hym and toke the crown.
 

(t-note)

sorrow was bound

Elah

was found cruel
more cruel by far


A [man] named Agariah (i.e., Zimri); (see note); (t-note)
(t-note)

 
[REIGNS OF ZIMRI, OMRI (16:11–28)]
 





10865




10870






10875




10880




 
906.
This new kyng then, Agary,
   wuned in a town was named Tharsa.
He stroyd all the progeny
   that ware comyn of the kyng Baasa.
Then had the folke to hym envy
   that ware wonnand in Gabatha.
Thei mad them a kyng heyght Ambry;
   then had Israels kynges twa.
Kyng Ambry mad hym boun
   that other new kyng to noye.
He beseged Tharsa toun
   Kyng Agary to dystroy.

907.
Kyng Agary knew them full of yre,
   and he had no forse hym to fend.
His awn palyse he sett on fyre,
   for bettur comforth none he kend.
He brent hymself both bone and lyre;
   on this wyse was his wreched ende.
Then had Kyng Ambry his desyre,
   and furth in lordschep con he lend.
Twelfe yeres furth and no ferre
   lasted his lordschep thore,
Als yll of werkes or warre
   as any was hym before.
 


Tirzah
(t-note)


dwelling in Gibbethon
Omri; (t-note)
Israelites two kings; (t-note)

trouble





to defend himself


burned; flesh



more; (t-note)

wicked

 
[AHAB MADE KING OF ISRAEL (16:29–34)]
 

10885




10890




10895

 
908.
When twelfe yeres ware done be dene,
   he dyed with wo, that I warrand.
Acab, his sun, was sythyn sene
   kyng and lord of Israel land.
And yf his elders yll had bene,
   he was the warst of hert and hand.
That aftur turned hymselfe to tene,
   bot fele folk fyrst his fawtes fand.
Thus ferd yt of fyve kynges
   in schort tyme forto tell.
For thei brake Goddes bydynges,
   thei have ther hame in Hell.
 

forthwith
promise
Ahab; (t-note)


worst
grief



Because

 
[ASA’S REIGN (15:23; 2 CHRONICLES 16:7–12)]
 




10900




10905






10910




10915




10920
 
909.
Bot Kyng Aasa of Juda land,
   he lyfed in luf and chareté.
Full fawrty yeres was he renand
   and rewled his reme in gud degré.
He honerd God with hert and hand
   so that no man myght say ne see
Wherfor God suld be oght grochand,
   bot yf yt ware for thynges thre.
And on was for he send
   unto a paynym kyng
Fro his fase hym to fend,
   and asked not Goddes helpyng.

910.
Another was when a trew prophet
   fro God of Hevyn to hym was grayd
And told hym how he had forfett
   and owt of reson myse arayd.
In stokkes full sore he gartt hym sett,
   for he the sothe unto hym sayd
Of evill lyvyng hym forto let,
   and of that warke God was not payde.
The thryd: of seknes sore
   forto have help in hy
In lechys he trest more
   then in God Allmighty.
 




realm


grumbling in any way
unless
one; (t-note)
pagan; (t-note)
foes; defend



(t-note)
sent
(t-note)

stocks; caused him to be set
truth
cease; (t-note)
pleased


doctors

 
[JEHOSHAPHAT MADE KING OF JUDAH (15:24; 2 CHRONICLES 16:13–17:5)]
 





10925




10930






10935




10940






10945




10950




10955

 
911.
Kyng Asa dyed in gud degré,
   for in all his werkes was he trew.
He had a sun semly to see,
   heyght Josaphat, a gentyll Jew.
Aftur his fader regned he
   in Jerusalem os gud Ebrew.
He was the best of all bounté
   aftur Kyng David that men knew.
Unto Goddes Law he tentes
   both by nyght and day
And kepes His Commawndmentes
   in all that ever he may.

912.
He was full buxum and full bayn
   to beld all that in bales ware bend,
And forto put the pure fro payn
   wold he hym hast with hert and hend.
The fals Phylysteyns ware full fayn
   ther servyce both to say and send,
So that all folke of hym ware fayn
   with all ther myght his mys to mend.
The prophettes, prestes, and clerkes
   that mayntened Goddes servyce
Both with wordes and werkes
   he wrschept in all wyse.

913.
The Tempyll of God he can restore
   with reverence and with rych aray,
Qwylk fals Phylesteyns lang before
   had brokyn doun and born away.
Ever ylk thyng he ordand thore
   that he hoped myght plese God to pay,
And so increyst ay more and more
   in gud maters all that he may.
Now Josaphatt lett we dwell
   lyfand to Goddes lovyng,
And of yll Acab tell
   that was of Israel kyng.
 



fair to look upon
Jehoshaphat


(t-note)

attends





humble; ready
protect; troubles
keep
haste


glad
(t-note)










(t-note)
worship




(t-note)

 
[AHAB MARRIES JEZEBEL AND PROVOKES GOD (16:29–34)]
 




10960




10965






10970




10975




10980
 
914.
We told how fyve before had bene
   that yll began and als yll end.
This was the werst withoutyn wene,
   for of more malyce ever he mend.
He toyght no myrth was more to mene
   then Goddes folke scham and shend.
And lyke to hym he toke a qwene
   of Phylysteyns, full of the Fend.
Hyr name was Jesabell,
   the kynges doyghtur of Tyre.
Malyce to meve and mell
   that was hyr most desyre.

915.
Kyng Acab mad goddes of metall
   and gaf to them wele gud woyne.
Bot scho mad hym more fouly fall
   then forto wrschepe tre or stone.
He made a tempyll to Beall,
   was god of Tyre and Sydone.
On knese to hym thei cry and call
   and says he ys ther lord alon.
Scho ordand for tho werkes,
   als woman wardly wyse,
Fals prophettes, prestes, and clerkes
   evyn at hyr awn devyse.
 

five [kings in Israel] before him
ended





Devil
Jezabel; (t-note)
(see note)
interfere




wealth in abundance
she (i.e., Jezebel)

Baal; (t-note)
Sidon; (t-note)



worldly


 
[ELIJAH REBUKES AHAB (16:35–17:1)]
 





10985




10990






10995




11000




 
916.
And trew prophettes of God Allmighty,
   prestes and clerkes and byschopes bathe,
Them gart scho spyll dyspytfully;
   ther none myz skape withowtyn skathe.
Kyng Acab faverd hyr forthi
   in all hyr werke, yf yt ware wath.
Therfor God send his sand in hy
   to make hym wytt how He was wrath.
Ely the prophet trew
   fro God to hym was grayd.
He told hym tythyng new,
   and on this wyse he sayd:

917.
“God sendes thee word by me certayn,
   for thou mayntenys on yll maner
Thi wyf that has His servandes slayn
   and makes the goddes of fendes unfere.
Within thi reme sall fall no rayn,
   ne dew sall now fro hevyn apeyre
To tyme that I com here agayn,
   and that bees noyght of all this yere.”
The kyng then toke gud tent
   and hopes he be begyld.
And the prophett so went
   his ways unto the woddes wyld.
 



she caused to be killed
harm escape; harm

dangerous
message at once

Elijah
sent






(t-note)
weak devils
(t-note)
the heavens; (t-note)
Until the time

careful care
is beguiled; (t-note)

wild forests

 
[ELIJAH IN THE WILDERNESS AND ZAREPHATH (17:2–24)]
 

11005




11010




11015






11020




11025






11030




11035




11040






11045




11050






11055




11060






11065




11070




11075






11080




11085






11090




11095




11100
 
918.
He logeed hym in a forest fayr
   whore erbs ware grouand full grene,
And thor he fand low in a layre
   a spryng with watur fresch and clene.
God sent hym breyd owt of the ayre
   thore whore none before had bene
With rayvyns that cowd to hym kayre.
   So selcoth syght was seldome sene.
Alon so lyfed he thore,
   to none his nedes to nevyn,
Well sevyn monthes and more
   with helpe of God of Hevyn.

919.
In the meyn tyme betyd yt swa
   that all the erth was dry be dett.
And his fresch watur fayled hym fro;
   then was his lyst of lyfyng lett.
Then bad God hym that he suld ga
   for that defawt his fode to gete
Into a cyté heyght Sarepta,
   in the syd of Sydone was sett:
“To a wedow ther I spake,
   qwylk to My bedyng is bayne
To fede thee for My sake.
   Thus sall thou fynd certayn.”

920.
Then was Ely in stallworth state
   when he the bote of God con here.
To Sarepta he toke the gate,
   als his Lord con unto hym lere.
The wedow was withoutyn the gate
   and geydderd wod with sympyll chere.
He prayd hyr hys threyst to abate
   to helpe hym with sum watur clere.
Scho sayd, “Styll here abyd!
   I sall sone do thi rede.”
Bot aftur hyr sone he cryde
   and bad hyr bryng hym bred.

921.
The wedow was then more affrayd
   and scho had mervell how he wold mene.
“Syr, God of Hevyn He wott,” scho sayd,
   “I am bredles and lang hath bene.
Slyke drynes over this land is layd
   for hungur dye the folke be dene.
And for that poynt I have purvayd,
   the same sall on myself be sene.
I have within my bowre,
   I wyll thou wytt all wele,
Bot a handfull of floure
   and a lytyll oyle in a skele.

922.
“I geydder wod, os thou may see,
   for aftur Goddes wyll wold I yt wore.
I sall make to my sun and me
   a lytyll cake of all our stoure.
That sall we ete, and it sall be
   our last fode; so wyll fall therfore.
Then bus us dye both I and he,
   for to our mete have we no more.”
He sayd, “I pray thee, dame,
   sen that the soth is so,
make me fyrst of that same
   and sythyn make to yow two.

923.
“And thou wyll tent to my consell
   and traw yt to the utterest end,
I say thi flour it sall not fayle,
   bot fro defawt yt sall thee fend.
And als thin oyle sall thee avayle
   to tym that God sum socour send.”
Scho wold noyght fyne then forto trayvell
   bot kyndly dyd os he hyr kend.
Hyr flour then fayled noyght,
   ne hyr oyle wex not to wast
Tyll God, ose Hym gud toyght,
   heyght them His helpe in hast.

924.
Aftur this tyme betyd yt so:
   the wedow sun was ded with payn.
Then was that wedow wonder wo
   and mad grett sorow for certayn.
To Ely gretand con scho go
   and sayd, “Yf thou be prophet playn,
Schew now thi myght to me and mo
   and gayre me have my sun agayn!
Then wyll I trewly trow
   that thou be the prophett strang.
And els I say that thou
   hath slayn my sun with wrang.”

925.
When Hely saw hyr sorow sere,
   he sayd, “Dame, sese! All sal be wele.”
He raysed hym that was bun to bere
   fayr in forse fully to fele.
Then made the mother mery chere
   and sayd, “Thi God may send all sele.
Now wot I wele withowtyn were:
   thou ert His prophett trew as stele.”
Full holy then scho hym held,
   as thor was schewed to syght.
And ay whyls he thor dweld,
   scho esed hym at hyr myght.
 

lodged himself; (t-note)
herbs were growing


bread; air

ravens; travel; (t-note)
amazing a sight

mention
months; (t-note)



it happened such
duty bound to be dry
(t-note)



Zarephath

(t-note)
obedient





command; hear
road
instruct
gate

(t-note)

await
bidding




(t-note)




forthwith












(t-note)

must; (t-note)
food

since; truth; (t-note)




If you will listen
believe

starvation; defend
also

finish; (t-note)







it happened thus



weeping; (t-note)
(t-note)
(t-note)
cause






many sorrows; (t-note)

resurrected









 
[ELIJAH RETURNS TO ISRAEL AND MEETS OBADIAH (18:1–16)]
 





11105




11110






11115




11120






11125




11130




11135






11140




11145






11150




11155




11160






11165




11170


 
926.
God began then to have peté,
   for pepyll peryscht in mony a place.
To the prophet Ely commawnd He
   them forto comforth in this case
And say they shal have rayne plenté
   and be releeved in litle space.
Ely was glad yt suld so be.
   to betell ward be lyve he gase.
He had bene thore before;
   full well knew he the strette.
Bot fyrst, or he com thore,
   sum mervels con he mete.

927.
With Kyng Acab then wonnand was
   a prowd prince with armys clene,
That named was Obedyas.
   he served God and that was sene
When prophettes and prestes to payn con pase
   through Jesabell, that fellows qwene.
Sum of them helped he has
   that the same day ded suld have bene.
In hid place he them sett
   and sayved them fro the chaunce
And broyght hymself in dett
   to fynd them sustinance.

928.
Kyng Acab bad hym wend in hy
   to seke yf he myght fynd herbe or grese
That ther bestes myght lyfe ther by
   that dyes for defawt, more and lese;
Or yf he myght awr spyre or spy
   whore that warlow wonnand es
That proved them by his prophecy
   that thei suld dwell in swylke drynes
To tyme he come agayn.
   “And yf thou may hym bryng,
Als sone he sal be slayn,
   for he told swylk tokynyng.”

929.
Obedyas wold no langer lett;
   he was full boun all bale to bete,
For herbys or gryse, yf he myght gete,
   bot he fand nawder sawre ne swete.
Bot in the way, as he was sett,
   with the prophett Ely con he mete.
When he hym saw, for joy he grette
   and fell doun flatt before his fete.
He fraynd als man afrayd,
   “Es this my lord Ely?”
He answerd sone and sayd,
   “Goddes servand here am I.”

930.
“Ser,” he sayd, “thus I am sent
   thee forto seke, os thou may see.
Kyng Acab hath gyfyn his jugment
   that for this dry ded sall thou be,
And bot I bryng thee, I be shent.
   Therfor sum consell ken thou me.”
He says to hym, “I wold thou went
   and tell hym os I tell thee:
Styll here I sall abyd
   and no fote ferther flee.
And say for all his pryd
   God sall my belder be.

931.
“And I sall warrand thee full wele
   and fro his felnes thee dyffend.”
Obedias went and told ylk dele
   unto Acab as Ely hym kend.
He sayd, “Ser, seke we for our sele
   and pray hym sum socur to send!”
And for the folke swylke fawtes fele,
   unto hym both wyghly thei wend.
Then sayd the kyng for scorn,
   “Ys thou not he, that same
That gayrs my land be lorn
   and wastes both wyld and tame?”
 

(t-note)


(t-note)
(t-note)


towards Bethel quickly he goes


before; (t-note)



dwelling; (t-note)

Obadiah; (t-note)

did succumb; (t-note)
evil

dead; (t-note)
a hiding place; (t-note)

into debt



ordered him to go at once; (t-note)
grass
their beasts
starvation
either find or spy
where that powerful sorcerer is dwelling

such a drought
Until the time

Immediately
foretold such signs


delay
very ready all misery to relieve

sour nor sweet (i.e., none at all)


greeted [him]

acted







(t-note)
drought
unless; killed
teach
(t-note)

await


protector


assure
wickedness
each part
instructed
we [should] seek [Elijah]; safety

such starvation feel
quickly they go


causes
(i.e., everything)

 
[THE CONTEST AT MT. CARMEL (18:17–46)]
 



11175




11180






11185




11190




11195






11200




11205






11210




11215




11220






11225




11230






11235




11240






11245




11250




11255






11260




11265






11270




11275




11280






11285




11290


 
932.
Then sayd Ely, “Ser, I thee tell:
   this sorow is sent all for thi syne.
Bryng same the best of Israel,
   yf that thou wyll this baret blyne,
And the fals prophettes of Jezabell
   and prestes and dekyns, more and myn,
And comys all to the Mownt Carmell!
   Ther sall I tell them, or I twyne,
The cause of all this kare
   and what may most amend.”
Forto fulfyll this fare
   the kyng full sone hath send.

933.
Unto the lordes of his land
   and most clene of the comonalité,
Prophettes that Jezabell ordand,
   prestes and dekyns in ther degré,
Unto them all he thus commawnd,
   “Comys to the Mount of Carmell with me!
Thore sall ye se the prophett stand
   that mad us in this bale to be.”
Sone on a hyll on heyght
   this pepyll was purvayde.
Then Ely stud up ryght
   amang them all and sayd,

934.
“Lordynges, your lyfes thus worthys to lake
   that levys the Law that Moyses lent.
Grett God that to your faders spake,
   Hym suld ye trow with trew entent.
God of Abraham and of Ysac,
   unto His saws ye suld assent,
And leve Beall that ever is blake,
   or els in bale ye mon be brent.
Yf ye may prove by skyll
   that he may helpe yow oght,
Tell yt this pepyll untyll!”
   To this thei answer noght.

935.
“Now sers,” he says, “asay we sall
   whedder of our goddes hath more power.
Rayse up an auter amang yow all,
   and I sall rayse another nere.
Takes then an ox owt of a stall
   and part yt in sunder in peysese sere.
And on your auter lettes yt fall,
   and I sall do the same ryght here.
To God then sall we pray,
   and qwylk so fyrst is brent,
Hald hym for God verray.”
   To this thei all assent.

936.
Fals prestes, clerkes of Jezabell,
   and prophettes, faur hunderth and mo,
Raysed up an auter them omell,
   for so thei wene to wast ther wo.
Thei leide theron full fayr fuell,
   and then a gret ox con thei slo
And layde furth both flesch and fell;
   and Ely dyd another also.
Then prestes and prophettes kneled,
   ylkon aftur ther state,
And prayd Beall forto beld,
   bot his comforth com late.

937.
Full rudly then thei rope and rare
   on ther mawment to mend ther mode.
Bot ther offerand moved never the mare,
   bot in a state full styll it stod.
Thei rent ther face and rave ther hare
   and weped for wo, ose thei ware wode.
Ely stud styll on them to stare,
   hym toyght that game was wounder gud.
He says, “Your god is on slepe
   or els went ferre fro hame:
To yow he takes no kepe.
   Crys on hym fast for schame!”

938.
So dyd thei holly half a day,
   to cry and rare thei wold not rest.
Ther offerand on the auter lay,
   and no kyns fyre wold in yt fest.
Then Ely bad them wend away,
   God was not to ther prayer prest,
And sayd, “For soth, I shall assay
   yf my God wyll be bettur gest.”
His auter and ylk dele
   in Goddes name was agrayd.
His flesch was weschen wele
   and on the auter layd.

939.
On both his knese then knelse he doun
   and prayd to God with stabyll stevyn
To send sum segn in that seson
   that His name myght be new to nevyn.
Or he had endyd his oryson,
   a fyre dyscended doun fro Hevyn.
Yt brent all up that he mad boun
   and went up into the ayre full evyn.
Then ware tho folke full fayn,
   and lowd thei cast a crye:
“Ther is no god may gayn
   bot the God of Ely!

940.
“We wot Beall ys bot a fend,
   and fals prophettes, foull mot them fall!”
Ely bad that thei suld shend
   prophettes and prestes that on hym call.
Of all the meneye mad thei end
   that governd hym, both gret and small.
Then Ely heygh with wordes hende,
   “Sum socur yow God send sall.”
The Ebrews went at wyll
   and toyght ther werkyng wele.
And Ely loged hym styll
   apon the Mount of Carmele.

941.
To God fast con he call and crye
   of His pepyll forto have pyté
And bad his servand spyre and spye
   yf any clowd com fro the see.
At last he sayd, “Ser, certanly
   the ayre begynys all brown to bee.”
God send helpe then sone in hy:
   rayn fell over all that cuntré.
Then love thei God allways
   with wyll, word, and dede.
And the prophett thei prays
   that so spake for ther sped.
 

(t-note)

together
trouble cease



before I depart
sorrow








(t-note)
(t-note)









changed to waste
who leaves; gave

believe [in]

words

sorrow; tormented

any
unto



test
which
altar


many pieces



burned
verily




more; (t-note)
altar among them
hope to end their woe
a great deal of fuel
slay


(t-note)

protect [them]



Very violently; cry out; roar
idol
more

their faces and tore their hair
crazy



far from
(t-note)
Call upon


wholly
roar
offering; altar
no kind of fire; alight




altar
(t-note)
washed well




steady voice

invoke
prayer









fiend
must

(t-note)
company; (t-note)

called
(t-note)








look and see; (t-note)



haste





 
[JEZEBEL SWEARS VENGEANCE; ELIJAH FLEES TO BEERSHEBA (19:1–3)]
 



11295




11300




 
942.
Bot Jezabell, that cursed qwene,
   when scho herd tell of this tythyng,
How all that had with Beall bene
   ware ded and thrugh Ely demyng,
Then in hert scho had grett tene
   and sayd ther suld non erthly thyng
Save hym, and he myght be sene,
   that he ne suld have the same endyng.
Ely herd hyr swere swa;
   therfor fast con he flee
Tyll a cyté of Juda,
   that named was Barsabé.
 


news

deeming
anger



swear this


Beersheba

 
[ELIJAH’S REVELATIONS IN THE WILDERNESS AND HOREB (19:4–21)]
 

11305




11310




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11335




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11345




11350






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11365




11370




11375

 
943.
Lang sojornyng ther saw he none,
   for he was ferre from ylka frend.
To wyldernese he went alone,
   and in a loge ther con he lend.
To myghty God he mad his mone
   and prayd Hym that he myght make end,
“Als myn elders ar ded ylkon,
   Lord, suffer me that way to wend!
Sene them no lyffe ys lent
   that wore more of wrschepe,
Lett me wend os thei went!”
   With thys he fell on slepe.

944.
He was wery and myght not wake,
   for he had wentt be ways sere.
An angell come and to hym spake
   and sayd he was Goddes messyngere.
Mete and drynke he bad hym take
   so forto hold hym hoyle and fere.
Then at his hed he fand a cake
   and a vessell with watur clere.
And for hym fayled fode,
   of that fayre was he fayn.
He ete and dyd hym gud,
   and sone he sleped agayn.

945.
The secund tyme the angell sayd,
   “Wake, wake, Ely, and no more thou wynke!
Swylke ose ys in this place purvayd
   God byddes that thou sall ete and drynke.
A grett way is before thee grayd
   that thee behoves both swett and swynke.”
He rayse and rathly hym arayd.
   his lymys ware then full lyght, hym thynke.
By the myght of that same mete
   he trayveld fawrty days
The hyll of God to gett,
   heyght Oreb the story says.

946.
God spake to hym in that space
   and sayd, “What sterd thee into this stede?”
He sayd, “Lord, for ferd of my fase.
   For and I byd, I ete never bred.
Thi prophettes in evere ylk place
   by Jezabell ar putt to ded,
And the same to me heyght scho has.
   That dose me flee fro hyr hatred.”
God sayd, “Go ydder agayn
   and do message of Myne!
I sall thee sayve certayn
   fro hyr and all hyr hyne.

947.
“Take tent to tales that I thee tell
   and trewly trest that thei are trew!
Ordan for kyng of Israel
   aftur Acab on that named ys Jew!
And kyng of Syre make Azaell
   that ever has bene a gud Ebrew!
And when thou may no langer dwell,
   for thiself then set Elysew!
He sall be prophett playn,
   wysest when thou ert wentt
And man full mekyll of mayn
   to mustur Myn entent.

948.
“Thei sall Me venge with hert and hand
   of them that hath forsakyn Me.”
So went he furth and sone he fand
   Elysew in feld kepand his fee.
He told unto hym new tythand,
   all how God bad that he suld bee.
Then Elysew left lord and land
   and went with Ely os menyhe.
So same we lett them dwell,
   two gud servandes to God,
And of Kyng Acab tell
   and of his neghtbour, Nabod.
 


far; (t-note)
(t-note)




go
Since in; life
honor
(t-note)




many roads
(t-note)

Food
healthy and strong








(t-note)
sleep
Such [stores]

prepared; (t-note)
sweat and toil
arose; (t-note)
(t-note)
food

(t-note)
Mt. Horeb



brought; place; (t-note)
fear; foes
(t-note)


promised




servants


Take heed
truly trust; true
Ordain
(i.e., is a Jew)
Syria; Hazael


Elisha


power



(see note)

(i.e., Elijah)
field; flock



follower; (t-note)

(t-note)

Naboth; (t-note)

 
[NABOTH’S VINEYARD (21:1–29)]
 




11380




13385






11390




11395




11400






11405




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11460
 
949.
Kyng Acab wuned in Jezerael,
   a cyté that was long and wyd.
And also his qwenne Jezabell
   was wonnand thore with mekyll pryd.
And this Nabod that I of tell
   sojornd als a neghtbour nere besyd.
He had a feld that to hym fell
   whore wynes full mekyll multyplyd.
The kyng oft yt beheld,
   for yt was large and lang.
He thynkes to have that feld
   awder by ryght or wrang.

950.
And to fullfyll this purpase playn
   to Nabod sent he message thore.
To by hys feld he wold be bayn
   and to gyf gud fully therfore.
Bot Nabod sent hym word agayn
   that yt fell to his ayrys ever more.
He wold noyght sell yt for certayn.
   Then was the kyng greved full sore.
So grett dyspytt hym thynke,
   his hert he myght not meke.
He myght nawder ete ne drynke
   bot layd hym doun sore seke.

951.
No sang, ne solace myght hym save,
   ne no helpyng to hym avayld.
Qwene Jezabell the cause con crave
   and asked hym hertly what hym ayled.
He sayd, “For Nabod feld I crave,
   and therof have I fowly fayled.”
Scho says, “That hette I thee to have,
   all be yt never so trewly tayled.”
Scho gart hyr rebels ryse
   that tyll hyr bode was bayn,
And charged them on all wyse
   that Nabod sone ware slayn.

952.
Scho bad that thei suld bere hym on hand
   that he had sclaunderd God of Hevyn,
And lett hym so no langer stand.
   And at hyr wyll thei went full evyn.
Thei wold noyght fyne or thei hym fand,
   and then thei wold not here his stevyn,
Bot slow that lele man for his land.
   This was a cursed note to nevyn.
When this yll ded was done,
   the kyng was hole, hym toyght.
Bot God sent message sone
   that sayd yt suld sore be boyght.

953.
Gud Ely to the kyng con tell,
   “For thou hath wroyght thies werkes wode,
In that same feld that Nabod fell
   sall thou be slayn for all thi gud.
Wyld bestes sall with thi body mell,
   and thi flesch sal be fowles fud.
And say to thi wyfe, Jezabell,
   in this cyté sall houndes lape hyr blud.
Als Kyng Jeroboam kyn
   dyed all withoutt bereyng,
So thi frendes for thi syn
   sall fall to fole endyng.”

954.
Kyng Acab then was cast in care.
   to God fast con he call and crye
And heyght that he suld never mare
   werke to wrath hym wylfully,
So that he wold of vengance spare
   and of his synys then have mercy.
And when God saw his sorows sare,
   agayn to hym he sent Ely.
He says his kynred sall
   be saved whyls he has myght,
Bot all ellys suld befall
   as he before had heyght.

955.
The prophett then his way is went
   whore God wold governe hym to gang.
The kyng then toke full gud tent
   what tales ware thore them amang.
And Jezabell, that lady gent,
   was ever in wyll to werke wrang.
In grett lykyng now ar thei lent;
   we sall leve that yt lastes not lang.
The kyng of Syre, Benedab,
   with kynges thryty and two
Soyght unto Kyng Acab
   with were to werke hym wo.
 

lived in Jezreel; (t-note)


dwelling







either


(t-note)

buy; (t-note)


heirs; (t-note)


(t-note)


(t-note)








promise




Naboth’s sons


(t-note)



stop before
hear his speech
law-abiding
mention



(t-note)



insane deeds


meddle


lap her blood

bearing [further generations]

foul




promised; more



sore
Elijah; (t-note)








reflected very carefully [upon]
were said there among them
well-born; (t-note)
wanting to do evil things
happiness

Syria, Ben-hadad
(t-note)

war

 
[BEN-HADAD AND THE SIEGE OF SAMARIA (20:1–22)]
 





11465




11470






11475




11480






11485




11490




11495






11500




11505






11510




11515




11520
 
956.
When Kyng Acab persaved in hy
   how enmys enturd intyll his land,
And wyst with swylke a cumpany
   to fyght in feld no folke he fand,
He clossed hymself in Samary;
   was full wele walled hym to warrand.
Bot Benedab sett not therby;
   ther myght no strengh agayns hym stand.
That cyté large and wyd,
   that semly was to see,
Seged he on ylka syd
   with paynyms grett plenté.

957.
Unto Kyng Acab word he send,
   “Yf that thou wyll take me untyll
Both wyves and chylder into myn hend,
   at my lyst forto spare or spyll,
And all that is for thresour kend
   within the cyté, lowd and styll,
To have with me, then wyll I wend.”
   Kyng Acab answerd to that skyll,
“Of myn all that men kens
   wyll I lefe forto lyfe.
Bot gudes of other mens
   have I no ryght to gyfe.”

958.
Kyng Benedab then was not payd;
   therfor he answerd wordes fell.
“I have here sembled men,” he sayd.
   “So mony that yf I them omell
Ylkon a handfull had purvayd
   of erthe to lay here whore we dwell,
Of that same erthe suld be grayd
   a hyll os hegh os a castell.
And fare thei sall not fare
   or all this burgh be brent.”
Then Kyng Acab had care,
   bot socour sone was sent.

959.
God to his helpyng has tane hede
   and send His prophett hastely.
He sayd, “Kyng Acab, have no dred!
   God says thou sall have vyctory.”
The kyng askys, “Who sall do that ded?”
   He says, “Chylder and no chyvalry.”
Then gart the kyng geydder full gud sped
   of chylder a full fayre cumpany,
Swylke os myght wepyns weld
   faur hunderth furth he fand.
Thei wentt before to the feld.
   He sued with sevyn thowssand.

960.
Thei musterd them with myght and mayn;
   God mayntend all that meneye.
The paynyms sone ware put to payn,
   all ware thei never so grett plenté.
Fyve thowsand sone of them ware slayn,
   and all the remnand fayn to flee.
Bot sone thei sembled mo agayn
   and sayd that thei suld venged bee.
Kyng Benedab asked consell
   what thyng that most myght noye,
And what myght most avayle
   the Ebrews forto dystroye.
 

at once
enemies entered into
knew [that] with such
field; folk [could] he find
closed himself [up] in Samaria
very well fortified
thought nothing of this



He besieged on every side
a great many pagans



Unless; give unto me

desire


publicly and privately
cause [to happen]
(t-note)
leave [you]




pleased; (t-note)
terrible

among


created (t-note)
as

burned
sorrow



taken heed




Servants; (see note); (t-note)
caused; to gather; (t-note)


(see note)
in front; battlefield
came forth; (t-note)



company
pagans; (t-note)
(t-note)
(see note)
remainder glad

avenged
[his] council



 
[BEN-HADAD DEFEATED ON THE PLAIN (20:23–34)]
 





11525




11530






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15555






11560




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11575




11580
 
961.
Thei answerd sone unto his saw
   and sayd, “For this fare that thou frayns
Condicion of ther God we knaw.
   His helpe is all in hegh mountayns.
Therfor to dales I red we draw,
   for ther our god most to us gayns.
And ther God wyll not lyght so low,
   so sall thei sone be put to payns.”
This consell toke he tyll
   and held yt gud and hale.
Evyn under Japhet hyll
   he loged hym in a dale.

962.
Kyng Acab herd tell how ther hales
   was sett to sojornd in certayn space.
Bot for he suld noyght trow ther tales,
   fro God full gud warnyng he has.
A prophett bad go bede them bales,
   for God wold schew of His gud grace
That he myght ese als wele in dales
   as in hylles or in hy places.
Kyng Acab assayld them sone,
   as God gaf hym to red,
And als God demed, was done:
   paynyms ware done to ded.

963.
A hunderth thowssand and wele mo
   of hethyn folke ware feld in feld
That come with thrytty kynges and two.
   ther scaped non that suld wepyns weld.
Kyng Benedab he wan with wo
   to a cyté hymself to beld.
He wyst not what was best to do:
   to byd or his body to yeld,
For wele he wyst certayn
   Kyng Acab wold not fayle
Or he ware soght and slayn.
   Bot thus spake his counsell:

964.
“Ser,” thei say, “suffer sall we
   a lese harme forto lett a more.
Ebrews ar men of mercy free;
   wend we unto them fast therfore
And pray ther kyng to have pyté
   for his goddes sake with syghyng sore,
And profer us his bond men to be
   and also that we sall restore
All that our elders wan
   fro his elders and fro hym.
So sall he graunt uus than
   forto have lyf and lym.”

965.
Unto this counsayle have thei tone,
   and sone ther gatte thei have begun.
Barfote, in ther serkes alon,
   with cordes abowt ther halse bun,
To Kyng Acab thei kneled ylkon
   and fell doun flatt when he was fun.
When he saw them wyll of woyne,
   grett rewth to his hert is run.
He forgaf all his grefe
   and graunt them pardon playn.
He mad hymself myschefe
   and the hethyn folke full fayn.
 

words
you ask about


low places (the plains) I advise we withdraw
there
their



Aphek



tents
(t-note)
believe; (t-note)



help as well
(t-note)
(t-note)
be ready [to do]

(t-note)


(see note)
were killed in the field; (t-note)

escaped
went
protect

remain







stop a greater [one]

go










taken [heed]; (t-note)
journey
Barefoot; shirts
necks bound; (t-note)

reached; (t-note)
without hope




glad

 
[AHAB’S MERCY ON BEN-HADAD; THE PROPHET’S REBUKE (20:35–43)]
 





11585




11590






11595




11600






11605




11610




11615






11620




11625






11630




11635




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11645




11650


 
966.
Kyng Benadab by the hand he hent
   and kyssed hym and become his frend,
So thai that hoped to be shent
   now in this tyme no more were tend.
Kyng Acab with his Ebrews went
   to Samary fayr forto lend,
Bot message sone to hym was sent
   that God was yll payd of ther end.
A prophett, Machias,
   thor lendyd in that land.
To Samary con he pase
   with his staf in his hand.

967.
To that cyté so as he yode,
   Ebrews mett hym in the way.
To on of them he spake gud sped,
   “Have here my stafe, I thee pray,
and breke my hed and gare yt bled!”
   The Ebrew answerd and sayd, “Nay!
Why suld I do to thee that dede
   that greved me never be nyght ne day?”
The prophett sayd, “Forthi
   that thou dose noyght my wyll,
Thou sall dye sodanly,
   and bestes thi sped sall spyll.”

968.
A lyon come with byttur brayd
   and wowred hym amang them thore.
The prophett to another sayd,
   “Have here my staf and smyt me sore!”
That other saw his felow flayd,
   that made hym buxum mekyll more.
His awn stafe on his hed he layd
   that blud fell over the face before.
A cloght abowt he band
   to be owt of knawyng.
His stafe he toke in hand
   and come so to the kyng.

969.
“A, lord,” he says, “this herm I hent
   in the batell, for I wold not fle.
The stewerd toke me forto tent
   a man that had mysdone to thee.
To kepe hym safly I assent.
   He ys away; full wo is me,
For I be tane to grett turment
   bot yf thou my beldyng be.”
The kyng sayd, “Sine he was
   worthy forto be ded
That thou has lettyn pase
   and standes in that same sted,

970.
“For bettur beld thee thar not byde
   bot ded for ded, this is the law.”
The prophett sone his hed unhyd,
   bycause the kyng then suld hym knaw.
“Ser kyng,” he says, “this same thou dyd
   and this same dowm to have thou aw.
For Benadab that ever is kyd
   enmy to God in dede and saw,
God gaf hym in thi hend
   forto venge ylk dele.
And thou has lettyn hym wend;
   therfor I warn thee wele:

971.
“For thou wold not putt hym to pyne
   when he was putt in thi pawsté,
And wyst yt was Goddes wyll and myn
   of hym and his venged to be,
For his lyfe thou sall lose thin
   and all thi kyn in this cuntré,
For socur of God now sall thou tyne.
   Thus sall yt wurth, thus warne Y thee.”
Then was Kyng Acab kene.
   In preson he dyd hym cast
And sayd he suld be sene
   a lyer at the last.
 

took


troubled; (t-note)




Micaiah; (see note)
dwelled; (t-note)








strike; cause it [to] bleed; (t-note)


who; (t-note)
Because


success (life)



devoured

(t-note)
(t-note)
much more humble
(t-note)

cloth
(i.e., disguised)






take care of

(t-note)
(t-note)
taken; (t-note)
unless; protector
Since; (t-note)





comfort
death; (t-note)



judgment; ought; (t-note)
known
deed and word






Because
power; (t-note)




lose

bitter
(see note)

liar

 
[JEHOSHAPHAT AND AHAB AT PEACE (22:1–4)]
 



11655




11660






11665




11670




11675






11680




11685






11690




11695




11700
 
972.
In preson now lett we hym dwell
   and Acab in his yll lyfyng.
Of Josaphat furth wyll we tell
   that of Jerusalem was kyng.
He musterd mercy ever omell
   and honerd God over all thyng.
Therfor all frendschepe to hym fell
   and beldyng both of old and yyng.
Both by est and west
   he mayntened Moyses Law,
And paynyms ware full prest
   to wrschepe hym all way.

973.
Kyng Josaphat had with his quene
   mony suns, semly to syght.
The eldyst of them all be dene
   heyght Joran, a full gentyll knyght:
He toke a wyfe withoutyn wene,
   Kyng Acab doyghtur, Godely scho hyght.
Scho had of kynd forto be kene
   by Jezabell, hyr moyder, ryght.
To wayte be est and west
   so worthy was no moo.
That marage mad grett rest
   betwyx the kynges two.

974.
Befell aftur the thre yeres end:
   Kyng Josaphat went to Samary
To Kyng Acab, his fader and frend,
   to conferm cours of cumpany.
Thei welcumd hym with wordes hend
   and wrschep, os he was worthy,
And als lang os hym lyked to lend,
   for hym was mad grett mangery.
Kyng Acab towched hym tyll
   what hast he had on hend,
And sayd, “Ser, and thou wyll,
   thou may me mekyll amend.

975.
“Benedab, the kyng of Syre,
   hath angerd me and all my kyn.
My cetys hath he sett on fyre
   and bene full boun in burghes to bryn.
And Ramatha, price of my empyre,
   that has he wun and dwels ther in.
Therfor is now my most desyre
   to wast hym and that cyté to wyn.
With both our power playn
   sone sall we dyng hym doun.”
Josaphat says, “Certayn,
   I sal be redy boun.
 



Jehoshaphat

among [them]


comfort



honor




straightway
Jehoram; (t-note)
doubt
Athaliah; (see note)
nature; angry
through
look

peace; (t-note)





father[-in-law]; (t-note)
(t-note)
courteous
honor
remain


(t-note)







burn; (t-note)
Ramoth-Gilead, crown jewel
(t-note)

defeat




 
[THE KINGS ASK MICAIAH ABOUT ATTACKING RAMOTH-GILEAD (22:5–28)]
 





11705




11710






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11720






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11730




11735






11740




11745






11750




11755




11760
 
976.
“Bot fyrst I wold now or we went
   we pray sum prophett us to tell
Whedder we in werys sall harm hent
   or els our foyse in feld to fell.”
Faur hunderth sone ware aftur sent,
   and all cord thei them omell
And says ther enmys sall be shent
   and vyctory with them sall dwell.
Kyng Josaphat trowd all tho
   fageed the kyng for dowte.
He asked yf any moo
   ware wonnand ther abowt.

977.
Kyng Acab says, “Ya, ther is one
   in my preson, a prophett strang.
Gud word of me spake he never none;
   he noyght sall, lyf he never so lang.”
Machyas was fro preson tone,
   and thus he sayd them all amang,
“Acab hymself he sal be sloyn.
   All other sall savely come and gang.”
Then sayd Kyng Acab, “Loe,
   this told I yow beforn,
He sall never say ne do
   bot yll both evyn and morn.”

978.
Kyng Josaphatt says, “Forsoth us aw
   to trow all that he says sall be.
Swylke case before may he not knaw
   bot only of Goddes privaté.”
Up stert a lordan of ther law,
   heyght Sedechy, and this sayd hee:
“Sers, sett not by this segger saw;
   he says noyght sothe, that sall ye see.
I sall hym stryke in the face
   to gare hym staker and stand.
And yf I pase the place
   withoutyn harme of my hand,

979.
“Then sall ye trest that I am trew,
   and that his tales es bot a trayn.
And yf my hand fayle hyd or hew
   or stand noyght in yt power playn,
Supose ye then that all sall sew
   as he has sayd yow for certayn!”
The kynges assented, no soth thei knew,
   and he stroke hym with all his mayn.
His hand was never the warre,
   and that was for this skyll:
For no mirakle suld marre
   the prophett spech to spyll.

980.
Ware hurtyng on his hand to schew,
   then wold the kyng not pase that sted,
And so suld not the prophett saw
   be soth that sayd he suld be ded.
Then says the kyng, “Now may we knaw
   not for trew this rybald red.
Gose putt hym in my preson low
   and gyf hym noyght bot watur and bred!”
So for trew entent,
   through the sawys of Sedechy,
To were so ar thei went
   with full clene cumpany.
 

before; (t-note)

war shall suffer harm
foes
[prophets] were soon
agreed; together
destroyed

believed all those
flattered; fear

dwelling



(t-note)


Micaiah; taken


safely

(t-note)




Truly we ought


(t-note)
villain; (t-note)
Zedekiah; (t-note)
soothsayer’s words

(see note); (t-note)
cause him [to] stagger
(t-note)




are; trick


take place

(t-note)
strength
worse; (see note)
reason
(t-note)
(t-note)


ensue

prophet’s speech; (t-note)
dead

advice
Go
(t-note)

words
war

 
[THE KINGS ATTACK RAMOTH-GILEAD; AHAB KILLED (22:29–40)]
 





11765




11770






11775




11780






11785




11790




11795






11800




11805



 
981.
When thei come whore ther enmys ere,
   Kyng Acab then this poynt purvayde,
For he hymselfe fro wa wold were.
   “Josaphat, my sun, take hed,” he sayd,
“Myn armys in batell sall thou bere
   and all my ryches ryght arayd.
Thin armes and thi wede sall I were;
   so sall our enmys be betrayd.”
On that other syde Kyng Benedab
   warned his men, lese and mare,
To kyll the kyng Acab
   and all other forto spare.

982.
Thei rewled them trewly in that tyd
   fro erly at morn tyll evynsang.
Kyng Josaphat con boldly byd,
   he presed full fast paynyms amang.
Thei knew hym wele by hew and hyd;
   therfor at lyst thei lete hym gang.
Kyng Acab soght thei on ylka syde
   and full throly to hym thei thrang.
A paynym spened a spere
   and stert to hym that stownd.
Thurght the body he con hym bere
   and gaf hym dedes wound.

983.
When Kyng Acab doun was cast,
   his men ware bayn hym forto beld
And hamward hyed them with hym full fast
   whyls he myght any wyttes weld.
With mekyll payn so are the past
   to thei come evyn in Nabod feld.
Then myght his lyf no langer last,
   bot ther the gast behoved hym yeld.
Als Mychias prophesyd,
   in the batell he was turgh born
And in Nabod feld he dyed,
   os Ely sayd beforn.

984.
In that same feld doun he fell
   that he before had wun falsly
Be counsayle of Quene Jezabell,
   that mad Nabod therfor to dy.
Hondes laped his blud, whor thei dwell,
   als yt was sayd be prophecy.
Thei bered the body them omell
   in his awn cyté of Samary.
Because he was a kyng,
   his body honerd ys,
Bot for his yll lyfyng
   men mened hym mekyll the lese.
 

enemies are; (t-note)













(t-note)
evensong; (t-note)




each
violently
clasped a spear


a mortal wound


(t-note)
protect
hastened; (t-note)


Naboth’s vineyard

spirit

struck through
(t-note)
Elijah






Dogs lapped his blood
(t-note)
buried; together
own; (t-note)




 
[JEHOSHAPHAT, REBUKED, RULES WISELY (22:40; 2 CHRONICLES 19:1–20:30)]
 


11810




11815




11820






11825




11830






11835




11840






11845




11850




11855






11860




11865






11870




11875




11880






11885




11890






11895




11900     




 
985.
When that Kyng Acab thus was slayn,
   as prophettes sayd that yt suld be,
And Occozi, his sun certayn,
   was crowned kyng of that cuntré,
Kyng Benedab went home agayn
   with his paynyms full grett plenté.
Kyng Josaphat, he passed playn
   to Jerusalem, his awn cyté,
And all his folke in fere
   ware scaped withoutyn scathe.
God sent His messyngere
   to warn hym from all wathe.

986.
A prophett com and to hym sayd,
   “Ser, for thou went in cumpany
Of Kyng Acab that ys owtrayd,
   and wyst that he was Goddes enmy,
I warn thee wele God was not payd,
   and vengance suld be sent forthi
Bot that thi dedes ware gudly grayd.
   Bot yett He bydes: beware therby
That thou trespase no more
   in swylke maner of thyng,
For dred yt happyn to sore
   to thee or thin ofspryng.”

987.
Then loved he God with hert and hand
   and honerd Hym in all kyn wyse.
And sone was told to hym new tythand
   of grevance that began to ryse:
How thei enturd into his land,
   mystrowand men that heyght Moabyse;
And full grett ost thei had ordand
   with mony other of Amonyse.
Thei say non sall them tene
   ne wrath owt of ther wyll
To stroye Jerusalem
   and all that langes ther tyll.

988.
Kyng Josaphat full sone hath he sent
   for prophettes, prestes, and dekyns dere,
For dukes and erles; all thei went
   to the Tempyll to make ther prayer.
Thei prayd to God with gud entent
   that He wold helpe that stoure to stere
So that His men no harmes hent
   with hethyn folke that fowled nere.
And as the pepyll prayd
   with word, wyll, and toyght,
A prophett come and sayd,
   “Kyng Josaphat, dred thee noyght!”

989.
Then was Kyng Josaphat full fayn
   when he had swylke hertyng fro Hevyn.
He sembled men with all his mayn
   and comforth them wele with his stevyn.
Out of the cyté past thei playn
   and busked unto the enmys evyn.
Bot the paynyms com prowdly them agayn
   with nowmmer mo then men can nevyn.
Bot God swylk socour sent
   os none of them other knew,
Bot ylk paynym wend
   his felow had bene an Ebrew.

990.
And so ylkon over other dang
   as thei had with ther enmys bene.
Thei wold not sese bot thryst and thrang
   tyll thei ware dongyn to ded be dene.
Ther had non hele home forto gang
   to say what syght he thore had sene.
So con God ordan murth amang
   to men that on His myght wyll mene.
Kyng Josaphat come then
   with his men to that place.
Grett wardly welth thei wan
   with spolyng in that space.

991.
Thore was ryches and ryalté,
   wyn and oyle and all kin store.
The Ebrews gatt thor gold and fee
   to mend ther myrth forevermore.
Then went thei to ther awn cuntré.
   Kyng Josaphat, when thei come thore,
Bad that all men suld buxum be
   to wrschep God as worthy wore
That ever in ded and saw
   to His pepyll tentes
That lelly lufes His Law
   and kepes His Commawndmentes.

992.
Kyng Josaphat now lett we ly
   in Jerusalem with joy to dwell.
So the Thryd Boke of this story
   is broyght to end, evyn os yt fell.
The Fawrt begynys of Occozi,
   that then was kyng of Israel,
How he sojornd in Samary
   with his moyder, Qwene Jesabell.
God graunt us to begyn
   our dedes in gud degré
And end them owt of syn!
   Amen, so mott it be!
 



Ahaziah





together
injury
(t-note)
danger



because; (t-note)
(t-note)
(t-note)
pleased
therefore; (t-note)
(t-note)




(t-note)



kinds of ways; (t-note)


(t-note)
misbelieving; Moabites
army
Ammonites
(t-note)





(t-note)




battle to guide
received

(t-note)





glad
such encouragement

voice
(t-note)
hurried

numbers; express
(t-note)

(t-note)





cease but thrust and struck
beaten to death forthwith
health





worldly
despoiling



(t-note)
(t-note)


(t-note)
obedient


listens
loyally loves
(t-note)






Ahaziah
(t-note)
(t-note)




(t-note)

 

Go to Fourth Book of Kings (2 Kings)