Indexed Glossary of Proper Names

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Indexed Glossary of Proper Names

Aaron, 748. Aaron the Levite, brother of Moses (Exodus).

Abcare (Akas), 2276, 2302, 2304. Abkhazia, region in northwest Georgia on the Black Sea.

Abdenago, 445. Abednago, originally called Azariah, one of those cast into the fiery furnace by King Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 1–3).

Abdom, 974. The prophet Obadiah (Abdias).

Abel, 491, 1109. Abel, son of Adam; slain by his brother Cain in the first murder (Genesis 4).

Abraham (Habraham), 486, 496, 504, 506, 519, 521, 899, 924, 1107, 1285, 1345. Abraham the patriarch (Genesis 11–25).

Abyor, hylle, 2301. Mount Elbruz, in the Caucasus Mountains between the Black and Caspian Seas.

Acheldemak (Field of Blood), 843. Aceldema, the Field of Blood, purchased with the money given to Judas for his betrayal of Christ (Matthew 27:3–10; Acts 1:18–19).

Aches, 216. Mount Athos, on the Acte peninsula in northeast Greece.

Achilles, 395. Achilles, the Greek hero of the Trojan War. The text confuses him with Agenor, Dido’s father and ruler of Tyre.

Ackaron (Akkaron, Arne, Mesap), 1229, 1230, 1242, 1257, 1277, 1282, 1330. The Koran, holy book of Muslims.

Acon (Vacres), 405–08, 413, 423, 1181. Acre (formerly Ptolemais), port city north of Haifa.

Adam, 26, 137–47, 491, 507–13, 515, 630, 631, 1673, 1676, 2699. Adam, the first man (Genesis 1–3).

Admonye, Litel. See Hermony the Lasse

Adrian, 723, 726. Hadrian, emperor of Rome, 117–38 AD.

Affe. See Jaffa

Affrik, 395, 2024. Africa.

Affynpayn, 95. The city of Philippopolis (Plovdiv), on the Maritsa River in Bulgaria.

Agar, 1345. Hagar, the Egyptian servant who became the mother of Ishmael by Abraham (Genesis 16).

Agariens, 1347. Descendants of Hagar, the servant of Abraham and Sarah (Genesis 16).

Airach, hille (Thane), 1435. Mount Ararat, in Armenia. Possibly from the Persian kuh-i-nuh, Mountain of Noah.

Akas. See Abcare

Akkaron. See Ackaron

Alape (Alappe, Anolpe), 438, 456, 663. The city of Aleppo, in northern Syria.

Albane, ryver, 1171. The Abana River, in Lebanon.

Albanye, 1907–08. Alternative name for the province of Manzi in southern China. The application of the name Albanye to this region is not elsewhere attested. See also Mancy

Aldema, 914. The city of Admah, on the Red Sea.

Alfeigh, 81. Probably Silesia, a region of east central Europe, in the upper Oder River valley.

Alisaundre (Barkent, Port de Feare), 2268–69, 2273, 2294. The city of Derbend, on the west coast of the Caspian Sea, named for its mountain pass (Persian dar-band: narrow passage). Derbend is mythically associated with Alexander the Great; the pass of Derbend, between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains, was known as Alexander’s Iron Gate, hence port du fer.

Alisaundre, King (Alysaundre), 208, 1494, 1566, 2268, 2355, 2376, 2590, 2607, 2613, 2620, 2649. Alexander the Great.

Allfetida, Lake of, Another name for the Dead Sea. See also Dede See

Almayn (Almayne), 79, 89, 191, 1191–92, 1697. Germany.

Alysaundre, 1495. The city of Alexandria Margiane (Merv, Mary) in southern Turkestan (later Turkmeniya).

Alysaundre, Kyng. See Alisaundre, King

Amazayn (Amasoyn, Amasoyne), 64, 1476, 1493. Amazonia, the land of the Amazons, believed to be near Scythia.

Amonites, 1348. The Ammonites, an ancient Semitic people descended from Lot (Genesis 19:30–38).

Amors, castel of, 368. Deudamour (Dieu d’Amour), Frankish name for the Castle of St. Hilarion in northern Cyprus.

Amyas, 987. The city of Amiens, France.

Anania. See Cidrac

Andrew, Seynt, 1006. St. Andrew the Apostle, brother of Simon (called Peter) (Matthew 10:2).

Animote, 729. Most texts cite the name “Helyam,” a corruption of Aelia. Animote here appears to stem from the Latin, suggesting “the city of Life.”

Anna, 958. Hannah, mother of the prophet Samuel (1 Kings 1).

Anne, 181. Annas, the high priest at Jerusalem when Christ was arrested (John 18:19–24).

Anne, Seynt, 192, 781. St. Anne, mother of the Virgin Mary.

Anolpe. See Alape

Antecrist, 1007, 1010, 2367, 2375. Antichrist, a destroyer who, it is foretold, will fill the world with wickedness before Christ defeats him forever at the Second Coming (1 John 2:18, 22; 1 John 4:3; 2 John 1:7).

Anteryke, 1690, 1700–1701. Reported as the southern pole star, probably from Latin anterus (in front) or Latin/Greek anti (against).

Apocalips, 286. The Apocalypse, or Revelation to John; the last book of the Bible.

Arabie (Arabye, Araby), 63, 105, 456,597, 662, 903, 1331, 1334, 1344, 1350, 1383, 1511, 2561, 2661. Arabia.

Arabynes, 470. The Arabians.

Archades, playn of, 1173. The plain of Archades, near Damascus.

Archa Noe, 1435. Noah’s Ark, in which Noah and his family escaped the Great Flood (see Genesis 6–9).

Archiprotapaton, 1606–07. Reported title of the prelate of Polumbum (Quilon) on the Malabar coast of India. Probably from the Nestorian title Archiprotopapas, mentioned in The Letter of Prester John, the Book’s source for the foregoing account of the Fountain of Youth.

Architriclyne, 1015. From the Greek architriklinios, the chief steward of the wedding feast at Cana (John 2:8).

Argete, 2678. Pliny’s Argyre, a mythical island in the Great Sea Ocean.

Aristotle, 209. The Greek philosopher Aristotle.

Arke of God (Ark of God), 745, 746, 959. The Ark of the Covenant, in which the stone tablets of the Ten Commandments were stored. See also Beleth

Arne. See Ackaron

Artoys, 1170. The city of Artah, near Antiochia Pisidiae (Greater Antioch, Yalvac) in Asia Minor.

Artyron, 1434. The city of Erzerum, in eastern Turkey.

Arynona, 204. The Greek isle of Paros.

Ascalon, 428, 595, 601. The city of Askalon, in south Palestine.

Ascolonyte, Herod of Askalon. See Herodes

Ascopardes, 470. An Arab tribe, possibly the Sudanese.

Asie the Lasse, 103–04, 292. Asia Minor.

Assary, 2716. The ancient empire of Assyria, in western Asia extending along the Tigris River.

Assirienes, 606. The Assyrians.

Assumpcioun, 880. The Assumption, or taking up into Heaven, of the Virgin Mary.

Assye (Asy), 662, 2023. Asia.

Asye the Depe, 2248. Deepest Asia.

Athillok, 435. The Syrian Desert (Et-tîh).

Athos, Mount, 205. Mount Athanasi, on the Greek isle of Lemnos. The true Mount Athos is referred to as Aches.

Attonas (Atthonas), 1395. St. Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, c. 325–73. See explanatory note to lines 1395–1402.

Aunteoch, 1174, 1178. The city of Antioch (Antakya), on the Syrian coast.

Aunteoch the Betre, 1165. The city of Antiochia Pisidiae (Yalvac), in Asia Minor.

Austyn, Seynt, 1078. St. Augustine, bishop of Hippo from 396 to 430.

Azaria. See Abdenago



Babyloyn (Babiloyne, Babiloyn, Babyloyne, Cayr), (1) 430, 439, 1133–34, 1379, 2192. A medieval name for Cairo, based on the city’s proximity to the ruined town of Baba al ‘yun, in Egypt. The story of Nebuchadnezzar conflates Cairo with Babylon in Mesopotamia. (2) 1008–09. The kingdom of Babylon, in Mesopotamia.

Bakarie (Bacarie), 2383, 2392. Probably Bactria (Afghanistan), but possibly the city of Bokhara in southern Turkestan (later Uzbekistan). See also Battria

Balthasar, 557. One of the Magi, who visited the baby Jesus with gifts (Matthew 2:1–12).

Barbara, Seynt, 441. St. Barbara, virgin martyr from Heliopolis in Egypt (sometimes believed to be from Nicodemia in Asia Minor).

Barbaryns, 607. The generic “barbarians” is probably meant here.

Barkent. See Alisaundre

Barron. See Coffrace

Battria, 2288. The city of Bokhara in southern Turkestan (later Uzbekistan). See also Bakarie

Baudewyn, 632, 952. Baldwin I, king of Jerusalem (1100–18), and brother of Godfrey of Bouillon.

Bedlem. See Bethleem

Bedoyns (Bydoynes), 449, 470. Bedouins; nomadic desert Arabs. From the Arabic bidwan, desert dwellers.

Beleth, (1) 438. The city of Bilbeis, north of Cairo, possibly conflated in the text with Ba’albek, east of Beirut, on the site of the ancient city of Heliopolis. (2) 745. Moriah (Bethel), where stood the Ark of the Covenant, in which the stone tablets of the Ten Commandments were stored, also called Mo'rarche.

Belgrave, 92. The city of Belgrade, Serbia.

Belyan, Mount, 2076, 2078, 2079. Probably a conflation of the Baldjuna Desert, east of Lake Baikal (considered the northern boundary of Cathay) and the Altai Mountains (sometimes called the Belgian Mountains).

Beme, 1698. Bohemia.

Benet, Seynt, 674. St. Benedict of Nursia (c. 480–547), originator of the Benedictine Rule.

Benjamyn, (1) 586. The son of Jacob and Rachel (Genesis 35:16–18). (2) 961. The Portion of Benjamin, where the tribe of Benjamin dwelt.

Bernard, Seynt, 369. Probably an error for St. Barnabas, as no St. Bernard is associated with Cyprus.

Bersabe (Bersabee), 485, 601, 1061. The city of Beersheba, west of the Dead Sea. Not, as several versions of the Book claim, named for Bathsheba, wife of Uriah; its name in Arabic means “well of the oath.”

Beruch (Brenche), 396, 1128. The city of Beirut, Lebanon. “Brenche” probably stems from a misreading of Beruch.

Besfage, 872. The village of Bethphage, on the Mount of Olives near Jerusalem.

Bessamoran, 96. Byzantium (Constantinople, Istanbul). See also Constantynople

Bethleem (Bethlem, Bedlem, Effrata), 534, 535, 537, 538, 560, 570, 582, 602, 2250. Bethlehem.

Bethsayda (Bethsaida), 1006, 1011. The town of Bethsaida, northeast of the Sea of Galilee.

Bethtony (Bethany, Betonye, Betanye), (1) 11, 873, 894. Bethany, in Judea. (2) 195. The ancient country of Bithynia in Asia Minor, bordering on the Black Sea.

Bible (Byble), 564, 995, 1077, 2812. The Bible, holy book of Christians.

Blood, Field of. See Acheldemak

Bomk. See Polomee

Bouch of Constantynople (Brace de Seynt Gorge), 200, 201, 283. The “Mouth of Constantinople”or the “Arm of St. George,” both identified with the Hellespont, but almost certainly the Bosporus. Confusion between the Bosporus and the Hellespont is common in crusader texts. See also Hellesponte

Braban, 1696. Brabant, an old western European duchy in the Netherlands/Belgium area.

Brace de Seynt Gorge. See Bouch of Constantynople

Bradremple, 95. The city of Adrianople, on the Thracian peninsula not far from Constantinople.

Bragme (Feith, ile of), 2580. The land of the Brahmins, orthodox Hindus.

Brenche. See Beruch

Brike, 2326. Phrygia, in central Asia Minor.

Bruges. See Bulgarie

Bugers, 84. Bulgarians.

Bulgarie (Bruges), 83, 92. Bulgaria.

Burgoyne, 1139–40. Burgundy, in eastern France.

Bydoynes. See Bedoyns



Cadom, 1959. The great court of the Mongols, near Beijing.

Caffere, 412. The town of Shefa ‘Amr, east of Haifa, often identified as the birthplace of Sts. John and James.

Caim (Caym), 492, 1108. Cain, son of Adam and Eve, who slew his brother Abel (Genesis 4).

Calabre, 407. The region of Calabria, in southern Italy.

Calamye, 126. The city of Mailapur (Madras) in southeast India, which has long claimed itself the final resting place of St. Thomas.

Calastre, 204. The Greek isle of Thera (Santorini).

Calcas, 204. The Greek isle of Carki.

Caldee (Caldé, Galdé), 1351, 1383, 1391, 1472, 1496, 2297, 2332, 2342. Chaldea, region of southwest Asia on the Persian Gulf and the Euphrates River.

Calofe, 493. Caleb, an Israelite scout (Numbers 14:6).

Calonache, 1818. Apparently the land of Zampa visited by Odoric of Pordenone; the southern part of Vietnam.

Calvarie, 150, 626, 652. Mount Calvary (Golgotha), where Christ was crucified.

Camelat, 2154. Beijing; from Mongolian kaán-baligh, city of the Great Khan. Most texts of the Book place the city in the south, as a place for the Khan to winter in comfort.

Cana, (1) 1564, 1588. The district of Thána, along the Bombay coast of India. (2) See Cane, Gret

Canane, 388. Canaan, an ancient region roughly corresponding to later Palestine.

Cananee, womman, 1014. The Canaanite woman, a model of faith in Matthew 15:21–28. The text here conflates Cana, in Galilee, with Canaan, an ancient region roughly corresponding to later Palestine.

Cananeus, 606. The Canaanites.

Canaphat. See Egipt

Canapos, 2676. The star Canopus, in the constellation Carina, not visible north of 37 degrees latitude.

Cane, (1) 1013. The city of Cana, in Galilee. The text here conflates Cana with Canaan, an ancient region roughly corresponding to later Palestine. (2) Great Khan; see Cane, Gret (3) 2089. Khan, title of Mongol rulers. Lesser Khanates were held beneath the auspices of the Great Khan.

Cane, Gret (Chane, Gret), 1193, 1794–97, 1867, 1921, 1943, 1961, 1967, 2018, 2038, 2047, 2062–85, 2089, 2086–2098, 2100, 2155, 2170, 2190, 2195, 2224–44, 2283, 2303, 2339, 2399, 2400–01, 2415–16, 2464, 2751, 2752, 2755, 2784, 2804. Great Khan, highest title of Mongol rulers.

Canges, ryver. See Ganges, flode

Canryssy (Tauzyre), 1449, 2295. The city of Tabriz in northwest Persia, between the Caspian Sea and the Lake of Urmia.

Capados (Capas), 1160, 2326. The ancient district of Cappadocia, in eastern Asia Minor.

Capas. See Capados

Capharnaum, 1005. The ancient city of Capernaum, on the Sea of Galilee.

Cardabago (Saphan), 1455, 2291. The city of Isfahán, in Persia. Probably from the Persian chau bagh, royal gardens.

Cariatharba (Spelunke), 502, 503. The Place of the Patriarchs, Hebron. From kirjath arba, city of the four, because of the tradition that four of the biblical patriarchs are buried there (Genesis 23:2). See also Spelunke

Carisoun, 969. Mount Gerazim, north of Jerusalem.

Carme, hille of, 409. Mount Carmel, near Haifa, the dwelling place of the prophet Elijah.

Carmes, frere, 409. The order of Carmelite Friars.

Carnaa, 1458. Unclear. Warner notes that Carnaa or Cornaa is Comerum in Odoric, but the latter is only one of various readings of the Latin manuscripts (Comum, Conium, Karum, etc.). Yule identifies it with the Camara of Barbaro and “the Kinara of modern maps, marking the site of the great city of Persepolis” (W, p. 195n75.10).

Caromasan, ryver, 1950–51. The Huang-Ho (Yellow) River in northern China. From the Mongolian karamuren, black river.

Carpate, 205. The Greek isle of Carpathos (Scarpanto).

Cartage, 395. The ancient city-state of Carthage, on the north coast of Africa, founded by the Sidonian Dido.

Casak (Cassache), 560, 1450. The city of Kashan, in Persia, south of the Caspian Sea.

Caspise, see of (Caspyse, Caspize), 2286, 2289–90, 2360. The Caspian Sea.

Caspize (Caspyze), 2267. The Caucasus region, near the Caspian Sea.

Caspyze, hilles of, 2352. The Caucasus Mountains, near the Caspian Sea. See also Uber

Cassache. See Casak

Cassoy, 2745. The province of Shansi, in northern China.

Catay (Cathay, Chatay), 1795, 1867, 1951–57, 1958, 2028, 2034, 2083, 2086, 2089, 2248, 2251, 2277, 2280, 2281, 2283, 2339–41, 2401, 2465, 2747–48. Cathay (loosely, China).

Catholonabeus, 2473. Hassan ibn Sabbah, founder of the Hashishi’yun (Assassins). Warner (W, p. 216n137.6) offers a thorough discussion of the sect and its many branches.

Cayphas, (1) 183–84, 410, 836, 1183. Jewish high priest from 18 to 37 AD, who turned Christ over to the Romans (John 18:24, 28). (2) 1183. The city of Haifa. According to a tradition now largely discredited, Haifa derives its name from Caiaphas: he certainly did not found the city.

Caym. See Caim

Cayr, 439. Cairo. See also Babyloyn

Cecile, 407. Sicily.

Cesarie, 428. Caesarea, seaport south of Haifa.

Cessay, 1918. The city of Hangchow on the East China Sea. From kingszé, capital.

Cetige, 204. The Greek isle of Ortygia (Delos).

Cham, 2020–27. Ham, son of Noah (Genesis 9–10). The Book seems to wish to refute the legend that the title Khan stems from Cham, deriving it instead from Changyse (Genghis), the first Khan.

Chane (Chanus), (1) Great Khan; see Cane, Gret. (2) 2089. Khan, title of Mongol rulers. Lesser Khanates were held beneath the auspices of the Great Khan.

Chane, Gret. See Cane, Gret

Changyse (Chaungise, Chaungice), 2036, 2044, 2046. Genghis Khan (c. 1162–1227), Great Khan of the Mongols.

Charlemayn, 710. Charlemagne (Charles I), Frankish king (768– 814) and Holy Roman Emperor (800–14). The fiction of Charlemagne’s expedition to the Holy Land was in wide circulation from the eleventh century. The story of his acquisition of the foreskin of Christ originates in the twelfth century.

Charles, Kyng, 711. Charles the Bald, king of France (840–77) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–77).

Chatay. See Catay

Chaumbre, 1179. The city of Edessa (Homs) in Syria.

Chibence, 1940, 1942. The city of Nanking in eastern China, on the Yangtze River.

Chicoto Chane, 2087. Ogadai Khan, Great Khan of the Mongols, 1229– 41. See explanatory note to line 2089.

Chipproun, 86. The city of Sopron, Hungary.

Chynay, castel of. See Emaux, castel of

Cidone. See Sydonis

Cidrac (Anania), 445. Shadrach, originally called Hananiah, one of those cast into the fiery furnace by King Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 1–3).

Cilo, 284. The Greek island of Scios.

Cipre (Cipres, Cypre), 111, 112, 346, 359–76, 377, 398, 598, 1129–30, 1144–45, 1512. The island of Cyprus, off the coast of Asia Minor.

Coffrace (Barron), 938, 1463. Probably an adaptation of Bosra, the city south of Damascus. Jobab, “Coffraces son,” was the son of Zerah of Bosra. (Genesis 36:33).

Cofos, 302. The Greek isle of Cos. See also Lango

Colles, 344. The Greek isle of Rhodes, often called “Colos” in the Middle Ages by a back formation from “colossus.” See also Rodes

Comayne (Coma, Coman, Comange, Cosmanne), 83, 207, 2256, 2271, 2275. Cumania, the land of the Cumans, a Turanian tribe from north of the Black and Caspian Seas, who later spread into Hungary. Coma and Comange are apparently differentiated by accident at line 207.

Constantyn, 151. Constantine I, Roman emperor, 306–37 AD.

Constantynople (Constantinople, Constantynnople), 95, 109, 164, 166, 189, 192, 194, 198, 223, 272, 280, 345, 660, 784, 983, 1158, 1162–63, 1388, 1403. Constantinople (Byzantium, Istanbul). See also Bessamoran

Coradan, 1338. Used here as the prince’s name: probably an error for “the prince of Corasen (Kharesm).”

Corasayn, 2254. Apparently refers to Urghendj, the major city in the region of Kharesm. See also Corasen

Corasen, 2251. Kharesm (from the Persian kharizm, lowland), the

lowland between the Aral and Caspian Seas.

Corysaym, Corisaym, 1005–13. The city of Chorozin, in Galilee.

Cosmanne. See Comayne

Crist (Cryst). See Jhesu Crist

Crokowe, 1208. The city of Krakow in southern Poland.

Cypre. See Cipre



Dadayr, castel of, 432. The crusader castle of Darum, south of Gaza.

Damacyn. See Hermony the More

Damas, 397, 455, 510, 1103, 1108, 1110, 1114–15, 1171, 1182. The city of Damascus, Syria.

Danubye, ryver of, 88. The Danube River.

David, 454, 487, 494, 496, 582, 591, 642, 645, 763, 769, 834, 900–01, 1070–74, 1726. King David of Jerusalem (3 and 4 Kings).

Dede See (Lake of Allfetida, Flom of Devel, Flom Stynkyng), 902, 905–06, 912–14, 930, 949, 975. The Dead Sea.

Devel, Flom of. See Dede See

Diana, 309. Diana, a goddess of Cyprus in the Mediterranean pantheon.

Dido, 393, 396. Dido, queen of Carthage, who gave her love to Aeneas and killed herself when he left Carthage to found his Italian empire.

Didon, 395–96. Sidon (Saida), the birthplace of Dido. The text here says that Carthage (the city Dido founded in northern Africa) was later called “Didon,” which may be an error. The Didon of this text, eighteen miles from Beirut, is clearly Sidon. See also Sydonis

Dismas, 113, 365. Dismas, the “good thief” who was crucified beside Christ and repented at the last (Luke 23:32–43).

Dodyn, 1869. Possibly the Andaman Islands, in the Bay of Bengal.

Dome, Day of, 254, 296, 882, 1274–75. Judgment Day (Apocalypse 20).

Dotaym, Vale of, 970. The Vale of Dothan, near Mount Gilboa.

Duras, 1142. The port city of Dyrrachium (later Durazzo) on the Albanian coast of the Adriatic Sea.



Ebreus Damask, 1106. Eleazer the Damascene, Abraham’s servant and heir before the birth of Ishmael and Isaac (Genesis 15:2–3). He did not found Damascus.

Ebron (Vale of), 489, 492, 494, 496, 514, 519, 520, 534, 590, 600, 960. The town and environs of Hebron, in southern Palestine. See also Mambre, Vale of

Ebru (Ebreu), 120, 229, 565, 2369–70. The Hebrew language.

Effrata, 537–38. Ancient name of Bethlehem. See also Bethleem

Effraym, hille of, 957. Mount Ephraim, a hilly region in central Palestine.

Egipt (Egipte, Egypte, Canaphat, Mercyne), 105, 436, 437, 454, 579, 597, 967, 1333, 2661–62, 2716. Egypt.

Egipte the heigh, 63, 663. Upper Egypt, roughly from Cairo south to Aswan.

Egipte the lowe, 63–64, 663. Lower Egypt, the Nile River delta region.

Elias (Helias, Hely), 392, 409, 1040. The prophet Elijah the Tishbite. For the vision, see Matthew 17.

Eline (Elene, Seynt), 150–56, 192, 654, 656, 783. St. Helena, mother of the emperor Constantine, credited with finding the True Cross.

Elisaundre, 1395. Alexandria, Egypt.

Eliseus, 974. The prophet Elisha.

Elizabeth, 847. St. Elizabeth, mother of John the Baptist.

Elye, 959. The prophet Eli.

Emaux, 1185. The town of Emmaus (Imwas), between Jaffa and Jerusalem.

Emaux, castel of (Chynay, castle of), 849, 1153. The crusader castle of Emmaus (Imwas), between Jaffa and Jerusalem.

Engelond. See Ingelond

Englyssh, 1376. The English language.

Enyas, 394. The Trojan hero Aeneas.

Ephesome, 288, 298. Ephesus, city near the Aegean coast of Asia Minor.

Ermes, (1) 1555. Probably the city of Ormuz (see 2), although the isle of Ormuz is not far away. (2) 2409. The city of Ormuz, on the Strait of Ormuz in southern Iran, at the outlet of the Persian Gulf. (3) 234, 2411. The legendary wise man, Hermes Trismegistus (who was not, in fact, the founder of Ormuz, as lines 2407–08 suggest), also sometimes called Hermogenes. See explanatory note to lines 228–34.

Ermon, Mount, 1048. Mount Hermon, inland between Tyre and Damascus.

Ermonye (Ermony, Gret; Ermonye, Heye). See Hermony the More

Ermonye the Lasse (Ermonye, Lytel). See Hermony the Lasse

Ernax, valeys of, 1165. Possibly the town of Ormanx, in Asia Minor.

Ethel, ryver of, 2262. The Volga River; from Turkish idil, river.

Ethiope (Ethiop), 64, 664, 1496, 1501, 1505, 2333, 2335, 2715. Ethiopia.

Eufrates, 1384, 1386, 2330, 2717, 2727. The Euphrates River.

Eurace, 2033. A Tartar tribe. Hayton the Armenian calls them “Cunat.”

Europe, 2024. Europe.

Eustace, Seynt, 1172. St. Eustace, who helped spread Christianity through southern and central Europe.

Eve, 497, 507, 1673, 1676, 2699. Eve, the first woman (Genesis 1–3).



Famagost, 362, 368, 1144. The city of Famagusta, Cyprus.

Fariseis, 840. The Pharisees, a Jewish sect.

Fasser. See Ferne, rever of

Faxton, 204. The Greek isle of Naxos.

Feith, ile of. See Bragme

Ferne, cité of, 1174. Possibly the city of Ilgun, in Asia Minor.

Ferne, rever of (Fasser), 1170. The biblical River Pharphar, flowing from Mount Hermon past Damascus. Its placement here, apparently in Asia Minor, is problematic and may result from a conflation with the “cité of Ferne.” See also Ferne, cité of

Field of Blood. See Acheldemak

Fimes. See Phenes

Fison, ryver of. See Fyson, rever of

Flagme, 1183. Unclear. Perhaps a port town between Acre and Haifa.

Flandres, 1190. Flanders.

Florach, castel, 1169. Castle Florach, on the south coast of Asia Minor.

Floridous (Floryshid, Feyld), 542–43. The Flowering Field.

Fons Jacob. See Jacobis Well

Fraunce (France), 158, 160, 951, 1139, 1189. France.

Frenshe (Frenssh), 951, 1325. The French language.

Fyson, rever of (Physon), 2289, 2720. The Oxus River, between the Aral Sea and the Hindu Kush.



Gabon, 961. Probably the town of Gibeon, in the Portion of Benjamin, north of Jerusalem.

Gabriel, 1241, 1243, 1263, 1342. The archangel Gabriel.

Gabrielis Well, 1023. Gabriel’s Well, now called Mary’s Well, in Nazareth. Tradition has it that the Virgin Mary was at the well drawing water when the Angel Gabriel announced to her the coming nativity of Christ.

Galde. See Caldee

Galgalath, 557. Offered as an alternative name for one of the Magi, who visited the baby Jesus with gifts (Matthew 2:1–12).

Galilé, 937, 957, 1003–16, 1102. Galilee, north of Jerusalem.

Galilé, Mount of, 883–84. The mountain in Galilee where, in Matthew 28:16, Jesus reveals Himself resurrected to the disciples.

Galilé, see of, 1051. The Sea of Galilee (Lake of Gennesaret), east of Nazareth.

Ganges, flode (Canges, ryver; Physon, flode), 2713, 2721. The Ganges River of India. The river “Fyson,” elsewhere in the text, apparently refers to the Oxus River.

Garaghe, 2299. The city of Shiraz, in Persia.

Gardmarch, 1115. Apparently another name for the church, Our Lady of Saidenaya.

Garras (Ryal Mount, Sermoyns), 950–51. The town of Kerak, just east of the Dead Sea, seems here to be conflated with Le Krak des Chevaliers, the crusader castle Mont Royal in Syria.

Gayus Cesar, 647. Julius Caesar (100–44 BC), credited with the introduction of the twelve-month Julian calendar in 46 BC.

Gaza (Philistion), 424, 432. Gaza (formerly Philistia), south of Jaffa.

Gelboe, 1178. The city of Gebal (Jeble) in Syria.

Gelboe, Mount of, 934. The Mount of Gilboa, in northern Palestine.

Gene, 985–86, 1140, 1391, 1555, 1955. The city of Genoa, Italy.

Genesis, 2812. The biblical Book of Genesis.

Geneth, 2327. The ancient country and later Roman province of Paphlagonia in northern Asia Minor, bordering on the Black Sea.

Genonon, 367. Sozomen, fifth-century bishop of Potamia.

George, Seynt, 898, 1093, 1152. St. George the Cappadocian, patron saint of England.

Georgens (Georgenes), 898, 1093. An Aryan sect, followers of St. George the Cappadocian.

Gessamain, 858. The Garden of Gethsemane, where Judas betrayed Christ (Matthew 26:36; Mark 14:32).

Gilden Gate, 689. The Golden Gate of Jerusalem.

Godfray the Boleyn, 632. Godefroy de Bouillon (c. 1060–1100); French crusader and brother of Baldwin I, who was king of Jerusalem from 1100 to 1118.

Goffalles, 1834. Possibly Parlák, in Sumatra, or a garbled reference to Caffo, on the Crimean peninsula. A passage from Vincent of Beauvais referring to the Caspian region appears to be the Book’s source here. It is not clear why the story is relocated to the Far East.

Gog Magog, 2353. The story of the Jews enclosed in the hills of the Caspian region seems to have evolved from Ezechiel 38–39, in which the prophet foretells that Gog and all those of his land (Magog) shall be destroyed for making war on God’s chosen people. Ezechiel foretells that Gog and all his tribe will be buried in a valley blocked to travelers: a story with clear resonances for the story here of Alexander trapping the Jewish tribes in the impassable hills.

Gomor, 914. The city of Gomorrah in ancient Palestine, destroyed by God for its iniquity (Genesis 19).

Gorge, 2300, 2303. Georgia, in the Caucasus region, on the east coast of the Black Sea.

Grasten, 1208. Possibly a corruption of Dorestena, the ancient name for the province of Silistria in eastern Europe.

Gravely See (Gravel See), 423, 2423. The legend of the Gravelly Sea probably arises from the shifting sands of the desert. See explanatory note to line 423.

Grece, iles of, 301. Greek islands.

Grecis (Grece), 90, 97, 103, 105, 203, 235, 557, 1130, 1141, 1156, 2190, 2313, 2668, 2821. Greece.

Greet Brytayne, 153. Great Britain.

Greet See (Gret See), (1) The Mediterranean Sea. See Metterane, see. (2) The Black Sea. See Maure, Oxean. (3) The Great Sea Ocean. See Occian

Gregore, Seynt, 1078, 1081. Pope Gregory I (c. 590–604).

Gregyssh, 2282. Greek.

Grekes (Grecis, Grekis), 135, 606, 1096. The Greeks.

Greu (Gru), 120, 230, 634, 638. The Greek language.

Griff, 1141. The Greek isle of Corfu.

Gyron, ryver. See Nyle, flode of



Habraham. See Abraham

Hamson, 2306. The district of Hamschen, near the Black Sea.

Hay, 947. The town of Ai, just north of Jerusalem.

Helias. See Elias

Hellesponte, 200. The Hellespont (Dardanelles) is a strait in northwest Turkey. The strait referred to here, however, is almost certainly the Bosporus. Confusion between the two is common in crusader texts. See also Bouch of Constantynople

Hely. See Elias

Hercules, 1574. The demigod Hercules, son of Zeus and Alcmena.

Hermogenes. See Ermes

Hermony the Lasse (Litel Admonye; Damacyn the Lesse; Ermonye the Lasse; Ermonye, Lytel), 63, 662, 1406, 2297, 2331, 2717. “Little Armenia,” in Cilicia, in southern Asia Minor.

Hermony the More (Damacyn the More; Ermony; Ermonye, Gret; Ermonye, Heye), 63, 662, 1414, 1426, 1433, 2289, 2295, 2302, 2325, 2331, 2716–17. Armenia.

Herodes (Ascolonyte), 441, 791–805, 807. Herod the Great, king of Judea from 37 BC to 4 AD. For Christ’s trial before Herod, see Luke 23:6–16. For the slaughter of the innocents and the flight into Egypt, see Matthew 2.

Herodes Agrippa, 808. King Herod Agrippa of Judea, who ordered St. James, the brother of John, beheaded circa 44 AD (Acts 12:2). The more famous Herod Agrippa, nearly converted by Paul in Acts 26, is his son.

Herodes Antipa, 808. Herod Antipas, Roman tetrarch of Galilee, 4 BC to 39 AD, who had John the Baptist imprisoned and killed (Matthew 14:1–12; Mark 6:17–29).

Hillari, Seynt, 367. St. Hilarion (c. 302–372), considered the founder of monastic life in Palestine. Though he died in Cyprus, his body was returned to Palestine.

Hillary, Seynt, 1082. St. Hilary of Poitiers (d. 368), best known for his vigorous and long-standing opposition to Arianism.

Holy Croys, hille of the, 112, 364. The monastery of Stavrovouni in Cyprus, named for the piece of the Cross of Christ said to be preserved there. See explanatory note to lines 110–15.

Holy of Halwes (Sancta Sanctorum), 738. The innermost part of the Temple, where only the high priest might enter, and even he only once a year, on the Day of Atonement.

Holy Sepulcre, Cherche of the. See Sepulcre, Cherche of the

Holy Writ (Holy Wrytte), 384, 505, 574, 742, 891, 962, 1011, 1058, 1287. The Bible.

Hospitalers, 342, 693. The religious military order of Knights Hospitallers, established in Jerusalem in the twelfth century.

Hungré (Hungrie, Hungry), 80–87. Hungary.



Idonye. See Ydoyne

Incarnacion, 1243. God’s incarnation into human form, as the baby Jesus.

Inde (Indee). See Ynde

Inde the Lasse. See Ynde the Lasse

Inde the More. See Ynde the Moore

Ingelond (Engelond), 1, 6, 58, 78, 152, 1139, 1717, 1772. England.

Innocentis, Charnel of the, 562–63. A tomb in Bethlehem, in which the bodies of the infants from Herod’s slaughter (Matthew 2:16) are said to be interred.

Irlond, 79. Ireland.

Ismael, 927. Ishmael, son of Abraham and the servant Hagar (Genesis 16).

Israel, (1) 488, 749, 762, 889, 944, 973. The land or generations of Israel. (2) Jacob the Patriarch, whose name is changed to Israel (Genesis 32:28 and 35:10). See Jacob





Jacob (Israel), 496, 586, 759, 761, 967. Jacob the Patriarch (Genesis 25–50).

Jacobis Well, 990. Jacob’s Well in Sychar, Samaria (John 4:6).

Jacobynes, 1067. The Jacobites, actually followers of the sixth- century Byzantine monk Jacobus Baradeus. See explanatory note to line 1067.

Jaffa (Affe, Jaffe, Japhe, Japhet, Jafphe, Jasphe), 399–403, 428, 601, 1147, 1149, 1185, 2631. The city of Jaffa (Joppa, Tel Aviv-Yafo), an important port of entry for pilgrims to Jerusalem, supposedly founded by Japhet, one of the three sons of Noah. See also Japhet

Jaffe. See Jaffa

Jame, Seynt, 413, 808–09, 813, 1039, 1067. St. James the Great, Apostle, son of Zebedee and brother of St. John. Conflated in line 1067 with Jacob Baradeus, originator of the Jacobites.

Japhe. See Jaffa

Japhet, (1) 401, 2019–24. Japhet, son of Noah (Genesis 9). (2) The city of Jaffa. See Jaffa

Jaspar, 556. One of the Magi, who visited the baby Jesus with gifts (Matthew 2:1–12).

Jasphe. See Jaffa

Java, 1784. The Indonesian island of Java.

Jebus. See Jebusalem

Jebusalem (Solome), 592. The account of the melding of the names, “Jebus” and “Solome” to form “Jebusalem” stems from the writings of St. Jerome, but is not widely accepted.

Jerico, 600, 886, 899, 901. The city of Jericho, northwest of the Dead Sea.

Jerom, Seynt, 564. St. Jerome, who made a new Latin translation of the Bible in the fourth century at the request of Pope Damasus.

Jerusalem, 32, 69, 71, 104, 193, 377, 398–400, 405, 429, 431–32, 454, 467, 484, 487–88, 495, 514, 583, 588, 589–955, 956, 966, 989, 1019, 1104–05, 1135, 1148, 1154, 1181, 1184–85, 1186–87, 1189, 1209, 1717, 1721–22, 1723, 1728–30, 2661. Jerusalem.

Jerusalem, Temple of (Salomon, Temple of), 713–19. Solomon’s Temple (3 Kings 5–9).

Jew (Jewe, Jewes), 19–20, 24, 109, 121, 132, 149, 160, 172, 186, 188, 501, 529, 605, 655, 700, 714, 716, 719, 721, 724, 746–47, 765, 840, 925, 968, 993, 997–98, 999, 1029, 1266, 1267, 1271, 1292, 1435, 2352–59, 2365–73, 2376–82. A Jew or the Jews.

Jhesu Crist (Our Lord), 13, 55, 60,109–35, 147, 155, 157, 171–75, 180–88, 230–33, 248, 250, 266, 516, 900–01, 1023–26, 1029–47, 1053–54, 1243–46, 1257–58, 1260, 1267–68, 1294, 1310. Jesus Christ.

Job (Jobab), 1462–63, 1467–69, 1472. Jobab, king of Idumea (Edom), south of Judea (Genesis 36:33). Jobab is here conflated with Job, who is tested by the devil in the Book of Job but then restored by God for his faith. See also Jope

Job, Temple, 939. The tomb of Job.

Jobab. See Job

John Crisostom (John Crisostome), 193, 811. St. John Chrysostom, patriarch of Constantinople.

John the Baptist (John the Baptiste; John Baptist, Seynt), 768, 808, 973–74, 981, 987, 1067–68. John the Baptist, son of Elizabeth and Zechariah (Luke 1–3; John 1–3).

John the Twelfthe, Pope, 238–39. The reference is almost certainly a misreading for Pope John XXII, who administered the Church from 1316 to 1334. John XII was pope from 955 to 964.

John the Evaungelist, Seynt, 286–87, 289–91, 293, 692, 830, 1039. St. John the Evangelist, writer of the Gospel of John.

John, Seynt, (1) See John the Evaungelist, Seynt (2) See John the Baptist, Seynt

Jonas, 392. The prophet Jonah (Jonas) is linked in Catholic tradition with the widow’s son who was raised from the dead by the prophet Elijah (3 Kings 17). The tradition is mentioned by St. Jerome and others, but is without biblical basis.

Jonays, 302. The Genoese.

Jope, 2623, 2626. Job the Patriarch, whose faith God tested and approved.

Jordan, Flom, 894, 901, 930–31, 936, 939, 944–46, 1060, 1182. The Jordan River, in northeast Palestine.

Josaphat, Kyng, 861. Jehoshaphat, king of Judah (2 Paralipomenon [Chronicles] 17–20).

Josaphat, Vale, 687, 815, 837, 853, 865, 1046. The Vale of Jehoshaphat, between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives, to the east.

Joseph, (1) 442, 585, 966, 970. Joseph the Patriarch, son of Jacob (Genesis 37–50). (2) 1019. Joseph, husband of the Virgin Mary.

Joseph of Barmathia, 668. Joseph of Arimathea, who took the body of Christ for burial (John 19:38–42). He is also credited in popular myth with having carried the Holy Grail to the British Isles.

Josias, 1107. Apparently a corruption of “Isaac,” the son of Abraham’s old age (Genesis 17).

Josue, 493, 887, 947. Joshua, son of Nun, Israelite scout (Numbers 14:6) and later successor of Moses (Joshua).

Joye, Mount, 850–52, 1153. Mount Joy (Montjoie, Neby Samwîl) just northwest of Jerusalem.

Judas, 839, 857. Judas Iscariot, betrayer of Christ (Matthew 26; Mark 14; Luke 22; John 13)

Judas Machabeus, 596. Jewish leader of the revolt against the Seleucid kings (1 Machabees 3–9; 2 Machabees 8–15).

Jude, 104, 440, 595, 902. Judea, ancient kingdom south and west of the Dead Sea.

Julian, 875. St. Julian, the patron saint of hospitality. Legend has it that he was the same person as Simon the Leper (Matthew 26:6; Mark 14:3), healed by Christ and later taking the name Julian in baptism.

Julius Apostata, 719, 976. Julian the Apostate, Roman emperor, 361–63.

Justinian, 99. Justinian I (483–565); Byzantine emperor, 527–65.



Karmen, 2299. Either the city of Kerman or Kermanshah, both in Persia.

Katerine (Keterin, Katerin), Seynt, 458–64, 466, 817. St. Catherine of Alexandria (St. Catherine of the Wheel). The Mount of Saint Catherine is one of the peaks of Sinai, to which her body was miraculously transported after she was beheaded in Alexandria.



Lacuth, 1178. The port city of Laodicea (Latakia) in northwest Syria.

Lamaton, 1145. Unclear. Given as a port city on Cyprus, but no convincing identification offers itself.

Lamoryse (Lamory), 1671, 1779. Part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.

Lango, 302, 304. Probably the Greek isle of Cos. Although the text refers to Cofos (Cos) and Lango as separate islands, the story of Hippocrates’ daughter is associated with Cos. Lango is as yet unidentifiable as a separate place name. See also Cofos

Larchesleven, 1366. A Saracen religious leader. The Cotton text reads, “the Archiflamyn or the Flamyn, as oure erchebisshopp or bisshop” (Mandeville’s Travels, ed. Seymour [1967], p. 103).

Latorym, 1909. The port city of Canton (Guang-zhou) in southeast China.

Latyn, 120, 230, 565, 635, 639, 1078, 2846. The Latin language.

Lay, ryver, 1164. Probably the Lake of Nicaea (Iznik Lake) in northwest Turkey.

Lazar, 879. Lazarus, whom Christ raised from the dead (John 11).

Lempne, 205. The Greek isle of Lemnos, on which Mount Athanasi (here called “Mount Athos”) stands.

Lente, 260. Lent, the forty weekdays from Ash Wednesday to Easter, observed as a period of fasting and penitence.

Lettow, 1208. Medieval Lithuania, extending from the Baltic to the Black Sea.

Liban, Mount (Libanie, Lyban, hill of), 932, 935. The Libanus (Lebanon) Mountains.

Libie. See Lybie

Lombardy (Lumbardy, Lombardye, Lumbardie, Lumbardye), 89, 406, 407, 1140, 1157, 1388, 1956, 2512. The region of Lombardy, in northern Italy. The Lumbard mile is generally used as the distance standard for the Book, although distances are by no means accurate. See explanatory note to lines 406–07.

Loth, 519, 916, 918, 922, 1346. Lot, who escaped the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, where his wife was turned to a pillar of salt. His daughters later slept with him in his drunkenness, and the children thus begotten became ancestors of the Moabite and Ammonite tribes (Genesis 19). The text’s assertion that Lot was Abraham’s brother is incorrect, as Lot was Abraham’s nephew, the son of his brother Aran (Genesis 11:27).

Luke, Seynt, 194, 1112. St. Luke the Evangelist, writer of the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles.

Lyban, hille of. See Liban, Mount

Lybie (Libie), 64, 1703. Libya.

Lybye the Heye, 2335. “Upper Libya” or Pentapolis, whose capital was the city of Apollonia (Susa).



Mabaron, 1625. The coastal region of Coromandel, in southeast India on the Bay of Bengal.

Macamet (Macamete, Machamete) 572, 1231, 1271, 1277, 1286, 1331, 1336, 1337, 1340, 1344, 1349, 1352, 1355, 1367–68. The prophet Mohammed.

Macidone (Macedone, Macydoyn), 208, 214, 215, 1512. Macedonia, on the Balkan peninsula.

Madyn, Mount, 1154. Mount Modin (Mount Latron), near Jerusalem.

Makaryn, castel of, 975. The Jewish fortress of Machareus, on the Dead Sea.

Mambre, Mount, 520. The Mount of Mamre, north of Hebron.

Mambre, Vale of, 490, 948. The Vale of Mamre (Ramel el Khalil), north of Hebron. See also Ebron

Mancy, 1902, 1924, 1941, 2010. The province of Manzi, in southern China. See also Albanye

Marcha, 299, 301. Probably the city of Myra, on the Lycian coast in Asia Minor, but Seymour has lately suggested Monemvasia, an island off the Peloponnese, whence Malmsey was exported (D, p. 140n15/7).

Marie Cleophe, 695. Mary Cleophas (John 19:25), mother of Sts. Simon, James the Less, and Jude, and grandmother of the Apostles St. James the Greater and St. John.

Marie Maudeleyn (Marie Magdelene, Mari Maudeleyn, Mary Maudelyn), 673, 877, 883. Mary Magdalen, follower of Christ.

Marie, Virgyn (Mari, Virgyn; Marye, Virgyne), 14, 230–31, 1240, 1250, 1256. The Virgin Mary, mother of Christ.

Maritane, 2334, 2335. Mauretania.

Marrok, (1) 1157. The city of Marash, in south-central Turkey. (2) 1387. Morocco.

Marrok, Port. See Murrok, Port

Marrok, rever, 93. The Maritsa River, in Bulgaria.

Mary, Maria, Marie. See Marie, Virgyn

Massydoyns, 606. The Macedonians.

Maubek, castel, 1180. The Muslim stronghold at Ba’albek, east of Beirut.

Maundé (Maundy), 250, 823. The Maunde, on Maundy Thursday (the Thursday before Easter), is a remembrance of the poor.

Maundevile, John (Maundevyle), 1, 58, 2833. Sir John Mandeville, our erstwhile narrator.

Maure (Greet See, Oxean), 1387–88, 1554, 2265. The Black Sea, once believed to be an arm of the Great Sea Ocean. From Latin mare maurum (“Moorish Sea”).

Medoynes, Medoyns, 606, 1394. The Medes, inhabitants of Media, a kingdom of the Persian Empire in southwest Asia.

Medy, 2294, 2296, 2301. The kingdom of Media, part of the Persian Empire in southwest Asia.

Megone, playn, 2316. The Moghan Steppe, west of the Caspian Sea.

Melchiser, 556. One of the Magi, who visited the baby Jesus with gifts (Matthew 2:1–12).

Meldane (Sermoys), 938. From Arabic maidan, open space or market, which may be taken here as a specific place-name. Other texts refer to the name meaning “fair” or “market” in Sarmoyz or Sarazinois, the Saracen language.

Melke, 1843. Possibly Malacca, on the west coast of Malaysia.

Menchi, 2033. A Tartar tribe. Hayton the Armenian calls them “Monghi.”

Mercaritot, Seynt, 602, 603. Karitot, holy abbot of a monastery south of Jerusalem. Many monks were said to have died of sorrow at his death. See explanatory note to lines 602–04.

Mercyne. See Egipt

Mesap. See Ackaron

Mesopotayne (Mesopotanye, Mesopotayn), 663, 1383, 2329. Mesopotamia.

Metterane, see (Greet See), 1386. The Mediterranean Sea.

Michel, Seynt, 60. The archangel Michael.

Misac (Misael), 444–45. Meschach, originally called Misael, one of those cast into the fiery furnace by King Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 1–3).

Misael. See Misac

Moabites, 1348. The Moabites, an ancient Semitic people descended from Lot (Genesis 19:30–38).

Mody. See Medy

Molbrynor, valeys of, 1164–65. The vales of Malabrunia, in Asia Minor.

Molo, 205. The Greek isle of Melos.

Morarche. See Beleth

Morcelle, 2330. The city of Mosul, east of the Sindjar Mountains in northern Iraq.

Morraunt, alpes of, 1164. Possibly the Phrygian Black Hills, in Asia Minor.

Moyses, 463, 749, 759, 1040, 1284, 1293, 2813. Moses, to whom God gave the Ten Commandments. The “Book of Moses” (line 2813–14) presumably refers to the biblical Book of Exodus, although it may refer to the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Old Testament, for which Mosaic authorship was long assumed.

Moyses, Mount, 458. The Mount of Moses (Mount Sinai), on which Moses received the Ten Commandments from God.

Murrok, Port (Marrok), 1142, 1157. The city of Mavrovo, near Valona (Vlonë) on the Albanian coast of the Strait of Otranto.



Naaman, 946. Naaman of Aram, cured of his leprosy by Elisha (4 Kings 5).

Nabugodonosor, 442–43. King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (Daniel 1–4).

Natatori Silo, 837–38. The Pool of Siloam, where Jesus healed the blind man (John 9:7).

Natumeran, 1854. The Nicobar Islands, in the Indian Ocean.

Nayme (Naym), 1005, 1048. The city of Naym (Nain) in Galilee.

Nazareth, 121, 955, 956, 1014, 1017, 1019, 1024, 1029, 1038. The city of Nazareth in Galilee.

Neaple (Sychem, Sykar), 963, 966, 971. Neapolis (later Nablus), the ancient city of Shechem, north of Jerusalem in Samaria. Although the text seems to make of it a separate city, the name refers to the same place as Sychem and Sykar.

Neflond (Nyvelond), 85, 1207. Livonia, a central European region bordering on the Black Sea.

Nessabor, 2291. The city of Nishapúr, in northeast Persia.

Newbow, 87. The city of Wieselburg (Moszon), Hungary, on the Leytha, northeast of Odenburg (Sopron), and therefore clearly not on the way to Belgrade. Newbow corresponds with Albert of Aix’s “praesidium Meseburch” and William of Tyre’s “Meeszburg.” Seymour glosses his “Neiseburg” in his Cotton edition of 1967 as “Odenburg (now Wieselburg) in Hungary” (p. 300), but the two are separate cities.

Nicholas, Seynt, 283, 565. St. Nicholas, fourth-century bishop of Myra.

Nichosie, 361. The city of Nicosia, in Cyprus.

Nideus, 1098. The Nestorian Christians, who separated from Byzantine Christianity after 431 AD.

Noe, 130, 401, 403, 630, 920, 1435, 1438, 1440, 2019, 2020, 2708. Noah, who survived the great flood by building an ark (Genesis 5–9).

Norway (Northway), 79, 1772. Norway.

Nostre Dame de Sarmany, 1114–15. The church of Our Lady of Saidenaya, north of Jerusalem.

Nubye the Heye, 2336–37. “Upper Nubia,” the part of the Sudanese Nile Valley from the second cataract south to Khartoum.

Nubye the Lowe, 2336–37. “Lower Nubia,” the part of the Nile Valley south of Aswan, between the first and second cataracts of the Nile.

Nubyse (Nubye), 2334. Nubia, in the Nile Valley.

Nyke, 281, 282, 1162. The ancient Byzantine city of Nicaea (later Iznik) in northwest Turkey.

Nyle, flode of (Nylus, ryver Gyron), 1385, 2715, 2724. The Nile River.

Nylus, ryver. See Nyle, flode

Nyse, 2397, 2462. The city of Nisa (Neyseh), in southern Persia.

Nyvelond. See Neflond



Occian (Greet See, Oxean), 1554, 1901, 2265. The “O” of the “T-in-O” maps, the Great Sea Ocean believed to surround all three known landmasses (Europe, Africa, and Asia).

Olde Testament (Oolde Lawe, Olde Lawe), 128, 269, 578–79, 2186. The Old Testament of the Bible.

Olimpus, 215, 217. Mount Olympus, in northeast Greece.

Olyvete, Mount (Olivete), 862, 884. The Mount of Olives, a low mountain range east of Jerusalem.

Oolde Lawe, Olde Lawe. See Olde Testament

Orda. See Sarochize

Orrel, 2677. Pliny’s Chryse, a mythical island in the Great Sea Ocean.

Oxean, (1) See Occian. (2) The Black Sea. See Maure



Palastine (Palastyn, Palestyne), 579, 594–95, 1385, 2661. Palestine.

Palme Sonday, 690, 873. The Sunday before Easter, celebrated to commemorate Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem.

Panonye, 80. The Roman province of Pannonia, in southwest Europe.

Paradis (Paradise, Paradys, Paradyse), (1) See Paradys Terrestre. (2) 291, 1233, 1234, 2489, 2776. Heaven. (3) 2485, 2487. The false paradise of the Assassins. See Catholonabeus

Paradys Terrestre (Paradys, Paradis), 138, 139, 508–12, 1382, 1600, 2164, 2396, 2699, 2702, 2705, 2706, 2709, 2729, 2734. Eden, the Earthly Paradise.

Parys (Paris), 164, 166, 189, 191, 711, 1909. The city of Paris, France.

Pasche, (1) 830. The Last Supper, in observation of Passover. (2) 263. Easter.

Pasche Eve, 263. Easter Eve.

Passion, 287, 858, 860, 1036. The sufferings of Christ between the night of the Last Supper and His death.

Pathan, 299. Pateran, in Asia Minor, the birthplace of St. Nicholas.

Pathmos, 285, 288. The Greek Isle of Patmos.

Patro. See Salamasse

Pellarines, castel. See Pyllerynes, castel

Pentoxorie, 2393, 2396. Pentoxoire, Prester John’s mythical kingdom, associated with India/Abyssinia. See also Ynde

Perce (Percie, Peryse, Percey, Pers, Persy), (1) 63, 105, 663, 1384, 1391, 1461, 2192, 2249, 2274, 2276, 2283, 2289, 2297, 2312, 2410, 2718. Persia. (2) 2293. An error for “Armenia.” See the explanatory note to this line.

Perces (Percens), 606, 1394. The Persians.

Petir, Seynt (Peter, Petre), 179, 822, 872, 1006, 1039, 1040, 1054, 1087, 2631, 2633, 2673. St. Peter the Apostle.

Phenes (Fimes), 935, 1386. Phoenicia.

Phenne, 1174. The city of Philomelium, in the ancient country of Pisidia, in southern Asia Minor.

Philistiens, 492. The Philistines.

Philistion. See Gaza

Physon, flode. See Ganges, flode

Pilat, 185. Pontius Pilate, Roman procurator of Judea under whose authority Christ was crucified (Matthew 27; Mark 15).

Polombe, hille, 1593. Mount Polumbum, named here as the site of the Fountain of Youth. See also Polomee

Polomee (Bomk), 1592. The city of Quilon (Polumbum) on the Malabar coast of India. “Bomk” is probably a corruption of Lombe. See also Polombe, hille

Port de Feare. See Alisaundre

Port de Pounce, Le, 1393. “Port of the Pontus” (Trebizond), so named for Pontus Euxinus, the Black Sea. See also Trapasond

Poule, Seynt (Poul), 344, 1111, 1289–90. St. Paul the Apostle.

Poyaline, 80. Poland.

Prester John, 1716, 1719, 1722, 1730, 2191, 2195, 2394, 2398, 2403, 2409, 2415, 2418, 2420, 2434, 2445, 2654, 2656, 2668, 2696, 2738. Prester John, legendary emperor of India/Abyssinia.

Promission, Londe of, 494, 597, 950, 1004, 1061, 1134. The Promised Land.

Pruysse (Pruys, Spruse, Spruys), 85, 1192, 1213, 2088, 2261, 2280. Prussia, on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea.

Pycardy, 987. Picardy, in northern France.

Pyllerynes, castel of (Pellarines), 428, 1184. Château Pelerin, the fortress of the Knights Templar at Athlît, south of Haifa; held against the Saracens from 1218 to 1291, when it fell just before the fall of Acre.

Pylverall, 1160. The port of Bafra, on the south coast of the Black Sea near Sinope.

Pynceras, 94. The Pincenarii, early inhabitants of the area along the lower Danube in Bulgaria.

Pynornard, 207. The land of the Pincenarii, along the lower Danube in Bulgaria.

Pytan, (1) 2326. The ancient country of Bithynia, in northwest Asia Minor. (2) 2638. Pytan; an unclear reference, possibly a back formation from “Trispithami,” a tribe mentioned by Pliny among others in relation to this area. See W, p. 219 n147/1.



Quardrich, 1340. Khadija, the wife of Mohammed.

Quecissioun, 2326. The ancient country of Lydia, in western Asia Minor.



Raab, 889. Rahab, the prostitute (Joshua 2). Matthew 1:5 places her as an ancestor of Joseph, husband of the Virgin Mary.

Rachel, 585. Rachel, wife of Jacob and mother of Joseph and Benjamin (Genesis 29–35).

Raco, 1204. Batu, grandson of Genghis Khan and Khan of the Blue Horde. For his court see Sarochize. See also the explanatory note to line 2089.

Rama, 961. The city of Ramah in the Portion of Benjamin, just north of Jerusalem.

Ramatha, 601, 957. The city of Ramatha (often called Rama) in the Portion of Ephraim, north of Jerusalem. See also Sophym

Rames, 1149, 1185. The town of Ramleh, southeast of Jaffa.

Ranymar, ryver, 2646. In most texts some form of “Buemare.” Warner notes that the Letter of Alexander “speaks also of the ‘amnis Buemar’ in the furthest forests of India” (W, p. 219n147.6). The river’s reported width of two and a half miles is almost certainly a confusion of that source, which speaks of Alexander’s vast camp — two and a half leagues across — on the banks of the river.

Raphane, 1124. Jacques de Vitry’s “Raphaneum,” identified by editors of the Book variously as “Rafinêh” or “Raphaniyeh,” but never clearly located. From context, it should be northeast of Tripoli.

Rebecca, 497. Rebecca, the wife of Isaac (Genesis 24–27), not Jacob.

Reed(e) See (Rede See), (1) 473, 749, 2334–35. The Red Sea. (2) 1173. Apparently an error for “Greet Sea,” in this case meaning the Mediterranean.

Resurexion, 1058. The rising of Christ from the dead.

Rochaus, 2331. The city of Roha (ancient Edessa, Urfa) on the Euphrates River.

Rodes (Rodis), 312, 342, 346, 359, 360, 1144. The Greek isle of Rhodes, base of the Knights Hospitallers from 1506 to 1523. See also Colles

Romayne (Romayn), 103, 1167, 1956. Romany, in Asia Minor.

Romayn See, 1168. The “Sea of Romany,” possibly the Aegean.

Romayns, 606. The Romans.

Rome, 151, 237, 240, 647, 714, 746, 984, 1397, 2840, 2842, 2843. Rome.

Rosse (Rossye, Russyghe), 84, 1207, 2088, 2261. Russia.

Ryal Mount. See Garras

Ryboth, 2754. Tibet. The “pryncipall cyté” is probably Lhasa.



Saba, 1503. Persian Saba, of which the magus Balthasar was said to be king, has been conflated here with Ethiopian Saba, in Meroe, perhaps owing to the tradition (grounded in Vulgate Psalms 67:32 and 71:10) that one of the wise men was from Ethiopia.

Sabaoth, 954. The town of Shobeck, fifty miles southeast of the Dead Sea.

Sabaste. See Samay

Sabissatel, 1434. Probably Mount Sabissa Collasassius, near Erzerum in northwest Turkey.

Salamasse (Patro), 1798, 1799. Unclear. Warner notes that “Salamasse” and “Paten” (here Patro) are “the Thalamasyn and Panten (al. Paten) of Od(oric) . . . but what place is meant must be left to conjecture. Col. Yule supposes it to be upon the coast of Borneo, and suggests Banjermasin” (W, p. 201n94.14).

Salomon, 454, 487, 593, 712, 724, 773, 834. King Solomon of Israel (3 Kings 1–11).

Salomon, Temple of. See Jerusalem, Temple of

Samaritane, 964. Samaria, a district of ancient Palestine between Galilee and Judea.

Samaritanis, 969, 992. The Samaritans; from Samaria, a district of ancient Palestine between Galilee and Judea.

Samay (Sabaste), 972, 976, 989. The city of Samaria (Sebastia, Sebaste), capital of the province of Samaria in ancient Palestine.

Sampson the fort, 426. Samson the Strong (Judges 13–16).

Samuel, 851, 958, 961. The biblical Samuel, who was responsible for the enthronement of King David of Jerusalem (1 Kings).

Sancta Sanctorum. See Holy of Holies

Saphan. See Cardabago

Saphen (Sarepte), 391, 393. The city of Sarphen, near Tyre on the Phoenician coast. See also Sydonis

Sara, (1) See Segor. (2) See Sarra.

Saragi, 558. Offered as an alternative name for one of the Magi, who visited the baby Jesus with gifts (Matthew 2:1–12).

Sarchie, 1590. The city of Baroch, in western India north of Surat.

Sardana, 397. The city of Saidenaya, north of Damascus.

Sarepte. See Saphen

Sarizynes (Sarizens, Sarasynnes, Sarysynis, Sarysynes, Sarazens, Sarasyns, Sarizyns, Sarasens), 363, 380, 498, 503, 521, 529, 577, 607, 665, 699, 730, 928, 993, 996, 1063, 1214, 1228, 1234, 1269, 1292, 1329, 1346, 1347, 1365, 1427, 1451, 1907, 2145, 2146. The Saracens, broadly used to refer to Muslim Arabs.

Sark, 1124. The crusader castle of Archas (Arqa), near Tripoli.

Sarmasse, 2291, 2292. Unclear. Listed as one of the principal cities of Persia, but no convincing identification offers itself.

Sarochize (Orda), 1204, 2271. The city of Serai (from serai, palace) in Cumania, onetime capital of Kypchak (the Golden Horde). Identified with the city of Tsarev, on the Akhtûba branch of the Volga. “Orda” comes from Mongolian ordu, camp or court (whence the term “horde”). John of Plano Carpini, probably the Book’s source here, visited Batu Khan’s ordu at Serai on his way to meet Kuyuk Khan.

Sarra (Sara), 497, 498. Sarah, the wife of Abraham the Patriarch (Genesis 12, 16–17, 20–21).

Satalay, 350. Probably Eski Adalia, the site of ancient Side; but possibly Adalia (Antalya), a port city on the south coast of Asia Minor.

Saturne, 1547–48. The planet Saturn.

Saure, 2326. The ancient district of Isauria, near Pisidia, in Asia Minor.

Saures, 2312. Shapur II, emperor of Persia, c. 309–79.

Savouris, Seynt, 390. St. Savior, a term for Christ. Hence the church of St. Savior is founded upon the rock from which Christ preached.

Savoyze, 83. The region of Slavonia, in eastern Croatia.

Scale de Terreys, 414. The Ladder of Tyre (Ras en Nakurah), a steep headland between Acre and Tyre.

Segor (Sara), 915. The city of Segor (Zoar), on the Dead Sea. Lot fled to Segor when Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed (Genesis 19:20–24).

Sem, 2022, 2026. Shem, son of Noah (Genesis 9:18–27).

Semeth, 2033. A Tartar tribe, perhaps a conflation of Hayton the Armenian’s “Tebeth” and “Sonich.”

Sepulcre, Cherche of the (Holy Sepulcre), 671, 674, 692, 697, 727. The Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, believed to encompass Calvary, the Holy Sepulcher of Christ, and the well in which St. Helena found the True Cross.

Sermoyns. See Garras

Sermoys. See Meldane

Sesarye Philippum, 1185. The ancient city of Caesarea Philippi, in northern Palestine.

Seth, 138, 140, 515. Seth, the son of Adam and Eve (Genesis 4–5).

Seynt Albons (Seynt Albones), 2, 59. The town of St. Albans, England.

Seynt Sophie, cherch of. See Sophie, Seynt

Siche. See Zechie

Silvestre, Seynt, 984. St. Sylvester, credited with converting the emperor Constantine to Christianity.

Sirre. See Tyre

Sirrye. See Syrri

Skotlond, 78–79, 1717, 1772. Scotland.

Sobeth, 2033. A Tartar tribe, perhaps a conflation of Hayton the Armenian’s “Tebeth” and “Sonich.”

Soboth, 2411. The port city of Cambay in western India.

Sodom, 914. The city of Sodom in ancient Palestine, destroyed by God for its iniquity (Genesis 19).

Solome, (1) 591. See Jebusalem. (2) 914. The city of Zeboiim, on the Dead Sea.

Solopenuce, 1480. Scolopitus/ Colopheus, legendary king of Amazonia before the female takeover.

Somaber, 1780. Part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.

Sophie, Seynt, 98, 227. The Hagia Sofia in Istanbul, generally considered the most beautiful church in the world. The church is in fact dedicated not to St. Sophia, but to the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) of Christ.

Sophym, 957. Given here as a place-name, a city close to but separate from Ramatha; in fact, Ramatha Sophym is simply another name for Ramatha (Rama) in the Portion of Ephraim. See also Ramatha

Sorman Gramang, 2289. The city of Samarkand, east of Bokhara in Turkestan.

Spayne, see of, 1387, 2337. The Spanish Sea.

Spelunke, 502. The double cave in which the Patriarchs and their wives are interred in Hebron (Genesis 23).

Sperver, castel of, 1407. The fabled Castle of the Sparrowhawk.

Spruse (Spruys). See Pruysse

Sternes, 94. The city of Sofia, Bulgaria.

Stevene, Seynt, 688, 811. St. Stephen, the first of the Christian martyrs, who was stoned to death for his faith in Christ (Acts 6–7).

Strages, 209, 210. The town of Stagira, on the Macedonian peninsula of Chalcidice, birthplace of Aristotle.

Stynkyng, Flom, Another name for the Dead Sea. See Dede See

Sure, port de. See Tyre

Surry. See Syrri

Suse, 2445. The city of Susa (Shushan), ancient capital of the Persian province of Susiana. The winter residence of Persian kings, here identified as Prester John’s capital city.

Sybole, 959. The town of Shiloh on Mount Ephraim, east of Jaffa.

Sychem. See Neaple

Sydonis (Cidone), 391. Conflated here with Sarphen, the city of Sidon is nearby, on the Phoenecian coast. The frequent conflation of smaller towns with larger ones may result from the common practice of identifying small towns by proximity to larger ones (e.g., Sarepte, near Sydonis). See also Didon, Saphen

Sykar. See Neaple

Symon, 874. Simon the Leper (Matthew 26:6; Mark 14:3).

Synay, Mount, 431, 465, 816, 1134, 1350, 1379. Mount Sinai. Several distinct peaks of Sinai are referred to in the text.

Synople, 2605. Unclear. The Egerton text gives two isles here: Oxidrace and Gynoscriphe. Warner notes that the “Oxidracae were a great tribe of the Panjáb, on the banks of the Hydaspes, who vigorously opposed the advance of Alexander” (W. p. 218n144.32). This may give some sense of location, though it does not explain the use of “Synople” in this context.

Synople, castel of, 1160. The port city of Sinope, on the Black Sea in northern Turkey.

Syon, Mount, 812–14, 818, 832–34, 837, 842. Mount Zion, in eastern Jerusalem.

Syrie, Mount, 1110. Mount Seir in Idumea (Edom), erroneously cited here as “beside Damascus.”

Syrri (Syrrie, Syrry, Surry), 104, 379, 594, 598, 935, 946, 1177, 1385, 2661. Syria.



Tabina, 1249–52. A fabled enchanter/evil spirit. See explanatory note to lines 1248–53.

Tabor, Mount, 1038, 1048. Mount Tabor, in northern Palestine.

Tangoth, 2032. A Tartar tribe. Hayton the Armenian calls them “Tangot.”

Tarchie. See Trachise

Tartari (Tartaryse, Tartarie, Tartarye), (1) 63, 1192, 1193, 1194, 1390, 2029, 2085, 2661. Tartary. (2) 2031. One of the Tartar tribes.

Tartaryns, (1) 1959, 2099, 2219. The Mongols (Tartars). Although the two were separate peoples, medieval Europe seldom distinguished between them. (2) 2247. Possibly a distinctive Tartar fabric.

Tauzyre. See Canryssy

Tebe, ryver, 2581. Probably the Hydaspes (Jhelum) River, on the Indian subcontinent.

Tecle, Seynt, 979. Probably St. Thecla the Virgin, follower of Paul, who supposedly carried the finger of John the Baptist to Germany. Warner suggests, however, that it may refer to a different person, a pilgrim from Maurienne (W, p. 188n52.14).

Templers, 779. The religious military order of the Knights Templar, established in Jerusalem in the twelfth century.

Templum Domini, 698, 708. Originally the Dome of the Rock, built c. 691 by Muslims to honor the place from which they believed Mohammed had ascended to Heaven. Crusaders took over the Dome in 1099, renaming it the “Temple of the Lord.” It is said to be on the exact spot where the Temple of Herod stood in the time of Christ.

Teres, Vale of. See Ebron

Tesbiria, 204. The isle of Lesbos, off the coast of Asia Minor.

Thane. See Airach, hille

Theodosy, 982. Theodosius I, Roman emperor 379–95 AD.

Thoimtot, 281. The fortified crusader camp of Civitot, on the Gulf of Nicomedea.

Thomar, 1463. The city of Carmana (later Kerman) in Persia.

Thomas, Seynt, 825, 880, 1626, 1633, 1636, 2469, 2673. St. Thomas the Apostle, also known as “Doubting Thomas,” because he would not believe Christ had risen until he had touched His wounds (John 20).

Tibourne. See Tybourne

Tire. See Tyre

Titus, 713, 746. Titus, Roman emperor 79–81 AD. Son of the emperor Vespasian.

Torkye. See Turkey

Torrens Cedron, 853. The Kidron (Cedar) River, in the Vale of Jehoshaphat (3 Kings 2:37).

Trachise (Trachie, Trachye, Tarchie), 90, 207, 210, 215. Thrace, near Macedonia. The reference to the “city of Thrace” is unclear, as no major Thracian city is near Stagira.

Tracota, 1848. Variously identified with Dragoian in Sumatra, Trinkat in the Nicobar Islands, and Tringano on the Malay peninsula. The story, however, goes back to Vincent of Beauvais’ account of the Troglodytes of Ethiopia. The similarity of names may account for the relocation.

Transmontane (Transmontayne, Transmontayn), 1688, 1697, 1713. The northern pole star, from the Latin trans + montanus, beyond the mountain, possibly “beyond the Alps,” from the Latin point of view.

Trapasond, 1393, 1403, 1405, 1433. Trebizond (Trabzon); port city in northeast Turkey, on the Black Sea. See also Port de Pounce, Le

Triple, 1180. The port city of Tripoli, north of Beirut.

Troye, 202, 394. The city of Troy, on the coast of Asia Minor.

Turcople, 207. Used here as a place-name, probably arising from the Turcopoli, a tribe of mixed Turkish and Greek descent.

Turkes, 292, 344, 607, 1404, 2273. The Turks.

Turkeston, 2273–74, 2285. Turkestan, between Iran and Siberia.

Turkey (Turky, Turkye, Torkye), 62, 281, 293, 662, 1162, 2261. Turkey.

Turmaget, 1493. Terra Marginen (Turmeniya), east of the Caspian Sea.

Turtouse, 1179, 1180. The port town of Tartous, north of Beirut.

Tybourne (Tibourne), 1050, 1057. The city of Tiberias, on the Sea of Galilee.

Tygre (Tygris), 1384, 1385, 2329, 2716, 2725. The Tigris River.

Tyre, Tire, Tyri (Sirre), 378, 379, 386, 389, 395, 404, 1129, 1130, 1146. Tyre (Sûr), port of entry for Syria.



Uber, 2353. The Caucasus Mountains, probably from ubera aquilonis, the breasts of the north. See also Caspyze, hilles of

Urie, Urye, 487, 772. Uriah the Hittite, husband of Bathsheba. King David killed Uriah in order to take Bathsheba for himself, and was cursed by God (2 Kings 11–12).



Vacres. See Acon

Valayr, 2033. A Tartar tribe. Hayton the Armenian calls them “Ialair.”

Valeye Enchaunted (Valey of Fendes; Valey Perlous), 2493. A valley fraught with devils, supposedly near the River Physon, in the Aral region. The story of this valley likely draws from the biblical “Valley of the Shadow of Death.”

Valone, 1142. Valona (Vlonë), port city on the Strait of Otranto, between the Adriatic and Ionian Seas.

Venyse, 406, 1140, 1157, 1351, 1392, 1555, 1955. Venice, Italy.

Vespasian, 713. Vespasian, Roman emperor, 69–79 AD.



Walys, 78, 1772. Wales.

Wit Soneday (Witsoneday), 828–29, 2263. Also called Pentecost; a feast-day on the seventh Sunday after Easter, commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles.



Ydoyne (Idonye), 937, 1467. Idumea (Edom), an ancient country south of Judea.

Ynde (Inde, Indee), 65, 559, 664, 1351, 1391, 1452, 1505, 1512, 1515, 1543, 1544, 1545, 1554, 1716, 1735, 1776, 1902, 2268, 2272, 2286, 2290, 2341, 2393, 2395, 2555, 2714, 2722. India. The medieval concept of “Ynde” does not, however, correspond well with the modern boundaries of India. The Book associates “Ynde” variously with northern, eastern, and western Asia, and even with east Africa. On the well-known conflation of India with East Africa, stemming from late antiquity, see Kazhdan, Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, 2:992–93. See also Pentoxorie

Ynde the Gretter. See Ynde the Moore

Ynde the Heye. See Ynde the Moore

Ynde the Lasse (Inde the Lasse, Ynde the Lowe), 65, 664, 1507, 2297. The area from Arabia eastward to the Indian subcontinent.

Ynde the Lowe. See Ynde the Lasse

Ynde the Moore (Inde the More, Ynde the Gretter, Ynde the Heye), 65, 1505, 1506, 2341. The Indian subcontinent and adjacent lands to the east.

Ynone, Fosse, 415. The Fosse of Memnon near the Belus River, reportedly named for a monument to Memnon that stood nearby.

Youle Eve, 262. Christmas Eve.

Ypocras, 303, 304. The Greek physician Hippocrates.

Yrlond, 1773. Ireland.

Ysaac, 924. Isaac, son of Abraham and his wife Sarah (Genesis 21).

Ysau, 1467. Used erroneously here as a place name; in most texts the passage suggests Jobab was king of Idumea “after King Esau.”

Ysmael, 1345. Ishmael, son of Abraham and his servant Hagar (Genesis 16–17)

Ysmaelites, 1346. Members of the tribe of Ishmael, son of Abraham.



Zabatoriye, rever, 1125. Possibly a reference to a spring near Arqa at the convent of Mar Jirjis. The spring is known for its intermittence.

Zacary, 777. The prophet Zacharias, son of Barachius.

Zechie (Siche), 1479, 2355. The ancient kingdom of Scythia, including parts of Europe and Asia north of the Black Sea and east of the Aral Sea.