Ancrene Wisse, Glossary

Print Copyright Info Purchase

Ancrene Wisse, Glossary

from: Ancrene Wisse  2000

    The following glossary provides entries for all but the most recognizable words in the AW. Entries generally contain the following: 1) the base form in boldface, 2) its part of speech, 3) definition, 4) breakdown of inflected forms, and 5) etymology (in square brackets [ ]), sometimes with a bibliographical reference.
    To help readers understand these often very difficult words, I have followed what seems to me a very useful practice of Friedrich Klaeber's in the glossary of his edition of Beowulf (Boston: Heath, 1950), whereby a word in ALL CAPS represents the modern descendant of the ME word. In a text as difficult as this one, any hints of the familiar should be very welcome indeed. To help make the vocabulary more transparent, cognates in other languages, particularly German, are provided. If the development of a word is unproblematic, its etymology appears as a simple abbreviation of its source language (for example, OE, OF, ON, etc.), though in the case of more difficult or interesting words, fuller etymologies appear, sometimes with bibliographic references, where appropriate. For words of Old English origin, OE means that the ME word has descended regularly from a known OE word; *OE that the ME word goes back to an OE word which does not appear in the corpus of OE texts but which is theoretically reconstructable; "from OE," that the word is based on a new combination or development of OE elements.
    Outside the OED and MED, the leading authority on the vocabulary of the AW is Zettersten, whose Studies in the Dialect and Vocabulary of the Ancrene Riwle (covering mainly native forms) and "French Loan-Words in the Ancrene Riwle and Their Frequency" manage between them to treat almost every word in the AW.
    Though there is unfortunately no cross-referencing to line numbers in the text, to find specific words or word-forms readers may consult either the concordance to the AW (Potts et al.) or the on-line version of this text on the TEAMS Middle English Texts website: http://www.lib.rochester.edu/Camelot/TEAMS/tmsmenu.htm.


Abbreviations

 

1
2
3
adj.
adv.
AF
AN
art.
compar.
conj.
def.
demons.
F.
fem.
fig.
gen.
Ger.
imper.
impers.
indef.
inf.
interj.
interrog.
Lat.
lit.
masc.
MDu
ME
MED
med.
MFlem
MLG
MWelsh
ModE
n.
neut.
num.
obj.
OE
OED
OF
ONF
orig.
pl.
past part.
prep.
pres.
pres. part.
prob.
pron.
reflex.
sing.
subj.
superlat.
v.
first person
second person
third person
adjective
adverb
Anglo-French
Anglo-Norman
article
comparative
conjunction
definite
demonstrative
French
feminine
figuratively
genitive, possessive
German
imperative
impersonal construction
indefinite
infinitive
interjection, exclamation
interrogative, question word
Latin
literally
masculine
Middle Dutch
Middle English
Middle English Dictionary
medieval
Middle Flemish
Middle Low German
Middle Welsh
Modern English
noun
neuter
number
objective
Old English
Oxford English Dictionary
Old French
Old Norman French
originally
plural
past participle
preposition
present tense
present participle
probably
pronoun
reflexive
singular
subjunctive
superlative
verb





a- (prefix) forth, away; (a general intensifier) [OE]
a, an (adj.) ONE; first (in a series); single; (indef. art., & pron.) A, AN; one [OE]
aa (adv.) always, ever, continuously; at all [OE]
abbat (n.) ABBOT (gen. sing. abbates) [OE, from Lat.]
a-beate (v., pres. subj. sing.) BEAT down, strike [OE]
a-bereth (v., pres. 3 sing.) BEARS, endures [OE]
a-biden (v.) to wait, delay; to wait for, expect (imper. sing. abid; imper. pl. abideth; pres. subj. sing. abide; pres. 3 sing. abit [= abideth]) [OE]
a-blende (v.) to take away sight, to blind; dazzle, confuse the senses (pres. 3 sing. ablendeth) [from OE]
a-blindeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) goes or becomes BLIND [from OE]
a-breiden (v.) to start (out of one's sleep), awake suddenly (past 3 sing. abreaid) [from OE; see breiden (v.)]
absolutiun (n.) ABSOLUTION, the remission of sin (one of the stages in the sacrament of penance) [OF, from Lat.]
a-buggen (v.) to pay for, atone for, suffer for; pay back, avenge (subj. 3 sing. abugge) [OE; ModE buy]
a-bute(n) (adv.) around, on every side; near, in the neighborhood; (prep.) around, ABOUT; near [OE]
a-buten (prep.) forever without [see aa (adv.) + buten (prep.)]
a-buve(n) (prep.) ABOVE [OE]
accidie(s) (n.) sloth (one of the seven deadly sins), torpor [AF, from Lat.]
acemin (v.) to adorn, decorate [OF]
acemunge (n.) adornment, decoration
ach (conj.) see ah (conj.)
achate (n.) agate, eagle-stone (with special powers) [Lat.]
achiesun (n.) reason, cause, motive; withuten achiesun = in vain (pl. achiesuns) [AF]
acointance (n.) ACQUAINTANCE (referring to the special treatment one might get through knowing someone with influence) [OF]
acointet (adj. & v., past part.) ACQUAINTED, familiar, informed, knowledgeable [OF]
a-colin (v.) to COOL down [OE]
a-corien (v.) to suffer, be punished; to pay for, pay the penalty for [*OE]
a-covrin (v.) to recover, regain (one's health) [OE, related ultimately to ModE recover]
a-cursede, a-curset (adj. & v., past part.) ACCURSED; worthy of a curse, detestable, execrable [from OE]
a-cwellen (v.) to kill, destroy [OE]
a-cwenchen (v.) to QUENCH, extinguish, put an end to; satisfy (pres. 3 sing. acwenct) [OE]
a-cwikien (v.) to QUICKEN, come to life; revive, bring back to life (pres. 3 sing. acwiketh) [OE]
a-cwiti(n) (v.) to ACQUIT, release, settle (a debt) [OF]
a-deadin (v.) to die; to mortify, kill (pres. 3 sing. adeadeth; past sing. adeadede) [OE]
a-dotede (adj. & v., past part.,) silly, foolish [*OE; ModE dote "to grow silly"]
a-drenchen (v.) to drown, be drowned (pres. 3 sing. adrencheth; past sing. adrencte; past part. adrenct) [OE]
a-drong (v., past sing.) drowned; was swallowed up (in hell, filth) [OE; related to adrenchen (v.)]
a-druhien (v.) to become DRY, dry up; perish (pres. 3 sing. adruheth; past sing. adruhede; past part. adruhet) [OE; see drue (adj.)]
a-dun (adv.) DOWN, downward [from OE]
Advent, Advenz (n.) ADVENT, the penitential season before Christmas, four Sundays beginning with the Sunday falling closest to St. Andrew's Day (November 30) [OF]
a-fealleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) FALLS down, dies down [OE]
a-feitet (v., past part.) disposed, inclined; trained, subdued [OF]
a-fellen (v.) to lay low, FELL, kill; overthrow, overcome [OE]
affectiun (n.) emotion, feeling; a moving of the mind; AFFECTION [OF]
a-fleieth (v., pres. 3 sing.) puts to FLIGHT, drives out; dispels, thwarts (past part. afleiet) [OE]
a-gan (v.) to GO, depart; vanish; escape; go to ruin; die (fig., pass away); ben agan = to be lost (pres. subj. sing. aga; pres. 3 sing. ageath; pres. pl. agath) [OE]
a-geasten (v.) to terrify, make AGHAST; be frightened, terrified; to deter [from OE]
a-grisen (v.) to quake, shudder, tremble (in fear); be afraid, terrified (past sing. agras) [OE; see ModE grisly]
a-gulte (v., past sing.) was GUILTY (of sin); did wrong, sin [OE]
ah (conj.) but, and [OE]
ahelich (adj.) inspiring AWE or respect; considerable, impressive [ON]
ahen (v.) to OWE; should, OUGHT (pres. 2 sing. ahest; pres. 3 sing. ahe; pres. pl. ahen, ahe (ye); past sing. ahte; past pl. ahten) [OE]
a-hon, a-honget (v., past part.) HANGED [from OE]
ahte (n., sing./pl.) possessions, property; ownership; cattle, livestock [OE]
ake (v., pres. subj. sing.) ACHE, feel pain (pres. part. akinde) [OE]
a-keast (v., past part.) CAST, knocked down, thrown over [ON]
a-keldeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) COOLS down, makes cold [from OE]
al (adj. & n.) ALL, every; everyone (pl. alle; gen. pl. alre) [OE]; (adv.) ALL, completely, entirely; exactly; right; (conj.) even though (usually with reversal of subject and verb) al gan ha = even though they go; al meast = mostly all; very nearly [OE]
alas (interj.) ALAS! [OF]
ald(e) (adj.) OLD; primeval, original [OE]
ale (n.) ALE, a fermented drink [OE]
a-le(a)st (adv.) at LAST, finally [from OE]
a-lith (v., pres. 3 sing.) subsides, LIES down [OE; see liggen (v.)]
alle-gate (adv.) in all ways, in every way; entirely; continual; in any event; nevertheless [OE + ON]
alles (adv.) completely, totally; in some way, at all; all told, in all
allunge(s) (adv.) in every way, wholly, entirely; in any way, at ALL; after all [OE]
al-mihti (adj.) ALMIGHTY, all powerful
[OE]
aloes (n. pl.) ALOES, a bitter drug derived from the East Indian Aloexylon or Aquilaria genus [OE, from Lat.]
al-swa (conj.) ALSO, likewise; alswa as = just as, in the same way that [OE]
al-swuch (conj.) just as, just SUCH [OE]
a-mainet (adj. & v., past part.) MAIMED, crippled; (fig.) helpless [OE + OF]
a-mansede (v., past sing.) cursed, swore; excommunicated (past part. amanset) [OE]
ame (interj.) Here! Hey! "addressed to a dog . . . app[arently] an invented gesture-word" (Bennett & Smithers, p. 436)
a-mead (adj.) demented; MAD, crazy [from OE]
a-measet (adj. & v., past part.) stunned, AMAZED; stupefied, dazed [OE]
a-mendement (n.) correction, improvement [OF]
a-mendin (v.) to correct, reform, MEND; remedy (past part. amendet) [OF]
ami (n.) friend; beal ami = (my) fine friend (a form of address) [OF]
a-mid, a-midde(n) (prep.) AMIDST, in the middle of [OE]
amites (n. pl.) handkerchiefs, scarves; (later) albs [OF]
ampoiles (n. pl.) AMPOULES, vials, flasks [OF]
an (adj. & n.) ONE, first (in a series) (gen. sing. anes) [OE]
anan (adv.) immediately, ANON, at once; in one direction, straight on, even [OE]
anan-riht, -rihtes (adv.) at once, immediately
ancre (n.) anchorite (man or woman); anchoress (pl. ancres, ancren; gen. sing. ancre; gen. pl. ancrene) [OE]
ancreful(e) (adj.) anxious; careful, devoted [ON angr-fullr "full of trouble"]
ancre-hus (n.) ANCHOR-HOUSE [from OE]
ancre-wahe (n.) ANCHOR-wall, wall of an anchorhold (pl. ancre-wahes)
ancrin (v.) to ANCHOR, secure with an anchor (past part. i-ancret) [OF, perhaps via OE]
ane (adj.) alone; (adv.) only [OE]
anes-weis (adv.) ONE WAY, in one direction (adverbial gen.)
ane-wil(e) (adj.) stubborn, obstinate; persistent, single-minded [OE an-wille "ONE-WILL(ed), single minded"]
an-ful (adj.) singular, individual
angoise (n.) ANGUISH, agony, intense physical pain [OF]
angoisuse (adj.) ANGUISHED, excruciating [OF]
aniversaries (n. pl.) ANNIVERSARIES, commemorations of the dead on the anniversary of their deaths [Lat.]
an-lepi (adj.) single, individual, solitary [OE]
anli, anlich (adj.) solitary; lonely (superlat. anlukest) [OE; ModE only]
an-nesse (n.) ONE-NESS, unity [OE]
anont (prep.) see onont (prep.)
an-red (adj.) resolute, persistent; reliable, sure [see an (adj.) + read (n.)]
an-rednesse (n.) constancy, resolve, single-mindedness; reliability
ant (conj.) AND; but [OE]
antefne (n.) ANTIPHON; OED: "A versicle or sentence sung by one choir in response to another" (pl. antefnes) [OE, from Lat.]
are (n.) grace; mercy [OE]
a-reache(n) (v.) to succeed in REACHING; get hold of; to obtain; get at (an enemy), attack; strike (pres. 3 sing. areacheth) [OE]
a-rearen (v.) to REAR up, raise, erect (pres. subj. sing. areare; pres. 3 sing. areareth; past sing. arearde; past part. arearet) [OE]
a-reowen (v.) to pity, feel compassion for, feel sorry about; to regret, repent [OE; see ModE ruth]
a-reownesse (n.) pity, compassion; repentance, regret
arewen (n. pl.) ARROWS [OE]
a-risen (v.) to ARISE, rise (imper. pl. ariseth; pres. subj. sing. arise; pres. 1 sing. arise; pres. 3 sing. ariseth; past sing. aras; pres. part. arisinde) [OE]
ariste (n.) ARISING, resurrection [OE]
aromaz (n. pl.) (AROMATIC) spices; perfume [OF, from Lat.]
article (n.) separate clause or statement (in the Creed or a rule); provision; ARTICLE (of faith) (pl. articles) [OF, from Lat. articulus "little joint"]
a-rudde (v., past sing.) saved, rescued; RID (someone of danger); freed, liberated (past part. arud) [OE]
as(e) (conj.) AS; when; where, whither; such as, for example; as though, as if [OE]
asailin (v.) to ASSAIL, attack, assault (pres. 3 sing. asaileth; pres. pl. asailith; past part. asailet) [OF]
asawz (n. pl.) ASSAULTS [OF]
asketh (v., pres. 3 sing.) ASKS, requires (pres. pl. askith) [OE]
a-skur (v., imper. sing.) chase, drive away [?MDu, perhaps related to ModE scour]
a-sneasen (v.) to gore, pierce; hit, strike against (pres. 3 sing. asneaseth) [OE]
asprete (n.) severity, harshness, roughness [OF, from Lat.; ModE asperity]
Assumptiun (n.) the Assumption of the Virgin into heaven (feast celebrated on August 15) [Lat.]
asswa (conj.) see al-swa (conj.)
a-steorven (v.) to kill, destroy (pres. subj. sing. asteorve; pres. 3 sing. asteorveth; past part. astorven) [OE; see Ger. sterben "to die"]
a-stihen (v., imper. pl.) climb up [OE]
aten (n. pl.) OATS [OE]
at-foren (adv.) in front of, in the presence of, BEFORE [OE]
ath (n.) OATH (pl. athes) [OE]
athet (conj. & prep.) until [OE oþ þæt "until"]
a-thrusmin (v.) to suffocate, choke; "to imprison" (Zettersten [1965], p. 154) [OE]
a-tiffi (v., pres. subj. sing.) to adorn, deck out, beautify [OF]
atter (n.) poison, venom; bile, bitter substance; moral corruption; death [OE]
atter-lathe (n.) antidote (to a poison) [OE; see atter (n.) + lath (adj.)]
atternesse (n.) corruptness, sinful conduct; malice, maliciousness
attreth (v., pres. 3 sing.) poisons, envenoms, embitters (pres. pl. attrith; past part. i-attret)
attri(e) (adj.) poisonous, venemous; bitter (superlat. attrest)
a-turn (n.) attire, clothing [OF, related to ModE attire]
a-turnet (v., past part.) transformed, changed, TURNED; (legal) transferred [OF]
auctorite (n.) AUTHORITY, authoritative author or book [OF]
augrim (n.) reckoning with Arabic numbers; calculating, accounting [OF augorisme, med. Lat. algorismus, from Arabic Al-Khowarazm, surname of the mathematician Abu Ja'far Mohammed Ben Musa]
aventure (n.) chance, accident [OF]
aves (n.) AVES, Hail Marys [Lat.]
a-wakenin, a-wacnin (v.) to AWAKE, arise, spring from (pres. 3 sing. awakeneth; pres. pl. awakenith; past sing. awaknede, awacnede, awakede; past part. awakenet) [OE]
a-warpen (v.) to throw away; cast down, aside [OE]
a-wealdeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) takes control of, subdues [from OE; see ModE wield]
a-wearien (v.) to curse; (past part. as adj.) aweariede = accursed [OE; see wearien (v.)]
a-wed (adj. & v., past part.) mad, insane [OE; see wod (adj.)]
awei-ward (adv.) AWAY [from OE]
a-wildgeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) see a-wilgin (v.)
a-wilgin (v.) to grow WILD, unruly; dazzle (the eyes) (pres. 3 sing. awildgeth, awilgeth) [OE]
a-wrec (v., past sing.) avenged [OE]
a-wurieth (v., pres. 3 sing.) strangles (to death), kills (by strangulation); WORRIES, tears the throat (pres. pl. awurith; past part. awuriet) [OE]
ayein (prep.) AGAINST, as a defense against, in response to, in compensation for, in spite of, despite; (adv.) back, in the opposite direction; in return [OE]
ayein-ward(es) (adv.) back, away; in the opposite direction

ba (pron.) both [OE]
baban (n.) BABY [perhaps from MWelsh baban, though perhaps imitative; see Breeze (1993), pp.12-13]
babanliche (adv.) in a BABYISH way, childishly [MWelsh; Diensberg (1978), pp. 81-82 derives the word from OF boban "pride" and defines it as "haughtily, arrogantly"]
bac (n.) the BACK (of the human torso) [OE]
bac-bitere (n.) BACKBITER, (secret) slanderer (pl. bac- biteres)
bac-bitunge (n.) BACKBITING, slander
bagge (n.) BAG, small pouch (pl. baggen) [ON]
bald (adj.) BOLD, brave [OE]
baldeliche, baltliche (adv.) BOLDLY, bravely, fearlessly
baleful (adj.) BALEFUL, harmful; deadly [OE]
bal-plohe (n.) BALLPLAY; (fig.) something easy and pleasant
ban (n.) BONE (pl. banes) [OE]
bandun (n.) jurisdiction, dominion, control; beon in bandon = be in someone's control, at someone's disposal [OF]
banere (n.) BANNER, standard, flag (pl. baneres) [OF]
bar (n.) BEAR [OE]
baraigne (adj. as n.) BARREN [OF; the MS reading, bereget, is problematic - see Textual Note to 3.443)
baret (n.) strife, conflict; combat, battle; trouble, commotion; bargaining, argument; deception, fraud [OF]
basme (n.) aromatic resin, BALM, fragrant oil [OF]
bat (n.) BOAT [OE]
bathe (adj.) BOTH [ON]; (adv. & conj.) BOTH
bead (v., past sing.) see beoden (v.)
beah (v., past sing.) see buhen (v.)
beaketh (v.) pecks; pushes the BEAK out, peeps out (pres. subj. sing. beaki; pres. 3 sing. beaketh; past sing. beakede) [OF]
beal (adj.) fine, fair; beal ami = (my) fine friend (a form of address) [OF]
bealdeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) EMBOLDENS, makes brave, encourages [OE]
beali(e) (n.) BELLOWS (pl. bealies) [OE; related to ModE belly]
bearm (n.) lap; embrace [OE]
bearn (n.) child, offspring, BAIRN (gen. bearnes; pl. bearnes) [OE]
bearne (v.) to BURN, be burned (pres. 3 sing. bearneth; past sing. bearnde; pres. part. bearninde; past part. i-bearnd) [OE]
bear-vot (adj.) BAREFOOT [OE]
beaten (v.) to BEAT, hit (pres. 3 sing. beat, beateth, past sing. beot, past part. i-beate, i-beaten) [OE]
beath (n.) BATH (pl. beathes) [OE]
beawbelez (n. pl.) jewels [med. Lat. baubellus "jewel"; probably not from OF baubel "toy, plaything"]
bed(e) (v.) see bidden (v.)
bedd(e) (n.) BED [OE]
beggilde (n.) a female beggar, beggar-woman [see beggin (v.) and -ild (suffix)]
beggin (v.) to BEG [origin obscure]
beie (v., pres. 3 subj. sing.) (might) bend [OE, related to buhen (v.)]
beme (n.) trumpet (for warfare, hunting) (pl. bemen) [OE]
bemere (n.) trumpeter (pl. bemeres)
bemin (v.) to blow, blast (on a trumpet); resound (like a trumpet), to trumpet
bench (n.) BENCH, pew [OE]
bencin (v.) to BEND or arch (the eyebrows) [*OE; see Zettersten (1965), p. 71]
benen (n. pl.) prayers; requests [OE]
beo(n) (v.) to BE (imper. sing./pl. beo; pres. subj. sing. beo; past subj. sing. were; pres. 3 sing. is, bith; pres. pl. beoth; past sing. wes; past pl. weren; inflected inf. to beonne; past part. i-beon; negative forms: pres. subj. sing. nere; pres. 1 sing. nam; pres. 2 sing. nart; pres. 3 sing. nis; past sing. nes; past pl. neren) [OE]
beode (n.) prayer (pl. beoden) [OE; see Ger. gebet "prayer"]
beoden (v.) to offer; command, bid, urge (pres. subj. sing. beode, pres. 3 sing. beot, beodeth; pres. pl. beodeth; past sing. bead; past part. i-bote) [OE; see Ger. bieten]
beodes-mon (n.) prayer-MAN, one who prays for the souls of others; an almsman, one paid to pray for others in return for lodging in an almshouse [see beode (n.) + mon (n.)]
beore (n.) BEAR (the animal representing sloth) [OE]
beoren (v.) to BEAR, carry; give birth to; endure, preserve; (reflex.) to behave oneself, act bereth ow/hire on heorte = (it) weighs on your/her heart (imper. sing. ber; imper. pl. beoreth; pres. subj. sing. bere; pres. 2 sing. berest; pres. 3 sing. bereth; pres. pl. beoreth; past pl. beren; past part. i-boren) [OE]
beot(e) (v.) see beaten (v.) or beoden (v.)
beoth (v., pres. 3 sing.) see beon (v.)
beowiste (n.) dwelling, living; abode, home; living, life; way or condition of life [OE]
berkest (v., pres. 2 sing.) BARK [OE]
bersten (v.) to BURST, break (pres. subj. sing. berste; pres. 3 sing. bersteth) [OE]
bet (adv.) BETTER (compar. of god [adj.]) [OE]
beten (v.) to amend, restore; pay for, compensate; atone, make restitution for (a sin) (imper. pl. beteth; past part. i-bet, i-bette) [OE; early ModE boot "remedy"]
betles (n. pl.) mallet, sledgehammer; OED: "An implement consisting of a heavy weight or 'head,' usually of wood, with a handle or stock, used for driving wedges or pegs, ramming down paving stones, or for crushing, bruising, beating, flattening, or smoothing, in various industrial and domestic operations, and having various shapes according to the purpose for which it is used" [OE; see beaten (v.) + -(e)les (suffix)]
bi (prep.) BY, close to, near; concerning, about [OE]
bi-barret (v., past part.) enclosed, confined securely (with a BAR or bolt) [OF]
bi-blodge (v., imper. sing.) BLOODY, make bloody (pres. subj. sing. biblodgi; past part. bibled) [OE]
bi-burien (v.) to BURY, inter (a corpse) (past part. biburiet) [OE]
bi-chearren (v.) to lead astray, mislead; to seduce, deceive (pres. subj. sing. bichearre; past part. bichearret) [OE; see Ger. bekehren "to convert"]
bi-cleopien (v.) to cry out against, accuse (legal) (pres. subj. sing. bicleopie; past part. bicleopet) [OE; see cleopien (v.)]
bi-cluppeth (v., imper. pl.) embrace (affectionately); surround, envelop; contain, confine (pres. subj. sing. bicluppe; past sing. biclupte; past part. bicluppet) [OE; see cluppen (v.)]
bi-cluset (v., past part.) ENCLOSED [OE]
bi-clusunge (n.) ENCLOSURE [OE]
bi-clute (v., imper. sing.) mend with a patch or CLOUT, cover with a cloth; (fig.) dress up, prettify [from OE]
bi-corven (v., past part.) cut off, CARVED off [see keorve (v.)]
bi-cumen (v.) to BECOME, turn into; be suitable, becoming (pres. 3 sing. bikimeth; past sing. bicom; past part. bicumene) [OE]
bidden (v.) to ask, request, beg; pray, say a prayer (for); command, BID, order, direct (imper. sing. bide; imper. pl. biddeth; pres. 1 sing. bide; pres. 2 sing. bidest; pres. 3 sing. bit, bid, biddeth; pres. pl. biddeth; past sing. bede, bed) [OE]
biddunge (n.) BIDDING, request; prayer [see bidden (v.)]
biden (v.) to remain, stay, live; wait for, expect; endure, experience [OE; ModE bide]
bi-don (v.) to befoul (a place), defile, beshit (oneself); (lit.,) BE-DO (pres. 3 pl. bidoth) [OE]
bi-dweolieth (v., pres. pl.) mislead; delude, trick [from OE]
bi-falleth (v., pres. pl.) BEFALL, happen to; belong to [OE]
bi-fon (v.) to grasp, seize [OE]
bi-fule(n) (v.) to BEFOUL, make filthy (in a physical or moral sense); defile (pres. 3 sing. bifuleth) [from OE]
bi-gileth (v., pres. 3 sing.) BEGUILES, tricks, deceives (past part. bigilet) [OF]
bi-ginnin (v.) to BEGIN (imper. sing. bigin; imper. pl. biginneth; pres. subj. sing. biginne; pres. 3 sing. biginneth; past sing. bigon; past part. bigunnen) [OE]
bi-gurd (v., pres. 3 sing. [= bigurdeth]) encircles, encloses (with something); besieges (past part. bigurde) [from OE; see gurdel (n.)]
bi-gurdel (n.) purse, moneybag (hanging from a belt or GIRDLE) [OE]
bi-halde(n) (v.) to hold, keep, observe; to pertain, relate to; signify, mean; to BEHOLD, keep in view; consider, think about (imper. sing. bihald; imper. pl. bihaldeth; pres. 2 sing. bihaldest; pres. 3 sing. bihalt; pres. pl. bihaldeth; past sing. biheold) [OE]
bi-haldunge (n.) a BEHOLDING, sight [see bi-halden (v.)]
bi-haten (v.) to promise, vow (pres. 3 sing. bihat; pres. pl. bihateth; past sing. bihet) [OE; see hate (v.)]
bi-heafdunge (n.) a BEHEADING [OE; see heaved (n.)]
bi-heve (adj.) profitable, useful, necessary, BEHOOVEFUL (superlat. biheveste) [OE]; (n.) profit, advantage, benefit, BEHOOVE [OE]
bi-hinde (prep.) BEHIND, at the back [OE]
bi-hinden (adj.) at the rear; earlier, past; later; beon bihinden = to be at a disadvantage, be badly off (or, inferior), be backward, slow, tardy [OE]
bi-hofde (v., past sing.) had need of, required; (impers.) it was necessary, it BEHOOVED [OE]
bi-hove (n.) profit, need, BEHOOF [OE]
bi-kimeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) see bi-cumen (v.)
bi-leasunges (n.) lies, falsehoods; fabrications, slanders [from OE]
bi-leave (n.) BELIEF, faith [from OE]
bi-leppet (v., past part.) clothed or enveloped; (fig.) surrounded [from OE læppa "loose garment"]
bi-limeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) cuts off a LIMB, mutilates (reflex.) [from OE]
bi-limpeth (v., pres. pl.) befit, belong to [OE]
bi-lohen (v., past part.) lied about, slandered [OE]
bi-loken (v.) to shut; enclose, LOCK; (past part. as adj.) bilokene = contained [OE]
bi-lokin (v.) to see, LOOK at; examine (pres. 3 sing. biloketh) [from OE]
bi-lurd (v., past sing.) LURED (orig. a hawking term), enticed; set a trap for, tricked [*OE or OF]
bi-malscret (v., past part.) bewildered, confused; bewitched [OE malscrung "charm, enchantment"; see ModE maskering]
bi-measet, bi-measede (adj. & v., past part.) stupefied, confused, bewildered [*OE; see ModE amazed]
bi-mong (prep.) AMONG [OE]
binde(n) (v.) to BIND, fasten, tie (up) (imper. sing. bind; pres. 3 sing. bindeth, bint; pres. pl. bindeth; past part. i-bunden) [OE]
bi-neomen (v.) to take away (something), do away with, destroy; to deprive, despoil; take, take hold of (pres. 3 sing. binimeth; pres. pl. bineometh) [OE; see Ger. benehmen "to deprive of"]
bi-neothen (adv. & prep.) BENEATH [OE]
bi-netli (v.) to NETTLE, whip with nettles [from OE]
bi-pilet (v., past part.) stripped (bare), PILLAGED [see pilewin (v.)]
bi-pilunge (n.) a stripping, plundering
bi-pinnet (adj. & v., past part.) PENNED in, confined [from OE]
bi-reafde (v., past sing.) BEREAVED, deprived, robbed [OE]
bi-reinet (adj. & v., past part.) RAINED on [from OE]
bi-reowsunge (n.) repentance, remorse, contrition, RUE [OE]
birlen (v.) to serve, ply with (a drink), pour out; serve (pres. 3 sing. birleth) [from OE byrele "cup-bearer"; ultimately related to beoren (v.) "to carry"]
bi-sahe (n.) proverb, saying [on the model of Lat. pro-verbium]
bi-sampleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) explains, explains away; offers excuses, rationalizes (past part. bisamplet) [OF]
bi-seche(n) (v.) to BESEECH, beg; to ask, supplicate; seek after, search for (imper. sing. bisech; imper. pl. bisecheth; pres. 3 pl. bisecheth; past pl. bisohten; past part. bisoht) [OE]
bi-semde (v., past sing.) SEEMED to be (in a certain state) [from ON]
bi-senchen (v.) to SINK, plunge (something into fire or water), submerge (past sing. bisencte) [OE]
bi-seo(n) (v.) to consider; to SEE to, look after; to provide, arrange (imper. pl. biseoth) [OE]
bi-set (v., past part.) surrounded; besieged, BESET [OE]
bisi (adj.) BUSY, occupied; diligent (pl. bisie; compar. bisgre) [OE]
bisiliche (adv.) BUSILY; carefully, attentively
bisischipe (n.) BUSINESS, activity
bismere (n.) ridicule, mockery; scorn, contempt; lahhen to bismere = laugh to scorn [OE]
bi-smuddet (adj. & v., past part.) BESMUTTED, dirty, stained [from OE]
bi-smulret (adj. & v., past part.) besmeared, beslobbered, filthy [see smirles (n.)]
bi-socne (n.) request, entreaty [from OE]
bi-sperret (v., past part.) shut in, locked up [see sperreth (v.)]
bi-spit (v., pres. 3 sing.) SPITS on [OE]
bi-spottith (v., pres. pl.) sullies, BESPOTS, splatters [Ger., though precise origin is obscure]
bist (v., pres. 2 sing.) see beon (v.)
bi-steathet (v., past part.) placed; beset (by enemies), hard pressed [from ON]
bi-steoken (v.) to confine, shut up; to lock, bar [from ME steken "bar, lock"; see steoke (v.)]
bi-stonden (v., past part.) harassed, attacked; surrounded [OE]
bi-swiken (v.) to deceive, cheat, betray (pres. subj. sing. biswike; pres. 3 sing. biswiketh) [OE]
bit (v., pres. 3 sing.) see bidden (v.)
bi-tacnin (v.) to BETOKEN, symbolize; mean (pres. subj. sing. bitacni; pres. 3 sing. bitacneth; pres. pl. bitacnith; past sing. bitacnede; past part. bitacnet, bitacned) [OE; see tacne (n.)]
bi-tacnunge (n.) symbol, sign; meaning, significance; BETOKENING
bi-teachen (v.) to hand over, deliver; entrust, commit (past part. bitaht) [OE]
bi-tellunge (n.) excuse, justification [from OE]
biten (v.) to BITE; taste, drink (a liquid) (pres. 3 sing. biteth; pres. pl. biteth; pres. part. bitinde) [OE]
bi-teon (v.) to bestow, spend, give away; (past part. as adj.) uvele bitohe = misspent, wasted (pres. 1 sing. biteo; past part. bitohe) [OE]
bith (v., pres. 3 sing.) see beon (v.)
bi-thencheth (v., pres. 3 sing.) considers, THINKS about; remembers (past subj. sing. bithohte; pres. pl. bithencheth; past part. bithoht) [OE]
bi-thoht(e) (v., past sing., past part.) see bithencheth (v.)
bi-tiden (v.) to happen, befall, BETIDE [OE]
bi-timeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) happens, comes about [from OE]
bi-tohe (v., past part.) see bi-teon (v.)
bi-trept (v., past part.) TRAPPED, ensnared [OE]
bi-truileth (v., pres. 3 sing.) dupes, tricks, deceives [from OF, see truiles (n.)]
bitter, bittre (adj.) BITTER; sour, morose; harsh, severe (gen. sing. bittres; compar. bittrure) [OE]
bitterliche (adv.) BITTERLY; harshly, sharply (compar. bitterluker) [OE]
bittrin (v.) to EMBITTER, make bitter [OE]
bittrure (adv., compar.) BITTERER [OE]
bi-tuhe(n), bi-tuhhen (prep.) between, among [from OE]
bi-tunen (v.) to enclose, confine, shut in; entomb (past sing. bitunde; past part. bitund(e)) [OE]
bi-turn (v., imper. sing.) to TURN, direct towards; (of colors) to change (past part. biturnd) [OE]
bi-twe(o)nen (prep.) BETWEEN, among, with; (adv.) between, in the midst [OE]
bivoren-hand (adv.) BEFOREHAND, ahead, in advance, in anticipation
bi-wenden (v.) to turn oneself around (reflex.) (pres. 3 sing. biwent) [OE]
bi-wepe(n) (v.) to BEWEEP, cry for (imper. pl. biwepen; past sing. biweop) [OE]
bi-winneth (v., pres. pl.) obtain, gain, WIN (past sing. biwon) [from OE]
bi-wrabbet (v., past part.) wrapped, enveloped [prob. Ger., specific origin obscure]
bi-wrencheth (v., pres. 3 sing.) cheats, tricks [OE]
bi-wrixlet (v., past part.) changed, transformed [from OE]
bi-wunnen (v., past part.) overcome, defeated [OE]
bi-yeote(n) (v.) to acquire, GET, obtain (by effort); receive (pres. 3 sing. biyeoteth, biyet; past sing. biyet; past part. biyete; inflected inf. to biyeotene) [OE]
bi-yete (n.) acquisition, property, possession; gain, profit, benefit, advantage; spoils, booty; prey [see bi-yeoten (v.)]
bi-yulet (v., past part.) deceived, bewitched [see yulunges (n.)]
bla (adj.) black, dark; pale, gray, ashen [ON]
blac, blake (adj.) BLACK; (as n.) blackness [OE]
blameth (v., pres. 3 sing.) BLAMES (past part. i-blamet) [OF]
bla-mon (n.) black-MAN, African, Moor [see bla (adj.)]
blawen (v.) to BLOW (pres. subj. sing. blawe; pres. 3 sing. blaweth) [OE]
blawunge (n.) BLOWING [see blawen (v.)]
bleachen (v.) to whiten, clean, BLEACH (past part. i-bleachet) [OE]
bleas (n.) a blowing, gust; blowing (of horns), BLAST [OE]
blease (n.) torch, firebrand (pl. bleasen) [OE; ModE blaze]
bleasie (v., pres. subj. sing.) BLAZE, burst out in flame [see blease (n.)]
bleddest (v., past 2 sing.) BLED (past sing. bledde; past pl. bledden) [OE]
bleddre (n.) BLADDER, a bag made from an animal bladder [OE]
blenchen (v.) to flinch, twitch, start; swerve aside [OE blencan]
blenden (v.) to BLEND, mix, stir [OE blendian]
blent (v., pres. 3 sing.) BLINDS, bedazzles; confuses, misleads; grows (spiritually) blind (a reduced form of blendeth) [OE blendan]
blescin (v.) to BLESS, consecrate; make the sign of the cross (imper. sing. blesce; imper. pl. blescith; pres. pl. blescith; past sing. blescede; past part. i-blescet) [OE]
blikien (v.) to shine [OE]
blind(e) (adj.) BLIND [OE]
blind-feallunge (n.) a BLINDFOLDING [see blint-fealli (v.)]
blint-fealli (v., pres. subj. sing.) BLINDFOLD (someone) (past sing. blindfeallede; past part. i-blintfeallet) [from OE]
blisful(e) (adj.) happy, BLISSFUL; blessed, glorified [OE]
blisfulliche (adv.) joyously, happily BLISSFULLY
blisse (n.) BLISS, joy, happiness (pl. blissen, blisses) [OE]
blissin (v.) to rejoice, be happy (reflex.); to gladden, make happy (imper. pl. blissith; pres. 1 sing. blissi; past part. i-blisset) [OE]
blithe (adj.) happy, joyful, BLITHE; (adv.) happily, joyfully [OE]
blitheliche, bluthelich (adv.) BLITHELY, joyfully, happily [OE]
blod(e) (n.) BLOOD (gen. sing. blodes) [OE]
blod-binde (n.) bandage (for stopping BLOOD) [from OE]
blodi (adj.) BLOODY [OE]
blod-leten(e) (adj. & v., past part.) BLOODLET (person), a person who has had blood let [from OE]
blod-letunge (n.) BLOODLETTING, phlebotomy, a medical procedure
blostmen (n. pl.) BLOSSOMS [OE]
bloweth (v., pres. pl.) to bloom, blossom [OE]
boc (n.) BOOK (pl. bokes) [OE]
bode (n.) command, behest; news, messages (pl. boden) [OE bod]
bodeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) preaches; proclaims, announces; foretells, prophesies (pres. pl. bodieth) [OE bodian]
boh (n.) BOUGH, branch (pl. bohes) [OE]
bohte(n) (v., past) see buggen (v.)
boistes, buistes (n. pl.) jars, boxes, or chests (for medicines or cosmetics) [OF]
boke(s) (n.) see boc (n.)
bolheth (v., pres. 3 sing.) swells, puffs up (with air or pride); (past part. as adj.) i-bollen = swollen, puffed up, inflated [OE]
bollen (adj. & v., past part.) swollen (with pride), puffed up, inflated [see bolheth (v.)]
bone (n. 1) prayer; request (pl. bonen) [ON; ModE boon] (n. 2) slayer, murderer, BANE [OE]
bord (n.) BOARD, plank; (dining) table, (fig.) meals; ship, side of a ship [OE]
borhi (n., pres. subj. sing.) BORROW (pres. subj. pl. borhin) [OE]
bosum (n.) BOSOM, chest, embrace; (fig.) heart, inward thoughts [OE]
bote (n.) good, benefit; remedy, cure; repentance, restitution (pl. boten) [OE]
botte (n.) cudgel; OED: "The thicker end of anything, esp. a tool or weapon" [OE *bott, related to OE batt "bat, cudgel"]
brad(e) (adj.) BROAD, wide [OE]
bread, brede (n.) BREAD (gen. sing. breades) [OE]
breade (n.) breadth, extent [OE; see brad (adj.)]
breath (n.) BREATH; evil, stinking breath, halitosis; odor, smell, stench [OE]
brech (n.) BREECHES, short trousers, covering the body from the lower waist to the knee [OE]
breden (v.) to BREED, engender; to cherish, foster, nourish (pres. 3 sing. bret [= bredeth]; past sing. bredde) [OE]
breide(n) (v.) to dart, dash, jump; twist, turn, draw; brandish; seize, grasp, attack; fling, toss; weave, BRAID (imper. sing. breid; pres. 3 sing. breideth, breid; past sing. breid) [OE]
breoke(n) (v.) to BREAK, tear; crush, defeat; break into, open; violate; escape (imper. sing. breoke; past subj. pl. breken; pres. 3 sing. breketh, breoketh; past sing. brec; past pl. breken; pres. part. breokinde; past part. i-broke, i-broken, i-brokene) [OE brecan]
breord (n.) brim, brink, margin [OE brerd "margin"]
breost-wunde (n.) chest WOUND [from OE]
breres (n. pl.) BRIARS, thorns; bramble-bushes [OE]
bres (n.) BRASS [OE]
bret (v., pres. 3 sing.) see breden (v.)
brid (n.) BIRD of any kind; young of a bird, fledgling, nestling, chick (this meaning current throughout ME period) (pl. briddes) [OE]
bridli (v., pres. subj. sing.) BRIDLE, restrain (pres. 3 sing. bridleth; past part. i-bridlet) [OE]
briht(e) (adj.) BRIGHT (compar. brihtre) [OE]
brihte (adv.) BRIGHTLY, brilliantly; (see, understand) clearly, distinctly; loudly (compar. brihtluker) [OE]
brihtin (v.) to BRIGHTEN make bright; illuminate, explain (pres. 3 sing. brihteth) [OE]
bringe(n) (v.) to BRING; lead, convey; carry (pres. 3 sing. bringeth; pres. pl. bringeth; past sing. brohte; past pl. brohten; past part. i-broht) [OE]
broche (n.) BROOCH, ornamental clasp or pin [OF]
brokes (n.1 pl.) streams, torrents; tributaries; (fig.) branches, offshoots [OE; see ModE brook]; (n. 2 pl.) afflictions, miseries [OE broc "affliction"]
brondes (n. pl.) BRANDS, fires, flames; OED: "a piece of wood that is or has been burning on the hearth" [OE]
brother (n.) BROTHER, fellow member of an order; ane brethren = a group, collection of brothers (obj. sing. brether; pl. brethren) [OE]
bruche (n.) BREACH, rift, fracture; violation, breaking (of a command) (pl. bruchen) [OE; related to breoken (v.)]
bruchel(e) (adj.) easily broken, brittle; transitory, vain; morally weak (compar. bruchelure) [from OE]
brud (n.) BRIDE [OE]
brugge (n.) BRIDGE [OE]
bruhen (n. pl.) BROWS, eyebrows [OE]
bruken (v.) to enjoy, take one's pleasure in; to possess, get, take, keep; employ, use; consume, eat or drink [OE; see ModE to brook]
brune (n.) fire, flame; BURNING heat, burning; o brune = aflame, burning [OE]
brunie (n.) BYRNIE, heavy body-armor, a coat of mail [ON]
buc (n.) belly; trunk (of the body); corpse, body [OE]
bucke (n.) BUCK, the male of a variety of animals [OE]
buffet (n.) BUFFET, blow (pl. buffez) [OF]
buffeteden (v., past 3 pl.) BUFFETED, pummeled [OF]
buggen (v.) to BUY, pay for; (fig.) pay for (in suffering) (pres. subj. sing. bugge; pres. 3 sing. buth, buggeth; pres. pl. buggeth; past sing. bohte; past pl. bohten; past part. i-boht) [OE]
buhen (v.) to BOW, bend; kneel; be submissive; submit to, obey (imper. sing. buh; imper. pl. buhen; pres. 3 sing. buheth; past sing. beah; pres. part. buhinde) [OE]
buhsum (adj.) pliant; obedient [from buhen (v.) + OE suffix -sum; ModE buxom]
buistes (n. pl.) see boistes (n. pl.)
bulten (v.) to rebound, BOLT back, recoil; reverberate (pres. 3 sing. bulteth) [from OE]
bultunge (n.) recoil, rebounding; reverberation
bune (n.) a purchase, buying [OE]
bunkin (v.) to beat, pound, bonk [prob. imitative; see OF bonge]
bur (n.) BOWER, chamber, bedroom [OE]
burde (n.) birth [from OE]
burgeise (n.) BURGESS, a full (and prosperous) citizen of a borough; an official of a borough [OF]
burgurs (n. pl.) BURGLARS, pillagers [OF]
burh (n.) castle, stronghold; tower; city, town (pl. burhes) [OE; see ModE burg]
burhen (v.) to save, rescue [OE; see i-borhen (v.)]
burh-men (n. pl.) citizens, town-men [from OE]
burinesse (n.) BURIAL place; a burying [OE]
burtherne (n.) BURDEN; anything that is hard to endure; suffering, penance; feudal obligation; importance, significance [OE]
bute(n) (conj.) except (that), unless, only; (prep.) except; (adv.) bute the an, buten an = only the one [OE]
buth (v., pres. 3 sing.) see buggen (v.)
buve(n) (prep. & adv.) ABOVE [from OE]

cader (n.) cradle [MWelsh cader "cradle"; compare F. cadre "frame"]
cage (n.) CAGE [OF]
cahte (v., past sing.) see kecchen (v.)
cakele (adj. & n.) CACKLING, chattering; cackler, chatterer [see cakelin (v.)]
cakelin (v.) to CACKLE, to cluck like a laying hen or other bird (pres. 3 sing. cakeleth; pres. part. cakelinde; past part. i-cakelet) [imitative, prob. from Ger.]
cald(e) (adj.) COLD [OE]
calices (n. pl.) see chaliz (n.)
cancre (n.) spreading sore, ulcer, CANKER [ONF]
cang (n.) fool (gen. sing. canges) [prob. ON; see cang (adj.)]
cang, chang (adj.) foolish; lewd, wicked, lustful [prob. ON, see kangin-yrði "jeering words," perhaps via OF (note c/ch interchange)]
cangen (v.) to fool, trick; make a fool of
cangliche (adv.) foolishly; lewdly, wickedly
cangschipe (n.) foolishness, stupidity
cangun (n.) fool; (or, perhaps) changeling, a fickle or inconstant person [either from cang (n.) or OF cangoun "changeling"]
canonial (adj.) CANONICAL, in the biblical canon [OF]
cape (n.) COPE, an ecclesiastical garment with a hood [ONF]
capitale (adj.) of the head [OF]
cappen (n. pl.) CAPS, head-coverings [OE]
carien (v.) to be concerned, CARE about; be troubled, anxious about, to worry about [OE]
carles (adj.) free from CARE, worry; (hence) safe [from OE; see ModE careless]
carnel (n.) battlement, CRENELATION; OED: "One of the open spaces or indentations alternating with the merlons or cops of an embattled parapet, used for shooting or launching projectiles upon the enemy" (pl. carneus) [ONF]
castel (n.) fort, fortification; CASTLE (pl. castles) [ONF]
cave, kave (adj.) bold, eager, courageous; quick; impudent [OE]
celer (n.) pantry, storeroom, CELLAR [OF]
celles (n. pl.) store-rooms, store-closets [OF, from Lat.]
chaf(f)le (n.) jabber, gossip, jawing [OE ceafl "the jaw"]
chaffere (n.) dealing, buying and selling, trading; bargain [*OE; related to chap (n.) + fearen (v.)]
chafleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) chatters, jabbers, jaws (pres. pl. chafflith) [see chaffle (n.)]
chaflunge (n.) chattering, jabbering, jawing
chalengest (v., pres. 2 sing.) accuse, arraign; find fault with, CHALLENGE (past part. i-calenget) [OF]
chaliz (n.) drinking cup, goblet; CHALICE, cup from which sacramental wine is served in the Eucharist (pl. calices) [OF, from Lat.]
chamberleng (n.) CHAMBERLAIN [OF]
chambre (n.) CHAMBER, (private) room [OF]
champiun (n.) fighter, combatant; CHAMPION (pl. champiuns) [OF]
chang (adj.) see cang (adj.)
change (n.) EXCHANGE, trade [OF]
changin (v.) to CHANGE, alter (imper. pl. changeth; pres. 3 sing. changeth; past part. i-changet) [OF]
changunge (n.) CHANGING, alteration
chap (n.) bargain, trade; price [OE; ModE cheap]
chapeth (v.) bargains (for); trades, buys (past sing. chapede) [OE]
chapitres (n. pl.) sections or divisions of a book; CHAPTERS [OF]
chap-mon (n.) merchant, trader, dealer; bargainer; buyer, customer [see chap (n.)]
charge (n.) cargo, freight, action of loading; burden; encumbrance; hardship, harm, trouble; duty, responsibility; importance [OF]
charoines (n. pl.) carcasses, corpses, CARRIONS [OF]
chartres (n. pl.) legal documents or deeds [OF]
chast (n.) fighting, strife; quarreling, bickering, dispute [OE]
chaste (adj.) CHASTE, pure [OF]
chastete (n.) CHASTITY [OF]
chastiement (n.) CHASTISEMENT, reprimand [OF]
chastien (v.) to CHASTISE; to correct, reprove (imper. pl. chastie) [OF]
chearitable (adj.) loving, CHARITABLE [OF]
chearite (n.) CHARITY, love [OF]
chearre (n.) time, occasion [OE]
chef (n.) CHAFF [OE]
cheke (n.) CHEEK (pl. cheken) [OE]
cheorl (n.) peasant, serf [OE]
cheosen (v.) to CHOOSE (imper. sing. cheos; imper. pl. cheose; pres. 3 sing. cheoseth; past part. i-core, i-coren[e]) [OE]
cheoweth (v., pres. 3 sing.) CHEWS [OE]
chepeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) see chapeth (v.)
chepilt (n.) business woman, woman merchant [see chap (n.) and -ild (suffix)]
chepinge (n.) trade marketing, bargaining, buying and selling; (a) market [see chapeth (v.)]
chere (n.) human face; facial expression, grimace; outward appearance, show of emotion; bearing, manner, mood; friendliness, hospitality; maken (someone) chere = to welcome, entertain (someone), treat (someone) well (pl. cheres) [OF; ModE cheer]
cherte (n.) dearness, fondness, cherishing [OF; related to chearite (n.)]
cherubines (n., gen. sing.) CHERUBIM'S, the angel's (sword) [from Lat.]
chideth (v., pres. 3 sing.) CHIDES, scolds [OE]
chidildes (n. pl.) CHIDING, quarrelsome women [see chideth (v.) and -ild (suffix)]
childene (adj.) CHILDISH [from OE]
childhad(e) (n.) CHILDHOOD [OE]
chirch(e) (n.) CHURCH [OE]
chirche-thurl (n.) CHURCH-window; the window in an anchorhold facing inward to the church's altar
chirmin (v.) to chirp, warble, CHIRM (pres. 3 sing. chirmeth) [OE]
chiterin (v.) to chatter, twitter (imper. pl. chiterith; pres. 3 sing. chitereth; pres. part. chiterinde) [imitative]
chulle (v.) see wullen (v.)
cite (n.) CITY [OF]
clane (adv.) see clene (adv.)
clath (n.) CLOTH; clothing (pl. clathes) [OE]
clathinde (v., pres. part.) CLOTHING, dressing [OE]
clauses (n. pl.) (short) sentences, phrases [OF]
cleane (adj.) pure, CLEAN, chaste [OE]
cleanliche (adv.) completely, thoroughly, CLEANLY [OE]
cleannesse (n.) purity, chastity [OE]
cleansin (v.) to CLEANSE, clean; purify (imper. sing. clense; pres. 3 sing. cleanseth, clenseth; pres. pl. cleansith; pres. part. cleansing) [OE]
cleap(pe) (n.) CLAP, stroke; CLAPPER, OED: "The contrivance in a mill for striking or shaking the hopper so as to make the grain move down to the mill-stones"; (fig.) the tongue; ed an cleap = at one stroke, at once [from OE]
clearc (n.) CLERK, cleric, scholar, student (pl. clearkes) [OE or OF, from Lat.]
cleavers (n. pl.) claws [OE]
cleches (n. pl.) clutches [from OE]
clene (adv.) CLEANLY; clean, completely [OE]
cleopien (v.) to speak, call (for), shout; to name, give a name, call; to greet; invite (imper. sing. cleope; pres. subj. sing. cleopie; pres. 3 sing. cleopeth; pres. pl. cleopieth; past sing. cleopede; past part. i-cleopet, i-cleopede) [OE]
clergesse (n.) a female scholar, a learned woman; female member of a religious order [OF, fem. form of clerc; see clearc (n.)]
climben (v.) to CLIMB (pres. 3 sing. climbeth; pres. 1, 3 pl. climben; past sing. clomb; past pl. clumben; past part. i-clumben) [OE]
cloistre (n.) CLOISTER, convent [OF]
clokes (n. pl.) claws, CLUTCHES; (fig.) control [*OE]
clomb, clumben (v.) see climben (v.)
clot (n.) lump, CLOD (of earth); (fig.) the human body [OE]
clowes de gilofre (n. pl.) CLOVE-GILLY flower, the spice clove [OF clou de gilofre]
cluppen (v.) to CLIP, hug, embrace; envelop, surround (pres. 3 sing. cluppeth) [OE]
cluppunge (n.) embracing, embrace, clasping (pl. cluppunges)
clut (n.) a piece of cloth used as a patch or rag (pl. clutes) [OE; ModE clout]
cluti (v., pres. subj. sing.) patch up, add (to), embellish (with) [see clut (n.)]
cnawen (v.) to KNOW, understand, have (full) knowledge of (pres. 2 sing. cnawest; pres. 3 sing. cnaweth; pres. pl. cnawen) [OE]
cnawle(a)chunge (n.) KNOWLEDGE, understanding, recognition [from OE]
cnawunge (n.) a KNOWING, understanding, recognition
cneave (n.) boy; servant or menial [OE; see ModE knave, Ger. knabe "boy"]
cneo (n.) KNEE (pl. cneon) [OE]
cneolin (v.) to KNEEL (imper. pl. cneolith; pres. part. cneolinde) [OE]
cneolunges (n.) KNEELINGS
cnif (n.) KNIFE (pl. cnives) [OE]
cnif-warpere (n.) KNIFE thrower [see cnif (n.) and warpen (v.)]
cniht (n.) KNIGHT (pl. cnihtes) [OE]
cnihtschipe (n.) KNIGHTLY behavior; chivalry, valor
cnost (n.) swelling, lump, tumor [*OE]
cnut (v., pres. 3 sing. [= cnutteth]) KNOTS, puts a knot in [OE]
cogitatiun (n.) COGITATION, consideration, thinking (pl. cogitatiuns) [OF]
cointe (adj.) clever, wise, prudent; crafty, wily, cunning; famous, notorious; fashionable; proud, vain [OF; ModE quaint]
cokes (n., gen. sing.) COOK'S [OE]
collecte (n.) a COLLECT, a short liturgical prayer [OF, from late Lat.]
com, comen (v., past) see cumen (v.)
commendaciun (n.) COMMENDATION; OED: "an office originally ending with the prayer Tibi, Domine, commendamus [to you, Lord, we commit (their spirits)], in which the souls of the dead were commended to God; said before their burial, and in anniversary or commemorative services" [OF, from Lat.]
complie (n.) COMPLINE, the last liturgical hour of the day [OF]
con (v., pres. 1, 3 sing.) see cunnen (v.)
Condelmeasse (n.) CANDLEMAS (February 2); OED: "The feast of the purification of the Virgin Mary (or presentation of Christ in the Temple) celebrated with a great display of candles"[OE]
confort, cunfort (n.) COMFORT; strengthening, encouragement (pl. cunforz) [OF]
conseiler (n.) COUNSELOR, adviser [OF]
consens (n.) consent, permission [OF]
consenti (v.) to CONSENT, agree [OF]
const (v., pres. 2 sing.) see cunnen (v.)
contenemenz (n.) behavior [OF]
continuelement (adv.) CONTINUALLY [OF]
contumace (n.) CONTUMACY, stubbornness, rebelliousness [OF]
cop (n.) summit, crown, top [OE; see Ger. kopf "head"]
cop, cape (n.) CAPE, cloak; habit (of a monk or friar), COPE [ON or Lat.]
corbin (n.) a raven, CORBIE [OF]
cornes (n. pl.) grains [OE]
cos (n.) KISS (pl. cosses) [OE]
costnede (v., past sing.) COST, was expensive or costly [OF]
cote (n.) COTE, cottage, hovel [OE]
countenance (n.) bearing, behavior; appearance, facial expression; face [OF]
cover (adj.) villainous, vile [OF, from late Lat. co-libertus "freeman, serf"]
coverschipe (n.) villainy, treachery [OF + OE]
cradel (n.) CRADLE [OE]
cravant (adj.) defeated, vanquished; yeien cravant = to cry "(I am) defeated!," "I give up!"; to surrender [from OF; see Diensberg (1978), pp. 80-81]
craven (v.) to ask for earnestly, beg for, CRAVE (something) (past part. i-cravet) [OE]
crecche (n.) manger [OF]
crenge (v.) to strut, swagger; condescend; bend haughtily, crenge with swire = to arch the neck (proudly) (pres. subj. sing. crenge) [*OE; related to ModE cringe]
creoiz (n.) CROSS [OF]
creop (v., imper. sing.) CREEP, crawl (imper. pl. creopen) [OE]
criblin (v.) to make fine lace or embroidery (whose intricate design resembles the pattern of holes in a sieve) [from OF crible "sieve"]
crie(th) (v., imper. pl.) CRY, weep (pres. subj. sing. crie; past sing. criede) [OF]
Cristene (n. pl.) CHRISTIANS
crohhe (n.) pot, CROCK, jug [OE]
crokede (adj.) false, treacherous, CROOKED [OE]
crokes (n.) CROOKED behaviors, tricks, deceptions [ON];(n. pl.) clutches, claws [*OE, perhaps ON]
crome (n.) CRUMB, scrap (pl. cromen) [OE]
croppeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) CROPS, trims [from OE]
cros (n.) CROSS (pl. crosses) [ON form; see OF derived creoiz (n.)]
crossith (n., imper. pl.) CROSS, make the sign of the cross [from cros (n.)]
cruchen (v.) to make the sign of the cross; cross (oneself) (past part. i-cruchet) [OE blended with OF]
cruelte (n.) CRUELTY [OF]
crune (n.) CROWN; (fig.) head; highest, topmost person (pl. crunen) [AN]
crunen (v.) to CROWN (pres. 3 sing. cruneth; past part. i-crunet) [AN]
crununge (n.) CROWNING
cubbel (n.) hobble, a block of wood or clog used to hobble livestock [*OE]
cuchene (n.) KITCHEN [OE]
cudde (v., past sing.) see cuthen (v.)
cuggel (n.) CUDGEL [OE]
cul (n.) a blow, stroke [see culle (v.)]
culchen (v.) see gulchen (v.)
culle (v., pres. subj. sing.) strike, hit; to clear out, empty (a pot) [OE; see ModE kill]
culvert (adj.) see cover (adj.)
culvre (n.) dove (gen. sing. culvres) [OE culfre from Lat. columba]
cume (n.) COMING, arrival [OE]
cumen (v.) to COME; kimeth up = arises, develops (imper. sing. cum; imper. pl. cumeth; pres. subj. sing. cume; pres. 3 sing./pl. cumeth, kimeth; pres. pl. cumen; past sing. com, come; past pl. comen; pres. part. cuminde; past part. i-cumen) [OE]
cumplie (n.) see complie (n.)
cun(ne) (n.) KIN, race, family; pedigree; kind, sort (gen. sing. cunnes; pl. cunnes, cunes) [OE]
cunde (n.) nature; characteristic(s), temperament; instincts; class of creatures;
tribe, family, clan; parentage, lineage [OE]
cundel (n.) brood, litter; offspring, young of any animal (pl. cundles) [from OE]
cundelich(e) (adj.) natural, innate; (adv.) naturally, innately, by nature [OE]
cundleth (v. 1, pres. 3 sing./pl.) gives birth to, breeds, brings forth [see cundel (n.)]; (v. 2, pres. 3 sing.) KINDLES, ignites; inflames, excites [ON]
cunfort, cunforz (n.) see confort (n.)
cunnen (v.) CAN, be able, capable; to have mastery, skill; to know, know how to do; connen thank = to be grateful (imper. pl. cunneth; pres. subj. sing. kunne; pres. 1, 3 sing. con; past sing. cuthe; past pl. cuthen) [OE]
cunnes-mon (n.) KINSMAN, relative
cun-redden (n.) family, KINDRED, relative(s); kinship, intimacy (of a household or family) (error for cuth-reden? - see Textual Note to 3.558-59) [late OE]
cunsail (n.) COUNSEL, advice; secret, confidence [OF]
cunsense (n.) CONSENT [OF]
cuple (n.) COUPLE, pair; combination [OF]
cupleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) COUPLES, links, joins (past part. i-cuplet) [OF]
cur(re) (n.) a CUR, OED: "a worthless, low-bred, or snappish dog"; (perhaps) a cowardly dog who only growls but does not bite (?); (adj.) currish, craven [related to ON kurra "to snarl"]
curnles (n. pl.) KERNELS [OE]
cursild (n. pl.) woman given to cursing [see -ild (suffix)] [from OE]
curt, curz (n.) COURT [OF]
curteisie (n.) COURTESY; generosity, nobility [OF]
curtel (n.) tunic, coat, KIRTLE, gown (pl. curtles) [OE cyrtel "tunic"]
cussen (v.) to KISS (pres. subj. sing. cusse; pres. subj. pl. cussen; pres. 3 sing. cusseth; past sing. custe; pres. part. cussinde) [OE]
custe (v., past sing.) see cussen (v.)
cuth(e) (adj.) known, familiar; well-known, famous [OE]
cuthe(n) (v., past) see cunnen (v.)
cuthen (v.) to make known, reveal; show, demonstrate (imper. sing. cuth; pres. 2 sing. cuthest; past 1, 3 sing. cudde; past part. i-cud, i-cuththet) [OE]
cuth-mon (n.) acquaintance, friend [OE; see cuth (adj.)]
cuth-redden (n.) acquaintance, familiarity [cuth (adj.) + OE ræden "state"]
cuththe (n.) knowledge, acquaintance; (collective) acquaintances, friends [OE; ModE kith]
cuththunge (n.) friendship, intimacy; acquaintance [see cuth (adj.)]
cuvel (n.) COWL, hooded garment [OE cufle, from Lat.]
cuvent (n.) CONVENT, community (of monks, nuns, or friars) [AF]
cuvertur (n.) blanket, coverlet [OF]
cwaer (n.) a small book (usually unbound); a gathering of sheets of parchment (for a book) [OF; ModE quire]
cwakien (v.) to QUAKE, tremble (with fear) [OE]
cwalm-hus (n.) house of death [from OE]
cwalm-stowe (n.) place of execution; (lit.) "death-place" [OE]
cweade (adv.) wickedly, evilly [see OE cwead "filth"]
cwe(a)dschipe (n.) wickedness, wicked deed (pl. cweadschipes)
cweise (n.) boil, sore [ON]
cweme(n) (v.) to please, gratify (pres. 3 sing. cwemeth) [OE]
cwen (n.) QUEEN [OE]
cwenchen (v.) to QUENCH, extinguish, put out (a fire); to be extinguished, go out; satisfy, slake (imper. sing. cwench; pres. 3 sing. cwenceth; past part. i-cwenct) [OE]
cwene (n.) lowborn woman, QUEAN; old woman, crone; harlot [OE]
cweth (v., past sing.) spoke [OE; see quoth (v.), the usual form]
cwic, cwike (adj.) alive; lively, QUICK (gen. sing. cwikes; compar. cwikcre) [OE; see ModE phrase the quick and the dead]
cwich (v., tense uncertain) flinch(ed), tremble(d), QUAKED [OE]
cwicliche (adv.) in a lively way, vigorously; rapidly, QUICKLY (compar. cwicluker) [OE]
cwicnesse (n.) vitality, life, quality of being alive
cwiddeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) says [OE]
cwide (n.) legacy, inheritance; promise [OE]
cwitance (n.) freeing, release [OF]
cwite (adj.) free, clear; released, excused [OF]
cwitin (v.) to pay, repay, settle (a debt) [OF]
cyrograffes (n. pl.) (formal) documents; deeds [OF, from Greek chirograph "hand-written"]

dahes (n. pl.) see dei (n.)
dahunge (n.) dawn, DAWNING, daybreak [OE]
dale (n.) part, subdivision, branch; share, (one's due) portion; muche deale = a great deal (adv.) (pl. dalen) [OE; see ModE dole, Ger. teil "part"]
dame (n.) lady (of rank), a professed nun; a mother [OF]
dameiseles (n., gen. sing.) young lady's, of a young, unmarried lady (of rank) [OF]
danger (n.) dominion, subjugation, domineering; power (of a master); power to injure; reluctance, grudging, standoffishness; bad mood, grumpiness; arrogance [OF]
dangerus (adj.) difficult, arrogant, severe; reluctant, standoffish
dayes (n. pl.) see dei (n.)
dead(e) (adj.) DEAD; unfeeling, numb (compar. deaddre) [OE]
dead-bote (n.) amends for an evil DEED; penance, repentance; don deadbote = to do penance [OE; see dede (n.) + bote (n.)]
deade (adj.) DEAD, not living [OE]
deadlich(e) (adv.) DEADLY, mortal [OE]
deadlicnesse (n.) DEADLINESS; mortality
deal (n.) see dale (n.)
deale (interj.) see dele (interj.)
deale(n) (v.) to separate, distinguish; divide, cut up; give away, DEAL or DOLE out, distribute; share, participate in (pres. 1 sing./pl. deale; pres. 3 sing. dealeth; past sing. dealde; past part. i-dealet) [OE; see Ger. teilen "to divide"]
dealen (n. pl.) DALES, valleys [OE]
dear (v.) see durren (v.)
dearne (adj.) secret, hidden [OE]
dearnliche (adv.) in a hidden, unnoticed way; privately, secretly; inwardly, deeply (compar. dearnluker) [OE]
death-uvel (n.) mortal illness, deadly disease
deatte (n.) DEBT (pl. deattes) [OF]
deattur (n.) DEBTOR, a person in debt [OF]
deawes (n., gen. sing.) DEW'S [OE]
deboneire (adj.) meek, gentle; gracious, courteous, well-behaved [OF, from the phrase de bonne aire "of good disposition"]
deboneirte (n.) graciousness, gentleness, courteousness [OF]
deciple (n.) DISCIPLE, pupil (pl. deciples, desciples) [OF]
dede (n.) DEED, action (pl. deden) [OE]
degre (n.) step, a support to kneel on during prayers; (fig.) stage (in a process), step (pl. degrez) [OF, from Lat. de- "down" + gradus "step"]
deh (v.) see duhen (v.)
dehtren (n. pl.) see dohter (n.)
dei (n.) DAY; from deie to deie = from day to day (gen. sing. deies; obj. sing. deie; pl. dahes, dayes) [OE]
deien (v.) to DIE (pres. 3 sing. deieth; past sing. deide; past pl. deiden) [OE]
dei-hwamliche (adj.) DAILY [OE]
dele (interj.) what! (an expression of surprise); Look! See! (used to call attention to something) [origin obscure]
delices (n. pl.) (with sing. meaning) joy, delight, pleasure; sensual pleasure, lust [OF]
delitin (v.) to DELIGHT, take great pleasure in; to please, give pleasure [OF]
delivrede (v., past sing.) DELIVERED, set free (past part. delifret) [OF]
delven (v.) to dig; bury; to gouge by digging; (past part. as adj.) dolven = dug, hollowed out (pres. 3 sing. delveth; past subj. sing. dulve; past pl. dulven; past part. [i-]dolven) [OE]
delvunge (n.) digging, DELVING
deme (n.) judge [OE]
demen (v.) to judge; condemn (imper. sing. dem; imper. pl. demeth; pres. 1 pl. demeth; past sing. demde; past part. i-demet) [OE; ModE deem]
demeori (v., imper. pl.) delay, loiter, pause [OF; ModE demur]
deop(e) (adj.) DEEP; profound [OE]
deopeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) goes DEEP, penetrates [OE]
deopliche (adv.) DEEPLY, profoundly (compar. deopluker) [OE]
deoppre (adv., compar.) DEEPER
deor(e) (adj.) DEAR, beloved; expensive (compar. deorre) [OE]
deore (adv.) DEARLY; expensively, at a high price (compar. deorre)
deores (n., gen. sing.) animal's [OE; see Ger. tier "animal"]
deore-wurthe, deore-werthe (adj.) precious [from OE]
deore-wurthliche (adv.) honorably; precisely
deovel (n.) DEVIL (gen. sing. deofles; pl. deoflen) [OE]
depeint (v., past part.) depicted, PAINTED, portrayed [OF]
derf (n.) trouble, suffering; torture [OE]; (adj.) see derve (adj.)
derfliche (adv.) cruelly, painfully
derve (adj.) bold, daring; audacious, impatient; wicked; powerful; fierce, cruel; difficult, hard to do [OE, prob. influenced by ON]
derven (v.) to afflict, torment, torture; damage, hurt; ben i-dervet = to be distressed (pres. 3 sing./pl. derveth; past part. i-dervet) [OE]
descorde (n.) DISCORD [OF]
descriveth (v., pres. 3 sing.) DESCRIBES, records in writing [OF]
descumfit (v., past part.) defeated, routed, undone [OF]
desesperance (n.) despair, wanhope [OF]
despuilen (v.) to DESPOIL, rob, strip (of clothes) (imper. sing. despoile; past sing. despulede; past part. despuilet) [OF]
dest, deth (v., pres. sing.) see don (v.)
destinctiun (n.) division, section (pl. destinctiuns) [OF]
destruet (v., past part.) ravaged, laid waste, DESTROYED [OF]
desturbin (v.) to DISTURB; destroy, deprive of [OF]
dettur (n.) see deattur (n.)
deu-le-set (interj.) God knows [OF dieu le set "God knows it"]
deveth (v., pres. 3 sing.) plunges or submerges (in water); DIVES [OE]
devot (adj.) DEVOUT, reverent [OF]
devotiun (n.) DEVOTION; feeling of (religious) awe, devotion [OF]
dich (n.) DITCH [OE]
diete (n.) DIET, food; way of life [OF]
diggin (v.) to DIG [OF]
dignete (n.) DIGNITY, nobility, worth [OF]
dimluker (adv., compar.) more faintly, indistinctly [OE]
discepline (n.) DISCIPLINE, correction; self-flagellation; OED: "in religious use, the mortification of the flesh by penance; also, in a more general sense, a beating or other infliction . . . assumed to be salutary to the recipient" (pl. disceplines) [OF, from Lat.]
doddunge (n.) cutting, clipping, trimming (of the hair); tonsuring [see i-doddet (adj.)]
dogge (n.) DOG [OE]
dohter (n.) DAUGHTER (pl. dehtren) [OE]
dolc (n.) wound, scar, gash; hollow or cavity [OE dolg "wound" or ME dalk "hollow"; see Baldwin (1976), p. 274]
dolven(e) (adj. & v., past part.) see delven (v.)
dom (n.) judgment, sentence, condemnation; Last Judgment (obj. sing. dome; pl. domes) [OE; ModE doom]
Domes-dei (n.) DOOMSDAY, Day of Judgment [OE]
domes-mon (n.) a judge [from OE]
dom-seotel (n.) judgment SEAT [from OE]
don (v.) to DO, perform, behave; finish; make, construct; to cause, make (something happen); to place, put, send (pres. subj. sing. do; pres. 3 sing. dest, deth; past 2 sing. dudest; past 3 sing. dude; past pl. duden; past part. i-do, i-don; inflected inf. to donne) [OE]
dosc (adj.) dark, dim, dull, DUSKY; (fig.) obscure [OE]
dotie (v., pres. subj. sing.) might behave foolishly, become silly, rave, lose one's wits [prob. OE]
dragse (v., imper. sing.) DRAG along [ON; see d'Ardenne (1983), p. 21]
drahe(n) (v.) to DRAW, drag, pull; gather, collect (pres. subj. sing. drahe; pres. 2 sing. drahest; pres. 3 sing. draheth; pres. pl. drah (we); past sing. droh; past pl. drohen; pres. part. drahinde; past part. i-drahe[n]) [OE]
drake (n.) dragon, DRAKE [OE, from Lat.]
dreaieth (v. 1, pres. 2 pl.) see drehen (v.); (v. 2, pres. 3 sing., pres. pl.) pulls, tends (toward); suffers, endures [OE, close relative of drahen (v.), perhaps confused with drehen (v.)]
dream (n.) sound (of a bell or trumpet); voice, speaking; noise, din [OE]
dred (n.) DREAD, fear [see dreden (v.)]
dreden (v.) to fear, DREAD, be afraid of (pres. subj. sing. drede; pres. subj. pl. dreden; pres. pl. dredeth; past sing. dredde) [OE]
drehe(n) (v.) to suffer, endure; experience, feel; tolerate (pres. subj. sing. drehe; pres. 3 sing. dreheth; pres. 2, 3 pl. dreheth; past sing. droh) [OE]
dremen (v.) to make a joyful noise, make music [OE]
dreori (adj.) miserable, DREARY; cruel; bloody (? - OE meaning) [OE]
dreori (n.) experience; suffering, misery
drif (v., imper. sing.) see driven (v.)
drihtines (n., gen. sing.) the Lord's [OE]
driven (v.) to DRIVE, force, compel (imper. sing. drif; imper. pl. drive (ye); pres. subj. sing. drive; pres. 2 sing. drivest; pres. 3 sing. driveth; pres. part. drivinde) [OE]
droh(en) (v., past) see drehen (v.) or drahen (v.)
dronc (n.) DRINK [OE]
drope (n.) DROP (pl. dropen) [OE]
drope-mel (n.) DROP by drop, in drops [OE; see ModE piecemeal]
dross (n.) DROSS, impurities [OE]
drue (adj.) DRY [OE]
druerie (n.) love, romantic affection; flirtation, dalliance; love-token, gift [OF]
dru-fot (adj.) DRY-FOOTED, with dry feet [from OE]
druhieth (v., pres. pl.) DRY (something); become dry (past sing. druhede) [from OE]
drunch (n.) DRINK (pl. drunches) [OE]
druncni (v., pres. subj. sing.) drown (pres. pl. druncnith) [*OE]
drunc-wile (adj.) desirous of drink; (n.) drunkard [OE]
drupi (adj.) DROOPY, downcast, sad [ON draupr]
duble (adj.) DOUBLE [OF]
dude(n) (v., past) see don (v.)
dug (n.) DUKE, leader; commander [OF]
duhen (v.) to be good for, serve, be proper, fitting; to thrive (pres. 3 sing. deh) [OE]
dulle (adj.) blunt, DULL [*OE]
dulve(n) (v., past) see delven (v.)
dun (adv.) DOWN [OE]
dun (n.) hill, mountain; -DOWN (in place-names) (pl. dunes) [OE; related to ModE dune]
dune-ward(es), dune-wart (adv.) DOWNWARD; down
dunge (n.) DUNG, manure, filth [OE]
dun-riht (adj.) directly descending; direct, plain, definite, blunt; absolute, thorough, out and out [OE; ModE downright]
dunt(e) (n.) blow, strike; stroke (of a sword), blow (of a hammer) (pl. duntes) [OE]
durren (v., pres. pl.) DARE, are so bold as to (do something) (pres. 1, 3 sing. dear; past sing. durste) [OE]
durste (v.) see durren (v.)
dusi(e) (adj.) foolish, stupid (superlat. dusegest) [OE; ModE dizzy]
dusischipe (n.) stupidity, ignorance, folly [see dusi (adj.)]
dust (n.) DUST [OE]
dusten (v.) to fling, throw, toss, cast; plunge, crash, fall (past subj. sing. duste) [*OE; see d'Ardenne (1961), p. 149]
dusteth (v., pres. 3 sing.) is DUSTY [OE]
dute (n.) DOUBT; fear, apprehension [OF]
duteth (v., pres. 3 sing.) is anxious, afraid; fears, DOUBTS [OF]
dutten (v.) to shut, close; to stop up, plug (a hole) (pres. pl. dutteth; past pl. dutten) [OE]
dweole (n.) deception, trickery; error, wrongdoing; stupor, trance [OE]
dyaloge (n.) dialogues of St. Gregory the Great [OF]

ead-eaweth (v., pres. 3 sing.) appears, reveals (oneself); shows, reveals (past sing. eadewede, edeawde) [OE]
eadi(e) (adj.) blessed, favored (by God); rich, wealthy [OE]
eadiliche (adv.) fortunately, blessedly [see eadi (adj.)]
eadinesse (n.) blessing, happiness (pl. eadinesses) [see eadi (adj.)]
ead-mod(e) (adj.) humble, gentle, meek (gen. sing. eadmodies) [OE; related to eth (adj.) + mode (n.)]
ead-modieth (v., imper. pl.) humble [see ead-mod (adj.)]
ead-modliche (adv.) humbly
ead-modnesse (n.) humility [OE]
eahte (num.) EIGHT [OE]
eahtuthe (adj.) EIGHTH
eairen (n. pl.) eggs [OE]
eal (n.) AWL, shoemaker's tool for punching holes in leather (pl. eawles) [OE]
ealde (n.) age, stage of life (pl. ealdes) [OE]
ealdren (n. pl., orig. compar.) ELDERS [OE]
ealleofte (num.) ELEVENTH [OE]
ealmesse (n.) ALMS, charitable gift; deed of mercy [OE, from Lat.]
eanes (adv.) ONCE [OE]
eani(e) (adj.) ANY; (pron.) any person [OE]
eape (n.) APE [OE]
eape-ware (n.) APE-WARE, counterfeit ware(s)
eappel (n.) APPLE [OE]
ear (adv.) early, soon; before, at an earlier time; rather; (conj. & prep.) before, ERE [OE]
eard (n.) homeland, native place [OE]
eare (n.) EAR (pl. earen) [OE]
eares (n. pl.) EARS (of grain) [OE]
earh (adj.) cowardly, craven; vile, wretched; slothful, sluggish [OE]
earliche (adj. & adv.) EARLY [OE]
earm (adj.) miserable, poor [OE]; (n.) ARM (pl. earmes) [OE]
earmite (n.) HERMIT [OF]
earmliche (adv.) miserably [see earm (adj.)]
earmthes (n. pl.) miseries [OE]
earn (n.) eagle (pl. earnes) [OE]
earowen (n. pl.) see arewen (n.)
earre (adj., compar.) EARLIER, previous, aforementioned; the former (as opposed to the latter) [see ear (adv.)]
earst(e), earest (superlat.) (adj.) first; (adv.) first, at first; on alre earst = first of all [OE; see ear (adv.)]
ear-under (adv.) EARLY in the morning; (perhaps) before tierce, the third liturgical hour [see under (n.)]
earveth (adj.) difficult, hard [OE]
easkeres (n. pl.) ASKERS, questioners (i.e., those who ask or question) [OE]
easki(n) (v.) to ASK, require, demand (pres. subj. sing./pl. easki; imper. pl. easketh; pres. 3 sing. easketh; pres. pl. easkith; past sing. easkede) [OE]
easkunge (n.) ASKING, questioning; request (pl. easkunges)
eatelich(e) (adj.) hideous, repulsive (compar. eateluker) [OE]
eathe (adv.) easily, without difficulty; readily [OE; see eth (adj.)]
eaver, eavre (adv.) EVER, always, constantly [OE]
eaver-euch (adj.) EACH and EVERY, every [OE]
eaw-bruche (n.) adultery; BREACH of marriage [OE æw "law, marriage" + bruche (n.)]
ea-wiht (adv.) at all, to any extent; (pron.) anything [OE]
eawles (n. pl.) see eal (n.)
eawt (adv.) at all, in any way; (pron.) anything, AUGHT [from OE]
ec (adv.) also, as well [OE]
eche (adj.) eternal, everlasting [OE]; (n.) ACHE, pain [see ake (v.)]
eche, echnen, echye (n.) see ehe (n.)
echeliche (adv.) eternally, forever [OE]
echen (v.) to increase, add to (pres. subj. sing. echi; pres. 3 sing. echeth) [OE; related to ec (adv.)]
ec(h)nesse (n.) eternity, eternal nature [OE]
ed- (prefix 1) (with verbs of motion) away, away from; (with verbs of position) at, against [OE]; (prefix 2) see eth- (prefix)
ed (prep.) AT; from, at the hands of [OE]
ed-brec (v., past sing.) BROKE away from, escaped (past pl. edbreken) [from OE]
ed-eawde (v., past sing.) see ead-eaweth (v.)
ed-fallen (v., past part.) fallen (away), dropped [OE]
ed-fleon, et-fleon (v.) to FLEE away, escape from (pres. subj. sing. edfleo; pres. 3 sing. etflith; past pl. edfluhen; past part. edflohe) [OE]
ed-halden (v.) to keep, detain, HOLD back; keep, fix something in mind, understand (pres. 3 sing. edhalt, ethalt [= edhaldeth]; past pl. edheolden) [OE]
ed-lutien (v.) to lurk, hide (from); escape notice (pres. 3 sing. edluteth) [OE]
ed-scene, et-scene (adj.) easily SEEN, plain, clear [OE]
ed-slopen (v., past part.) SLIPPED away (from), vanished [OE]
ed-stearten (v.) to START, get away from, escape (pres. 3 sing. edstearteth; past part. etsteart) [OE]
ed-stonden (v.) to stand firm; resist, withstand (something) (imper. sing. edstont, edstond; pres. 2 sing. edstondest, pres. 3 sing. edstont) [OE]
ed-stuteth (v., pres. pl.) to stop (at), linger [see ed- (prefix 1) and stutten (v.)]
ed-witen (v.) to blame, censure, reproach, criticize (pres. 3 sing. edwit [= edwiteth]) [OE; see witest (v.), ModE twit]
ed-witunge (n.) reproach, blame
efficacies (n. pl.) powers (to effect something); effects [OF]
efne (adj.) even, flat, steady; (adv.) EVEN; evenly, steadily; exactly [OE]
eft (adv.) again, second time; back, back again, in turn; afterwards, then; likewise, moreover; in return, in reply; conversely [OE]
efter (prep.) AFTER; according to; in imitation of; (adv.) afterwards [OE]
efterward(e), efterwart (adv.) AFTERWARDS
egede (adj.) foolish, absurd [OE; see MED egede (n. & adj.)]
egge (n.) EDGE, sharp side of a sword-blade [OE]
eggin (v.) to give an EDGE to; to entice, tempt, incite, EGG on (pres. subj. sing. eggi; pres. 3 sing. eggeth; past sing. egede) [ON]
eggunge (n.) urging, inciting, tempting, EGGING on
ehe (n.) EYE (pl. ehnen, echnen) [OE]
eh-sihthe, ech-sihthe, echye-sihthe (n.) EYESIGHT
eh-thurl (n.) the window of the EYE; eye (pl. ech-thurles) [see ehe (n.) + thurl (n.)]
ei (adj. & pron.) any; any (person) [OE]
eie (n.) fear, awe; anger [OE; ModE awe from ON cognate]
eil (n.) harm, trouble; AILMENT [from OE]
eile (n.) the bristly beard (awn) of barley or other grain [OE]
eilen, eili (v.) to annoy, afflict, trouble (mentally or physically), AIL (pres. subj. sing. eili; pres. 3 sing. eileth) [OE]
eil-thurl (n.) window of pain (with pun on eh-thurl [n.]) (pl. eil-thurles)
eir (n.) AIR [OF]
eise (adj.) at ease, at leisure; able, having opportunity; comfort, having no discomfort [OF]; (n.) EASE, physical comfort, leisure; tranquillity, peace of mind; pleasure, enjoyment; desire, gratification of the flesh; profit, benefit; means, opportunity, ability (to do something) [OF]
eisfule (adj.) horrific, terrifying, frightful [OE; related to eie (n.)]
eisil (n.) vinegar [OF]
either (adj. & pron.) each of two, one or the other (of two), both [OE; ModE either]
either (adv.) also, as well; both [OE]
ek (adv.) see ec (adv.)
el- (prefix) foreign, strange [OE; related ultimately to ModE alien]
elbohen (n. pl.) ELBOWS [OE]
el-heowet (adj.) pale [see el- (prefix) + heowin (v.)]
-(e)les (suffix) a suffix for making nouns out of verbs, or causative nouns from other nouns [OE]
elles (adv.) ELSE, otherwise [OE]
elne (n.) strength, vigor; comfort (in biblical sense) [OE]
elnin (v.) to strengthen, hearten [OE; see elne (n.)]
el-theodie (adj.) foreign (person); (n.) foreigner [OE; see el- (prefix) + theode (n.)]
enbrevet (v., past part.) recorded, inscribed, enrolled [OF]
en-chearre (adv.) once, one time [see sum-chearre (adv.)]
ende (n.) END; toward Englondes ende = toward the end (border) of England [OE]
endeattet (v., past part.) INDEBTED, in debt [OF]
endeles (adj.) ENDLESS, without end [OE]
endin (v.) to END, bring to an end, finish; complete (imper. pl. endith; pres. subj. sing. endi; pres. 3 sing. endeth) [OE]
engel (n.) ANGEL (gen. sing. engles; gen. pl. englene) [OE]
engoni (v., pres. 1 sing.) ENJOIN, impose [OF]
eni (adj. & pron.) see eani (adj. & pron.)
ennu (n.) discomfort, aggravation, vexation [OF; see ModE annoy, ennui]
entente (n.) INTENT, intention; goal (pl. ententes) [OF]
entre-meatin (v.) to busy oneself (reflex.); meddle, INTERFERE (pres. 3 sing. entreme[a]teth) [OF]
eode(n) (v., past) see gan (v.)
eoil(e) (n.) OIL [?blending of OE and OF]
eornen (v.) to RUN (past subj. sing. urne; pres. 3 sing./pl. eorneth; past pl. urnen) [OE]
eorre (adj.) angry, IREFUL; (n.) anger, ire [OE]
eorth(e) (n.) EARTH, ground; dirt [OE]
eorthene (adj.) EARTHEN [*OE]
eorthlich(e) (adj.) EARTHLY, worldly, having to do with worldly (rather than spiritual) matters
eote(n) (v.) to EAT (imper. pl. eoteth; pres. subj. sing. eote; pres. 2 pl. eoteth; past sing. et; past pl. eten; inflected inf. to eotene) [OE]
erede (v., past subj. sing.) plough, would plough [OE; see ModE arable]
erende-beorere (n.) ERRAND-BEARER, messenger
eritage (n.) inheritance, legacy; HERITAGE [OF]
ernde (n.) message, ERRAND; petition [OE]; (v., imper. sing.) obtain (by intercession), grant [OE]
erveth (adj.) see earveth (adj.)
eschif (adj.) skittish, easily startled, frightened [OF; ModE eschew (adj.)]
esken (n. pl.) ASHES [ON]
eski-bah (n.) ASH-stirrer, hearth-tender, (perhaps with an insulting overtone) lackey [origin of -bah is obscure; see MED, Zettersten (1965), pp. 28-29, Turville-Petre (1969), pp. 156-58]
essample (n.) EXAMPLE, exemplum, illustrative story [OF]
essinien (v.) to excuse (reflex.); avoid, withdraw from [OF; MED essoinen]
est (n.) the EAST [from OE]
estat (n.) ESTATE, status, (social) position; state, condition (pl. estaz) [OF]
este (n.) delight, pleasure, indulging, gratification; favor, grace [OE]
esteliche (adv.) luxuriously, indulgently [see este (n.)]
esten (adv.) EASTERLY; bi esten = to the east
est-ful(e) (adj.) pleasure-seeking, picky, fastidious with food; delicate, delectable (compar. estfulre) [OE]
estoires (n. pl.) stories, narratives, HISTORIES [OF]
et- (prefix) see ed- (prefix 1)
et (prep.) see ed (prep.)
eth- (prefix) easy, easily [OE]
eth (adj.) comforting, agreeable; easy, not difficult; (adv.) easily, readily [OE]
et-halt (v., pres. 3 sg.) see ed-halden (v.)
ethele (adj.) noble, excellent, famous; innate, natural [OE]
ethelich (adj.) insignificant, slight; weak, frail, humble [OE]
etheliche (adv.) easily, readily [OE]
eth-fele (adj.) easy to feel [see eth- (prefix) and felen (v.)]
eth-hurte (adj.) EASILY hurt, sensitive, thin-skinned [see eth- (prefix.) and hurten (v.)]
ethre (n.) blood-vessel, vein (pl. ethren) [OE; see Ger. ader]
eth-warpe (adj.) easy to overthrow, tottering [see eth- (prefix) + warpen (v.)]
et-steart (v., past part.) see ed-stearten (v.)
euch(e), euc (adj. & pron.) EACH (gen. sing. euches) [OE]
euch-an (pron.) EACH ONE (gen. sing. euchanes) [from OE]
even (n.) EVENING [OE]
evene (n.) nature, character, kind; ability, capacity, resources; occasion, cause [OE, from ON efni "material"]
eveneth (v., imper. pl.) compare, liken; makes level, smooth; moderate; make equal, treat as equal (pres. 3 sing. eveneth; pres. pl. evenith; past part. i-evenet) [OE]
even-song (n.) EVENSONG, Vespers (one of the canonical hours) [OE]
even-tid (n.) EVENINGTIDE, evening time [OE]
evenunge, evening (n.) comparison; alignment, adjustment; equal, peer [see eveneth (v.)]
evesede (v., past sing.) trimmed, clipped the hair (of a person) (past part. i-eveset) [OE]
evesunge (n.) roof edge or EAVES of a building; trimming or clipping (of the hair); clippings [OE; ModE fringe can also mean a border or "bangs" of hair]
Ewangeliste (n.) the Evangelist, one of the Gospel writers [OF]
ewt (adv. & pron.) see eawt (adv. & pron.)

fa (n.) FOE, enemy (gen. sing. faes; pl. fan, van) [OE]
fahenunge (n.) FAWNING, servile flattery; OED: "Of an animal, especially a dog: To show delight or fondness (by wagging the tail, whining, etc.) as a dog does" [from OE]
failede (v., past sing.) FAILED, lost power or strength; fell short of, did not obtain [OF]
fal (n.) FALL, downfall [OE]
faleweth (v., pres. 3 sing.) loses color, turns yellow or brown; fades or withers [OE]
fallen (v.) to FALL (down); fall spiritually; to die; to fall upon (someone, as a responsibility); to start, enter upon; to be comprised (of), pertain to; to be necessary, fitting; to fall to, come to (imper. pl. falleth; pres. subj. sing. falle; past subj. sing. feolle; pres. 3 sing./pl. falleth; past sing. feol; pres. part. fallinde; past part. i-fallen) [OE]
fallunge (n.) FALLING, a falling down
falsi (v., pres. subj. sing.) may deceive, pretend; cause to fail, break down; fail, give way, show weakness (pres. pl. falsith; pres. part. falsinde) [OF]
falsliche (adv.) FALSELY, dishonestly
fame (n.) (good) reputation, FAME [OF]
fa-men, va-men (n. pl.) FOE-MEN, enemies [OE]
familiarite (n.) intimacy, fellowship, closeness; faithful service, fidelity to a superior [OF, from Lat. familia "household, family"]
fawtes (n. pl.) FAULTS, imperfections [OF]
feahede (v., past sing.) adorned [ON fægja "to polish, cleanse"]
fealh (v., past sing.) see feleth (v.)
fearen (v.) to FARE, get along, live; travel, go, proceed; depart, escape (pres. 3 sing./pl. feareth; past part. i-fearen) [OE]
fearlac (n.) FEAR, terror [from OE]
fearlich (adj.) FEARFUL, dreadful, terrifying
fearliche (adv.) suddenly, unexpectedly; astoundingly, wonderfully [OE]
feaste (n. 1) feasting, entertainment; FEAST, celebration; a saint's feast day or church holiday; rejoicing, joy, maken feaste = to make merry [OE]; (n. 2) FAST, an act of fasting, going without food (pl. feasten) [prob. ON]; (adv.) FAST, firmly; steadily, diligently; quickly (compar. feastluker) [OE]
feasten (v. 1) to FAST, go without food; to fast on bread and water or a restricted diet of some kind (imper. pl. feaste (ye); pres. 2 pl. veasteth; past pl. feasten) [OE]; (v. 2) to make FAST, bind; settle, conclude (past part. i-feast) [OE]
feastre (n.) ulcer, sore [OF; ModE fester]
feat, fette (n.) VAT, cask [OE]
featte (adj.) FATTENED [OE]
feattin (v.) to FATTEN, make fat, grow fat (pres. 3 sing. featteth; past part. i-featted) [OE]
feayeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) see feieth (v.)
feblesce (n.) FEEBLENESS, weakness, infirmity [OF]
febli (v., pres. subj. sing.) to grow FEEBLE, to weaken
fecchen (v.) to FETCH, bring [OE]
fede(n) (v.) to FEED, serve food to; suckle, nurse; sustain, support; nurture, rear, bring up (imper. sing. fed; pres. 3 sing. fedeth, fet; past sing. fedde; past part. i-fed) [OE]
feh (n.) property, possessions, wealth; livestock [OE; ModE fee]
feherest(e) (adj.) see feier (adj.)
feht (n.) FIGHT, warfare, battle (obj. sing. fehte) [OE]
fehten (v.) to FIGHT, do battle; strive (pres. 3 sing./pl. fehteth; past pl. fuhten) [OE]
fehtunge (n.) FIGHTING
feier(e), feir(e) (adj.) FAIR, beautiful; pleasant; proper (superlat. feherest[e]) [OE]
feiernesse (n.) FAIRNESS, beauty, attractiveness
feieth (v., pres. 3 sing.) joins, binds together; links, associates, allies (past part. i-feiet, i-veiet) [OE]
fein (adv.) gladly, willingly, FAIN [OE]
feire (adv.) beautifully, pleasantly; clearly, properly, completely [OE]
fel (n.) FELL, skin, hide (pl. felles) [OE]
feld (n.) FIELD, meadow, pasture [OE]
felde (v., past sing.) see felen (v.)
felen (v.) to FEEL, experience; detect (pres. 2 sing. felest; pres. 3 sing. feleth, veleth; past sing. felde; past part. i-felet) [OE]
feleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) gets, enters into (pres. 3 sing. feleth; past sing. fealh) [OE]
fen (n.) mud, muck; FEN [OE]
fenniliche (adv.) muckily, muddily; (fig.) vilely, sinfully, miserably [OE; see fen (n.)]
feol (adj.) cruel, fierce, FELL [OF, related to ModE felon]; (v., past sing.) see fallen (v.)
feolahe (n.) FELLOW, companion, friend, equal; (in a negative sense) accomplice (pl. feolahes) [late OE, from ON]
feolahlich (adj.) companionable, friendly; "brotherly"
feolahliche (adv.) companionably, in a friendly way
feolah-re(a)dden (n.) fellowship, companionship, company [from feolahe (n.) + OE ræden "condition"]
feolahschipe (n.) FELLOWSHIP, companionship, society
feole (adj.) many, much; (adv.) to a great extent, much; (n.) many [OE; see Ger. viel "much"]
feole-valde (adj.) various, manifold [from OE]
feole-weis (adv.) in many WAYS
feolle (v.) see fallen (v.)
feond (n.) enemy; the devil, the FIEND (gen. sing. feondes) [OE]
feondschipe (n.) enmity, hostility [OE]
feor (n.) price [OF]
feor (adj.) FAR, distant; (adv.) FAR, afar; of feor = some distance away, apart [OE]
feorli(ch) (adj.) strange, marvelous, astounding; (n.) something astounding, a wonder, marvel [OE]
feorren (adv.) from AFAR, from a distance; far away [OE]
feorrene (adj.) FAR away, distant
feorthe (adj. & n.) FOURTH [OE]
ferd(e) (n.) army; company, troop, multitude (pl. ferdes) [OE]
fere (adj.) sound, strong [ON]; (n.) companion, friend, partner, comrade (pl. feren) [OE]
ferhen (v.) to FARROW, give birth (to piglets) (past part. i-ferhet) [from OE]
ferien (v.) to FERRY, transport, convey; (in a boat) [OE]
ferliche (adv.) see fearliche (adv.)
fer-redden (n.) companionship, fellowship [see fere (n.) + ræden "condition"]
fersch (adj.) fresh, eager [OE]
feste (adv.) see feaste (adv.)
festnith (v., imper. pl.) FASTEN, make firm; bind; settle, conclude, make (an agreement) (past part. i-festned, -et) [OE]
festschipe (n.) parsimony, stinginess (gen. sing. festschipes) [from OE]
feth (v., pres. 3 sing.) begins, starts to (often with on); seizes, takes (pres. pl. foth) [OE; see Ger. anfangen]
fetherin (v.) to load, weigh down, burden; charge (with meaning) (pres. 1 sing. fetheri; past part. i-fetheret) [see fother (n.)]
fetles (n.) vessel, container [OE]
fette (n.) see feat (n.)
fevre (n.) FEVER [prob. OF]
fier (n.) fig tree, tree of genus ficus [OF]
fif (adj. & num.) FIVE [OE]
fifte (adj.) FIFTH [OE]
fiftene (adj.) FIFTEEN
fifti (num.) FIFTY
figures (n. pl.) forms, shapes, FIGURES [OF]
fikele (adj.) treacherous, deceitful [OE]
fikelere (n.) flatter; traitor, deceiver (gen. sing. fikeleres) [OE]
fikeleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) flatters, deceives, beguiles [OE]
fikelunge (n.) flattery, (pleasing) deception
fiketh (v., pres. 3 sing.) flatters, deceives; fawns (on) (pres. part. fikiende) [from OE]
file (n.) FILE [OE]
fileth (v., pres. 3 sing.) FILES, scrapes away, smoothes (past part. i-filet) [from OE]
finden (v.) to FIND, discover (past subj. sing. funde; pres. 3 sing. fint; pres. 1 pl. finde [we], findeth; pres. pl. findeth; past sing. fond; past pl. funden; past part. i-funde[n]) [OE]
firsi (v., pres. subj. sing.) forsake, distance one's self from, flee, stay away; remove (pres. 3 sing. firseth) [OE; related to ModE far]
fisistien (n.) PHYSICIAN (pl. fisistiens) [OF, from Lat.]
fite-rokes (n. pl.) ragged upper garments [from ME fittered "ragged" + OE rocc "over-garment"]
fitheren (n. pl.) FEATHERS [blend of two OE words]
five (adj. & num.) see fif (adj. & num.)
flaa (n.) arrow [OE]
flaski (v., pres. subj. sing.) splash, sprinkle (pres. 3 sing. flasketh) [OF]
fleah (v., past sing.) see fleon (v. 2)
fleaw (v., past sing.) see floyen (v.)
flehe (n.) FLY (the insect); perhaps also FLEA [OE fleah] (pl. flehen) [OE]
fleon (v. 1) to FLY; fly (from), flee (imper. sing. flih; past subj. sing. fluhe; pres. 3 sing. flith; past sing. fleh; past pl. fluhen; pres. part. fleonninde) [OE; forms confused with fleon (v. 2)]; (v. 2) to FLEE; escape (imper. sing. fleo; pres. 3 sing. fleoth; past sing. fleah; past pl. fluhen; past part. i-flohe[n]) [OE]
fleos (n.) FLEECE [OE]
fleotinde (v., pres. part. as adj.) floating, wandering; flowing, in constant motion [OE; ModE fleet]
fles(ch) (n.) FLESH, the body; the carnal (as opposed to the spiritual) (gen. sing. flesches) [OE]
fleschlich(e), flesliche (adj.) FLESHLY, carnal, bodily
fleschliche (adv.) carnally, bodily, in the flesh
flesch-wise (adj.) FLESHly, carnal, concerned with the body
flih, flith (v.) see fleon (v. 1)
flikereth (v., pres. 3 sing.) trifles, toys (with); flutters, behaves frivolously [OE flicorian "to flutter"]
flint (n.) FLINT, a very hard stone [OE]
floc (n.) FLOCK, herd; group of people; host, squadron; gang (of evil spirits) [OE]
flow- (v.) see floyen (v.)
floyen (v.) to flow (with liquid); proceed (pres. 3 sing. floweth; past sing. fleaw; past pl. flowen; pres. part. flowinde) [OE]
fluht (n.) FLIGHT, escape, fleeing (obj. sing. [on] fluhte) [OE]
flures (n. pl.) FLOWERS, blossoms [OF]
fluthrunges (n. pl.) flirtings; flutterings, "unseemly movements" [perhaps imitative] (Zettersten [1965], p. 134)
flutrunge (n.) unseemly movement, flirting (?); FLITTING about [ON]
flutte(n) (v.) to live by, survive on (usually with bi "BY, on") [ON]
foddre (n.) FODDER, food for livestock [OE]
fode (n.) FOOD, sustenance [OE]
fol (adj.) sinful, evil; foolish [OF]; (n.) simpleton, silly person, FOOL (pl. foles) [OF]
fol-hardi (adj.) FOOLHARDY
folhere (n.) FOLLOWER
folhi(n) (v.) to FOLLOW, imitate; pursue (imper. sing. folhe; pres. 3 sing. folheth; pres. pl. folhith; past sing. folhede, fulede) [OE]
folliche (adv.) foolishly [see fol (adj.)]
fond (v., past sing.) see finden (v.)
fondin (v.) to test, try; tempt, test; find out, discover, experience; to concern, busy oneself about (imper. pl. fondin; pres. 1 sing. fondi; pres. 3 sing. fondeth; pres. pl. fondith; past sing. fondede; past pl. fondeden; past part. i-fondet, -ed) [OE]
fondunge (n.) temptation; testing, trying (pl. fondunges)
for- (prefix) adds 1) a pejorative emphasis to a word, often implying destruction or fragmentation, or 2) the sense of forward movement or advancing, 3) the idea of being ahead of or BEFORE something, 4) a general intensifying effect, like the adv. very
for (adv.) BEFOREHAND, previously; forward (in space or time) [OE]
for-bearneth (v., pres. 3 sing.) BURNS up, is consumed by fire (past part. forbearnd[e]) [OE]
for-beode (v., pres. subj. sing.) FORBID, prohibit, make impossible (pres. 1 sing. forbeode; past sing. forbeot; past part. forbode) [OE]
for-beoren (v.) to be patient, FORBEAR, put up with; to avoid, shun (pres. subj. pl. forbeoren; pres. 3 sing. forbereth; past sing. forber) [OE]
for-bisne (n.) example, pattern; precedent; parable, lesson, exemplum; symbol, omen (pl. forbisne) [OE]
for-bod (n.) prohibition, a FORBIDDING [OE]
for-bode(n) (adj., orig. past part.) FORBIDDEN [see for-beode (v.)]
for-buhen (v.) to escape; stop, refrain from; shun, avoid, disobey (pres. 3 sing. forbuheth; past pl. [ye] forbuhe) [OE]
for-culiende (v., pres. part.) charring, blackening (by heat) (past part. forculet) [origin obscure]
for-dede (n.) service, favor; DEED done FOR someone [OE; MED for(e)-dede]
for-demet (v., past part.) condemned, judged, DOOMED [OE]
for-don (v.) to destroy, undo, do away with (inflected inf. to fordonne)
for-druhede (adj. & v., past part.) DRIED up, withered [see druhieth (v.)]
for-drunke (adj. & v., past part.) very drunk, addicted to drink [OE]
fore (adv.) beforehand [OE]
fore-cwiddre (n.) prophet, foreteller [from OE; see fore (adv.) + cwiddeth (v.)]
for-eoden (v., past pl.) see for-gan (v.)
fore-ridles (n. pl.) FORE-RIDER, one who rides ahead, messenger; forerunner, pre-cursor; preliminary [from OE]
foreward (n.) agreement, pact [OE]
for-feareth (v.) perishes, is destroyed; goes to waste; goes astray, is mislead (past pl. forferden; pres. part. forfearinde) [OE]
for-fret (v., pres. 3 sing. [= forfreteth]) devours, gobbles up (past pl. forfreten) [from OE]
for-gan (v.) to FORGO, go without, omit; refuse, avoid (imper. pl. forgath; pres. 3 sing. forgeath; pres. pl. forgath; past pl. foreoden) [OE]
for-gneaieth (v., pres. 3 sing.) GNAWS up, away [OE]
for-gult(e) (adj., orig. past part.) (made) GUILTY, convicted with sin [OE]
for-hate (v.) to renounce [OE]
for-heaved (n.) FOREHEAD [OE]
for-hohien (v.) to neglect, disregard; despise, scorn, reject (imper. sing. forhohie; pres. 3 sing. forhoheth) [OE]
for-horin (v.) to WHORE around, prostitute (oneself); commit adultery (pres. subj. sing. forhori; past part. forhoret) [from OE]
for-hwi (adv.) WHY, for what reason, for which cause; (conj.) because, provided that [OE]
for-hwon (conj.) why, for what reason; for-hwon thet = provided that, as long as [see hwon (conj.)]
for-idelet (adj., orig. past part.) ruined by idleness [from OE]
for-keastunge (n.) rejection, casting away [OE + ON]
for-keorven (v.) to cut out, CARVE away (pres. subj. sing. forkeorve) [OE]
for-leavet (v., past part.) LEFT behind, abandoned [OE]
for-leosen (v.) to LOSE; destroy; (past part. as adj.) forloren = lost, damned (imper. sing. forleosen; pres. 3 sing./pl. forleoseth; past 2 sing. forlure; past 3 sing. forleas; past part. forloren[e]) [OE]
for-leten (v.) to abandon, forsake, give up [OE]
for-lorenesse (n.) perdition, destruction
forme (adj.) first [OE]
for-roteth (v., pres. 3 sing.) ROTS away, putrefies, goes bad [OE]
for-saken (v.) to renounce, refuse; FORSAKE, abandon (pres. subj. sing. forseke; past 2 subj. sing. forsoke; pres. 2 sing. forsakest; pres. 3 sing. forsaketh; past part. forsaken) [OE]
for-scaldet (v., past part.) SCALDED severely, or to death; destroyed by scorching [OF; see scaldinde (adj.)]
for-schuppeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) MISSHAPES, transforms; degrades, perverts (past part. for-schuppet) [OE]
for-schuppilt (n.) sorceress, one who transforms or deforms [see forschuppeth (v.) and -ild (suffix)]
for-seothen (v., pres. subj. pl.) scald, boil to death [OE; ModE seethe]
for-stoppith (v., imper. pl.) STOP, block up [*OE]
for-swolhen (v.) to devour, SWALLOW up (pres. 3 sing. forswolheth) [OE]
for-te, for-to (inf. marker) TO, in order to; (lit.) FOR TO
forth (adv.) forward (in time, place, or sequence); further; out (into view), away, out of doors; to an advanced point, far in (compar. forthluker) [OE]
forthe (adj.) away, gone [OE]
fortheth (v., pres. 3 sing.) FURTHERS, encourages, advances (past part. i-forthet; i-vorthet) [OE]
forth-fearen (v., past part.) FARED FORTH, passed on, departed; (fig.) dead [OE]
for-thi (adv. & conj.) therefore, for this reason; for-thi thet = (conj.) because; to the end that
forth-marhen (n.) late morning, i.e., advanced time in the morning [OE elements]
forthre (compar.) (adj.) before someone/ something in rank, position; more extended, advanced, FURTHER along; (adv.) to a greater extent, more; (of time) later; moreover [compar. of forth (adv.)]
forth-riht (adv.) immediately, straight away; directly forward [from OE]
forth-ward (adv.) from then on, from that time FORWARD; continually [OE]
forth-yong (n.) progress, advance, course; a GOING FORTH [OE]
for-warpe (v.) to throw off, cast off, reject (pres. 3 sing. forwarpeth; past part. forwarpe[n]) [OE]
for-weolewet (v., past part.) faded, withered [from OE]
for-wreiet (v., past part.) accused, charged (with a crime); handed over [OE]
for-wurthe(n) (v.) to degenerate into (something); to perish, die, be destroyed; become feeble, useless (pres. 3 sing./pl. forwurtheth; past part. forwurthen) [OE]
for-yef (v., imper. sing.) FORGIVE (pres. 3 sing. foryeveth)
for-yelde (v., pres. subj. sing.) repay, recompense [OE]
for-yeme (v.) to disregard, neglect (pres. 3 sing. foryemeth) [OE]
for-yeoten (v.) to FORGET (pres. 3 sing. foryeoteth, foryeteth, foryet; past pl. foryeten; past part. foryete[n]) [OE]
for-yevelich (adj.) FORGIVABLE
for-yevenesse (n.) FORGIVENESS [OE]
for-yeveth (v., pres. 3 sing.) see for-yef (v.)
fostreth (v., pres. 3 sing.) FOSTERS, nourishes, supports (past sing. fostrede) [OE]
fostrilt (n.) nurse, fosteress [see fostreth (v.) and -ild (suffix)]
fot (n.) FOOT (gen. sing. fotes; pl. fet, vet) [OE]
foth (v., pres. pl.) see feth (v.)
fother (n.) a cart-load; fig., a large amount; heavy weight, burden; crowd [OE]
fot-wunde (n.) FOOT WOUND (pl. fot-wunden)
fowr (adj.) FOUR [OE]
fowre (num.) FOUR
frakel(e) (adj.) vile, foul, wretched, worthless [OE]
freame (n.) benefit, profit, advantage; don freame = to do good (to someone) [OE]
freamien (v.) to help, aid, advance (someone); strengthen (someone) (pres. 3 sing. freameth) [OE]
frech (adj.) bold, impudent [OE]
frechliche (adv.) greedily; eagerly; boldly, fiercely [OE]
freini (v., pres. subj. sing.) make an inquiry; ask, request (imper. pl. freinith; pres. 3 sing. freineth) [OE; see Ger. fragen]
fremede (adj.) strange, unfamiliar [OE; see Ger. fremd "strange"]
freo (adj.) FREE; noble, generous (superlat. freoest) [OE]
freolec (n.) freedom (from servitude); nobility of character: kindness, generosity [OE]
freond (n.) FRIEND (gen. sing. freondes; pl. freond) [OE]
freondin (v.) to gain friends, befriend (someone) [from freond (n.)]
freoten (v., pres. subj. pl.) to eat, gobble up, devour (used mainly for animals); chew up, gnaw (pres. 3 sing. fret [= freteth]) [OE; see Ger. fressen]
freote-wil (adj.) ravenous, desirous of devouring
freres (n. pl.) FRIARS, brothers [OF]
Fridei (n.) FRIDAY (pl. Fridahes) [OE]
Fri-niht (n.) the NIGHT before Good FRIDAY; the night of Good Friday [OE]
from (adv.) away, apart [OE]
frommard (adj.) contrary, different (to, from = obj.) [OE]; (adv.) opposite; (of location) away to, away from; away at a distance, turned away; (of time) onward; (prep.) away from, out of, from; different from, contrary to [OE]
frommardschipe (n.) difference, contrariness, willfulness [see frommard (adj.)]
frotunge (n.) rubbing, polishing; working (of a metal by rubbing) [from OF froter "to rub"]
frovre (n.) comfort, encouragement (pl. frovren) [OE]
frovrin (v.) to comfort, encourage, cheer, help (imper. pl. frovrith; pres. subj. sing. frovri; pres. 3 sing. frovreth) [OE]
frumthe (n.) beginning, start; beginning (of the world), creation; early times [OE]
frut (n.) FRUIT [OF]
fuhel (n.) FOWL, bird (pl. fuheles; gen. pl. fuhelene) [OE]
fuhten (v., past pl.) see fehten (v.)
ful(e) (adj.) FOUL, dirty, nasty; wicked, evil, guilty; dishonest; convicted (compar. fulre; superlat. fuleste) [OE]
ful (adv.) fully, completely; very, quite; (with numbers) exactly [OE]
fulde (v., past sing.) FILLED [OE]
fule (v., imper. sing.) BEFOUL, besmirch, make dirty, filthy (pres. 3 sing. fuleth; past pl. fuleden; past part. i-fulet) [OE]
fule, fulle (adv.) FOULLY, disgustingly; badly; disgracefully, obscenely; insultingly [OE] ful-itohe(n) (adj., orig. past part.) badly disciplined, instructed, brought up; ill-mannered; careless, badly executed (pl. ful-itohene) [see fule (adv.) and teoth (v.)]
ful-itoheliche (adv.) ill-mannerly, in an undisciplined way
fulle (adv.) see fule (adv.)
fulle(n) (v.) to FILL, satisfy; fulfill, accomplish, complete (pres. 3 sing. fulleth; past sing. fulde; past part. i-fullet) [OE]
fulleliche (adv.) FULLY, completely [OE]
fulliche (adv.) FOULLY, in a dirty, nasty way
fulluht (n.) baptism [OE]
fulthe (n.) FILTH, filthiness, impurity, nastiness, vileness, corruption (pl. fulthen) [OE]
funde(n) (v.) see finden (v.)
fundles (n.) discovery; invention, innovation; windfall, treasure trove; (pl.) deeds, devices invented by the mind [OE; see finden (v.) + -(e)les (suffix)]
fur (n.) FIRE; Grickish fur = "Greek fire," burning liquid used as a military weapon (obj. sing. fure; gen. sing. fures) [OE]
furene (adj.) FIERY, burning [OE]
furme (adj. & adv.) first, earliest [OE]; (n.) FORM, shape, likeness, image [OF]
furthreth (v., pres. 3 sing.) FURTHERS, encourages [OE]
fustes (n. pl.) FISTS [OE]

gabbeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) mocks, scoffs [OF]
gal(e) (adj.) bitter, filled with GALL or bile [OE]
galle (n.) GALL; intensely bitter substance; (fig.) bitterness [OE]
galnesse (n.) lasciviousness, lust, lechery (gen. sing. galnesses) [OE]
gan (v.) to GO, walk (imper. sing. ga; imper. 2 sing. geast [tu]; imper. pl. gath; pres. subj. sing. ga; pres. 1 sing. ga; pres. 3 sing. geath; pres. pl. gath; past sing. eode; past pl. eoden; past part. i-gan) [OE]
garces (n. pl.) cuts, gashes [OF]
gast, geast (n.) spirit, soul (as opposed to the body); Hali Gast = the Holy Spirit, third person of the Trinity (gen. sing. gastes; pl. gastes) [OE]
gastelich(e) (adj.) spiritual, (GHOSTLY) [OE]
gat (n.) GOAT (pl. geat) [OE]
gate (n.) GATE, entryway to a house [OE]
gate-heorden (n. pl.) GOATHERDS
gavel (n.) usury, lending at interest; accrued interest; rent, payment; tribute, tax [OE gafol "tribute"]
geal-forke (n.) GALLOWS-FORK, a fork-shaped stake used as a gallows [from OE]
gealstrith (v., pres. pl.) barks, yelps; (MED mistakenly defines as "stinks"; see its entry for gelstren) [related to OE galan "to sing, cry out"]
gealunge (n.) pleasure [*OE]
gederin (v.) to join, unite; GATHER, collect; accumulate, acquire; gederinde (pres. part. as adj.) = acquisitive, grasping (imper. sing. gedere; pres. 1 sing. gederi; pres. 2 sing. gederest; pres. 3 sing. gedereth; pres. pl. gederith; past pl. gedereden; pres. part. gederinde; past part. i-gederet) [OE]
gederunge (n.) acquisition, accumulating (of wealth); GATHERING
geineth (v., pres. 3 sing.) GAINS; is of use, help [ON]
gelus(e) (adj.) JEALOUS; vigilant in guarding [OF]
gelusie (n.) JEALOUSY; zeal, vigilance in guarding (something) [OF]
general (adj.) GENERAL, not specific or limited, blanket [OF]
genterise (n.) nobility; graciousness, generosity; courtesy [OF]
gentil(e) (adj.) GENTLE, noble, of high birth; generous, kind [OF]
gentilliche (adv.) nobly, delicately, elegantly, exquisitely
gersum (n.) treasure, (valued) possessions or gift [OE, from ON]
gestnin (v.) to lodge, be a GUEST, stay as a guest (past sing. gestnede) [OE influenced by ON]
gestnunges (n. pl.) banquets, feasts; entertainments, lodging of guests, hospitalities [ON]
gigge (n.) a flighty, giddy girl (or boy); a coquette, flirt [imitative: gigge "something that whirls"; perhaps related to F. gigue "gawky young woman"]
gile (n.) GUILE, deceit [OF]
gingivre (n.) GINGER [OE gingifer, from Lat.]
giste (n.) lodging(s); guest [OE]
give-gaven (n. pl.) playthings, toys; GEWGAWS; fig., something trivial, worthless [a reduplication, orig. obscure]
Giwerie (n.) JEWISH quarter or district [OF]
glead(e) (adj.) GLAD, happy [OE]
gleadful(e) (adj.) GLAD, joyful (compar. gleadfulre)
gleadien (v.) to gladden, make glad, happy (imper. pl. gleadieth; pres. subj. sing. gleadie)
gleadliche (adv.) GLADLY, happily; willingly; gleadluker = more gladly, willingly, happily, etc. (compar. gleadluker)
gleadluker (adv.) see gleadliche (adv.)
gleadschipe (n.) gladness
gleadunge (n.) GLADDENING, joy
gleam (n.) brilliant light, GLEAM, flash, ray (pl. gleames) [OE]
gleden (n. pl.) live coals, embers [OE]
gleo (n.) entertainment, sport; mirth, joy; mockery, jest [OE; ModE glee]
gleowde (v., past sing.) made merry, enjoyed oneself; played (music), sang [OE; see gleo (n.)]
gles (n.) GLASS [OE]
gloire (n.) GLORY; (fig.) heaven [OF]
gloven (n. pl.) GLOVES [OE]
gluccheth (v., pres. 3 sing.) gulps down [*OE]
gluffeth (v., pres. 2 pl.) skip over, say wrongly [origin obscure - see MED gliffen (v.)]
gneat (n.) GNAT [OE]
gnedeliche (adv.) barely, frugally; miserly [*OE]
gnedure (adj., compar.) more frugal, more sparing [see gnedeliche (adv.)]
gnuddin (v.) to rub, scratch; crush, bruise (past pl. gnuddeden) [OE, from ON]
god (n.) GOOD, benefit; goods, wealth [OE]
god(e) (adj.) GOOD (old fem. obj. sing. goder - see heale [n.]) [OE]
Godd (n.) GOD (gen. sing. Godes) [OE]
god-dede (n.) a GOOD DEED (pl. god-deden) [OE; see Shepherd, p. 56n22/6]
Godd-head (n.) GODHEAD, divinity [OE]
godin (v.) to make GOOD, improve, better; to do good to, to benefit (a person) (past part. i-godet) [from god (adj.)]
godlec (n.) GOODNESS, kindness [ON]
Godspell (n.) GOSPEL, one of the four New Testament gospels (pl. Goddspelles) [OE]
gold-hord, golt-hord (n.) HOARD of GOLD, treasure (gen. sing. golt-hortes) [OE]
gold-smith, golt-smith (n.) GOLDSMITH [OE]
gomen (n.) joy, happiness; entertainment, revelry, music; athletic contest, GAME, bout (pl. gomenes) [OE]
gomnede (v., past sing.) played, sported, amused oneself (sometimes in a sexual sense) [from OE; see gomen (n.)]
gong-hus (n.) going-HOUSE, outhouse, toilet [from OE]
gong-men (n. pl.) toilet attendants
gong-thurl (n.) going-hole, toilet hole
granin (v.) to GROAN (pres. part. graninde) [OE]
grant (n.) GRANTING, consent; admission [OF]
grapi (v., pres. subj. sing.) feel, touch; handle, treat; probe, examine (pres. 3 sing. grapeth) [OE; ModE grope]
grapunge (n.) touching, feeling; caressing, fondling; questioning, probing [OE]
grea-hunz (n. pl.) GREYHOUNDS [OE]
greaste (adj.) see great (adj.)
great(e) (adj.) GREAT, large; coarse, rough (i.e., not fine); (pejorative) disgraceful, wicked; dangerous; haughty, insolent; (superlat.) greaste = GREATEST (compar. greattre, greatluker; superlat. greaste) [OE]
greatin (v.) to make GREAT, enlarge [OE]
greatluker (adj., compar.) see great (adj.)
greden (v.) to cry out, shout; wail; announce, publish (with a loud voice) (imper. sing. gred; pres. subj. sing. grede; pres. 3 sing. gredeth; past sing. gredde; past pl. gredden) [OE]
gredi (adj.) voracious, gluttonous, ravenous; GREEDY (for money) (compar. grediure?) [OE influenced by ON]
gref (n.) suffering, hardship, GRIEF [OF]
greie (adj.) GRAY [OE]
greithe (adj.) ready, prepared, willing; dressed, attired; skilled, informed; plain, direct; wealthy, powerful [ON]
greithede (v., past sing.) prepared, made ready (past part. i-greithet) [ON]
gremien (v.) to enrage, provoke (pres. 3 sing. gremeth) [OE]
grene (adj.) GREEN [OE]; (n.) GREEN foliage [OE]
greneth (v., pres. 3 sing.) GREENS, grows green [OE]
grennin (v.) to gnash the teeth, grimace; GRIN [OE]
grennunge (n.) grimacing, GRINNING [OE]
greot (n.) sand, gravel, small stones [OE; ModE grit]
grete(n) (v.) to GREET, welcome, say hello to; salute, hail (imper. pl. greteth; past sing. grette) [OE]
gretunge (n.) GREETING, salute (pl. gretunges)
grevi (v., pres. subj. sing.) oppress, harm; give pain, GRIEVE; cause grief, sorrow (pres. 2 sing. grevest; pres. 3 sing. greveth) [OF]
gridil (n.) GRIDDLE, the means of St. Lawrence's martyrdom [OF]
grim, grimme (adj.) GRIM, fierce, cruel, harsh (superlat. grimmest) [OE]
grimliche (adv.) GRIMLY, cruelly, fiercely; frightfully, terribly, horribly [OE]
grindel-stanes (n. pl.) GRIND-STONES [*OE]
grinden (v.) to GRIND (pres. 3 sing. grint [= grindeth]) [OE]
grinnen (v.) to grimace, snarl, growl; gape; to sneer, laugh unpleasantly [OE; see ModE grin]
gris (n.) piglet, young pig [ON]
grise (v., pres. subj. sing.) shudder, tremble (with fear, horror); be afraid (pres. 3 sing. griseth) [*OE]
grislich(e) (adj.) GRISLY, terrifying, horrific
grith (n.) peace, law and order; protection, shelter, refuge; sanctuary, haven; mercy, pardon, clemency [late OE, from ON]
grithful (adj.) peaceful, tranquil
grithful(l)nesse (n.) peacefulness, tranquillity
grome (n.) rage, anger, hostility; dispute; grief, sorrow, remorse; harm, injury; punishment [OE]
gromes (n. pl.) boys [origin obscure; see ModE groom]
grot (n.) a fragment, particle [OE; ModE groats "crushed grain"]
grucchi (v., imper. pl.) complain, grumble (pres. subj. sing. grucchi; past sing. gruchede; pres. part. grucchinde) [OF; related to ModE grouch]
grucchilt (n.) complaining woman (pl. grucchildes) [see grucchi (v.) and -ild (suffix)]
grucchunge, gruchunge (n.) grumbling, GROUCHING, complaining
grulleth (v., pres. 3 sing., impers.) trembles (with fear), is afraid) [*OE]
grunde (n.) bottom, depth; GROUND, earth; bringen to grunde = bring down, destroy [OE]
grune (n.) snare, trap; OED: "snare for catching birds or animals, made of cord, hair, wire, or the like, with a running noose" (pl. grunen) [OE]
grure (n.) horror, terror; pain, suffering [OE]
grureful(e) (adj.) terrifying, horrific
grurefulliche (adv.) horrifically, frighteningly
gruselin (v.) to munch, snack on
gruttene (adj.) bran, made of bran; coarse [from OE]
gulchen (v.) to drink greedily; to spew, spit, vomit; (fig.) to utter plainly and fully (pres. subj. sing. culche; pres. 3 sing. culcheth) [OE]
guldene (adj.) GOLDEN [OE]
gult (n.) fault, offense, sin, crime; GUILT (pl. gultes) [OE]
gulte (v., pres. subj. sing.) do wrong, misbehave, commit a crime; sin (pres. 1 sing. gulte; pres. 3 sing. gulteth; past sing. gulte; past pl. gulten) [OE]
gunfanuner (n.) standard bearer [derived in some obscure way from OF gunfalon; from Ger. *gunþ "war" + *fano "banner"]
gurde (v., past sing. & v., pres. subj. sing.) struck, rained blows on [OE]; (v., pres. subj. sing.) cinch, belt, GIRD (past part. i-gurd) [OE]
gurdel (n.) belt (pl. gurdles) [OE; ModE girdle]
gurdunge (n.) belting, the GIRDING of the body with a belt
gure-blode (n.) gushing, flowing BLOOD [from OE; see Zettersten (1965), p. 149]
gute-feastre (n.) flowing, running sore [see yeotteth (v.) + feastre (n.)]

ha (personal pron., 3 fem. sing. or 3 pl.) she; they [OE; see d'Ardenne (1961), p. 156]
habben (v.) to HAVE, possess; experience (a feeling); (a helping verb) (imper. sing. have; imper. pl. habbeth; pres. subj. sing. habbe, have; pres. subj. pl. habben; pres. 1 sing. habbe; pres. 2 sing. havest; pres. 3 sing. habbeth, haveth; pres. pl. habbeth; past 2 sing. hefdest; past 3 sing. hefde; past pl. hefden; past part. i-haved) [OE]
habit (n.) dress, clothing; HABIT, clothing signifying membership in a religious order [OF]
hacketh (v., pres. 3 sing.) HACKS, chops (past sing. hackede; past part. i-hacket) [*OE]
hades (n. pl.) offices, functions, persons [OE]
haggen (n. pl.) HAGS, harpies [*OE]
haher (adj.) skillful, clever [ON]
hal(e) (adj.) HEALTHY, healed, wholesome; intact, not damaged, whole, undivided (superlat. halest) [OE]
hald (n.) restraint, HOLD [OE]
halde(n) (v.) to HOLD, keep, protect; avail, do good, be of use (imper. sing. halde; imper. pl. haldeth; pres. subj. sing. halde; past subj. sing. heolde; pres. 2 sing. haldest; pres. 3 sing. halt, haldeth; pres. pl. haldeth; past sing. heold; past pl. heolden; past part. i-halden) [OE]
haldunge (n.) HOLDING, keeping
half (n.) part, side, direction; on Godes half = for God's sake, in God's name; on other half = on the other hand, at the same time (pl. halves) [OE]
halflunge (adv.) HALFWAY, partially; imperfectly [OE]
halhen (n. pl.) saints (gen. pl. halhene) [OE]
halheth (v., pres. 3 sing.) HALLOWS, sanctifies, purifies, make holy; halwende = purifying, hallowing (pres. part. halwende; past part. i-halhet) [OE]
hali (adj.) HOLY (pl. halie) [OE]
hali-dahne (adj.) HOLIDAY
halinesse (n.) HOLINESS [OE]
Hali-rode (n.) Hali-rode dei = Feast of the Holy Cross [from OE]
halle (n.) a HALL or residence [OE]
halnesse (n.) WHOLENESS, intactness, state of being intact
halse (v., imper. sing.) beseech, beg, entreat, plead (imper. pl. halseth; pres. 1 sing. halsi; pres. 3 sing. halseth; pres. part. halsinde; past part. i-halset) [OE]
halt (v., pres. 3 sing.) see halden (v.)
halve (n.) see half (n.)
halven-dal (n.) the HALF-part, a half; (adj.) half [see half (n.) + dale (n.)]
halwende (adj., pres. part.) HEALING [OE]
ham (adv.) HOMEWARDS
ham (e) (n.) HOME (pl. hames) [OE]
ham (personal pron., 3 pl., obj. form) them; (reflex.) themselves
ham-seolf, hamseolven (pron., reflex.) THEMSELVES
hanche-turn (n.) hip-move [AF + OF; see ModE haunch]
hardi (adj.) strong, stout, HARDY; secure, sure; bold, courageous; audacious, FOOLHARDY [OF, from Ger.]
hardiliche (adv.) HARDILY; forcefully, vigorously, violently; boldly, daringly; firmly
hare, heore (pron. pl., possessive) their
hat(e) (adj.) HOT (compar. hattre) [OE]
hate (v., pres. subj. sing.) order, command; call, name (imper. sing. hat; pres. 3 sing. hat [= hateth]; past part. i-haten) [OE]
hate, heate (n.) HEAT [OE]
hatte (v., pres. 3 sing.) is called, named (past part. het) [passive form of hate (v.)]
have (v.) see habben (v.)
haved-sunne (n.) see heaved-sunne (n.)
heafde, heafdes (n.) see heaved (n.)
healden (v.) to pour, throw out [OE hyldan]
heale (n.) HEALTH, benefit, healing, cure; state of happiness, prosperity; protection, help; salvation; to goder heale = to one's GOOD health, to one's benefit; to wrather heale = to one's destruction (lit.) to one's bad health [OE]
heale(n) (v.) to HEAL, cure (imper. sing. heal; pres. subj. sing. heale; pres. 3 sing. healeth; past sing. healde; past part. i-healet) [OE]
Healent (n.) Savior, HEALER [OE; see Ger. Heiland]
healewi (n.) sweet, HEALING liquid, syrup, or lotion; medical balm; antidote; (white) linctus [OE]
heap (n.) HEAP, pile [OE]
heard(e) (adj.) HARD, strong; heavy, difficult, severe; coarse, rough (compar. heardre; superlat. heardest) [OE]
hearde (adv.) HARD, heavily; harshly, cruelly [OE; see heard (adj.)]; (n.) coarse part of flax or wool, HARDS; rough garment, hair shirt (pl. heorden) [OE]
heardin (v.) to HARDEN, become tough [OE]
heare (n.) HARE [OE]
hearlot (n.) vagabond, beggar, layabout; scoundrel (pl. hearloz) [OF]
hearm (n.) HARM, injury, damage; trouble, distress (pl. hearmes) [OE]
hearmin (v.) to HARM, injure (pres. subj. sing. hearmi; pres. 2 sing. hearmest; pres. 3 sing. hearmeth; past part. i-hearmet) [OE]
hearmite (n.) HERMIT [OF]
heast(e) (n.) command, order, instruction; promise, vow, agreement (pl. heastes) [OE]
heatel (adj.) cruel, fierce, hostile [OE]
heaten (v.) to HEAT, make hot [OE]
heathenesse (n.) heathendom, heathen lands [OE]
heatien (v.) to HATE (pres. subj. sing. heatie; pres. subj. pl. heatien; pres. 2 sing. heatest; pres. 3 sing. heateth; pres. pl. heatieth; past sing. heatede) [OE]
heatunge (n.) HATE, hatred
heaved (n.) HEAD; (fig.) source, origin; leader; (quasi-adj.) chief, principal (pl. heafdes) [OE]
heaved-eche (n.) HEADACHE [see heaved (n.) + eche (n.)]
heaved-sunne (n.) capital SIN, deadly sin [see heaved (n.) + sunne (n.)]
heavie (adj.) HEAVY, weighty, profound; oppressive, hard to bear; (adv.) HEAVILY [OE]
hechhest (adj., superlat.) see heh (adj.)
hef (v.) see heoven (v.)
heh(e) (adj.) HIGH; exalted, lofty; arrogant, proud; noble, splendid; main, chief; (compar.) herre, herrure = higher; further above (in the text); sum-hwet herres = something higher (with old neuter -es) (compar. herre, herrure, herres; superlat. hehest, hechhest, hest) [OE]
hehi (v.) to raise, lift up; to rise, go up; worship, esteem (pres. subj. pl. hehin; past part. i-hehet, i-heiet) [from OE]
hehliche (adv.) HIGHLY, lavishly, in a noble way
hehnesse (n.) HIGHNESS, tallness, loftiness (of height, rank, or spirit) [OE]
hehschipe (n.) honor, place of honor, exultation; majesty, power; nobility, excellence; height, loftiness; loudness of voice (?)
hehunge (n.) raising, exaltation
heile (n.) health; state of happiness or prosperity; fortune, good luck, profit [OE]
hei-ward (n.) HAYWARDEN; OED: "An officer of a manor, township, or parish, having charge of the fences and enclosures, esp. to keep cattle from breaking through from the common into enclosed fields; sometimes, the herdsman of the cattle feeding on the common"
hel, heleth (v.) see heolen (v.)
hele (n.) HEEL [OE]
hellene (adj.) HELLISH, infernal [from OE]
helpe(n) (v.) to HELP (imper. pl. helpeth; past subj. sing. hulpe; pres. 3 sing. helpeth; past 2 sing. hulpe; past 3 sing. healp; past part. i-holpen) [OE]
hen (n.) HEN (gen. sing. henne; pl. hennen) [OE]
hende (adj.) courteous, fashionable, polite, gracious (superlat. hendest) [from OE]
hendeliche (adv.) courteously, politely; graciously
heo (personal pron.) see ha (personal pron.)
heole(n) (v.) to hide, conceal; cover (imper. sing. hel; pres. 1 sing. heole; pres. 3 sing. heleth; past part. i-hole[n]) [OE]
heom (personal pron., 3 pl.) see ham (personal pron.)
heonne (adv.) HENCE, away from here [OE]
heonne-ward, -wart (adv.) away from here, there [OE]
heorde (n.) HERD [OE]
heorde-monne (n., gen. sing.) HERD-MAN'S, herder's (gen. pl. heorde-menne) [from OE]
heorden (n. pl.) see hearde (n.)
heoren (pron. pl., possessive) theirs [see hare (pron. pl.)]
heorte (n.) HEART; chest, breast (gen. sing. heortes; pl. heorten) [OE]
heorteliche (adv.) HEARTILY; gladly
heoven (v.) to lift, raise up; exalt (in pride) (imper. sing. hef; past subj. sing. heve; pres. 3 sing. heveth; pres. pl. heoveth; past sing. hef; past part. i-hoven) [OE; ModE heave]
heovenliche (adv.) HEAVENLY, celestial
heove-riche (n.) HEAVEN-kingdom, kingdom of heaven (gen. sing. heove-riches) [OE; see riche (n.)]
heow (n.) form, shape, appearance; complexion; color, HUE (pl. heowes) [OE]
heowin (v.) to color; stain (lit. or fig.); to ornament; (past part. as adj.) i-heowet = colored (past sing. heowede; past part. i-heowet) [OE]
heowunge (n.) coloring, dyeing
her (adv.) HERE [OE]; (n.) HAIR [OE]
her-abuten (adv.) ABOUT or concerning this [from OE]
her-ayeines (adv.) AGAINST this, in contrast, distinction to this, in comparison with this
herbarhin (v.) to shelter, lodge, provide lodging (past sing. herbearede) [OE]
herbearhe (n.) lodging, shelter [see herbarhin (v.)]
her-bi (adv.) HEREBY; as a result of this, by this means [from OE]
her-bivoren (adv.) BEFORE this, earlier (in this text) [OE]
hercni (v.) to HEARKEN, listen to; attend to, pay attention to (imper. sing. hercne; imper. pl. hercnith; pres. 3 sing. hercneth; pres. pl. hercnith; pres. part. hercninde) [OE]
hercnunge (n.) hearing, the sense of hearing; listening
herc-wile (adj.) desirous of listening, eager to listen or HEARKEN [from OE]
here (n.) HAIR-cloth, hairshirt (pl. heren) [OE]
here(n) (v.) to HEAR, listen to; pay attention to (imper. pl. hereth; pres. subj. sing. here; pres. 2 sing. herest, herst; pres. 3 sing. hereth; past 2 sing. herdest; past sing. herde; pres. part. herinde; past part. i-herd) [OE]
her-efter (adv.) AFTER this
here-vore (adv.) for this reason, therefore; instead of, in consideration of this
here-word (n.) PRAISE-WORD, praise, glory; reputation [OE; see herien (v.)]
herie(n) (v.) to praise, laud (pres. 1 sing. herie; pres. pl. herieth; past sing. herede) [OE]
her-of (adv.) OF this, about this
herre (n.) superior, master [either from OE herra "master" (see Ger. Herr) or from herre (adj.), the compar. of heh "high"]
herre, herrure (adj., compar.) see heh (adj.)
her-towart (adv.) towards this, to this end
her-toyeines (adv.) in comparison to this, against this
herunge (n. 1) HEARING, sense of hearing; listening [see heren (v.)]; (n. 2) praise, worship; song of praise [see herien (v.)]
hervest (n.) fall, autumn; August [OE; see ModE harvest, Ger. herbst]
hest (n.) promise, vow [OE; see ModE behest]
hest(e) (adj., superlat.) see heh (adj.)
heste (n.) see heast (n.)
het (v., past part.) see hatte (v.)
hete-feste (adv.) see hete-veste (adv.)
heterliche (adv.) sternly, violently [from OE; related to ModE hate]
hete-veste, hete-feste (adv.) cruelly, hatefully, relentlessly; firmly, tightly, securely; (Bennett & Smithers) "with relentless firmness" [from OE]
hetter (n.) clothing; a garment, robe (pl. hettren) [OE]
heve, heveth (v.) see heoven (v.)
heved (n.) see heaved (n.)
hevi(e) (adj.) HEAVY, weighty; serious; sluggish, slow; sad [OE]
hevie (adv.) HEAVILY, with great weight [OE]
hevinesse (n.) HEAVINESS; sluggishness
hexte (n.) sorcerer; the devil [OE hœgtes "fury, witch, pythoness"; related to ModE hag]
hider (adv.) HITHER, towards this place; hider ne thider = here nor there, anywhere [OE]
hider-to (adv.) HITHERTO, up to this point [from OE]
hihful (adj.) speedy, prompt; hasty
hihin (v.) to hasten, hurry, rush, HIE (imper. sing. hihe; imper. pl. hihith; pres. subj. sing. hihe, hihi; pres. 1 sing. hihi; pres. 3 sing. hiheth) [OE]
hihthe (n.) haste, speed; exertion, impetuosity [OE]
himmere (adj.) inglorious, miserable (?)
[see Textual Note to 2.623; MED: "?Error for unmere; cp. OE unmære. Excrescent initial h is rare in Ancr., rare in the pref. un- in ME generally"]
hind-ward (adv.) BACKWARDS [OE]
hine (personal pron., 3 masc. sing., obj. form) him [OE hine]
hird (n.) household, family; company of servants, members of court; (fig.) heavenly retinue [OE]
hire, hiren (personal pron., 3 fem. sing., possessive) HER; (reflex.) herself; hiren = hers
hit (pron., 3 neut./masc. sing.) IT, his
hod (n.) HOOD, cowl (of a habit) [OE]
hofles (adj.) immoderate, excessive; unreasonable, senseless [ON]
hoker (n.) contempt, scorn, disdain; mockery, derision (obj. sing. hokere; pl. hokeres) [OE]
hokerin (v.) to scorn, mock, spite [from hoker (n.)]
hokerlich (adj.) scornful, spiteful, mocking
hokerunge (n.) scorn, mockery, spite, derision
hole (n.) hollow space; cave, den; HOLE (pl. holen) [OE]
holieth (v., pres. sing./pl.) makes HOLES, burrows, digs [OE]
holin (n.) HOLLY [OE]
homeres (n. pl.) HAMMERS [OE]
homicide (n.) murder [OF]
hommen (n.) the knee joint or back of the knee; with hommen i-falden = kneeling (lit., with folded knee-joints) [OE]
hond (n.) HAND; (fig.) control, power; on hond = as time goes by (see OED, hand, 32f); honde = to hand, handy (obj. sing. honde; pl. honden) [OE]
honde (adv.) to HAND, handy
hond-hwile (n.) instant, moment; (lit.) HAND time [OE]
hondlin (v.) to HANDLE, touch; treat (pres. subj. sing. hondli; past sing. hondlede) [OE]
hondlunge (n.) touching
hongin (v., passive inf.) to HANG; be hung (pres. 3 sing. hongeth; past sing. hongede; pres. part. honginde; past part. i-hongede) [OE]
hopien (v.) to HOPE; look for, expect; to trust, have confidence in; to think, suppose (pres. 1 sing. hopie; pres. pl. hopieth) [OE]
hord (n.) HOARD, cache [OE]
hore (n.) WHORE, prostitute; lewd woman; hore ehe = a whore's eye, "immodest looks" (Zettersten [1965],
p. 218) (gen. sing. hore) [OE]
horedom (n.) prostitution, fornication, adultery; illicit sex; WHOREDOM
hosen (n. pl.) stockings [OE]
hu (adv.) HOW; in what way, in the way, as; (interj.) hey!, HO! (interjection used to call attention to something) [OE]
huckel (n.) cloak, cover; (fig.) pretense [OF]
hude (n.) skin, HIDE [OE]
hudeles, hudles (n.) a secret place, HIDING place; refuge [OE; related to huden (v.)]
huden (v.) to HIDE, conceal; (fig.) protect, preserve; (past part. as adj.) i-hudde = hidden, concealed (imper. sing. hud; pres. 1 sing. hude; pres. 2 sing. hudest; pres. 3 sing./pl. hudeth; past sing. hudde; past. part. i-hud) [OE]
hudunge (n.) HIDING
hukel (n.) cloak, mantle [OF, see Zettersten (1970), p. 241]
hul (n.) HILL (pl. hulles) [OE]
hulen (n. pl.) shelters, huts, tents (pl. hulen) [OE; related to hulien (v.)]
hulie(n) (v.) to hide, conceal (pres. 3 sing. huleth; pres. pl. hulieth; past part. i-hulet) [*OE or ON]
hulpe (v., past) see helpen (v.)
hulunge (n.) covering, concealing
hund (n.) dog, HOUND (gen. sing. hundes; pl. hundes) [OE]
hungri (adj.) HUNGRY [OE]
hungrin (v.) to HUNGER, to feel or grow hungry (pres. 3 sing. hungreth; past sing. hungrede) [OE]
huni (n. as adj.) HONEY [OE]
hunti (v.) to HUNT, chase after; seek eagerly (pres. 3 sing. hunteth; past sing. huntede) [OE]
hupe (n.) HIP [OE]
hurd (n.) see hurt (n.)
hure (adv.) at least, least of all, at any rate; especially, particularly; (sometimes doubled with same meaning) hure ant hure [OE huru "at least, indeed"]
hure (n.) HIRE, wages, pay; reward [OE]
hure (v.) to HIRE, pay someone, to reward; to bribe [OE]
huriunge (n.) HEARING [OE]
hurlith (v., pres. pl.) to rush; jostle, collide [imitative; ModE hurl]
hurlunge (n.) jostling, collision; tumult, uproar
hurnen (n. pl.) corners, nooks; hiding-places [OE]
hurt, hurd (n.) a knock, blow, (physical) injury; HURT, injury (pl. hurtes) [see hurten (v.)]
hurten (v.) to knock, strike (against); to wound, inflict pain, HURT (pres. subj. sing. hurte; pres. 3 sing. hurteth; past sing. hurte; past part. i-hurt) [OF]
hurtunge (n.) HURTING, injury; hitting
hus (n.) HOUSE (often used to indicate the anchorhold) (obj. sing. huse; pl. huses) [OE]
husel (n.) the Eucharist, HOUSEL [OE]
huse-wif (n.) HOUSEWIFE, woman in charge of a household [OE]
husewifschipe (n.) managing a household, HOUSEWIFERY [see huse-wif (n.)]
hus-leafdi (n.) HOUSE-LADY, lady or mistress of the house [from OE]
hus-thurles (n. pl.) HOUSE-WINDOWS, -openings [see thurl (n.)]
hut (pres. 3 sing.) see huden (v.)
huve (n.) cap, turban [OE]
hwa (pron.) WHO (obj. form: hwam "whom"; gen. hwas "whose") [OE]
hwar-se (adv.) see hwer-se (adv.)
hwa-se (pron.) WHOSOEVER, whoever [from OE]
hweat (pron.) see hwet (pron.)
hweate (n.) WHEAT [OE]
hwelp (n.) WHELP, pup; young of various wild animals; (the pejorative meaning, offspring of a noxious creature, first appears in the fourteenth century according to the MED) (gen. sing. hwelpes; pl. hwelpes) [OE]
hwen, hwenne, hweonne (adv. & conj.) WHEN [OE]
hwen-se (adv.) whenever; (with a following eaver) WHENSOEVER
hweol (n.) WHEEL, circle; wheel (as instrument of torture) (pl. hweoles) [OE]
hweolinde (adj., pres. part.) revolving, turning, WHEELING [from hweol (n.)]
hwer (adv. & conj.) WHERE [OE]
hwer-of (adv.) from WHERE, from which
hwer-se (adv.) WHERESOEVER, wherever
hwer-thurh, hwar-thurch (adv.) THROUGH what, through which, by what, by which
hwer-to (adv. & interrog.) to what; to what end, for what purpose, why
hwer-vore (adv.) WHEREFORE, for what reason, why
hwet, hwat (pron.) WHAT
hwet (pron. & interrog.) WHAT [OE]
hwether (conj.) WHETHER; (pron.) which (of two); hwetheres = whose (of two); (interrog.) WHETHER, (particle marking a general question, usually not translated) (gen. sing. hwetheres) [OE]
hwet-se (pron.) WHATSOEVER, whatever [OE]
hwi (adv. & interrog.) WHY [OE]
hwic, hwiche (adj.) see hwuc (adj.)
hwider (adv.) WHITHER, to where, to what place [OE]
hwider-ward (adv.) TOWARDS what place
hwil(e) (conj.) WHILE, during the time that; (n.) time, WHILE; hard-spent time, effort; the hwile = in the meantime, for the time being; ane hwile = for while [OE]
hwile (adv.) at times; hwile . . . hwile = at one time . . . at another time [OE]
hwiles (adv.) the hwiles = for, until that time [OE; ModE while]
hwilinde (adj., pres. part.) temporary, passing [OE]
hwit (n.) WHITE food, food made from milk [OE]
hwit(e) (adj.) WHITE (compar. hwittre) [OE]
hwitel (n.) bed cover, sheet [from hwit(e) (adj.)]
hwiteth (v., pres. 3 sing.) WHITENS, grows white [OE]
hwon (conj.) for hwon = as long as, provided that [OE]
hwuc(h), hwucche (adj.) what, WHICH; what kind of [OE]

i- (prefix) the i- prefix usually marks the past participle of verbs: for these, see the base form (without i-), if it exists; in a few cases, the i- prefix appears as part of the main verb, where it adds a general sense of completion to the meaning of the stem. These forms are listed here, along with any original past participles which had become frozen adjectives.
i, in(e) (prep.) IN, on; into, onto [OE]
i-biddeth (v., imper. pl.) pray (reflex.) [OE]
i-bocket (v., past part.) BOOKED, recorded (in a book); prophesied [OE]
i-boht (v., past part.) see buggen (v.)
i-bollen (v., past part.) see bolheth (v.)
i-boren (v., past part.) see beoren (v.)
i-borenesse (n.) birth [from past part. i-boren "born"]
i-borhen (v., past part.) (only in past part.) saved, rescued; granted salvation [OE]
i-broht (v., past part.) see bringen (v.)
i-broke, i-broken, i-brokene (v., past part.) see breoken (v.)
i-bunden (v., past part.) see binden (v.)
i-caht (v., past part.) see kecchen (v.)
i-calenget (v., past part.) see chalengest (v.)
ich (pron. 1 sing.) I [OE]
i-cluht (adj. & v., past part.) clenched, grasping, tight-fisted; (lit.) CLUTCHED [OE]
i-clumben (v., past part.) see climben (v.)
i-cnawen (v.) to identify, recognize, distinguish; KNOW, perceive; acknowledge, admit, confess; (past part. as adj.) i-cnawen = well known, famous; i-cnawen is = confesses, admits; beo i-cnawes = confess, admit (-es = old adj. ending) (pres. subj. sing. i-cnawe; pres. 3 sing. i-cnaweth; past part. i-cnawen) [OE]
i-cnottet (adj. & v., past part.) KNOTTED [OE]
i-colet (v., past part.) COOLED [OE]
i-corene (adj. & v., past part.) chosen (ones) [see cheosen (v.)]
i-corven (v., past part.) see keorve (v.)
i-cravet (v., past part.) CRAVED, asked earnestly, begged [OE]
i-cruchet (adj. & v., past part.) see cruchen (v.)
i-cud (v., past part.) see cuthen (v.)
i-cunnet (adj. & v., past part.) born, of family or KIN [from cunne (n.), fashioned into a past part.-like word]
i-curet (v., past part.) chosen [related to cheosen (v.)]
i-cweme (adj.) pleasing, agreeable, acceptable [OE]
idel(e) (adj.) IDLE, empty, vain; (n.) idle person; idleness [OE]
idelnesse (n.) vanity; IDLENESS, avoidance of work (pl. idelnesses)
i-demet (v., past part.) see demen (v.)
i-doddet (adj. & v., past part.) shorn (used of the hair) [from ME dodden]
i-dolven (v., past part.) see delven (v.)
i-don (v.) to DO, perform [OE]
i-evenet (v., past part.) see eveneth (v.)
i-falden (v., past part.) FOLDED, bent [OE]
i-feiet (v., past part.) see feieth (v.)
i-fele (v., pres. subj. sing.) FEEL, touch (pres. 3 sing. i-feleth; past part. i-felet) [OE; see felen (v.)]
i-fere (n.) companion, mate, comrade (pl. i-feren) [OE; related to fearen (v.)]
i-ferhet (v., past part.) see ferhen (v.)
i-finde(n) (v.) to FIND out, discover (past subj. sing. i-funde; pres. 3 sing. i-fint, i-find, i-findeth; pres. pl. i-findeth; past sing. i-fond; past part. i-funde[n]) [OE]
i-fluret (v., past part.) FLOWERED; flourished; (helping verb is = has) [see flures (n.)]
i-fole(n) (adj. & v., past part.) (lit.) entered, begun; about (to do something), on the point (of); i-fole o slepe = fallen asleep, or, on the point of sleep [see feleth (v.); related to and often confused with fallen (v.); see Shepherd, p. 45]
i-fond (v., past sing.) see i-finden (v.)
i-gracet (v., past part.) thanked, blessed [OF]
i-hal(e) (adj.) WHOLE, intact, undamaged [see hal(e) (adj.)]
i-haten (v., past part.) see hate (v.)
i-heafdet (adj. & v., past part.) HEADED; hal i-heafdet = clear headed [see heafde (n.)]
i-heiet (v., past part.) see hehi (v.)
i-heortet (adj., orig. past part.) HEARTED, with the heart disposed in a certain way [from OE]
i-heren (v.) to HEAR, listen to (pres. pl. i-hereth) [OE]
i-heveget (v., past part.) made HEAVY, weighed down; oppressed [OE]
i-holpen (v., past part.) see helpen (v.)
i-hongede (adj. as n., orig. past part.) HUNG, people who have been hung [from hongin (v.)]
i-hoven (v., past part.) see heoven (v.)
i-hudde (adj., orig. past part.) HIDDEN [see huden (v.)]
i-huslet (v., past part.) given the Eucharist, HOUSELED [OE]
i-hwer, i-hwear (adv.) everywhere; at all times [OE]
i-impet (v., past part.) (of trees) grafted, inserted [OE; see impe (n. pl.)]
i-kepen (v.) to take (something on oneself), receive; to expect, anticipate (pres. subj. sing. i-kepe; pres. 3 sing. i-kepeth; past sing. i-kepte) [late OE; see kepe (v.)]
i-lacet (v., past part.) LACED [OF]
i-laht (v., past part.) see lecche (v.)
i-latet (adj., orig. past part.) behaved, having a certain kind of attitude or behavior [see lates (n.)]
-ild, -ilt (suffix) (a n. ending which indicates a female doer) -ess [origin obscure]
i-leadet (adj.) LEADED, with lead tips attached [OE]
i-leanet (adj., orig. past part.) LOANED [OE; see lane (n.)]
i-lecchet (v., past part.) caught, captured [OE; related to lecche (v.)]
i-leid (v., past part.) see leggen (v.)
iles-piles (n., gen. sing.) hedgehog's [from OE: il "hedgehog" + pil "prickle"]
i-leven (v.) to believe firmly (imper. pl. i-leveth) [OE]
i-lich(e) (adj.) like, similar to (often with obj.); (adv.) equally, similarly; (conj.) LIKE
i-liche (n.) LIKE, equal, equivalent [see i-lich(e) (adj., etc.)]
i-licnesse (n.) LIKENESS, image [OE]
i-limet (v., past part.) stuck (together), cemented, adhered; joined, united [OE; see lim (n. 2)]
i-limpen (v.) to happen, occur (pres. 3 sing. i-limpeth; past sing. i-lomp; past part. i-lumpen) [see limpe (v.)]
ilke (adj.) previously mentioned, the same, the very (one, thing); (pron.) that same one, very person or thing [OE]
i-lome (adv.) often, frequently [OE]
i-lomp, i-lumpen (v.) see i-limpen (v.)
i-meane (adj.) shared, common; held in common, together [OE; see Ger. gemein "common"]
i-membret (adj.) MEMBERED, having members; divided into links (or, perhaps, decorative panels) [from OF]
i-mene (adv.) together, jointly, in common; in a body [OE]
i-mengt (v., past part.) see mengde (v.)
i-mette (v., past sing.) MET, came together with [OE]
i-mid (prep.) AMID, in the middle, midst of [OE]
i-mist (v., past part.) MISSED, noticed the loss of [OE]
i-mong (prep.) among, in, amidst [OE]
impe (n. pl.) young shoots or saplings; grafted branches [OE]
i-munt (v., past part.) see munten (v.) or i-munten (v.)
i-munten (v.) to intend, resolve (to do something) (past part. i-munt) [OE]
in (n.) INN, lodging, dwelling [OE]
-inde (pres. part. ending) = ModE -ing
i-neilet (v., past part.) NAILED [OE]
inne (adv.) IN, inside
in-obedience (n.) DISOBEDIENCE [OF]
i-noh(e), i-noch (adj.) ENOUGH; (adv.) enough, sufficiently [OE]
inoh-reathe (adv.) readily ENOUGH, quickly, eagerly; very rashly [see i-noh (adj.) + reathere (adv.)]
inre (adj.) INNER [OE]
in-read (adj.) very RED, ruddy [in- here is an intensifier]
in-turn (n.) coming, visit; a "TURNING IN" [OE + OF]
i-nume, inumen(e) (v., past part.) see neomen (v.)
in-ward(e) (adj.) INWARD, profound, deep; earnest, deeply felt [OE]
in-wardliche (adv.) INWARDLY; intimately, thoroughly, fervently, profoundly; secretly, silently, to oneself (compar. inwardluker; superlat. inwardlukest) [OE]
in-wit (n.) conscience [a ME word, formed from in- "interior" + wit "knowledge," not related to OE inwit "deceit"]
in-with (adv.) WITHIN, on the inside; (prep.) within, inside of
in-wuniende (adj., pres. part.) in-dwelling [see wunien (v.), based on Lat. inhabitare]
in-yong (n.) entrance; (fig.) entry, beginning, opportunity; permission [OE; see Ger. eingang]
i-paiet (v., past part.) see paien (v.)
i-pliht (v., past part.) see plihten (v.)
i-readet (v., past part.) REDDENED, made red [OE]
i-rend (v., past part.) RENT, torn, stripped [OE; ModE rend]
irene (adj.) IRON, made of iron
i-riht (v., past part.) see rihten (v.)
irn (n.) IRON; mail-shirt made of iron (used to mortify the flesh); iron bit of a bridle (gen. sing. irnes) [OE]
i-rotet (v., past part.) ROOTED, established [late OE, from ON]
i-rudet (v., past part.) reddened, made RUDDY [from OE]
i-sahtnet (v., past part.) see sahtni (v.)
i-scandlet (adj. & v., past part.) SCANDALIZED, shocked; injured by evil example, led astray [later occurrences preserve the etymological sense of "stumble, cause to stumble"; see scandle (n.)]
i-schake (adj., orig. past part.) violent, SHAKEN [see schaken (v.)]
i-schaven (v., past part.) SHAVEN [OE]
i-scheod (adj. & v., past part.) SHOD, with shoes on [from OE]
i-schriven, i-scrive (v., past part.) see schriven (v.)
i-schrud (v., past part.) see schruden (v.)
i-sealet (adj., orig. past part.) SEALED; OED: "Bearing the impression of a signet in wax (or other material), as evidence or guarantee of authenticity" [OF]
i-seo(n) (v.) to SEE, look on; observe, perceive; visit (pres. subj. sing. i-sehe; pres. 1 sing. i-seo; past sing. i-seh [OE]
i-slein(e) (v., past part.) see slean (v.)
i-smaket (v., past part.) adorned (Vitellius translates acemee "adorned") [OE smacian "to allure, seduce"]
i-soht (v., past part.) see sechen (v.)
i-sompnet (v., past part.) joined, gathered [OE; see Ger. sammeln "to collect"]
i-sontet (v., past part.) SAINTED, made saints [OE, from Lat.]
i-spearet (v., past part.) see spearien (v.)
i-spenet (v., past part.) SPENT [*OE]
i-staket (v., past part.) STAKED, tied to a stake [from OE]
i-sticchet (adj. & v., past part.) STITCHED, fastened, sewn up [from OE]
i-straht(e) (v., past part.) see streche (v.)
i-stunt (v., past part.) stopped, ceased; stupefied, exhausted [OE]
i-sturbet (v., past part.) DISTURBED, upset [OF; clipped form of disturb]
i-sutelet (v., past part.) see suteli (v.)
i-swipt (v., past part.) SWEPT (away) [*OE]
i-sworen (v., past part.) see swerien (v.)
i-swunken (v., past part.) see swinken (v.)
i-tachet (v., past part.) ATTACHED, fastened [OF]
i-taht (v., past part.) see teachen (v.)
i-tald (v., past part.) see tellen (v.)
i-tawet (adj. & v., past part.) (of leather) tanned; softened, broken-in [OE]
i-techen (v.) to deliver, bestow; TEACH, instruct [OE]
i-teiet (v., past part.) see teith (v.)
i-teilet (adj.) TAILED, having a certain kind of tail [OE; from teil (n.)]
i-thench (v., imper. pl.) THINK, think about [OE]
i-thoht (v., past part.) see thenchen (v.)
i-thoncket (adj. & v., past part.) thoughted, minded [from OE ge-þanc "thought"]; see thonkin (v.)
i-thorschen (v., past part.) see thersche (v.)
i-thuht (v., past part.) see thunchen (v.)
i-toh, i-tohene (v., past part. as adj.) see teoth (v.)
i-toren (v., past part.) see tereth (v.)
i-trusset (adj. & v., past part.) see trusse (v.)
i-tuht (v., past part.) taught, instructed, disciplined [OE; see ModE tighten]
i-turplet (v., past part.) see torplin (v.)
i-uppet (v., past part.) see uppin (v.)
i-veiet (v., past part.) see feieth (v.)
i-vithered (v., past part.) FEATHERED, equipped with a feather [OE]
i-vorthet (v., past part.) see fortheth (v.)
i-warth (v., past sing.) see i-wurthen (v.)
i-weallet (v., past part.) boiled [OE]
i-weddet (v., past part.) married, WED [OE; see wed (n.)]
i-weiet (v., past part.) see weien (v.)
i-wis, i-wiss (adv.) certainly, assuredly; indeed [OE]
i-wist (v., past part.) see witen (v. 1)
i-wite (v., past part.) see witen (v. 2)
i-wonet (v., past part.) see wunien (v.)
i-wordet (adj.) WORDED [from word (n.)]
i-wraht(e) (v., past part.) see wurchen (v.)
i-wriyen (v., past part.) see wrihen (v.)
i-wunnen (v., past part.) WON, gained [OE]
i-wurthe(n) (v.) to happen, occur; to become, be; let i-wurthen = to let (something) be, leave alone (pres. subj. sing. i-wurthe; pres. 3 sing. i-wurtheth, i-wurth; past sing. i-warth; past part. i-worthen) [OE; see wurthen (v.)]
i-yemen (v.) to pay attention (to), care about, attend to [see yemen (v.)]
i-yeve(n) (v., past part.) see yeoven (v.)

juggi (v.) to JUDGE [OF]
juglurs (n. pl.) minstrel, singer; entertainer (usually itinerant); JUGGLER, dancer; (pejorative) enchanter, deceiver (pl. juglurs) [OF]
jurnee (n.) (a day's) JOURNEY [OF]

kaue (n.) one of several birds of the crow family: crow; jackdaw, jay [OF, imitative; see ModE caw]
kealch-cuppe (n.) tosspot, drunkard [kealch- perhaps related to gulchen (v.) "to vomit"]
keast (n.) see chast (n.)
keaste(n) (v.) to CAST, throw, toss; set (past part. i-keast) [ON; see d'Ardenne (1961), pp. 159-61]
kecchen (v.) to hunt for, chase; CATCH, capture; seize, lay hold of (imper. sing. keche; pres. subj. sing. kecche; pres. 3 sing. kecheth, past sing. cahte; past part. i-caht) [ONF, related to ModE chase]
keiser (n.) emperor (pl. keisers) [ON, from Lat. Caesar]
kempe (n.) fighter, warrior (gen. pl. kempene) [OE]
kempe-ifere (n.) fellow fighter [see kempe (n.) + i-fere (n.)]
kene (adj.) bold, brave; eager, ready, daring; fierce, savage, cruel; sharp, KEEN, pointed; pungent; shrewd, observant [OE]
kenneth (v., pres. 3 sing.) declares, makes known [OE, related to cunnen (v.); see ModE phrase beyond our ken]
keorfunge (n.) see keorvunge (n.)
keorve (v., pres. subj. sing.) cut; slash, injure by cutting; keorvinde (pres. part. as adj.) = cutting, sharp (past subj. sing. kurve; past sing. kearf; pres. part. keorvinde; past part. i-corven) [OE; ModE carve]
keorvunge (n.) cutting; cut, gash
kepe (v.) to KEEP, hold; care (for), desire; to notice, regard; try to catch, wait for; greet (past subj. sing. kepte; pres. 1 sing. kepe; pres. 3 sing. kepeth; past sing. kepte; past part. i-kepte) [late OE; see also i-kepen (v.)]
kimeth (v.) see cumen (v.)
kinedom (n.) KINGDOM (pl. kinedomes) [OE]
ku (n.) COW (gen. sing. kues) [OE]
kun (n.) see cun (n.)
kunne(n) (v.) see cunnen (v.)
kurve (v.) see keorve (v.)

lachhere (adj.) see lah (adj.)
lachyen (v.) see lahhen (v.)
lade (n.) LOAD, burden [OE]
ladlechin (v.) to disfigure, spoil, render LOATHsome [from ladlich (adj.)]
ladles (adj.) see lathles (adj.)
ladlich(e) (adj.) hateful, disgusting, horrible, LOATHLY (superlat. ladlukeste) [OE]
ladliche (adv.) fiercely, angrily; harshly, seriously; in a cowardly way, basely; disgustingly, in a LOATHSOME way; wickedly
lah(e) (adj.) LOW; humble, brought low; base, contemptible (compar. lahre, lachhere; compar. gen. sing. lahres) [ON]
lahe (n.) LAW [OE]
lahe, lahhe (adv.) LOW, in a low position; humbly [ON]
lahedest (v., past 2 sing.) humbled, brought LOW [see lah (adj.)]
lahhen (v.) to LAUGH (imper. pl. lahheth; pres. 3 sing. laheth, lahheth; pres. part. lah(h)inde) [OE]
lahnesse (n.) LOWLINESS, humility
lahschipe (n.) LOWLINESS, humility
lahte (v., past sing.) see lecche (v.)
lahter (n.) LAUGHTER (pl. lahtren) [OE]
lahtre(n) (n.) see lahter (n.)
lakes (n. pl.) gifts, offerings [OE]
land-uvel (n.) LAND disease; epidemic, pestilence
lane (n.) LOAN; to lane = as a loan [OE]
lanhure (adv.) at least [from OE]
lare (n.) teaching, LORE [OE; see learen (v.)]
larewes (n. pl.) teachers [OE; see lare (n.)]
large (adj.) generous, bountiful; ample, abundant; wide, LARGE (compar. largere) [OF]
largeliche (adv.) freely, copiously
largesce (n.) generosity, LARGESSE [see large (adj.)]
lastin (v.) to blame, find fault with (imper. sing. laste) [ON]
lastunge (n.) blame, detraction
lates (n. pl.) gestures, expressions; bearing, behavior, way; facial expression, aspect; appearance; pretense, false seeming [ON]
lath (adj.) hostile, spiteful; LOATHSOME, repulsive, hateful (compar. lathre, superlat. lathest) [OE]
lathi (v., pres. subj. sing.) be hateful, unpleasant; (impers.) thet him lathi = so that (it) may be hateful to him
lathles (adj.) innocent, harmless [from lath (adj.) + -les "LESS"]
lave (n.) remnant, legacy, what is LEFT [OE]
laverd (n.) LORD: a human lord, or God (gen. sing. laverdes) [OE]
laz (n.) a silken cord, cord of braided silk [OF; ModE lace]
leaddre (n.) LADDER [OE]
leaddre-steolen (n. pl.) LADDER-uprights, sides (of a ladder) [from OE]
leade(n) (v.) to LEAD, bring; conduct (one's life) (imper. sing. lead; pres. subj. sing. leade; pres. 3 sing. leadeth, leat; pres. 2 pl. leadeth; past sing. leadde; past part. i-lead) [OE]
leaf, leafde (v.) see leaven (v.)
leafdi (n.) LADY, either a woman of the nobility or the Virgin (pl. leafdis) [OE]
leafdiluker (adj., compar.) more LADYLIKE, more like a noble woman
leafdischipe (n.) LADYSHIP; standing, rank as a lady
leane (adj.) LEAN, emaciated [OE]
leapen (v.) to LEAP, jump; leap upon; dance; run; (pres. part.) leapinde = leaping (pres. subj. sing. leape; pres. 3 sing. leapeth; past sing. leop; pres. part. leapinde) [OE]
leapes (n. pl.) LEAPS; baskets, measures (?) [related either to leapen (v.) or to OE hleap "measure"]
learen (v.) to teach, instruct; to learn (pres. 3 sing. leareth; past sing. learde; past part. i-learet) [OE; see Ger. lehren "to teach"]
leas(e) (adj.) false, lying, untruthful; faithless; LOOSE, immoral [see leas (n.)]
leas, les (n.) falsehood, lie [OE]
leasketh (v., pres. 3 sing.) weakens, lowers in quality, loosens, slackens [OF, from Lat. laxare "to loosen"]
leasse, lasse (adj. & adv.) LESS (compar. of lut [adj.]) [OE]
least (adj.) LEAST, least substantial, important; (adv.) least, in the least way, at all (superlat. of lut [adj.])
leaste (adj.) LAST, previously mentioned (superlat. of lut [adj.]) [OE]
leasten (v.) to LAST, continue; stop, pause (pres. 3 sing. least, leasteth; pres. pl. leasteth) [OE]
leasunge (n.) lie, lying tale, falsehood (pl. leasunges) [OE]
leat (v., pres. 3 sing.) see leaden (v.)
leate (adv.) slowly, reluctantly; LATE, after a long time; much later; recently, lately (compar. leatere) [OE]
leate-meste (adj.) final, LATEMOST, latest, last; lowest in rank, humblest [OE]
leathie (v., imper. pl.) to invite, call, summon (pres. 3 sing. leathieth; past sing. leathede) [OE; see Ger. einladen "to invite"]
leaththe (n.) hostility, ill-will [OE, from lath (adj.)]
leattre (n.) LETTER; literal meaning (pl. leattres) [OF]
leave (n.) permission, LEAVE [OE]
leaveden (v., past pl.) washed, flowed [OE, from Lat.; see ModE lavatory]
leaven (v.) to LEAVE; abandon, desert, give up; stop, omit; to depart; persist, endure; stay, remain, linger; leave (as an inheritance) (imper. sing. leaf; imper. pl. leaveth; pres. subj. sing. leave; pres. 1 sing. leave; pres. 3 sing. leaveth; past 2 sing. leafdest; past sing. leafde; past pl. leafden; past part. i-leavet) [OE]
lecche (v., pres. subj. sing.) catch, snatch, seize, LATCH onto; trap, snare; take, receive, get; catch (a sickness) (pres. 3 sing. lecheth; past sing. lahte; past part. i-laht) [OE]
leccherie (n.) LECHERY, sinful lust (pl. leccheries) [OF]
lecchur (n.) LECHER; person debauched by lust (pl. lecchurs) [OF]
leche (n.) doctor, LEECH [OE]
leche-creft (n.) medicine, physic, art of healing [OE; see early ModE leechcraft]
lechni(n) (v.) to cure, heal; administer medicine [OE; from leche (n.)]
ledene (n.) language, tongue [OE]
lef, lefde (v.) see leven (v. 2)
leflich (adj.) attractive, LOVELY; lovable [OE]
lefunge (n.) BELIEF [OE]
leggen (v.) to LAY, place, put; to lay (an egg); set on (imper. sing. lei; pres. subj. sing. legge; pres. 1 sing. legge; pres. 3 sing. leith; past sing. leide; past pl. leiden; past part. i-leid) [OE]
lehe (n.) field, meadow, glade, clearing; wenden eie towarde the wode lehe = "to turn the eye to the woodland glade," (MED) i.e., have an interest in wild or forbidden pleasures [OE; ModE lea]
lei(e) (n.) flame, fire, blaze [OE]
lei(e), leien (v., past) see liggen (v.)
leide(n) (v., past) see leggen (v.)
leith (v., pres. 3 sing.) see leggen (v.)
leitin (v.) to flash, glow, blaze (pres. 3 sing. leiteth; pres. pl. leitinde) [*OE; related to leie (n.)]
lei-ven (n.) lake-FEN, swamp [from OE]
lenden (n. pl.) loins [*OE]
lengre, lengrest (adv.) see longe (adv.)
lenten (n.) LENT; spring [OE]
leof (adj.) see leove (adj.)
leoflich(e) (adj.) lovable, LOVELY; attractive
leofliche (adv.) LOVINGLY, pleasantly, graciously; beautifully [OE]
leof-mon (n.) beloved, sweetheart, lover (gen. sing. leof-monnes) [OE]
leohe (n.) shelter [OE; ModE lee]
leome (n.) light, brightness; flash, gleam [OE]
leonie (v., pres. subj. sing.) LEAN, support (oneself) [OE]
leop (v., past sing.) see leapen (v.)
leor (n.) the cheek; face [OE]
leorni(n) (v.) to LEARN (imper. sing. leorne; imper. pl. leornith; pres. subj. sing. leorni; past sing. leornede; past pl. leorneden; pres. pl. leornith) [OE]
leosen (v.) to LOSE; misplace (pres. 3 sing./pl. leoseth; past part. i-losed) [OE]
l(e)oten (v.) to LET, leave; allow, to have (something done); omit, leave out; shed, LET (blood); leoten of = to look upon, regard; pretend, let on; leoten wel of = to think highly of, esteem (something) (imper. sing. leote; imper. pl. leoteth; pres. 3 sing. let, leoteth; past sing. lette; past part. i-let, i-lete, i-lete[n]) [OE]
leotheliche (adv.) loosely [from OE]
leove (adj.) beloved, dear, pleasing; (compar.) leov(e)re = more pleasing, preferable (superlat. leovest[e]) [OE]
leovest (adj., superlat.) see leove (adj.)
lepruse (adj.) LEPROUS [OF]
-les(e) (suffix) -LESS, without [OE]
lesceune (n.) reading; lecture; LESSON (pl. lesceunes, lesceuns) [OF]
lesen (v.) to release, set LOOSE [OE]
lesewe (n.) pasture, field (pl. lesewen) [OE]
leste (conj.) LEST, for fear that [from OE]
letanie (n.) LITANY; a prayer taking the form of a series of petitions, often to various saints [OF, from Lat.]
lete(n) (v.) see leoten (v.)
lette (v., past sing.) see leoten (v.)
letten (v.) to hinder, delay; to stop (pres. subj. sing. lette; past part. i-lette) [OE]
letuaire (n.) medicine (usually in syrup form) (pl. letuaires) [OF, from Lat.]
leve (n.) see leave (n.)
leven (v. 1) to allow, grant, give LEAVE [OE]; (v. 2) to BELIEVE, trust, have faith in (imper. sing. lef; imper. pl. leveth, leve (ye); pres. subj. sing. leve; pres. 1 sing. leve; pres. 3 sing. leveth; past sing. lefde; past pl. lefden; past part. i-levet) [OE]
levunge (n.) BELIEVING, trust, faith [OE]
li (v., imper. sing.) see liggen (v.)
libben, libbeth (v.) see livien (v.)
lich (n.) (living) body; corpse [OE; see ModE lichgate, Ger. leiche "corpse"]
liche (n.) LIKENESS, similitude [OE]
lichomliche (adj.) bodily, physically; carnally [OE; see lich (n.)]
lickre (adj., compar.) more LIKE, more similar [see i-lich (adj.)]
licnesse (n.) LIKENESS, similarity, resemblance [OE]
licome (n.) (living) body, flesh; (dead) body, corpse; life, existence (gen. sing. licomes; pl. licomes) [OE]
licomlich(e) (adj.) bodily, physical
licomliche (adv.) physically, bodily
licunge (n.) pleasure, delight; lust, (illicit) desire; gratification [OE]
licur (n.) LIQUID, fluid [OF]
lic-wurthe (adj.) LIKE-WORTHY, pleasing, agreeable; acceptable [OE]
lideth (v., pres. 3 sing.) covers, puts a LID on (past part. i-lided) [OE]
lif (n.) LIFE; (adj.) lives = alive (gen. sing. lives) [OE]
lif-hali (adj.) LIFE-HOLY, holy of life
lif-lade (n.) food, provisions; conduct, behavior, way of life [OE]
liggen (v.) to LIE, recline; liggen on, under = to suffer from (imper. sing. li; pres. subj. sing. ligge; pres. 3 sing. lith; pres. pl. liggeth; past sing. lei[e]; past pl. leien; past part. i-lein) [OE]
liggunge (n.) LYING, reclining; sleeping
lihen (v.) to LIE, not tell the truth; speak falsely; to trick, deceive; lihen on = to tell lies about (someone) (imper. sing. lih; pres. subj. sing. lihe; pres. 2 sing. lihest; pres. 3 sing. liheth) [OE]
liht (n.) LIGHT [OE]
liht(e) (adj.) LIGHT, not heavy; trivial, frivolous; of little value, cheap; easy, not difficult; quick (compar. lihtre) [OE]
lihte (adv.) LIGHTLY, easily
lihten, lihtin (v.) to lighten, become LIGHT, lose heaviness; become clear, evident; to arrive, come; to descend, ALIGHT, drop down (pres. 3 sing. lihteth; past sing. lihte; past part. i-liht, i-lihtet) [OE]
lihtliche (adv.) LIGHTLY, easily; cheaply; carelessly, irresponsibly [see liht (adj.)]
likin (v.) to please (impers.), be pleased; to LIKE, wish, want, choose; (hit) liketh hire = she is pleased, glad (pres. subj. sing. liki; pres. 3 sing. liketh) [OE]
lim (n. 1) LIMB, member (gen. sing. limes; pl. limen) [OE]; (n. 2) LIME, mortar, cement [OE]
lime (n.) file [OF]
limpe (v., pres. subj. sing.) befall, happen (to); be proper, suitable; belong, apply, pertain (to) (pres. 3 sing. limpeth; past part. i-lumpen) [OE]
limunge (n.) a joining or cementing (of one thing to another), uniting [OE]
linnene (adj.) LINEN, made from linen [OE]
lippen (n. pl.) LIPS [OE]
liste (n.) dexterity; ability, skill, art; cunning trick, stratagem; with liste = deftly, cunningly, wisely [OE; see Ger. list "cunning"]
listen (v.) to desire, wish; (impers.) hire list = she desires, wishes [OE]
lite (n.) color; appearance [ON]
lith (n.) limb, member; joint (pl. lithes) [OE]; (v., pres. 3 sing.) see liggen (v.)
lithe (adj.) gentle, meek, mild [OE]
litheliche (adv.) mildly, gently, meekly
lithere (v., imper. sing.) sling, hurl, let loose [from OE]
litien (v.) to dye, color; paint (the face); (fig.) give the appearance (of something else), color (pres. 3 sing. liteth) [ON]
litunge (n.) coloring, painting
live (n.) see lif (n.)
liveneth (n.) provision, food, sustenance; livelihood; spiritual food [ON]
lives (adj.) see lif (n.)
livien (v.) to LIVE, exist (pres. 1 sing. livie; pres. 3 sing. liveth; pres. pl. libbeth, livieth; past sing. livede; past pl. liveden; pres. part. liviende; past part. i-lived) [OE]
lo, low (exclamation) oh!; see! (an expression used to direct attention to something) [OE]
locunge (n.) LOOKING, gaze; look, expression; observation, observance (pl. locunges) [see lokin (v.)]
lof (n.) a spar holding out and down the windward tack of a square sail; wenden lof = to change course [Ger., exact origin obscure]
loft-song (n.) song of praise, hymn, psalm [from OE; see MED loft (n. 2)]
logeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) LODGES; encamps, takes up a position (past sing. logede; past part. i-loget) [OF]
loke (adj., orig. past part.) LOCKED, fastened [see loken (v.)]
loken (v.) to LOCK, shut securely (past part. i-lokene) [OE]
loki(n) (v.) to LOOK; make sure, see too it that; have the appearance of being, seem; to consider, regard, look to (something) (imper. sing. loke; imper. pl. lokith; pres. subj. sing. loki; pres. 1 sing. loki; pres. 2 sing. lokest; pres. 3 sing. loketh; pres. pl. lokith; past sing. lokede; past pl. lokeden; past part. i-loket) [OE]
lome (n.) tool, implement; weapon (pl. lomen) [OE; ModE loom]
lond(e) (n.) country, LAND, nation (pl. londes) [OE]
lond-uvel (n.) LAND-EVIL, disease that engulfs an entire land; plague, epidemic [see uvel (n.)]
longe (adv.) LONG, for a long time (compar. lengre; superlat. lengest) [OE]
longeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) LONGS for; (impers.) thet longeth ham to = which they long for [OE]
longunge (n.) desire, wish, LONGING; sexual desire; distress, anxiety, weariness [OE]
loquacite (n.) LOQUACITY, talkativeness [OF]
lorimers (n. pl.) workers in small ironware (for example, bits, harnesses, spurs, etc.), ironworkers [OF]
lot (n.) share, LOT, part [OE hlott "lot" as in "to cast lots"]
lowr (interj.) look!, look where!, lo! [contraction of lo hwer]
lowse (adj.) LOOSE [ON]
lowsith (v., imper. pl.) LOOSEN, let loose, release [ON]
lud(e) (adj. & adv.) LOUD (compar. luddre) [OE]
lufsum(e) (adj.) LOVESOME, lovable; lovely (compar. lufsumre; superlat. lufsumest) [OE]
luft (n. & adj.) LEFT; (with pejorative implications) left as a "sinister" side [OE]; (n. 2) the air, atmosphere; sky [OE; see Ger. luft]
lufte (n.) air, sky [OE]
lupe (n.) a LEAP, jump [OE]
lure (n.) loss; hurt, damage (pl. luren) [OE; related to leosen (v.)]
lust (n.) pleasure, delight; desire, appetite (pl. lustes) [OE; ModE lust]
luste (v., pres. 3 sing.) (impers.) (it) pleases; him luste = (it) pleases him, he desires (past sing. luste) [OE; see Jack (1977), pp. 24-26]
lusti (adj.) joyful; vigorous, LUSTY [OE]
lustni (v.) to LISTEN to, hear; pay attention to; obey (past: lustnede) [*OE]
lut (pron.) few [from lut (adj.)]
lut(e) (adj.) LITTLE, small; (adv.) little, not very much [OE]
lute (v., imper. sing.) bow, stoop (in submission) (imper. pl. luteth; pres. part. lutinde) [OE]
lutel, lutle (adj. & adv.) LITTLE (gen. sing. lutles) [OE]
lutes-ihweat (n.) trifle, LITTLE-WHAT, a little something
luther(e) (adj.) deceitful, treacherous, wicked; hurtful, severe [OE]
luthere (adv.) wickedly, treacherously [see luther (adj.)]
lutherliche (adv.) wickedly, viciously [OE]
lutles-ihweat (n.) a LITTLE something
luve (n.) LOVE (gen. sing. luves; pl. luven) [OE]
luve-gleames (n. pl.) LOVE-GLEAMS, love-rays
luve-lates (n. pl.) LOVE-LOOKS, -gestures [see lates (n. pl.)]
luvelich (adj.) LOVING, kind [OE]
luveliche (adv.) LOVINGLY, kindly [OE]
luve-lokin (v.) to cast LOVE-LOOKS, (lit.) to LOVE-LOOK
luve-salve (n.) LOVE cure [see salve (n.)]
luve-wurthe (adj.) LOVEWORTHY
luvie(n) (v.) to LOVE (imper. pl. luvieth; pres. subj. sing./pl. luvie; pres. 2 sing. luvest; pres. 3 sing. luveth; pres. pl. luvieth; past 2 sing. luvedest; past sing. luvede; past pl. luveden; past part. i-luvet) [OE]

ma (adj., adv., & n.) MORE [OE]
mahe (n.) stomach [OE; see Ger. magen "stomach"]
mahe, mahen, maht, mahte, mahten (v.) see mei (v.)
make (n.) lover, mate, partner; equal, companion [OE]
makie(n) (v.) to MAKE, put, do; cause (to do something) (imper. sing. make; imper. pl. makieth, makie (ye); pres. subj. sing. makie; pres. 1 sing. makie; past 2 sing. makedest; pres. 3 sing. maketh; pres. pl. makieth; past sing. makede; past pl. makeden; past part. i-maket, i-makede) [OE]
man (n.) MOAN, complaint; sorrow [*OE]
manciple (n.) supplier, purchaser of food and provisions [OF]
manere (n.) MANNER, way; way of life; usage, practice, custom (pl. maneres) [OF]
mare (adj. & adv.) see ma (adj. & adv.)
marhen (n.) MORN, morning [OE]
marhe-yeove (n). MORROW-GIFT: a gift presented to the bride on the morning (morrow) after the wedding; a dowry (pl. marhe-yeoven, -yeven) [OE]
mat (adj.) check-MATED; conquered, beaten, overcome [OF]
maten, matin (v.) to conquer, beat, overcome; to check-MATE [OF]
materie (n.) MATTER, subject, topic [OF]
matten (n. pl.) MATS, beds [OE]
me (adv. & interj.) but, on the contrary; moreover [OE; perhaps modeled after OF mais]
me (indef. pron.) one, someone, a person; they, people (indef.); (constructions with me can often be translated as passive) [a further reduction of unstressed ME men from OE man "one"]
meadles(e) (adj.) without restraint or moderation, unbridled; continuous, persistent [OE]
meadlesliche (adv.) without moderation or restraint; continuously, without limit (compar. meadlesluker)
meadluker (adj., compar.) MADDER, more insane; more furious, violent [from OE]
meadschipe (n.) MADNESS, insanity; absurdity in thought, foolishness; audacity, rashness [from OE]
mealteth (v., pres. 3 sing.) MELTS, dissolves, dwindles (past part. i-mealt) [OE]
meane (v., pres. 1 sing.) MEAN, intend [OE]
meanen (v.) to complain; MOAN, wail; cry to; (reflex.) to make a complaint; bewail, mourn for (past sing. meande) [OE]
meanildes (n.) women given to complaining [from OE; see meanen (v.) and -ild (suffix)]
meapeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) wanders aimlessly, strays (reflex.); MOPES [origin obscure; see Bennett & Smithers, pp. 409-10]
mearciable (adj.) MERCIFUL [OF]
meare (n.) MARE, female horse [OE]
mearewe (adj.) tender, delicate [OE]
mearke (n.) MARK, sign; boundary, limit; district, province (pl. mearken, merken) [OE]
mearken (n.) to MARK, brand; describe, designate (past part. i-mearket) [OE]
measeliche (adv.) confusedly, in a dazed, bewildered way [related to a-measet (v.)]
measse, messe (n.) MASS, service of the Eucharist (pl. meassen) [OE, from Lat.]
measse-cos (n.) MASS-KISS, kiss of peace in the mass [from OE]
measse-kemese (n.) MASS-CHEMISE, alb (a church vestment: a long, white tunic) [from OE, both elements ultimately from Lat. sources]
measseth (v., pres. 3 sing.) says or celebrates MASS [OE]
meast(e) (superlat.) (adj.) MOST, greatest; (adv.) most, to the greatest extent; mostly [OE; see ma (adj. & adv.)]
meatheleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) talks, speaks; tells; chatters, prates (pres. part. meathelinde) [OE maðelian "to speak formally"]
meathelilt (n.) a gossip, a woman given to talking or chattering [from OE; see meatheleth (v.) and -ild (suffix)]
meathelunge (n.) talk, chatter
meathful (adj.) moderate, modest [OE]
meathfulliche (adv.) modestly, moderately
mede (n.) reward, merit; payment (pl. meden) [OE]
medeles (adj.) lit. MEEDLESS, without reward or merit, undeserving, unworthy [OE; see mede (n.) + -les(e) (suffix)]
mehe (n.) kinswoman [OE]
mei (v., pres. sing.) MAY, be able (pres. subj. sing. mahe, muhe; pres. subj. pl. muhe(n); past subj. sing. muhte; pres. 2 sing. maht; pres. pl. mahen; past 2 sing. mahtest; past sing. mahte; past pl. mahten) [OE]
meiden-had (n.) MAIDENHEAD, virginity [OE]
meister, meistre (n.) MASTER; teacher, spiritual director (gen. sing. meistres; pl. meistres) [probably OF rather than OE]
meistrie (n.) great, MASTERFUL deed, feat, triumph; force, power; authority (pl. meistries) [OF]
meistrin (v.) to MASTER [OF]
meith-had see meiden-had (n.)
meith-lure (n.) loss of virginity; fornication [OE; see lure (n.)]
mel (n.) MEAL, food taken at a customary time (for example, breakfast, supper) [OE]
men (n. pl.) see mon (pron.)
mendith (v., imper. pl.) MEND, repair [OF]
menestraws (n. pl.) servants, MINISTERS; MINSTRELS, jugglers, entertainers [OF]
mengde (v., past sing.) mixed, blended; united, brought together; stirred up, confused; MINGLED with (in conversation, intercourse, or marriage) (past part. i-mengt) [OE]
menske (n.) honor, repute; kindness, humanity; beauty, fairness (pl. mensken) [ON]
menskeliche (adv.) courteously, reverently; honorably [see menske (n.)]
meoke (adj.) soft, MEEK, humble; modest [ON]
meokin (v.) to humble, soften, make MEEK; abase (oneself) (imper. pl. meokith) [ON]
meonurs (n. pl.) freres meonurs = "lesser brothers"; (i.e.,) the Franciscans [OF; translation of Lat. fratres minores]
meoseise (adj.) miserable, wretched; poor, destitute, hungry; infirm, feeble [OF];(n.) physical, mental discomfort; need, hardship, poverty (pl. meoseises) [OF]
meoster (n.) employment, position; job, occupation; function, task; skill, art (pl. meosters) [OF; ModE mystery "profession"]
meosure (n.) MEASURE; moderation, due proportion [OF]
mercer (n.) cloth merchant, merchant [OF]
merite (n.) MERIT, reward [OF]
merke(n) (n.) see mearke (n.)
mest (adv.) MOST, to the greatest extent (superlat. of ma [adj.]) [OE]
met(e) (n. 1) measure, proportion; moderation [OE]; (n. 2) food (in general); meal (pl. metes) [OE; ModE meat]
mete-graces (n. pl) FOOD-GRACES, prayers of thanks for food or at meals [see mete (n. 1) + OF grace "thanks," from Lat. gratia]
meteth (v., pres. 3 sing.) measures [OE]
mid (prep.) with; among; mid al(le) = withal; in addition, besides, at the same time; further, moreover; perhaps; entirely, completely, at all [OE]
mid-dei (n.) MID-DAY
middel (adj.) MIDDLE (superlat. midleste) [OE]; (n.) MIDDLE (part); waist; intermediate cause, means; agent [OE]
mid-marhen (n.) MID-MORROW, mid-morning
mid-wei (adv.) MIDWAY, in between
migge (n.) urine [OE, perhaps related to ModE micturate]
mihte (n.) MIGHT, power; ability (pl. mihten, mihtes) [OE]
milce (n.) mercy, forgiveness; pity, compassion; grace [OE]
milci (v., pres. subj. sing.) have mercy on, show mercy to [OE]
milde (adj.) MILD, kind, gentle (compar. mildre) [OE]
mild-heortnesse (n.) MILD-HEARTED-NESS, kindness [from OE]
milzfule (adj.) gracious, merciful [see milce (n.)]
mirre (n.) MYRRH, a rare, expensive, fragrant resin used in perfumes and incense [OE, from Semitic]
mis (adv.) sinfully, wickedly; erroneously, inadequately, improperly; AMISS, awry; (n.) offense, sin, guilt; seien mis = to lie
mis-do (v., pres. subj. sing.) do wrong, wrong; harm, injure (pres. 3 sing. misdeth; past sing. misdude) [OE, with close relatives in ON and OF]]
misericorde (n.) mercy [OF]
mis-fearen (v.) to do wrong, go wrong [OE]
mis-hapnunge (n.) MISHAP, accident [from OE, perhaps modeled on OF mescheance]
mis-herest (v., pres. 2 sing.) MISHEAR, hear wrongly, incorrectly [OE]
mis-leve (v., pres. subj. sing.) MISTRUST, fail to believe (pres. 3 sing. misleveth) [from OE]
mislich(e) (adj.) various, diverse; (of two things) unlike; variable, not always the same [OE]
misliche (adv.) in various ways; amiss, wrongly; i-limpeth misliche = to go amiss, go wrong [see mislich (adj.)]
mis-licunge (n.) displeasure, discomfort, unhappiness [see licunge (n.)]
mis-likin (v.) to displease, offend [OE]
mis-neome (v., pres. subj. sing.) mistake, make a mistake or error (pres. 2 pl. mis-neometh; pres. 3 sing. misnimeth; past part. misnumene) [from OE; see neomen (v.)]
mis-neomunge (n.) mistake, error
mis-nimeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) see mis-neome (v.)
mis-noteth (v., pres. 3 sing.) abuses, mis-uses [from OE]
mis-notunge (n.) abuse, misuse
mis-numene (v., past part.) see mis-neome (v.)
mis-ortrowunge (n.) false suspicion [from OE]
mis-paieth (v., pres. 3 sing.) mispleases, displeases; angers, annoys (past part. mispaiet) [OF]
mis-segge (v., pres. subj. sing.) to slander, speak evil of; MISSAY, say something wrong; blaspheme (pres. 3 sing. misseith; pres. pl. misseggeth; past sing. misseide) [from OE]
mis-thenche (v., pres. subj. sing.) MISTHINK, think wrongly [see mis (adv.) + thenchen (v.)
mis-thoht (n.) MISTHOUGHT, mistake; evil or bad thought [from OE]
mis-tohe (adj.) mistrained, unruly; disordered [see teoth (v.)]
mis-trowet (adj. & v., past part.) MIS-TRUSTED, not believed [ON]
mis-trum (adj.) poor, weak [see mis (adv.) + OE trum "firm, strong"]
mis-witen (v.) to neglect, watch badly [from OE; see witen (v. 2)]
mis-word (n.) insult, angry WORD [from OE]
mixne (n.) dung hill, pile of refuse; (in proverbs, a term of abuse) filthy creature [OE]
mode (n.) mind, spirit, heart [OE; ModE mood]
moder (n.) MOTHER (gen. sing. modres) [OE]
moder-hus (n.) MOTHER-HOUSE; the founding house of a religious order
moder-sunnen (n. pl.) MOTHER-SINS; sins which give birth to others
molden (n. pl.) MOLD, pattern; type, nature [OF]
mon (pron., n.) MAN; (indef.) one, a person; sir (gen. sing. monnes; pl. men; gen. pl. monne) [OE]
mon-cun (n.) MANKIND (gen. sing. mon-cunne) [OE]
mone (n.) MOON [OE]
mong (n.) mixture, MINGLING; traffic, intercourse; contamination, adulteration [OE]
monglin (v.) to mix; MINGLE, intertwine (hands) (pres. 3 sing. mongleth) [from OE]
monglunge (n.) mixing, MINGLING; admixture; contamination [from mong "mixture"]
mon-head (n.) MAN-HEAD, manhood, humanity [from OE]
moni (adj.) MANY, a great number of; (n.) many, many (a person or thing) (pl. monie; gen. pl. monies) [OE]
moni-falde (adj.) MANIFOLD, numerous; varied [OE]
moni-falden (v.) to multiply, make MANIFOLD [OE]
moni-hwet (pron.) many a thing; (MANY WHAT)
moni-valde (adj.) see moni-falde (adj.)
monlich(e) (adj.) human; MANLY, virile [OE]
monluker (adv., compar.) more MANLY
monne (n., gen. pl.) see mon (n.)
mon-slaht (n.) MANSLAUGHTER, killing; murder [OE]
morthre (n.) MURDER; crime; injury, torment [OE]
most (v.) see moten (v.)
mot (n.) MEETING, assembly; debate, argument; clash [OE]
moten (v.) MUST; to require (pres. subj. sing./pl. mote; past subj. sing. moste; pres. 2 sing. most; pres. 3 sing. mot; pres. pl. moten; past sing. moste) [OE]
muche (adj.) great, MUCH, a lot; (adv.) greatly, MUCH (gen. sing. muches) [OE]
muchel (adv.) greatly; (gen. sing. as adv.) mucheles = MUCH, by far [OE]
muchel(e) (adj.) MUCH; great, powerful [OE]
mucheres (n. pl.) secret, petty thieves, pilferers [prob. OE]
muchleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) increases, multiplies [OE; see mutli (v.)]
muhe(n) (v.) see mei (v.)
muhelin (v.) to molder, grow moldy (pres. part. muhelinde) [?ON]
mulne (n.) MILL, a flour or grist mill, usually powered by water [OE]
mun(e)gunge (n.) memory; reminder [OE mynegung]
munegin (v.) to remind; mention; warn, exhort; to remember (pres. 3 sing. munegeth) [OE]
munegunge, mungunge (n.) memory, remembrance; reminder, warning [OE]
munek, munk (n.) MONK [OE]
munneth (v., imper. pl.) recall, remind, consider [OE; related closely to munegin (v.)]
munt (n.) mountain, MOUNT [OF]
munten (v.) to rise up, ascend, MOUNT; promote; be worth (past part. i-munt) [OF]
murhthe (n.) MIRTH, (religious) ecstasy, happiness (pl. murhthen, murhthes) [OE]
murie (adj.) MERRY, pleasant, delightful; (adv.) merrily, festively, pleasantly [OE]
murnin (v.) to MOURN, be sorry for, regret (pres. 3 sing. murneth; past sing. murnede) [OE]
murnunge (n.) MOURNING, sorrow, regret
murthredest (v., past 2 sing.) MURDERED, killed (past part. i-murthret) [OE]
mustreisun (n.) show, display; boasting [OF, see ModE phrase to pass muster]
muth (n.) MOUTH (gen. sing. muthes; obj. sing. muthe; gen. pl. muthene) [OE]
mutli (v., pres. subj. sing.) increase, multiply (pres. 3 sing. mutleth; pres. pl. mutlith) [related to muchel (adj.)]
myrre (n.) see mirre (n.)

na (adj.) NO [OE]
nabbe (v., pres. subj. sing.) the negated form of habben (= ne habben), not HAVE, do not have (pres. subj. pl. nabben; pres. 1 sing. nabbe; pres. 2 sing. nast, navest; pres. 3 sing. nabbeth, naveth; pres. pl. nabbeth, nabbe [we, ye]); past sing. nefde) [see habben (v.)]
nahhi(n) (v.) to near or NIGH, come near, approach (pres. subj. pl. nahi; pres. 3 sing. nahheth; pres. pl. nahhith; past sing. nahhede) [ON]
nahunge (n.) an approach; sexual intimacy [see nahhin (v.)]
naket (adj.) NAKED; candid, plain, unadorned; unconcealed [OE]
naketliche (adv.) NAKEDLY, candidly, in an open way [OE]
nalde, nalden, naldest (v., past) see wullen (v.)
na-mon (pron.) NO one, nobody; (na mon = no man)
nan(e) (adj. & n.) NONE [OE]
nanes (n.) NONCE, present time, occasion, purpose; for then anes = for the nanes [from OE, related to ModE once]
nanes-weis (adv.) in NO WAY, not by any means [from OE; orig. a n. phrase in the gen.]
nart (v., pres. 2 sing.) see beon (v.)
nast (v., pres. 2 sing.) see nabbe (v.); see witen (v. 1)
nat (v., pres. sing.) see witen (v. 1)
naut-for-thi (adv.) nevertheless
navest, naveth (v.) see nabbe (v.)
na-wiht (adv.) not a WHIT, not at all; (n.) nothing, NAUGHT [OE]
nawt-for-thi (conj.) nevertheless
ne (adv.) not [OE]
neappith (v., pres. pl.) NAP, take a nap [OE]
nearewe, nearow(e) (adj.) NARROW, small; constricting, strait; strict, sparing; stern, harsh; oppressive; (n.) nearewe = the narrow part (superlat. nearewest) [OE]
nearowe, nearowliche (adv.) NARROW-LY; sparingly, strictly; harshly
nearowthe (n.) NARROWNESS, confinement; distress [see nearewe (adj.)]
nease (n.) NOSE (gen. sing. neases) [OE]
neb (n.) the human face (or nose); bill or beak of a bird (gen. sing. nebbes) [OE]
nebscheft (n.) countenance, face; likeness, image [from OE]
ned(e) (n.) see neod (n.)
neddre (n.) serpent, snake; (ADDER) (pl. neddren) [OE]
nede (adv.) NEEDS, by necessity; mot nede = must needs, must by necessity [OE]
neden (v.) to force, compel (with violence); NEED, require (pres. 3 sing. nedeth; past part. i-ned, i-nedd[e]) [OE]
nedlunge (adv.) by necessity, by force [see neod (n.)]
ned-swat (n.) sweat of anguish, bloody sweat, lit., agony-sweat [see neod (n.) + swat (n.)]
nefde (v., past sing.) see nabbe (v.)
neh (adj.) near, close, nearby, NIGH; (superlat.) nehhest: next in a series; for neh = nearly (adv.) (compar. neorre; superlat. nehhest, nest) [OE]
nehbur (n.) NEIGHBOR (pl. nehburs) [OE neah-gebur "near dweller"]
nehhest (adv.) closest, most immediate; immediately preceding or following (superlat. of neh [adv.]) [see neh (adj.)]
nelde (n.) NEEDLE; (fig.) something of little value (gen. sing. nelde; pl. nelden) [OE; ME form reverses l and d (metathesis)]
nempni(n) (v.) to NAME, call (imper. sing. nempne; pres. 3 sing. nempneth; past sing. nempnede; past part. i-nempnet)
nempnunge (n.) NAMING, calling
neoces (n. pl.) nuptials, wedding [OF]
neod (adj.) necessary
neod(e) (n.) NEED, necessity; force, compulsion; distress, emergency, difficulty (pl. neoden) [OE]
neodeluker (adv., compar.) more NEED-FUL; more forcefully, more urgently
neoden (v.) to be necessary (to someone) (impers.); to force, compel (pres. 3 sing. neodeth, nedeth) [OE]
neodful (adj.) NEEDY, destitute; eager [OE]
neoleachunge (n.) approach, a drawing near or NIGH [OE]
neolechede (v., past sing.) approached, neared, drew near (past sing. neolechede) [OE; see neh (adj.)]
neome(n) (v.) to take; grasp, understand; to catch (imper. sing. nim; imper. pl. neometh; pres. subj. sing. neome; pres. 1 sing. neome; pres. 2 sing. nimest; pres. 3 sing. nimeth; past sing. nom; past pl. nomen; past part. i-nume, i-numen[e]) [OE; see Ger. nehmen "to take"]
neomunge (n.) taking, receiving
neorre (adj.) see neh (adj.)
neothere (adj., compar.) lower, under, NETHER [OE]
neowliche (adv.) NEWLY, recently [OE]
nep (n.) drinking cup, bowl; chalice (pl. neppes) [OE]
nesche, nessche (adj.) soft, tender; slack, negligent, made soft by vice; effeminate [OE]
nest (adv., superlat. of neh [adj.]) recently, just, immediately following or preceding; nearest, closest (see neh [adj.]) [OE]
nicketh (v., pres. 3 sing.) denies, makes a denial [OE, from the phrase ne ich "not I!"]
nihe (adj.) NINE [OE]
nihene (num.) NINE [OE]
nihethe (adj.) NINTH [OE nigoða]
niht (n.) NIGHT; (gen. sing. as adv.) deies ant nihtes = day and night (gen. sing. nihtes) [OE]
niht-fuhel (n.) NIGHT-bird
nim, nimest, nimeth (v.) see neomen (v.)
nis (v., pres. 3 sing.) see beon (v.)
nisteth (v., pres. pl.) NEST, make a nest [OE]
nith (n.) strife, violence; hatred, evil, spite [OE]
nithfule (adj.) envious, quarrelsome, evil
nivelin (v.) to snivel; wrinkle, turn up the nose; make a face, grimace [from OE hnifol "forehead"]
noblesce (n.) nobility [OF]
noht (n.) NAUGHT, nothing [OE]
nohtunge (n.) scorn, insult, disparagement [from noht (n.)]
no-hwer (adv.) NOWHERE, in no place
no-hwider (adv.) nowhere, to no other place
nome (n.) NAME; reputation; fame (pl. nomen) [OE]
nome-cuthe (n.) known by NAME, famous [from OE]
nomeliche (adj.) special, particular, singular, individual [from nome (n.)]; (adv.) especially, chiefly, NAMELY, particularly, specifically; that is to say; at least, at any rate [from nome (n.)]
non (n.) the canonical hour of prayer originally recited at the ninth hour (approx. 3 p.m.) [Lat.]
nore (n.) sneezing [OE]
note (n.) use, utility; benefit, good; occupation, work, employment [OE]
no-the-leater(e) (adv.) nevertheless, none the LATER; (lit., not-the-later)
no-the-les (adv.) NONETHELESS, not withstanding
notien (v.) to use, make use of, put to good use; partake of, eat or drink; to need, require (pres. subj. sing. notie; pres. 3 sing. noteth; pres. pl. notieth) [OE]
notith (v., imper. pl.) NOTE, pay attention to, observe carefully [OF]
nowther (adj., adv., conj., pron.) NEITHER; (conj.) nowther . . . ne = neither . . . nor [from OE, on analogy to either]
nu (adv.) NOW [OE]
nulle, nulleth, nult (v.) see wullen (v.)
nunan (adv.) NOW, just now; already [ON]
nunne (n.) NUN, a woman in a religious order (pl. nunnen) [OE]
nurrice (n.) NURSE, fosterer, a woman who nurses a baby [OF]
nurth (n.) noise, din, racket [occurs only in AW and Katherine Group texts] [*OE, or perhaps MDu]
nuste, nute, nuten (v.) see witen (v. 1)
nuthe (adv.) NOW [from OE]
nutten (v.) to take, use, make use of; eat [OE; see Ger. nutzen "use"]

of- (prefix) away, OFF, for [OE]
of (adv.) OFF, away [OE of]; (prep.) OF; OFF, from; by [OE]
of-drahen (v.) to DRAW out, attract, win (pres. 3 sing. ofdraheth) [from OE]
of-dred (adj.) afraid, frightened [OE]
of-earneth (v., pres. 3 sing.) EARNS, deserves (past sing. ofearnede; past part. ofearnet) [from OE]
offe (adv.) OFF [OE]
of-fearen (v.) to frighten, make FEARFUL, terrify; (past part. as adj.) offearet = terrified, frightened (past sing. offearede; past part. offearet) [from OE]
of-fearunges (n. pl.) terrors, frights
offrin (v.) to OFFER, present, give (imper. pl: offrith; pres. 3 sing. offreth; past pl. offreden [OE, from Lat.]
of-fruht (adj. & v., past part.) FRIGHTENED, afraid [from OE]
of-gan (v. 1) to gain, win (pres. 3 sing. ofgeath) [OE]; (v. 2) to get, gain; require, demand [OE]
of-hungret (adj. & v., past part.) famished, HUNGRY [OE]
of-sarvet (v., past part.) see of-serveden (v.)
of-secheth (v., pres. 3 sing.) SEEKS out, searches for [from OE]
of-serveden (v., past pl.) earned, deserved, merited (past part. ofservet, ofsarvet) [OE + OF; of- a translation of de in OF deservir]
ofte (adv.) OFTEN, frequently (compar. oftre; superlat. oftest) [OE]
of-thenchen (v.) to THINK of [OE]
of-thunche (v., pres. subj. sing.) grieve over, regret; repent (of something) [OE]
of-thunchunge (n.) grief, displeasure; repentance, regret
of-thurst (adj.) very thirsty, overcome with thirst [OE]
of-token (v., past part.) over-TOOK [OE, from ON]
o-hwider (adv.) anywhere, to any place [OE]
oker(e) (n.) the loan of money at interest, usury; interest (on a loan); ill-gotten gains [ON]
okereth (v., pres. 3 sing.) accrues interest [see oker (n.)]
olhnin (v.) to flatter; cajole, blandish [from OE]
olhnunge (n.) flattery; cajoling, blandishment, persuasion; "courtship" (MED)
onde (n.) envy (as one of the seven deadly sins); spite, hatred (gen. sing. ondes) [OE]
ondfule (adj.) envious, spiteful
ondswere (n.) ANSWER, reply (pl. ondsweres) [OE]
ondswerien, ondsweren (v.) to ANSWER, reply; compensate for, correspond to (imper. sing. ondswere; imper. pl. ondswerieth; pres. subj. sing. ondswerie; pres. 2 sing. ondswerest; pres. pl. ondswerieth; past sing. ondswerede) [OE]
on-licnesse (n.) LIKENESS, similarity, resemblance [OE]
onont, onond (prep.) next to, close to, near; across from, facing, toward; according to; concerning, as regards, with respect to; in the sense that [from OE]
on-sihthe (n.) SIGHT, a looking on (something) [see sihthe (n.)]
on-tenden (v.) to ignite, set on fire, kindle [OE]
on-tendunge (n.) (an) igniting, kindling
ontful(e) (adj.) see ondfule (adj.)
on-ward (prep.) toward, against [OE]
open(e) (adj.) OPEN; clear, obvious; receptive [OE]
open-heaved (adj. & adv.) BAREHEAD, bareheaded, with an uncovered head
openin (v.) to OPEN; reveal; (of trees and flowers) to bloom (imper. pl. openith; pres. 3 sing. openeth; pres. pl. openith) [OE]
openlich(e) (adj.) OPEN; clear, obvious; (adv.) OPENLY, clearly, without concealment (compar. openluker; superlat. openlukest) [OE]
or (n.) ORE, metal; brass [OE]
ord (n.) point, tip [OE]
ordre (n.) ORDER, religious community (pl. ordres) [OF]
orhel (n.) pride, haughtiness [OE; OF orgueil prob. from Ger.]
ornre (adj., compar.) more particular, picky [OE; see unorne (adj.)]
ortrowi (v.) to despair (of), doubt [OE]
other (adj.) OTHER; second (in a series) (pl. othre); (conj.) or, and; unless; other . . . other = either . . . or [OE]
other-hwet (pron.) something else; something different, additional; anything else; other things
other-hwile (adv.) sometimes, at times
other-hwiles (adv.) sometimes, occasionally, at times; other-hwiles . . . other-hwiles = at times . . . at other times [OE]
other-weies (adv.) in ANOTHER WAY, otherwise; nan other-weies = in no other way [OE]
over- (prefix) excessively, too much; entirely, thoroughly
over (adv.) OVER; above; excessively
over-al (adv.) everywhere, all through, in every part
over-cumen (v.) to OVERCOME, conquer, prevail; master (past 2 sing. overcome; past 3 sing. overcom; past pl. overcomen) [OE]
over-cuthre (adj., compar.) entirely more familiar [see over- (prefix) and cuth (adj.)]
over-don (v.) to OVERDO, do too much [OE]
over-egede (adj.) OVERLY elaborate, foolishly excessive [see egede (adj.)]
over-feble (adv.) excessively FEEBLE, too weak [OE + OF]
over-forth (adv.) very far forward [OE]
over-fullet (adj. & v., past part.) abundant, overflowing; (OVERFILLED) [OE]
over-gan (v.) to GO away, pass over; GO OVER, surpass (pres. 2 sing. overkimest; pres. 3 sing. overkimeth) [OE]
over-gart (adj.) excessive, given to excess; presumptuous [OE + ON]
over-guldeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) GILDS OVER, covers in gold [OE]
over-herunge (n.) excessive praise [see herien (v.)]
over-hohe (n.) contempt, disdain; arrogance; over-hohe i-heortet = with a disdainful heart [from OE]
over-keasten (v.) to overthrow, CAST down; (fig.) defeat [OE + ON]
over-kimeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) see over-gan (v.)
over-leapeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) LEAPS OVER, jumps over (pres. part. overleapinde) [OE]
over-leden (v., past part.) drawn or ladled out (OVER the side of); (Shepherd, p. 103) "to spill over" [OE ofer + hladen, past part. of hladan "to draw (water), load"; related to ModE ladle]
over-muchel (adv.) OVER MUCH, too much
over-strong (adj.) very severe, OVERLY harsh
over-sturet (adj. & v., past part.) OVERLY STIRRED up, excessively emotional [from OE; see sturien (v.)]
over-swithe (adv.) OVER much, too greatly, excessively, exceedingly [from OE; see swithe (adv.)]
over-trust (n.) excessive confidence, OVER-TRUST, presumption [see trust (v.)]
over-trusten (v.) to TRUST too much, be overconfident [see trust (v.)]
over-trusti (adj.) too TRUSTING; OVERCONFIDENT
over-turnen (v.) to revolve, spin, TURN OVER (pres. pl. overturneth) [see turnen (v.)]
over-under (adv.) (lit.) after morning, perhaps after Tierce (9:00, the third canonical hour); afternoon [see under (n.)]
over-uvel (adj.) OVERLY evil, excessively bad
over-waden (v.) to WADE through or across [OE]
over-warpen (v.) to overthrow, turn over [OE]
over-weieth (v., pres. 3 sing.) out-WEIGHS, weighs more, is more important [from OE]
ow (personal pron., 2 pl., obj. form) YOU [see ye (personal pron.)]
ower (adj.) YOUR (pl.) [OE]
ow-seolf, -seolven (pron., reflex.) YOURSELF, -SELVES
owther (pron.) EITHER

packes (n. pl.) bundles, PACKS [MDu]
pagine (n.) PAGE [Lat. pagina "page"]
pagne (n.) PAGE [OF]
paie(n) (v.) to please, satisfy; PAY, pay for (pres. 3 sing. paieth; past part. i-paiet) [OF]
Pape (n.) POPE [OE or OF, from Lat.]
parais (n.) PARADISE; garden of Eden; heavenly paradise (gen. sing. paraise) [OF, ultimately from Old Persian]
parlur (n.) PARLOR, room for talking; MED: "(a) A chamber in a religious house used for consultation or conversation, esp. for conversation with persons outside the monastic community; (b) a grate or window through which the enclosed religious can make confession or communicate with persons outside the cloister" (gen. sing. parlurs, parlures) [OF; from parler "to talk"]
paroschien (n.) PARISHIONER, lay member of a parish [OF]
parti (v., pres. subj. sing.) PART, separate; DEPART, go away from (pres. 1 sing. parti; pres. 3 sing. parteth) [OF; see F. partir "to leave"]
parures (n. pl.) ornaments (for an amite); "an ornamental part of an alb or other vestment" (MED) [OF; see ModE pare "to peel or shave"]
passin (v.) to PASS, proceed; to SURPASS, exceed (pres. 3 sing. passeth) [OF]
passiun (n.) suffering, pain; Christ's PASSION, his sufferings on the cross (gen. sing. passiunes; pl. passiuns) [OF, from Lat. passio "suffering"]
pater nostres (n. pl.) Lord's Prayers, PATERNOSTERS [OF, from Lat.]
peathereth (v., pres. 3 sing.) stirs, pokes (ashes) [?OE; see ModE pother, powder; MED patheren; Zettersten (1965), p. 237]
pece (n.) PIECE, part, fragment; piece of cloth [OF]
peinture (n.) a PAINTING, picture [OF]
peis (n.) PEACE [OF]
penitence (n.) PENITENCE; the sacrament of penance; penance or restitution, the third step in the penitential system; penitential suffering [OF]
peoddere (n.) PEDDLER, a traveling seller of small wares [*OE]
peolkin (v.) to pick clean, peck (used of birds); rob [ON]
peonehes (n. pl.) PENNIES, coins [OE]
peonsin (v.) to consider, study, think over; complain, be fretful or anxious [OE, from Lat. pensare "think, consider"]
peril (n.) danger, risk [OF]
pes (n.) see peis (n.)
phariseus (n. pl.) PHARISEES; hypocrites [OE, from Lat.]
pilche (n.) fur or leather garment, robe [OE, from Lat.; see ModE pelt]
pilche-clut (n.) a ragged garment (made from animal skin or fur); tattered cloak [OE pilece "fur garment" + OE clut "patch, rag"]
piler (n.) PILLAR, post [OF]
pilewin, pilien (v.) to rob, PILLAGE, plunder; to strip, PEEL [OE, from Lat.]
piment (n.) spiced, sweetened wine [OF]
pinchen (v.) to PINCH, pluck (the eyebrows) [ONF]
pinchunge (n.) PINCHING, plucking (of eyebrows)
pine (n.) punishment; suffering, PAIN, torment (pl. pinen) [OE, from Lat.]
pinful (adj.) PAINFUL, full of suffering
pinin (v.) to inflict PAIN, suffering; to torment, torture, trouble, distress (pres. subj. sing. pini; pres. 1 sing. pini; pres. pl. pinith; past part. i-pinet, pinet) [OE, from Lat.]
pinsunge (n.) pain, torture; mortification, subduing (of the flesh) (pl. pinsunges) [origin obscure; related to pinin (v.), perhaps as ModE cleanse relates to clean]
pitance (n.) donation, bequest to a religious house of food and drink; allowance of food; ration; a poor ration, PITTANCE [OF]
place (n.) PLACE (of battle), field [OF]
pleanin (v.) to COMPLAIN (reflex.) [OF]
pleien (v.) to PLAY; frisk, dance, dart around quickly; perform; have fun; (plohian is the northern form) (pres. 3 sing. pleieth; past sing. pleide) [OE]
pleinte (n.) COMPLAINT [OF]
pliht (n.) danger, risk [OE; ModE plight]
plihten (v.) to pledge, promise (past part. i-pliht) [OE; see ModE phrase plight one's troth, Ger. pflichten "to obligate"]
plohe (n.) PLAY; frisking [see pleien (v.)]
plohien (v.) see pleien (v.)
point (n.) POINT; situation, case, state of being; clause; opportunity [OF]
potage (n.) vegetable broth or soup; dish of vegetables (usually boiled in a POT) [OF]
poverte (n.) POVERTY, destitution [OF]
povre (adj.) POOR, humble [OF]
povreliche (adv.) POORLY, badly
preachin (v.) to PREACH (imper. pl. preachi (ye); past part. i-preachet) [OF]
preasse (n.) crowd, PRESS, throng [OF]
preisin (v.) to PRIZE, set a high value on; PRAISE (imper. sing. preise; pres. 3 sing. preiseth; past sing. preisede; past part. i-preiset, preiset) [OF]
prelat, prelaz (n.) PRELATE, ecclesiastic of high rank: archbishop, bishop, pope, abbot, prior; a superior [OF]
preminences (n. pl.) a distinction, distinctive privilege [OF]
preon (n.) pin, clasp, brooch; nail, spike [OE]
preove (n.) PROOF, evidence, demonstration; testing, trial [OF]
present (n.) something PRESENTED or given; offering, present, gift (pl. presenz) [OF]
pric(c)hunge, pricunge (n.) PRICKING; goading [OE]
pricke (n.) PRICK, jot (i.e., a tiny distance) [OE]
prikieth (v., pres. pl.) PRICK, goad, spur on (pres. part. prikiende, prikinde) [OE]
prime (n.) PRIME, the first liturgical hour of the day, around 6 a.m. [OE]
prinschipe (n.) tightness, stinginess; reluctance [from OF prin "avaricious"; Zettersten (1964), pp. 30-32]
pris (n.) PRICE, value [OF]
prisun (n.) PRISON; imprisonment; prisoner, captive (pl. prisuns) [OF]
priur (n.) PRIOR, leader of a religious house [OE, from Lat.]
prive(e) (adj.) secret, concealed; private, personal; peculiar, special; intimate, friendly; mysterious, mystical [OF]
priveiliche (adv.) PRIVATELY, confidentially [OF]
privement (adv.) privately, secretly; alone, in solitude [OF]
privilegie (n.) special right or advantage; immunity [Lat.]
privite (n.) secret, divine secret, revelation (pl. privitez) [OF]
procunge (n.) poking, prodding, goading; (fig.) instigation (pl. procunges) [see prokie (v.)]
professiun (n.) PROFESSION, religious vow [OF]
prokie (v., pres. subj. sing.) poke; stir, goad, incite [origin obscure]
proprement (adv.) characteristically, by nature [OF]
prosperte (n.) PROSPERITY [OF]
prud(e) (adj.) PROUD; (superlat. prudest) [late OE]
prude (n.) PRIDE, ostentation
pruden (v.) to be, become PROUD, act proudly (pres. subj. pl. pruden)
prufunge (n.) PROOF, evidence [see pruvien (v.)]
pruvien (v.) to make trial of, test; go through, experience; treat, deal with; demonstrate (pres. 3 sing. pruveth; pres. pl. pruvieth) [OF; ModE prove]
Psalm-wruhte (n.) PSALM-WRIGHT, Psalmist [OE]
puffen (v.) to PUFF, blow (in short bursts) (pres. 3 sing. puffeth; past sing. pufte) [OE]
puint (n.) see point (n.)
pundeth, punt (v., pres. 3 sing.) encloses, pens (livestock); confines, IMPOUNDS; dams or stops up; restrains (past part. i-pund) [*OE]
puplicanes (n., gen. sing.) PUBLICAN'S (see Matthew 18:17); belonging to a worldly or sinful person [OF]
purs (n.) bag, pouch, PURSE; treasury (pl. purses) [OE, from Lat.]
purte (n.) PURITY, pureness [OF]
put (n.) PIT, cave, ditch, hole [OE]
putten (v.) to place, set, PUT (pres. subj. sing. putte; pres. 3 sing. putteth; past sing. put; pres. part. puttinde; past part. i-put) [late OE]

quarreus (n. pl.) bolts; OED: "A short, heavy, square-headed arrow or bolt, formerly used in shooting with the crossbow" [OF]
quene (n.) QUEEN; QUEAN, hussy [OE]
quite (adj.) free, clear, rid (of something); QUIT [OF]
quoth (v., past sing.) spoke; SAID, mentioned [OE, always abbreviated as in Corpus]

rad (v., past sing.) see riden (v.)
rancun (n.) RANSOM, payment to release a prisoner [OF]
rawe (n.) ROW, line; order, succession; company, group; on rawe = completely, altogether; (rawe) bi rawe = in order, one by one [OE]
reacheth (v., pres. 3 sing.) stretches out, extends; REACHES, goes as far as (imper. sing. reach) [OE]
read (n.) counsel, advice, piece of advice; decision, plan, strategy, course of action; help, remedy (pl. reades) [OE]
read(e) (adj.) RED [OE]
reades-mon (n.) advisor, counselor
readeth (v., imper. pl.) advise, give counsel (pres. subj. sing. reade) [OE]
readliche (adv.) READILY, quickly [OE]
reaflac (n.) theft, pillaging, plundering [OE; see ModE bereft]
reathere (adv., compar.) earlier, quicker, sooner [OE]
reavenes (n., gen. sing.) see reven (n.)
reaveres (n. pl.) robbers, plunderers [OE]
reavi(n) (v.) to rob, plunder, pillage, steal; REAVE (pres. subj. sing. reavi; pres. 3 sing. reaveth) [OE]
reawe (n.) see rawe (n.)
recche (v., pres. subj. sing.) care, be concerned; matter, be important; (impers.) me ne recche = (it) does not matter to me (past sing. rochte) [OE]
reccheth (v., pres. 3 sing.) goes, wanders, strays; recchinde (pres. part. as adj.) going, wandering [OE]
recchinde (adj., pres. part.) see reccheth (v.)
rech(e)les (n.) incense; smoke, aroma of incense (gen. sing. rech[e]leses) [OE; see ModE reek + -(e)les (suffix)]
recordin (v.) to memorize, commit to memory; to repeat, recite [OF]
reculin (v.) to beat back, drive back; cause to retreat [OF, from Lat. culus "posterior"]
rede(n) (v.) to READ, recite; interpret, declare (imper. pl. redeth; pres. subj. pl. reden; pres. 3 sing. redeth, red, ret; pres. pl. redeth; past part. i-red) [OE]
redunge (n.) READING, (devotional) reading
regibeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) kicks [OF]
reimin (v.) to ransom (someone), redeem (also reflex.); to plunder, rob, fleece; to gain control of [OF]
reisun (n.) REASON, argument; reasoning faculty, ability to think (pl. reisuns) [OF]
relef (n.) remains, remnants, residue [OF]
religiun (n.) religious profession; OED: "condition of one who is a member of a religious order" (pl. religiuns) [AN]
religius(e) (adj.) RELIGIOUS, living under a religious rule
remissiun (n.) REMISSION, forgiveness of sin [OF]
rengeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) roams, RANGES about (pres. part. renginde) [OF]
renginde (adj. & v., past part.) see rengeth (v.)
rentes (n. pl.) RENTS, income [OF]
reopen (v.) to seize, catch; touch [OE]
reopunge (n.) touching, sense of touch, sensation [OE]
reowfule (adj.) RUEFUL, deserving pity [OE]
reowfulnesse (n.) compassion, sympathy; RUEFULNESS [OE]
reowthe (n.) pity, compassion, mercy, RUTH; sorrow, grief [OE + -th from ON]
reowtheful (adj.) sorrowful, pitiful; compassionate; RUEFUL, piteous [see reowthe (n.)]
reowthful (adj.) compassionate, FULL of pity or RUTH
resun (n.) see reisun (n.)
reven (n.) RAVEN (gen. sing. reavenes) [OE]
riche (adj.) powerful, great; RICH (superlat. richest) [OE]; (n.) kingdom, realm [OE; see Ger. Reich]
richesces (n. pl.) RICHES [OF]
richt (adj.) see riht (adj.)
ride(n) (v.) to RIDE (past sing. rad; pres. part. ridinde) [OE]
ridli (v.) to put through a sieve, sift [from OE hriddel "sieve"]
riht (adv.) directly, in a straight way; immediately; exactly, just, quite
riht(e) (adj.) RIGHT, upright, righteous, proper; straight; (n.) right, just cause [OE]
rihten (v.) to straighten, make RIGHT; direct; establish, set up; raise, rear; bring to an upright position (pres. subj. sing. rihte; past part. i-riht) [OE]
riht-hondes (adj.) RIGHT-HAND, favorite
rihtliche (adv.) justly, correctly; (Shepherd, p. 104) "justifiably" [OE]
riht-wis(e) (adj.) righteous, just, upright [OE]
riht-wisnesse (n.) righteousness, justice, integrity [OE]
rikelot (n.) magpie; (fig.), chattering woman, gossip [Lat. rikelota "magpie"]
rikeneres (n. pl.) auditors, account keepers, RECKONERS [see rikenin (v.)]
rikenin (v.) to count, RECKON, calculate; tell, narrate (past part. i-rikenet) [OE]
rin (v., imper. sing.) touch; strike; pertain to, concern (pres. subj. sing. rine; pres. 3 sing. rineth) [OE]
ring (n.) RING; ring dance, dance in a round [OE]
rinnen (v.) to seize, take [OE]
rinunge (n.) touching, touch [see rin (v.)]
riote (n.) RIOT, debauchery, extravagance; (prob. not a hunting term designating the scent of the wrong animal, as Salu and Zettersten suggest - see Dolan [1979], pp. 189-200) [OF]
ris (n.) (living) twig, branch, bough [OE]
risede (v., past sing.) trembled, shuddered [OE; MED resen]
rive (v., pres. subj. sing.) edge, trim, put a trim on (pres. 3 sing. riveth) [ON rifa "to sew up loosely"; see ModE reef]
rivunges (n. pl.) trimmings, borders (?); sewn garments
riwle (n.) RULE, code of conduct; a religious rule (pl. riwlen) [OF]
riwlin (v.) to RULE, govern, regulate (pres. 3 sing. riwleth; pres. pl. riwleth) [OF]
riwlunge (n.) governance, RULING, management
rixleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) rules, reigns; holds sway, prevails [from OE; see Lat. rex "king"]
rixlunge (n.) rule, sway, dominance
robbeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) ROBS, plunders, steals from (pres. pl. robbith; past part. i-robbed, i-robbet) [OF]
rochet (n.) an church vestment, a surplice (worn by bishops or abbots) [OF]
rochte (v., past subj. sing.) see recche (v.)
rode (n.) ROOD, cross [OE]
rode-scheld (n.) ROOD-SHIELD, the cross as a protecting shield
rode-steaf (n.) ROOD-STAFF, the cross as a weapon
rode-taken (n.) sign (TOKEN) of the cross; a crucifix; a vision of Christ's cross [OE]
rolle (n.) ROLL, scroll; official or legal document [OF]
ron (v., past sing.) see runnen (v.)
rondes (n. pl.) logs or stripped branches [OF; ModE round]
ropunge (n.) crying, shouting; loud insistence [OE]
rote (n.) ROOT, cause [OE]
rotet, rotede (adj. & v., past part.) ROTTED, decayed [see rotien (v.)]
rotien (v.) to ROT (pres. subj. sing. rotie; pres. 3 sing. roteth; pres. pl. rotieth; past sing. rotede; past part. i-rotet) [OE]
rude (n.) RUDDINESS, red; complexion [OE]
rudi (adj.) RUDDY, red (used of a healthy complexion); red-faced [OE]
rug(ge) (n.) (the) back; wenden rug = to turn one's back [OE; ModE ridge]
ruhe (adj.) ROUGH (compar. ruhre) [OE]; (n.) roughness; something rough, rough garment, rough surface [OE]
rukelin (v.) to heap up, pile up; amass, assemble (something) (pres. 3 sing. rukeleth) [see ruken (n.)]
ruken (n. pl.) piles, heaps [ON]
rukin (v.) to squat, crouch [?ON]
rune (n.) RUNNING [OE]
runes (n.) secrets, mysteries [OE; see ModE rune]
rungen (v.) to rise, get up (imper. pl. rung) [origin obscure]
rungi (v.) to WRING, squeeze out [OE]
runnen (v.) to RUN (past sing. ron) [OE]
rustin (v.) to RUST, tarnish (pres. 3 sing. rusteth; past part. i-rustet) [from OE]
rute (n.) ROUTE, course, way, path [OF]

sabraz (n.) elixir, potion, medicine [OF]
sacles (adj.) GUILTLESS, innocent [OE, perhaps influenced by ON]
sacreth (v., pres. 3 sing.) CONSECRATES, blesses [OF, from Lat.]
sahe (n.) saying, speech, SAW [OE]
sahte (n.) reconciliation, agreement; peace [OE]
sahtnesse (n.) reconciliation, peace, accord [OE]
sahtni (v.) to reconcile, make peace with (pres. 3 sing. sahtneth; past part. i-sahtnet) [see sahte (n.)]
salde (v., past sing.) see sullen (v.)
salm (n.) PSALM (pl. salmes) [OF]
Salmiste (n.) PSALMIST; David, as author of the PSALMS [OF]
Salm-wruhte (n.) see Psalm-Wruhte (n.)
saluz (n.) greeting, salutation [OF]
salve (n.) SALVE, healing ointment, medicine; remedy, cure [OE]
salvith (v., pres. pl.) rub with a SALVE or ointment; heal, remedy, treat (past part. i-salvet) [OE]
sape (n.) SOAP [OE]
sapere (n.) SOAP maker, seller; SOAPER
sar(e) (adj.) SORE, painful; sad, sorrowful (compar. sarre, sarure; superlat. sarest) [OE]
sar (n.) pain, wound; disease, sickness; SORROW, suffering, hardship, misfortune (pl. sares) [OE]
sarcurne (adj.) querulous, complaining (about a wound); touchy, sensitive [OE; see sar (n.) + OE crene "tender"]
sare (adv.) SORELY, heavily, intensely; painfully, bitterly (compar: sarre) [OE]
sari(e) (adj.) sad, sorrowful; SORRY, regretful; causing pain or sorrow; painful (compar. sarure) [OE]
sariliche (adv.) SORRILY, sorrowfully, sadly; painfully [see sari (adj.)]
sarmun (n.) speech, words; SERMON [OF]
savur (n.) SAVOR, taste; relish, delight [OF]
saweth (v., pres. 3 sing.) SOWS, scatters (seed); (fig.) scatter, disperse [OE]
sawle (n.) SOUL (gen. sing. sawle, sawles; pl. sawles, sawlen; gen. pl. sawlene) [OE]
sawter (n.) PSALTER, the book of Psalms, often arranged for liturgical use [OF]
sawunge (n.) SOWING; spreading
sawvin (v.) to SAVE, rescue; save (in a theological sense) (pres. 3 sing. sawveth) [OF]
scaldinde (adj., pres. part.) SCALDING [ONF]
scale (n.) drinking cup, bowl [ON]
scandle (n.) cause of offense or stumbling; MED: "discredit to religion resulting from the misbehavior of a religious person"; "also, perplexity of conscience occasioned by the conduct of one who is looked up to as an example" (The OED notes that before the sixteenth century, this word occurs only in AW/AR) [AF scandle, from Lat. scandalum "stumbling, offense"]
scarn(e) (n.) SCORN, contempt, mockery [OF]
scarnith (v., imper. pl.) SCORN, mock, deride (pres. 3 sing. scarneth) [OF]
schaden (v.) to separate [OE; see Ger. scheiden "to separate"]
schakeles (n. pl.) fetters, bonds, SHACKLES; hobble [OE]
schaken (v.) to SHAKE, shake off; brandish; rush, go quickly; (pres. part. as adj.) schakinde = rash, quick; brandishing, threatening (?); (past part. as adj.) i-schake = violent (in that it has shaken the entire body?) (imper. sing. schake, schec; pres. 3 sing. schaketh; pres. part. schakinde; past part. i-schake) [OE]
schal (v., pres. sing.) SHALL, will (as marker of the future tense); (past tense forms) should, ought (pres. subj. sing. schule; pres. 2 sing. schalt; pres. pl. schulen, shule (we); past 2 sing. schuldest; past sing. schulde; past pl. schulden) [OE]
schape (n.) SHAPE; cut [OE]
schapieth (v., imper. pl.) SHAPE, fashion; cut out (clothing) (past part. i-schapet) [OE]
scharpschipe (n.) sharpness; hardship [from OE]
schawere (n.) mirror; (SHOWER) [OE]
schawi(n) (v.) to see, view; be seen, visible; to appear (to be); reveal, SHOW; to treat, behave (imper. sing. schaw; imper. pl. schawith; pres. 3 sing. schaweth; past sing. schawde; past part. i-schawde, i-schawet) [OE]
schawunges (n. pl.) SHOWINGS, visions, revelations
schec (v., imper. sing.) see schaken (v.)
scheden (v.) to divide; SHED (blood), pour (out), be poured out; spill (a liquid); waste, destroy; (past part. as adj.) schede = spilled (imper. sing. sched; pres. 3 sing. sched, schet; pres. pl. schedeth; past sing. schedde; past part. i-sched, schede) [OE]
schedunge (n.) SHEDDING (of blood)
scheld (n.) SHIELD [OE]
schench (n.) leg [?OE; related to schonke (n.)]
schende (v.) to shame, disgrace; confuse, destroy (pres. 3 sing. schent; past sing. schende; past part. i-schent, i-schend) [OE]
schendfule (adj.) humiliating; shameful, disgraceful [from OE]
schendfulliche, schentfulliche (adv.) disgracefully, shamefully; with disgrace, shame
schendfulnesse (n.) wickedness, vileness
schendlac (n.) shame, disgrace; humiliation (pl. schendlakes) [from OE]
schene (adj.) beautiful; bright (compar. schenre) [OE; ModE sheen]
schentful(e) (adj.) see schendfule (adj.)
scheoiende (pres. part.) SHOEING, putting on shoes [from OE]
scheome (n.) SHAME, humiliation, disgrace, insult [OE sceamu]
scheomel (n.) footstool, (according to the MED, can also refer to the "raised section of floor on which the altar stands") [OE, from Lat.]
scheomeliche (adv.) disgracefully, shamefully [OE]
scheomien (v.) to be ashamed, blush (pres. subj. sing. scheomie; pres. 3 sing. scheometh) [OE]
scheon (n. pl.) see scheos (n. pl.)
scheop (v., past sing.) created, formed, SHAPED [OE]
scheortliche (adv.) SHORTLY, briefly; soon [OE]
scheos (n. pl.) SHOES [OE]
scheot (v., pres. 3 sing. [= scheoteth]: SHOOTS [OE]
schere (n.) groin [OE]
schet see scheden (v.)
schilde(n) (v.) to SHIELD, protect, shelter (pres. subj. sing. schilde; pres. 3 sing. schilt) [OE]
schine (v.) to SHINE (pres. 3 sing. schineth; pres. part. schininde)
schir(e) (adj.) pure, bright [OE; ModE sheer]
schireth (v., pres. 3 sing.) purifies, brightens; makes clear, says [OE]
schirliche (adv.) clearly, brightly
schirnesse (n.) brightness, purity
schonke (n.) leg, SHANK (pl. schonken) [OE]
schraden (n. pl.) scraps, SHREDS [OE]
schraf (v. past sing.) see schriven (v.)
schrapien (v.) to scrape, dig; erase (the method of erasing letters from parchment) (pres. 3 sing. schrapeth; past part. i-schrapede) [OE; ModE scrape from ON cognate]
schrif (v., imper. sing.) see schriven (v.)
schrift(e) (n.) confession, penance; confessor (gen. sing. schriftes) [OE, from Lat.]
schrift-feader (n.) confessor, confession-FATHER (pl. schrift-feaderes) [from OE, influenced by ON]
schrive(n) (v.) to confess (reflex.) (imper. sing. schrif; pres. subj. sing. schrive; pres. subj. pl. schriven; pres. 1 sing. schrive; pres. 2 sing. schrivest; pres. 3 sing. schriveth; past sing. schraf; past part. i-schriven[e], i-scrive) [OE]
schrud (n.) clothing, garment (pl. schrudes) [OE; ModE shroud]
schruden (v.) to dress, clothe (oneself); be dressed; to adorn; (past part. as adj.) i-schrud = veiled, hidden, enveloped (pres. 3 sing. schrudeth; past sing. schrudde; past part. i-schrud) [OE; see schrud (n.)]
schucke (n.) demon, fiend; the devil [OE]
schuhteth (v., pres. 1 pl.) drive away, repel [OE]
schulde, schulden, schuldest (v.) see schal (v.)
schuldi (adj.) guilty, culpable, sinful [OE; see Ger. schuldig "guilty"]
schuleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) looks askance, squints [OE sceol "awry, squinting"]
schunche (v., imper. sing.) frighten, scare; be terrified, frightened (pres. 3 sing. schuncheth) [OE]
schunien (v.) to SHUN, avoid, reject (pres. subj. sing. schunie; past pl. schuneden) [OE]
Schuppent (n.) Creator, SHAPER [OE]
Schuppere (n.) Creator, SHAPER
schurteth (v., imper. pl.) SHORTEN, pass (the time); (reflex.) entertain yourself [OE]
schutteth (v., imper. pl.) SHUT [OE]
schuveth (v., pres. 3 sing.) SHOVES, thrusts, sweeps (past part. i-schuven) [OE]
scleaterunge (n.) daubing, plastering [OE]
scole (n.) SCHOOL [OE]
scol-meistre (n.) SCHOOL-MASTER, school teacher
scoren (n. pl.) tally sticks; sticks with notches SCORED into them to keep track of accounts [ON]
scotti(n) (v.) to share, participate (in) (pres. 2 pl. scottith) [OE, perhaps influenced by ON]
scratleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) scratches, scrapes [probably imitative]
scrowe (n.) scroll [OF]
scureth (v., pres. 3 sing.) SCOURS, polishes [from OF or MDu]
scuter (adj.) derisive, taunting [ON]
se (adv.) SO, as [OE]
seac (v., past sing.) see siken (v.)
sec, seke (adj.) SICK, ill; (n.) sick (person); sickness, disease (compar. seccre) [OE]
seccli (v., pres. subj. sing.) SICKEN, grow weak or ill (pres. 3 sing. secleth) [OE]
sechen (v.) to SEEK; attempt, try; pursue, attack; aim (imper. sing. sech; imper. pl. secheth; pres. subj. sing. seche; pres. 1 sing. seche; pres. 3 sing. secheth; pres. pl. secheth; past 2 sing. sohtest; past sing. sohte; pres. part. sechinde; past part. i-soht) [OE]
secnesse (n.) SICKNESS, illness (pl. secnesses) [OE]
sed (n.) SEED; granule, particle (pl. sedes) [OE]
seel (n.) SEAL (usually of wax and which closes a document to keep it private); (fig.) secrecy, confidentiality [OF]
sege (n.) seat (for a person of status or authority) [OE; ModE siege]
segge(n) (v.) to SAY, speak; declare (imper. sing. sei; imper. pl. seggeth; pres. subj. sing. segge; pres. 1 sing. segge; pres. 2 sing. seist; pres. 3 sing. seggeth, seith; pres. pl. seggeth; past 2 sing. seidest; past sing. seide; past pl. seiden; past part. i-seid) [OE]
seide, seiden, seidest (v., past) see seggen (v.)
seim (n.) fat, lard [OF]
Sein, Seint, Seinte (n.) SAINT (usually part of a name) [OF]
seke (adj.) see sec (adj. & n.)
sel-cuth (adj. or n.) wonder, unusual, unfamiliar (thing) [OE seld "SELDOM, little" + cuth (adj.)]
seldene (adj.) infrequent, rare; (adv.) SELDOM, not often [OE]
selhthe (n.) happiness; good fortune, luck, prosperity [OE]
seli(e) (adj.) blessed, favored, holy; excellent; innocent, harmless; weak, wretched, unfortunate [OE]
seliliche (adv.) happily
selt (adj.) SELDOM, infrequent [OE]
selt-hwenne (adv.) SELDOM, rarely, not often [from OE]
selt-sene (adj.) SELDOM SEEN, rare [OE]
semblant (n.) appearance, shape, form, expression; outward show, deception, pretense; don semblant = to make a pretense, pretend, give an impression that something is so (pl. semblanz) [OF]
semlich (adj.) SEEMLY, fitting [ON]
senden (v.) to SEND; direct (at), throw, hurl (imper. sing. sende; imper. pl. sendeth; pres. subj. sing. sende; pres. 3 sing. send, sent; past sing. sende; past pl. senden) [OE]
senre (adj., compar.) more visible, easy to see or be SEEN [from OE]
sentence (n.) opinion, judgment, meaning; aphorism [OF]
seo(n) (v.) to SEE, look; see (something) (imper. sing. sih; pres. subj. sing. seo; past subj. sing. sehe; pres. 1 sing. seo; pres. 2 sing. sist; pres. 3 sing. sith; pres. pl. seoth; past sing. seh; past pl. sehen; past part. i-sehen[e]; inflected inf. to seonne) [OE]
seode (n.) a purse; binden seode mid the muth = to purse the lips, pucker [OE]
seolc (n.) SILK [OE]
seolf (pron. & adj.) SELF (objective form: seolve, seolven)
seoththen (adv.) afterwards, since, later; (conj.) as soon as, when, since, after that, inasmuch as [OE]
seove, seoven(e) (adj. & n.) SEVEN [OE]
seove-niht (n.) a week; SENNIGHT [from OE]
seovethe (adj.) SEVENTH [OE]
seove-vald, seve-vald (adv.) SEVENFOLD, seven times [OE]
seowith (v., imper. pl.) SEW [OE]
servi(n) (v.) to SERVE, render service to; perform (pres. 3 sing. serveth; pres. pl. servith) [OF]
servise (n.) SERVICE, liturgical duties (pl. servises) [OF]
seste (adj.) SIXTH [OE]
set, seten (v., past) see sitten (v.)
sete (n.) SEAT [OE]
setten (v.) to SET, place, put; dispose, arrange, establish, fix (a date or deadline); to settle, subside (imper. sing. sete; pres. 3 sing. set, setteth; past sing. sette; past part. i-set, i-sette) [OE]
shute (n.) SHOT, volley [OE]
sibbe (adj.) related (by family); related to, pertaining (to); (n.) peace, friendship, kinship; freedom, harmony; kin, family, relatives [OE; see ModE sibling]
sicles (n. pl.) SHEKELS [OF from Hebrew]
side (n.) SIDE; side of the body; o siden = to the side, askance (pl. siden) [OE]
signe (n.) SIGN; SIGNAL, gesture (pl. sines) [OF]
siheth (v., pres. 3 sing.) strains (out), separates with great care (pres. pl. siheth) [OE]
sihthe (n.) SIGHT; marvel, vision (pl. sihthen) [OE]
sike(n) (v.) to sigh, moan (imper. pl. siketh; past sing. seac) [OE]
siker(e) (adj.) sure, safe; reliable, trustworthy (compar. sikerure) [OE; see Ger. sicher "safe"]
sikerliche (adv.) with conviction, certainty; without doubt, hesitation; confidently; firmly [late OE]
sikernesse (n.) certainty; assurance; pledge, security (for the performance of an agreement) [OE]
sikes (n. pl.) sighs [see siken (v.)]
simple (adj.) SIMPLE, honest, innocent [OF]
sines (n. pl.) see signe (n.)
sinetin (v.) (lit.) to stamp with a SIGNET ring; (fig.) to confirm, emphasize (words) with a gesture [OF]
singularite (n.) SINGULARITY, individual difference or peculiarity [OF]
sire (n.) SIR (form of address) [OF]
sith (n.) time, occasion (pl. sithen, sithe) [OE]
sithe, sithen (n. pl.) times, occasions [OE]
sitten (v.) to SIT, crouch; sit around; prevail; to be suitable, fitting, becoming, to suit (imper. sing. site; imper. pl. sitteth, sitte ye; pres. subj. sing. sitte; pres. 3 sing. sit, sitteth; pres. pl. sitteth; past sing. set; past pl. seten; pres. part. sittinde) [OE]
sittunge (n.) SITTING
sker (adj.) pure, cleansed, innocent; free, safe; clear, bright (compar. skerre) [ON]
skerin (v.) to acquit, clear (a person of a charge) [see sker (adj.)]
skile (n.) reason, reasonableness, discretion; what is reasonable, right; explanation, logical argument (gen. sing. skiles) [ON]
skirmi (v.) to fight (with a weapon); thrust, fence (pres. 3 sing. skirmeth) [OF]
skiwes (n. pl.) skies, heavens [prob. ON, related to ModE sky]
skleatteth (v., pres. pl.) flap or slam down [?OE; origin obscure, perhaps related to ModE slat]
slakien (v.) to STOP; SLACK [OE]
slaw(e) (adj.) SLOW, sluggish, lethargic [OE]
slawthe (n.) SLOTH (as one of the deadly sins); laziness [from OE]
slean (v.) to strike powerfully; to SLAY, kill with a blow (imper. sing. slea; pres. 3 sing. sleath; pres. pl. sleath; past sing. sloh; past pl. slohen; past part. i-slein[e]; inflected inf. to sleanne) [OE]
sleateth (v., pres. 3 sing.) drives, bates (with dogs); hunts (after) [OE; see MED sleten (v.)]
slei (adj. & v., past part.) SLAIN, dead [see slean (v.)]
slep (n.) SLEEP (obj. sing. slepe) [OE]
slepen (v.) to SLEEP (imper. sing. slep; imper. pl. slepe (ye); pres. subj. sing. slepe; pres. 3 sing. slepeth; pres. pl. slepeth; past 2 sing. sleptest; past sing. slepte; pres. part. slepinde) [OE]
slepi (adj.) SLEEPY, drowsy [OE *slæpig, see unslæpig]
sleven (n.) SLEEVES, a distinctive part of a religious habit [OE]
sliddrunge (n.) SLIDING, slipping [from OE]
sliden (v.) to SLIDE, slip (pres. 3 sing. slit) [OE]
sloggi (adj.) SLUGGISH [ON or imitative]
sloh, slohen (v., past) see slean (v.)
slubbri (adj.) slippery [prob. OE, not MF lem-see Zettersten (1965), p. 137]
slummi (adj.) drowsy, sleepy, SLUMBERFUL [prob. OE]
Sluri (n.) SLURRY (not a given name, but a nickname); Lazy, Slacker [Ger., perhaps OE; see MLG sluren "to be lazy"; see Zettersten (1964), p. 35]
smahte (v., past sing.) tasted, experienced by tasting (past part. i-smaht, i-smecchet) [OE; see Ger. schmechen "to taste"]
smeal (n.) SMELL (either pleasant or unpleasant) (pl. smealles) [OE]
smeal(e) (adj.) SMALL; light, slight, insubstantial (compar. smealre) [OE]
smeallen (v.) to SMELL (pres. part. smeallinde; past part. i-smeallet) [OE]
smeallunge (n.) sense of SMELL [OE]
smech (n.) taste, savor, good taste [see smahte (v.), Ger. geschmeck "taste"]
smechles (adj.) TASTELESS, bland
smechunge (n.) (the sense of) taste; tasting [see smahte (v.)]
smeort (adj.) SMART, vigorous; sharp, painful [OE]
smeorten (v.) to SMART, be sharply painful; to give (someone/something) a sharp pain (pres. 3 sing. smeorteth) [OE]
smeortliche (adv.) quickly, sharply; painfully
smeortunge (n.) SMARTING, pain (from a wound or injury)
smeothien (v.) to forge, fashion, shape (something metal); to SMITH (pres. 3 sing. smeotheth) [OE; see ModE blacksmith]
smethe (adj.) SMOOTH [OE]
smethin (v.) to SMOOTH, make even (pres. 3 sing. smetheth) [OE]
smirien (v.) to SMEAR, anoint, rub in (an ointment or balm); smiret (past part. as adj.) = anointed (pres. pl. smirieth; past part. i-smired, smiret) [OE]
smirles (n.) ointment, salve [OE; see smirien (v.) + -(e)les (suffix)]
smiten (v.) to SMITE, hit, beat; pierce (pres. 3 sing. smit; past sing. smat) [OE]
smitere (n.) SMITER, one who hits or strikes, attacker
smith (n.) BLACKSMITH, metal worker [OE]
smiththe (n.) SMITHY, workshop [OE]
smothre (n.) dense, stifling smoke, [from OE smorian "to smother, choke"]
smuhel (adj.) stealthy, slippery; "soft in movement, lithe, creeping" (Zettersten [1965], p. 144) [perhaps related to OE smugan "to creep"]
snakereth (v., pres. 3 sing.) sneaks, creeps, SNAKES around, approaches stealthily (pres. 3 sing. snakereth; pres. part. snakerinde) [*OE]
sneateres (n. pl.) SNATTERINGS, babblings; (hence) mere verbal reprimands [*OE; see MDu, MLG snateren "to babble, talk"; see Zettersten (1964), pp. 11-12]
snecchen (v.) to snap, bite [origin obscure, perhaps related to ModE snatch]
softe (adv.) SOFTLY, gingerly; compliantly [OE]
softeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) SOFTENS, mollifies (pres. 3 sing. softeth) [from OE]
sol (adj.) SOILED, dirty [from OE]
some (n.) peace, harmony [OE; related to ModE same]
somet (adv.) together; at the same time, in the same direction [OE]
somet-readnesse (n.) concord, agreement [see somet (adv.) + read (n.)]
sond (n.) SAND [OE]
sonde (n.) errand, embassy, a SENDING; message, communication; messenger, envoy (pl. sonden) [OE sand, sond, influenced by sende]
sondes-mon (n.) messenger, (lit. message man) [from OE]
sone (adv.) SOON; quickly, straight away (compar. sonre; superlat. sonest) [OE]
sontes (n. pl.) SAINTS [OE, from Lat., as opposed to the OF form seint]
sorege (n.) see sar (n.)
sorhe (n.) SORROW, suffering, misery; pain [OE]
sorhful(e) (adj.) SORROWFUL (compar. sorhfulre)
sorhfulliche (adv.) SORROWFULLY
sorhin (v.) to grieve, SORROW for [OE]
sot, sotte (adj) foolish, stupid; (n.) a fool, SOT) [OE; also see OF sot and med. Lat. sottus]
soth(e) (adj.) true, genuine; (n.) truth [OE; see ModE soothsayer]
sothes (adv.) in truth, truthfully
sothfestliche (adv.) truly, truthfully
sothliche (adv.) truly, truthfully
sotschipe (n.) stupidity, foolishness [see sot (adj.)]
spatlunge (n.) spitting [OE; see ModE spittle]
spealeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) means, signifies; interprets (pres. pl. spealieth; past part. i-spealet) [OF]
spearewe (n.) SPARROW; spearewe uvel = sparrow's disease [OE]
spearien (v.) to SPARE; to leave unhurt, unpunished; do without, dispense with (imper. sing. speare; pres. subj. pl. spearien; pres. 3 sing. speareth; past part. i-spearet) [OE]
spearren (v., pres. subj. pl.) see sperreth (v.)
spece (n.) type, kind, SPECIES; branch, subclass [OF, from Lat.]
speces (n. pl.) SPICES [OF]
speche (n.) talk, SPEECH (pl. spechen) [OE]
speken (v.) to SPEAK, say (pres. 1 sing. speoke; pres. 3 sing. speketh; past sing. spec; past part. i-speken) [OE]
spelles (n. pl.) stories, tales [OE]
spellunge (n.) speaking, an act of speaking, utterance; tale [OE]
speoke(n) (v.) to SPEAK, say, talk (imper. pl. speoke (ye); pres. subj. sing. speoke; past subj. sing. speke; pres. 1 sing. speoke; pres. 2 sing. spekest; pres. 3 sing. speketh: pres. pl. speoketh; past sing. spec; past pl. speken; past part. i-speken; inflected inf. to speokene) [OE]
speokele (adj.) talkative, loquacious [OE]
speonse (n.) EXPENSE, money for expenses [OF]
speowen (v.) to SPEW, vomit (pres. subj. sing. speowe; pres. 3 sing. speoweth) [OE]
sperclinde (adj., pres. part.) SPARKLING, bright [OE]
speren (n. pl.) SPEARS (gen. sing. speres) [OE]
sperreth (v., imper. pl.) close, shut; fasten (with a bar) (pres. subj. pl. spearren) [prob. from MDu]
spi (interj.) (an expression of disgust) fie! or shame! [probably from MDu]
spieden (v., past pl.) SPIED; plotted, lay in wait [OF]
spillen (v.) to kill brutally; lay waste, devastate, destroy; ruin, damn (pres. pl. spilleth; past part. i-spillet) [OE]
spit (v., pres. 3 sing. [= spiteth]) SPITS (imper. spite; past sing. spitte) [OE]
spital-uvel (n.) leprosy; spital = shortened form of HOSPITAL, a quarantine for lepers, institution sheltering the poor or infirm [see uvel (n.)]
spitel-steaf (n.) spade, shovel [OE spitel "small spade" + OE stæf "staff"]
spreaden (v.) to SPREAD, stretch; expand, open (pres. 3 sing. spreat [= spreadeth]; pres. pl. spreadeth; past part. i-spread, spredde) [OE]
spredde (adj. & v., past part.) SPREAD, open [see spreaden (v.)]
sprengeth (v., imper. pl.) sprinkle; scatter, disperse (past part. i-sprengde) [OE]
spreove (n.) trial, testing; PROOF [from OF esprover; es- from Lat. ex-]
springen (v.) to SPRING; rise, rise up (pres. 3 sing. springeth) [OE]
spritlen (n. pl.) young twigs, shoots [OE]
spruteth (v., pres. pl.) SPROUT, grow [OE]
spurnen (v.) to stumble, trip over, bump into; kick; reject, SPURN (pres. 3 sing. spurneth) [OE]
spus(e) (n.) SPOUSE, marriage partner; bride or bridegroom (respectively) [OF]
spus-bruche (n.) adultery; (lit. SPOUSE-BREACH) [from OE]
spus-had (n.) marriage [OF + OE; see ModE spousehood]
sput (v., pres. 3 sing. [= sputteth]) urges, incite [*OE]
stalde (v., past sing.) set, placed; established (past part. i-stald) [OE]
stamin (n.) a rough undergarment worn by monks and ascetics [OF]
stanene (adj.) STONE, made of stone [OE]
stant (v., pres. 3 sing.) see stonden (v.)
stat (n.) ESTATE, condition, standing [OF]
steah (v., past sing.) see stihen (v.)
steale-wurthliche (adv.) STALWARTLY, stoutly, bravely
steal-wurthe (adj.) STALWART, brave, courageous; sturdy, stout [OE]
stearf (v., past sing.) died [OE; see ModE starve, Ger. sterben "to die"]
steathel-vestnesse (n.) STEAD-FASTNESS, firmness [OE]
steire (n.) STAIR, step (pl. steiren) [OE; related to stihen (v.)]
steoke (v.) to close up, shut [OE, related to ModE stuck]
steolen (n. pl.) uprights, the two vertical boards (of a ladder) [OE; see ModE stile]
steort-naket (adj.) stark-NAKED; (lit. "tail-naked") [from OE]
sterke (adj.) stern, strict, STARK [OE]
stert-hwile (n.) a twinkling, rapid moment [from ME stert "a leap, start" + OE hwile "time"]
stevene (n.) voice, sound; summons, call [OE; see Ger. stimme "voice"]
sti (n.) STY, pig pen [OE]
sticcke, sticke (n.) STICK; spoon [OE]
stiche (n.) puncture, prick; STITCH, sudden pain (pl. stichen) [OE]
stihe(n) (v.) to climb, ascend (pres. subj. sing. stihe; pres. 3 sing. stiheth; past sing. steah; past part. i-stihen) [OE; see Ger. steigen "to climb"]
stiketh (v., pres. 3 sing.) stays put, hangs around, STICKS to [OE]
stille (adj.) STILL, unmoving, quiet; (adv.) quietly, silently [OE]
stilthe (n.) silence, STILLNESS [from stille (adj.)]
stinken (v.) to STINK, emit a smell; to smell (something); (fig.) to be offensive (pres. subj. sing. stinke; past subj. pl. stunken; pres. 3 sing./pl. stinketh; past sing. stonc; pres. part. stincinde, stinkinde) [OE]
stiward (n.) STEWARD, manager [OE]
stod, stode (v.) see stonden (v.)
stod-meare (n.) a STUD-MARE, a mare (a female horse or ass) reserved for breeding; a breeder; (fig.) a lascivious woman [OE elements]
stonc (v., past sing.) see stinken (v.)
stonde(n) (v.) to STAND, stand firm, resist; endure; (impers.) hu hire stonde = how (it) may stand with her, how it is with her (imper. pl. stondeth; pres. subj. sing. stonde; pres. subj. pl. stonden; past subj. sing. stode; pres. 2 sing. stondest; pres. 3 sing. stont; pres. pl. stondeth; pres. part. stondinde; past sing. stod) [OE]
stondinge (n.) STANDING
stoppeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) STOPS, stops up, dams, shuts [*OE]
straf (v., past sing.) see striveth (v.)
strahte (v., past sing.) see streche (v.)
strea (n.) STRAW [OE]
streapeles (n. pl.) leggings, worn from the knee to the feet; breeches [OE]; see Zettersten (1965), p. 237]
streche (v., imper. sing.) prostrate (one's body), STRETCH out; extend, stretch (pres. 3 sing. strecheth; past sing. strahte; past part. i-straht[e]) [OE]
strenge (n.) STRENGTH [OE]
strengeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) prevails; STRENGTHENS; makes strong (past pl. strengden; past part. i-strengthet) [OE]
strengthe (n.) STRENGTH, power; violence, force; health, vigor; influence, import, importance [OE]
streon (n.) gain, acquisition; sex, begetting; offspring, progeny; kin, family [OE; see ModE strain (n.)]
streoneth (v., pres.3 sing.) to beget, give birth to, conceive, breed (pres. pl. streonith; past sing. streonede; past part. i-streonet, i-streonede) [OE; related to ModE strain]
strif (n.) STRIFE, conflict; striving, contending [OE]
striken (v., past pl.) STRUCK; (of a liquid) flowed, ran [OE]
striveth (v., pres. 3 sing.) contends, STRIVES with; competes with (past sing. straf) [OF]
strong(e) (adj.) STRONG, powerful; imposing, formidable; severe, heavy, difficult; adverse, dangerous; flagrant, blatant; amazing, marvelous (compar. strengre; superlat. strengest) [OE]
stronge (adv.) STRONGLY, powerfully; severely, violently (superlat. strongest) [OE]
strongliche (adv.) STRONGLY, severely (superlat. stronglukest) [OE]
strucion (n.) ostrich (struthio camelus), sometimes confused with the stork; (The MS spelling, apparently mistaken, is strucoin) (pl. strucions) [AF estrucion]
strueth (v., pres. pl.) DESTROY [OF]
strunden, strundes (n. pl.) streams, rivulets [*OE]
stucche (n.) fragment, piece; ane hwile stucche = for a short time (pl. stucchen, stuchen) [OE; see Ger. stück "piece"]
stude (n.) place, location (pl. studen) [OE; ModE stead]
stude-festliche, -vestliche (adv.) STEADFASTLY, steadily, constantly
stude-vest (adj.) STEADFAST, firm, reliable [OE]
stunde (n.) time, period (of time); moment, a brief space of time; umbe stunde = at times [OE; see Ger. stunde "hour"]
stunken (v., past subj. pl.) see stinken (v.)
sturbunge (n.) tumult, DISTURBANCE, trouble [from OF]
sturie(n) (v.) to STIR, move; (reflex.) to be active or busy, bestir (oneself); to stir up (in an emotional sense), affect (imper. sing. sture; imper. pl. sturieth; past sing. sturede; pres. part. sturiende) [OE]
sturne (adj.) STERN, strict, severe [OE]
sturunge (n. pl.) shaking, wagging (in derision or mockery); (pl.) STIRRINGS, first beginnings
stutten (v.) to stop, pause; put an end to; remain, stay (pres. 3 sing. stut [= stutteth]) [ON; d'Ardenne (1961), p. 166]
sucurs (n.) help, assistance, SUCCOR; reinforcements (sometimes understood as plural) [AF]
suffragies (n. pl.) SUFFRAGES, intercessory prayers [OF, from Lat.]
suffrin (v.) to allow, SUFFER (imper. sing. suffre) [AF]
suhe (n.) SOW [OE]
suheth (v., pres. 3 sing.) feels sorrow or pain; inflicts suffering, distress; suhinde (pres. part. as adj.) = painful (pres. subj. sing. suhie; pres. part. suhinde) [*OE; related to ModE sigh]
sulement (adv.) solely, only [AF]
sulen (v.) to dirty, SOIL, sully, make filthy; (past part. as adj.) sulede = SULLIED, unclean (pres. 3 sing. suleth; past sing. sulde; past part. i-sulet, sulede) [OE]
sulh (n.) plow [OE]
sulle(n) (v.) to SELL; give (imper. sing. sule; pres. 3 sing. suleth; past sing. salde) [OE]
sulli, sullich (adj.) strange, curious, marvelous [OE sellich]
sum (adj.) SOME; one, (a) certain; (n.) some(one) or some(thing) (gen. sing. sumes; pl. summe) [OE]; (pron.) SOME, a certain; (n.) someone, some person; sum . . . sum = one . . . another [OE]
sum-chearre, cheare (adv.) once, formerly; sometimes [from OE; see chearre (n.)]
sum-deal, -del (adv.) a bit, somewhat, SOME DEAL [from OE; see sum (adj.) + dale (n.)]
sum-hwet (pron.) something, a certain amount
sum-hwile (adv.) in a former time, SOME WHILE ago; once; at some time (or another [see sum (adj.) and hwile (n.)]
sum-wis (adv.) SOME WISE, in some way [from OE]
sunder-lepes (adv.) separately, individually; specially; (adj.) distinct, separate [OE; see ModE asunder]
sunderliche (adv.) separately [OE]
sundri (adj.) SUNDRY, various; distinct, individual [OE]
sundri (adv.) separately, individually; (v.) to part, divide, separate; to distinguish (pres. 3 sing. sundreth; past sing. sundrede; past part. i-sundret, i-sundrede) [OE]
sunegin, sungin, sungi (v.) to SIN, commit a sin (pres. subj. sing. sunege; pres. 1 sing. sunegi; pres. 2 sing. sunegest; pres. 3 sing. sungeth; pres. pl. sungith; past sing. sunegede, past part. i-suneget, i-sunget) [OE; see Ger. sündigen "to sin," d'Ardenne (1961), pp.166-67]
sunne (n. 1) SIN (pl. sunnen) [OE]; (n. 2) SUN [OE]
sunne-gleam (n.) a GLEAM of SUN-shine [from OE]
Sunne-niht (n.) the NIGHT before sunday, (i.e.,) Saturday night [OE]
supersticiuns (n. pl.) SUPERSTITIONS; superior airs (?), frivolities; wrong-headedness [OF; see Explanatory Note to 4.242]
sur(e) (adj.) SOUR (compar. surre) [OE]
surpliz (n.) SURPLICE, gown (usually worn over other clothes) [AF, from Lat. super- "over" + pellicia "fur"]
surquide (adj.) proud, presumptuous [AF; see Diensberg (1978), p. 79]
suster (n.) SISTER (gen. sing. sustres; pl. sustren) [OE]
sutel (adj.) clear, evident; easily understandable, unambiguous [OE]
suteli (v., pres. subj. sing.) make clear or manifest, reveal; become evident (past part. i-sutelet) [OE]
sutelliche (adv.) clearly
sutere (n.) shoemaker; cobbler, mender of shoes [OE, from Lat.; related to ModE sew]
suti (adj.) dirty, filthy [*OE; ModE sooty]
sutil (adj.) thin, fine, delicate; rarefied, ethereal, elusive, not easily grasped; refined, cunningly crafted; clever, cunning [OF; ModE subtle]
suvel (n.) food (such as meat or cheese) eaten with bread [OE]
swa (adv.) SO; thus, in such a way [OE]
swa-liches (adv.) in such a way
sware (n.) answer, reply; speech, talk; promise; swearing, cursing, blaspheming [from OE]
swart(e) (adj.) dark, SWARTHY, black (compar. swartre) [OE]
swat (n.) SWEAT; liquid [OE]
swati (adj.) SWEATY
swealm (n.) heat, inflammation; burning of lust, anger, etc. [*OE]
sweamen (v.) to afflict, cause pain, grieve (pres. 3 sing. sweameth) [*OE]
sweaten (v.) to SWEAT, exude (liquid) (pres. subj. sing. sweat; pres. 3 sing. swet, sweat [= sweateth]; past sing. sweatte) [OE]
swefne (n.) sleep; dream, vision (pl. swefnes) [OE]
swelte (pres. subj. sing.) die, expire [OE; see ModE swelter]
swenche(n) (v.) to put to work or trouble; afflict, harass; mortify (past part. i-swenchet) [OE; see swinc (n.)]
sweng (n.) SWING, stroke, blow (with a weapon); throw (in wrestling) (pl. swenges) [OE]
swengen (v.) to fling, dash [OE]
sweoke (n.) traitor, deceiver [OE]
sweokele (adj.) see swikele (adj.)
swerien (v.) to SWEAR (past part. i-sworen)
swet (v., pres. subj. sing.) see sweaten (v.)
swete (adj.) SWEET (superlat. swetest) [OE]
sweteliche (adv.) SWEETLY
sweteth (v., pres. 3 sing.) SWEETENS, make sweet [OE]
swiftschipe (n.) speed [from OE]
swiing-wike (n.) silence week, (i.e.,) Holy Week, during which silence was observed [swiing from OE swigian "to be silent"; see Ger. schweigen "to be quiet"]
swikele (adj.) deceitful, treacherous, lying (compar. swikelure) [OE]
swilli (adj.) SUCH; MED: "of the sort previously mentioned, described" [from swich (adj.), perhaps blended with OE þullich (adj.)]
swinc (n.) work, labor; travail, toil, struggle; trouble, difficulty; fruits of labor (pl. swinkes) [OE]
swincful(e) (adj.) laborious, full of toil, toilsome; hardworking, diligent
swingen (v.) to beat, whip; fling, hurl; SWING back and forth (past sing. swong) [OE]
swinken (v.) to toil, labor, work (hard) (pres. 3 sing. swinketh; pres. part. swinkinde; past sing. swonc, swong; past part. i-swunken) [OE; see swinc (n.)]
swinkes (n. pl.) see swinc (n.)
swire (n.) neck [OE]
swithe (adj.) strong, great, immense (compar. swithre); (adv.) strongly, greatly; severely; quickly; (modifying an adj. or adv.) very (compar. swithere, swithre; superlat. swithest) [OE]
swohinde (adj., pres. part.) SWOONING, fainting [OE]
swolhen (v.) to SWALLOW (pres. 3 sing. swolheth) [OE]
swong (v., past 3 sing.) see swinken (v.)
swopeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) sweeps [ON; related to ModE sweep]
swote (adj.) sweet, gentle; (adv.) sweetly, gently (superlat. swotest) [OE]
swotliche (adv.) sweetly
swuch (adj.) SUCH (a); (pron.) such a one, such things; swucches = such things (pl. swucche) [OE]
sygaldren (n. pl.) incantations, (magical) charms [OE sige- "victory" + gealdor "enchantment, spell"]
symonie (n.) SIMONY, the practice of selling ecclesiastical offices or benefits [OF]

ta (adv.) see tha (adv.)
tac (v., imper. sing.) TAKE (pres. 3 sing. taketh; past sing. toc) [late OE, from ON]
tacne (n.) TOKEN, sign, symbol; evidence [OE]
tacunge (n.) TAKING
tadden (n. pl.) TOADS, often imagined as malevolent creatures of hell [OE]
tah (conj.) see thah (conj.)
talde, talie (v.) see tellen (v.)
tale (n.) story, TALE; conversation; trifle, lie; claim, assertion; number, (full) count; value, account (pl. talen) [OE]
targeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) delays, is delayed; tarries, is slow [OF]
taveles (n. pl.) narrow lace borders [OF]
te (def. art.) see the (def. art.)
te (relative or personal pron.) see the (relative pron.) or thu (pron., 2 sing.)
teache(n) (v.) to TEACH, instruct; direct, refer (pres. subj. sing. teache; pres. 3 sing. teacheth; past sing. tahte; past part. i-taht) [OE]
team (n.) brood (litter, flock, etc.); family, line (pl. teames) [OE; see ModE teem]
tearme (n.) TERM, limit, deadline; (set) time (pl. tearmes) [OF]
teieth (v., pres. 3 sing.) TIES, fastens, binds; restrains, restricts (past sing. teide; past part. i-teiet) [OE]
teil(e) (n.) TAIL (pl. teiles) [OE]
teilac (n.) entanglement [from teieth (v.) + OE -lac "play, strife"]
teke (adv.) moreover, in addition, besides, eke; (prep.) in addition to, besides [from OE]
tellen (v.) to TELL, reckon; count, count up; consider, account (imper. sing. tele; pres. subj. sing. telle; pres. 1 sing. talie; pres. 2 sing. telest; pres. 3 sing. teleth; pres. 2 pl. telleth; past sing. talde; past part. i-tald) [OE]
tellunge (n.) counting, considering
temeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) brings forth, gives birth to; has offspring (pres. pl. temith) [OE; see team (n.)]
temie (v.) to TAME, subdue (pres. 3 sing. temeth; past sing. temede) [OE]
temptin (v.) to TEMPT, test (imper. sing. tempte; pres. subj. sing. tempti)
tendre (adj.) TENDER, loving; yielding (to); soft, weak, fragile [OF, from Lat. tenerum "delicate"]
tenne (adv.) see thenne (adv.)
teo (pron.) see the (relative pron.)
teohethi (v.) to TITHE, give a tenth part of one's income (past part. i-teohethet) [OE]
teohthe (adj.) TENTH [OE]
teolunges (n. pl.) reproof, rebuke, blaming; sorcery, witchcraft [OE tælan "to speak evil of, mistreat" perhaps blended with ON tæla "to betray"]
teone (n.) injury, harm; pain, physical suffering; misfortune, hardship; aggravation, chagrin, anger [OE]
teose (adj.) see this (adj. & demons. pron.)
teoth (v., pres. pl.) draw, pull; raise, train, educate; (past part. as adj.) i-tohe(ne) = trained [OE; see Ger. ziehen "to pull"]
teowi (adj.) exhausted, restless; erring [origin obscure - see Zettersten (1965), p. 259]
tep (v., imper. sing.) TAP, strike lightly; rap [ME, echoic]
tereth (v., pres. 3 sing.) TEARS, rips (past part. i-toren) [OE]
terme (n.) see tearme (n.)
ter-teken (adv.) see ther-teken (adv.)
tes (pron.) see this (adj. & demons. pron.)
tet (conj.) see thet (conj.)
teth (n. pl.) see toth (n.)
tha (adv.) then; (conj.) when; tha . . . tha = when . . . then [OE]
thah, thach, thauh (conj.) THOUGH, although [OE]
the (def. art.) THE (remains of the OE inflected forms: 3 fem. sing objective/gen. ther; 3 masc. sing. objective then; 3 masc./neut. gen. sing. thes; reduced form after preceding -d or -t: te); (relative & demons. pron.) which, who; this (3 fem. sing./pl. theo; reduced form: teo) [OE]
theafunge (n.) consent, permission
thear (adv.) see ther (adv.)
thearf (v., pres. sing.) need; be forced or obligated to (do something); (impers.) there is a need, it is necessary (pres. pl. thurve; past sing. thurfte) [OE]
theaw (n.) custom, habit, practice; trait, characteristic; good quality, virtue (pl. theawes; gen. pl. theawene) [OE; see ModE thew]
theawfule (adj.) virtuous, of good morals or habits
theh (n.) THIGH [OE]
then (def. art.) see the (def. art.)
then, thene (conj.)THAN [OE]; (def. art.) see the (def. art.)
thenche(n) (v.) to THINK, think of; consider, plan; to be reminded (imper. sing. thenc, thench; imper. pl. thencheth; pres. subj. sing. thenche; past subj. sing. thochte; pres. 2 sing. thenchest; pres. 3 sing. thencheth, thenchet; pres. pl. thench-eth; past 2 sing. thohtest; past sing. thohte; past pl. thohten; past part. i-thoht) [OE]
thenne (adv.) THEN [OE]
theode (n.) nation, people; land [OE]
theof (n.) THIEF (pl. theoves) [OE]
theofthe (n.) stolen goods, loot [OE; see ModE theft]
theone-ward (adv.) away from there, from that direction, THENCEWARD
theonne (adv.) THENCE, from there, from that place [OE]
theonne-vorth (adv.) THENCEFORTH, from that time forward
theos, theose (adj. & pron.) see this (adj. & demons. pron.)
theosternesse (n.) darkness, gloom [OE]
theostre (n.) darkness, gloom [OE; see Ger. düster "gloomy"]
theostrith (v., pres. pl.) darken (past part. i-theostret) [OE]
theoteth (v., pres. 3 sing.) howls, screeches [OE]
theowdom (n.) servitude, thralldom, slavery [OE]
theowe (n.) servant, slave, thrall [OE]
ther (def. art.) see the (def. art.); (adv.) THERE; ther . . . ther = on one side . . . on the other side [OE]
ther-abuten (adv.) about that, concerning that, THEREABOUT
ther-ayein (adv.) in return for that; AGAINST that
there-with (adv.) WITH that; in opposition to, in response to that
ther-frommard (adv.) away from there
ther-onont (adv.) about, concerning, in reference to that [see onont (prep.)]
ther-onuven (adv.) thereafter, after that; on top of that, above that
thersche (v.) to THRASH, beat, flog, batter (past part. i-thorschen) [OE]
ther-teken (adv.) (lit.) there-besides; besides that, in addition to that [see teke (adv. & prep.)]
ther-toyeines (adv.) by contrast, in opposition to that
ther-with (adv.) by means of that, on that account
thes (adj. & pron.) see this (adj. & pron.)
thet (conj. & relative pron.) (conj.) THAT; (relative pron.) what, which
thi, thin(e) (adj.) THY, THINE (note reduced forms after preceding -d or -t: ti, tin, tine) [OE]
thicke (adj.) THICK, dense (compar. thiccre) [OE]
thider (adv.) THITHER, to that, towards that [OE]
thider-ward (adv.) in that direction
thilke (adj.) the same, aforementioned (person, thing) [prob. from the (def. art.) + ilke (adj.)]
thing (n.) THING; creature (pl. thing, thinges) [OE]
this (adj. & demons. pron.) THIS; this one (sing. this, thisse; gen. sing. thisses; 3 masc. sing. thes; 3 fem. sing. theos; pl. theos, theose; note reduced forms after preceding -d or -t: tis, tes, teose, etc.) [OE]
thither (adv.) in that direction, THITHER [OE]
thither-ward (adv.) towards that place, in that direction [OE]
thoht, thocht (n.) THOUGHT; study, reverie (pl. thohtes, thochtes) [OE]
thohte, thohtest (v., past) see thenchen (v.)
thole-mod(e) (adj.) patient, meek, submissive [OE; see mode (n.) + tholien (v.)]
thole-modliche (adv.) patiently
thole-modnesse (n.) patience; meekness, humility [OE]
tholie(n) (v.) to suffer (pain); allow, permit; experience (something painful); be patient, forbear, put up with; endure, survive (pres. subj. sing. tholie; pres. 1 sing. tholie; pres. 2 sing. tholest; pres. 3 sing. tholeth; pres. pl. tholieth; past sing. tholede; past pl. tholeden) [OE]
thon (inflected form of def. art.) with thon thet = provided that; in order that, for the reason that, to the end that
thonc (n.) thought; THANKS (originally, a favorable thought); cunne him thonc = to acknowledge or express gratitude to him, to give thanks [OE; related to thenchen (v.)]
thoncki(n) (v.) to THANK, show gratitude towards (pres. 3 sing. thonckith; past sing. thonckede; past part. i-thoncket) [OE]
thonkin (v.) to THANK; think (imper. sing. thonke; imper. pl. thonkith, thonckith; pres. subj. sing. thonki, thoncki; past subj. sing. thonckede; past part. i-thoncket, i-thonket)
thorn (n.) THORN; sharp, prickly bramble; a spine; OED: "A spine or spiny process in an animal"; thornene crune = crown of thorns (pl. thornes; gen. pl. thornene) [OE]
thorni (adj.) THORNY
threal (n.) THRALL, slave, underling; servant (pl. threalles) [OE, from ON]
threasten (v.) to crowd, throng, jostle; (of water) to rush, pour in (pres. 3 sing. threasteth) [OE]
threatin (v.) to urge, press, induce (esp. by force or THREAT of force); threaten; rebuke, reprove (imper. pl. threatith; pres. 3 sing. threateth, threatith; past sing. threatte [= threatede]) [OE]
threatunge (n.) THREAT, menace; threatening, menacing; ambush, attack; reproof, correction
th'refter (adv.) THERE-AFTER, after that; afterwards
threo-fald, -vald (adj.) THREEFOLD, triple, consisting of three parts [OE]
threottene (adj.) THIRTEEN [OE]
thridde (adj.) THIRD [OE]
thrien (adv.) three times, THRICE
thrile (adj.) threefold [OE; see ModE twill]
th'rin (adv.) THERE-IN, in that
th'rinne (adv.) inside
thritti (adj.) THIRTY [OE]
thriveth (v., pres. 3 sing.) THRIVES; grows; is successful [ON]
throwunge (n.) suffering; martyrdom [OE]
thruh (n.) coffin, tomb [OE]
thrumnesse (n.) Trinity [OE]
thrung (n.) crowd, THRONG; tumult; distress, anxiety, trouble [*OE]
thrungeth (v., pres. pl.) THRONG, crowd, band (together)
th'ruppe (adv.) UP THERE, earlier (in the text)
thu (personal pron., 2 nom. sing.) THOU, you (obj. sing. the) [OE]
thucke (n.) blow, thwack; injury; malicious, mischievous trick [*OE]
thuften(e) (n.) servant, handmaid [OE]
thuldeliche (adv.) patiently [from OE; see Ger. geduld "patience"]
thulli, thulliche (adj.) such, of such a kind, suchlike [OE]
thume (n.) THUMB [OE]
thunchen (v.) to seem, appear; (impers.) us thuncheth = (it) seems to us (pres. subj. sing. thunche; pres. 3 sing. thuncheth; past sing. thuhte; past part. i-thuht) [OE]
thunne (adj.) THIN, narrow; scanty, scarce [OE]
thurfte (v., past sing.) see thearf (v.)
thurh, thurch (prep.) THROUGH; thurh thet = (conj.) because [OE]
thurh-fulleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) completes, FULFILLS (past part. thurhfullet) [from OE]
thurh-sticheth (v., pres. 3 sing.) STICKS THROUGH, pierces, punctures (past pl. thurh-stichden) [from OE]
thurh-wuniende (adj., pres. part.) perpetual, abiding; (through-dwelling) [orig. pres. part. of OE þurh-wunian "to remain"]
thurl(e) (n.) window; hole, opening, piercing (pl. thurles) [OE]
thurlin (v.) to pierce, bore (a hole in), perforate; pass through (pres. 3 sing. thurleth; pres. pl. thurlith; past pl. thurleden; past part. i-thurlet) [OE]
thurlunge (n.) piercing
thurs (n.) demon, devil; giant (from Ger. mythology) [OE ðyrs "giant"; see also ON þurs]
thurve (v., pres. pl.) see thearf (v.)
thwe(a)rt-over (adv.) cross-wise, transversely; over across, horizontally; (prep.) across, from one side to the other of, crosswise to [ON + OE]
thweart-over (adj.) perverse, antagonistic; something that obstructs or THWARTS
thwongede (adj. & v., past part.) THONGED, laced, (provided) with straps [from OE]
ti (adj.) see thi (adj.)
ticchen (n.) young goat, kid (pl. tichnes) [OE]
ticki (pres. subj. sing.) tussle, dally, play [*OE or imitative]
tide (n.) time; period, season, hour; (canonical) hour, one of the hours of the divine office (pl. tiden) [OE]
tiden (v.) to BETIDE, happen to, occur, befall (pres. subj. sing. tide; past subj. sing. tidde; pres. 3 sing. tit [= tideth]; past sing. i-tidde) [OE]
tidinge (n.) TIDING, piece of news (pl. tidinges) [late OE, influenced by ON]
tidliche (adv.) quickly, in a timely way; soon; immediately
tiffunge (n.) (personal) adornment, ornament [OF]
tildeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) spreads (a net), sets (a trap) (past part. i-tild) [OE; related to Ger. zelt "tent"]
tildunge (n.) spreading (of a net), setting (of a trap)
tilie(n) (v.) to TILL, have land in tillage; to cultivate; work, labor; strive for (pres. 3 sing. tileth; pres. pl. tilieth; past sing. tilede; past part. i-tilet) [OE]
tilunge (n.) cultivation, tending, care; TILLING
timbri(n) (v.) to build, construct, make (from wood: TIMBER); (fig.) to form; cause, bring about (past part. i-timbret) [OE]
timbrunge (n.) edification; building
timeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) happens, occurs, befalls [OE]
tin, tine (adj.) see thi (adj.)
tindes (n. pl.) rung (of a ladder); TINE [OE]
tippe (v., pres. subj. sing.) strike, hit [prob. *OE, not MDu]
tis (demons. pron.) see this (pron.)
tit (v., pres. 3 sing.) see tiden (v.)
tittes (n. pl.) breasts, TEATS [OE]
to- (prefix) away, apart, in pieces; excessively, up (as in puff up); towards; in addition to [OE]
to (adv. & prep.) off, away, out; towards; TO, into, towards; near, close, up, at [OE]
to-beot (v., past sing.) BEAT severely, thrash [OE]
to-blaweth (v., pres. 3 sing.) BLOWS away, scatters; puffs up, inflates; (past part. as adj.) toblowen = inflated, swollen [OE]
to-bollen (adj. & v., past part.) severely swollen or puffed up (with pride or anger, etc.) [OE; see bolheth (v.)]
to-breken (v.) to BREAK, break up, shatter (pres. 3 sing. tobreketh; past pl. tobreken; past part. tobroken[e]) [OE]
toc (v., past sing.) see tac (v.)
to-cheoweth (v., pres. 3 sing.) CHEWS up, gnaw [OE; see to- (prefix) + cheoweth (v.)]
to-dealen (v.) to divide, separate (pres. subj. sing. todeale; pres. 1 sing. todeale; past part. todealet [OE]
to-dreaven (v.) to drive apart, scatter (imper. sing. todreaf) [OE; closely related to todriveth (v.)]
to-driveth (v.) to DRIVE apart, scatter; destroy [OE]
to-fallen (v.) to crumble, collapse; FALL apart, go to ruin, be destroyed [OE]
to-fleoten (v.) to FLOAT away, disperse (pres. 3 sing. tofleoteth) [OE]
to-fleoten (v., pres. subj. pl.) FLOAT away [OE]
to-fret (v., pres. 3 sing. [= tofreteth]) gnaws up or apart [OE; see freoten (v.)]
to-fuleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) dirties or BEFOULS thoroughly, besmirches, sullies [OE; see apparently unrelated OF defouler "to trample down"]
togederes, -gedere (adv.) TOGETHER, in a unified way [OE]
toggin (v.) to pull, TUG; tussle, touch in a playful or sexual way [OE]
toggunge (n.) TUGGING, scuffling, playful or erotic tussling or touching [OE]
to-hurten (v.) to dash apart, knock in pieces [see hurten (v.)]
to-hwitheret (v., past part.) whirled apart, into pieces (?) [origin obscure]
tole (n.) TOOL, instrument [OE]
to-limeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) dismembers, tears LIMB from limb (past part. tolaimet) [from OE]
tolleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) attracts, lures (a term from falconry), decoys, entices; instigates; (pres. part. as adj.) tollinde = enticing, flirtatious [*OE]
tollunge (n.) act of enticing, provoking, inciting; pulling, tugging, horseplay
to-luketh (v., pres. 3 sing.) rips, tears, plucks apart [OE]
to-marhen (n. & adv.) TOMORROW [OE]
tomre (adj., compar.) TAMER, more subdued or under control [OE; see temie (v.)]
to-rendeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) RENDS, rips to pieces [OE]
torplin (v.) to tumble, fall, topple (pres. pl. torplith; past part. i-turplet) [OF]
to-spreat (v., pres. 3 sing. [= tospreadeth]) SPREADS out, opens [OE]
to-tagge (n.) something added or TAGGED on; trimming, trapping, embellishment (orig. of clothing?); a circumstance, OED: "something tagged or attached to a fact" (pl. totagges) [see to- (prefix) + *OE tag "something hanging or attached to something else, usually by way of ornament," origin obscure - see MED totagge (n.)]
to-teoren (v.) to TEAR apart, to pieces (pres. pl. toteoreth; past part. totore, totoren[e]) [OE]
toth (n.) TOOTH; went te grimme toth to = make a face or grimace at; unthonc hise teth = damn his teeth, against his will [OE]
totilde (n.) peering, prying woman [see totin (v.) + -ild (fem. suffix)]
totin (v.) to look, gaze, peek, peer, peep, spy; (pres. part. as adj.) totinde = spying, peering, i.e., too observant of the outside world (pres. 3 sing. toteth; pres. part. totinde) [OE totian "to stick or peep out, protrude"]
to-treoden (v.) to TREAD down, stomp on, trample (to pieces) (imper. sing. totred; pres. subj. sing. totreode; pres. 3 sing. totret [= totredeth]; pres. part. totreodinde; past part. totreden) [OE]
to-treodunge (n.) a TREADING or trampling down (on something)
totunge (n.) peering, peeping, staring (in a curious way) [OE; see totin (v.)]
to-tweamde (v., past sing.) separated, divided in TWO [OE]
to-warpeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) throws down, breaks into pieces, destroys [OE; see Ger. werfen "to throw"]
to-warplet (adj. & v., past part.) thrown, pulled down [related to to-warpeth (v.)]
to-weavet (v., past part.) WAFTED away, dispersed [OE]
to-went (v., pres. 3 sing. [= towendeth]) turns over [see wenden (v.)]
to wundre (adv.) see wunder (n.)
toyein, toyeines (prep.) against, in opposition to; next to; in comparison to [OE]
to-yeves (adv.) freely [OE; related to yeove (n.)]
treo (n.) TREE; piece of wood (gen. sing. treoes; pl. treon) [OE]
treowe (adj.) TRUE, loyal; not false, genuine [OE]
treoweliche (adv.) TRULY, faithfully, steadfastly, securely
treoweschipe (n.) faithfulness, reliability, fidelity [from OE]
treownesse (n.) faithfulness, loyalty
treowthe (n.) see trowthe (n.)
trichunge (n.) betrayal, TREACHERY, cheating [OF]
triste (n.) hunting station, i.e., trap (pl. tristen) [OF; see ModE tryst, orig. "a place to rendezvous"]
triws (n. pl.) TRUCE [OE, related to treowe (adj.)]
trochith (v., pres. pl.) fail, are insufficient, fall short [OE]
trode (n.) TREAD, footprint, track (pl. troden) [OE]
trone (n.) THRONE [OF]
trowth (n.) trust, faith, faithfulness, fidelity [OE]
trowthe (n.) TROTH, promise, oath; trust, fidelity, faithfulness (pl. trowthen) [OE]
truandise (n.) dishonest begging, swindling, vagabond-like behavior, loitering; knavery [OF, from truant "vagabond"]
trubli (v.) TROUBLE, disturb, agitate [OF]
trude (v., imper. sing.) TREAD, walk; trample, set foot on; (fig.) seek out, track down, investigate; to overcome (pres. subj. sing. trudde; pres. 3 sing. truddeth) [OE]
truiles (n. pl.) a trick, deception [OF]
trukie (v., pres. subj. sing.) fail, be lacking; deceive; abandon (pres. 3 sing. truketh; past sing. trukede) [OE]
trusse, trussin (v.) to bundle, pack; to load (with a bundle), weigh down; to pack off, depart (past part. i-trusset) [OF]
trussen (n. pl.) parcel, traveler's pack, bundle [OF; see ModE phrase truss up]
trussews (n. pl.) bundles, packs, bags [prob. AF]
trust (v., imper. sing.) TRUST, have faith, confidence in [*OE or ON]
trusti (adj.) faithful, loyal, TRUSTY; safe, secure; full of religious faith, trusting; beon trusti (up)on = to trust in
tu (personal pron.) see thu (personal pron.)
tuhte (v., past sing.) taught, trained (past part. i-tuht) [OE; related to teoth (v.)]
tuk (v., imper. sing.) mistreat, abuse (verbally or physically), torment; scorn, upbraid (pres. subj. sing. tuki; pres. 3 sing. tuketh; past part. i-tuket) [OE; see ModE tuck (v.) in various senses]
tulle (v., imper. pl.) attract, allure; pull, drag (past pl. tulden) [related to tolleth (v.)]
tune (n.) TOWN, enclosed or walled settlement [OE]
tunen (v.) to enclose, shut, stop up (imper. sing. tun; pres. subj. pl. tunen; past part. i-tunet) [OE; related to tune (n.)]
tunne (n.) TUN, beer barrel, wine cask [OE]
tur (n.) TOWER; stronghold, fortress (gen. sing. tures) [OF]
turn (n.) TURN; cycle, sequence; throw, move, OED: "a device, or trick, by which a wrestler attempts to throw his antagonist"; stratagem, wile [AF]
turneiment (n.) TOURNAMENT; chivalric contest [OF]
turnen (v.) to TURN, change; change the course of (something), direct; revolve; convert, transform (imper. sing. turn; imper. pl. turneth; pres. subj. sing. turne; pres. 2 sing. turnest; pres. 3 sing. turneth; past sing. turnde; pres. part. turninde; past part. i-turnd[e], i-turnt) [OE, from Lat., probably reinforced by OF]
turpelnesse (n.) tumultuousness, turmoil [see torplin (v.)]
tutel (n.) the mouth (with the lips protruded in the act of whispering), chops (pl. tuteles) [*OE]
tuteleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) whispers; suggests (used of the devil's temptations); jabbers, jaws (pres. part. tutelinde) [see tutel (n.)]
twa (adj. & n.) TWO (gen. tweire) [OE]
twa-fald, -vald, -valt (adj.) TWOFOLD, consisting of two parts or kinds; double [OE]
tweamen (v.) to divide (in TWO), separate (imper. sing. tweam; past part. i-tweamet) [OE]
tweamunge (n.) separation
tweast (v., pres. 3 sing. [= tweasteth]) binds, constrains, obligates [*OE; related to ModE twist]
tweie (adj. & pron.) TWO (pl. tweien) [OE]
tweire (pron.) see twa (adj. & n.)
tweof (adj. & n.) TWELVE [apparently a reduced form of tweolf]
tweof-moneth (n.) TWELVE-MONTH, a year [from OE, influenced by ON]
tweolf, tweolve (adj. & n.) TWELVE [OE]
twien (adv.) TWICE, two times [OE]
twi-mel-dei (n.) TWO MEAL DAY; a day on which two meals are prescribed
twinnin (v.) to separate (two things), sever, part [from OE]
twinnunge (n.) separation, parting

uggi (v.) to terrify, horrify; (impers.) ow uggi with = [it] may horrify you with [ON, related to ModE awe]
uht-song (n.) Matins (canonical hour celebrated before daybreak); (lit.) dawn SONG [OE]
umbe(n) (prep.) around, about; concerning; busied with, seeking after, aiming for; after (someone to do something); (adv.) around, about [OE influenced by ON]
umbe-hwile (adv.) at times, sometimes
umbe-stunde (adv.) at times, sometimes
Umbri-dayes (n. pl.) EMBER-DAYS, [see Umbri-wiken (n.)]
Umbri-wiken (n. pl.) EMBER-WEEKS, i.e., a week in which special fasting was prescribed. EMBER days consisted of four groups of three days in the church calendar during which fasting was observed [*OE]
un- (prefix.) (negation) not, lacking; (intensification) very, excessively; (pejoration) bad, wrong; foreign [OE]
un-bileave (n.) disbelief, lack of belief
un-bilevet (adj. & v., past part.) UNBELIEVING
un-bischpet (adj., past part.) unsaved, unconfirmed (in the church, by the BISHOP) [from OE]
un-bisehnesse (n.) inattention, negligence [see bi-seon (v.)]
un-cleannesse (n.) moral impurity, lack of chastity
un-cumelich (adj.) UNCOMELY, unbecoming, improper
un-cundelich(e) (adj.) unnatural, improper (superlat. uncundelukest) [OE]
un-cundeliche (adv.) unnaturally; with unnatural morality, with unnatural cruelty; contrary to right feeling [OE]
un-cuth(e) (adj.) unknown, uncertain; strange; unknowing, ignorant [OE; see cuth (adj.), ModE uncouth]
un-cuththe (n.) unknown (person), stranger; things not commonly known; strange land [from OE]
un-deadlich (adj.) immortal, not subject to DEATH [OE]
un-deore (adj.) unvalued, cheap, worthless [OE]
under (n.) morning; Tierce, third liturgical hour (approx. 9 a.m.); noon (?) [OE undern]
under-fon (v.) to receive, accept; take (pres. 3 sing. underveth; pres. pl. undervoth; past sing. underfeng, underveng; past pl. undervengen) [OE]
under-neomen (v.) to undertake (past part. undernume) [see neomen (v.)]
under-sete (v., imper. sing.) SET UNDER, support [from OE]
under-stiprin (v.) to prop up, support [see OE stipere (n.) "post, prop"]
under-stonde(n) (v.) to UNDERSTAND; (passive sense) to be understood (imper. sing. understond, understont; imper. pl. understondeth; pres. subj. sing. understonde; pres. 1 sing. understonde; pres. 3 sing. understondeth, understont; pres. pl. understondeth; past sing. understod; past part. understonden) [OE]
under-tid (n.) (lit.) morningtide; Tierce, the third canonical hour (approx. 9 a.m.) [OE; see ModE undern]
under-venge (v., past) see under-fon (v.)
under-veth, -voth, -vo(n) (v.) see under-fon (v.)
under-yeoten (v.) to become aware of, perceive, observe; learn, understand (pres. 2 sing. underyetest; pres. pl. underyeoteth; past pl. underyeten) [OE]
un-duden (v., past pl.) undid, unwrapped, opened [see don (v.)]
un-efne (adj.) UNEVEN, unequal; unfair [see efne (adj.)]
un-endeliche (adv.) infinitely, UNENDINGLY [OE]
un-evenlich (adj.) incomparable, not comparable, unlike [OE]; (adv.) incomparably, beyond comparison [OE]
un-festnin (v.) to UNFASTEN, untie [see festnith (v.)]
un-fondet (adj. & v., past part.) untested, untried; not tempted [see fondin (v.)]
un-freinet (adj. & v., past part.) unasked, unrequested [see freini (v.)]
un-graciuse (adj. pl. as n.) UNGRACIOUS (people) [OF]
un-hal(e) (adj.) unhealthy, unwholesome; incomplete, not whole (compar. unhalre) [see hal (adj.)]
un-hap (n.) misfortune, mishap [OE + ON]
un-heite (adj.) UNWELL, unfit, infirm [from AF heit "pleased"]
un-hende (adj.) impolite, rude, rough; unfitting, improper [see hende (adj.)]
un-holde (adj. pl. as n.) disloyal, false (people); enemies [OE]
un-hope (n.) lack of hope, hopelessness, despair
un-huleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) uncovers, makes visible (past part. unhulet) [see hulien (v.)]
un-imete (adj.) inordinate, immoderate, exceeding; immeasurable; (adv.) inordinately, immoderately, exceedingly; immeasurably [OE; see mete (n. 2)]
un-lathnesse (n.) un-hatefulness, peacefulness; harmlessness, friendliness [see lath (adj.)]
un-leppet (adj. & v., past part.) uncovered; not covered by a cloak, veil, or headdress [from OE; see ModE overlap]
un-lideth (v., pres. 3 sing.) uncovers, takes the LID from (past sing. unlidede) [see lideth (v.)]
un-limin (v.) to UNLIME, unglue; detach, sever (pres. 3 sing. unlimeth) [see i-limet (v.)]
un-limp (n.) misfortune, calamity, catastrophe [from OE; see limpe (v.)]
un-lust (n.) evil desire; disinclination, laziness, lack of desire [OE; see lust (n.)]
un-meath (adv.) exceedingly, extremely; (lit.) immoderately [OE]
un-meteliche (adv.) immeasurably [OE]
un-mundlunge (adv.) unexpectedly; unawares [OE; see ModE unmindful]
un-neathe (adv.) with difficulty, not easily; scarcely, barely [OE; see eathe (adv.)]
unnen (v.) to wish, desire; to grant, allow, permit (pres. 2 sing. unnest; past part. i-unnen) [OE]
un-net (adj.) unforced, uncompelled [from neoden (v.) "to compel"]; (n.) idleness, vanity, that which is useless or worthless [see un-nete (adj.)]
un-net(e) (adj.) useless, worthless, unprofitable [OE; see nutten (v.), Ger. unnütz "useless"]
unnunge (n..) granting, permission; desiring, wish [see unnen (v.)]
un-orne (adj.) plain, simple, humble; mean, wretched; (of food) poor, inferior [un- "not" + OE orne "unusual, excessive"]
un-orneschipe (n.) plainness, simplicity
un-recheles (adj.) thoughtless, indifferent; on unrecheles = an indifferent, thoughtless (person) [from OE]
un-schriven (adj.) unconfessed [see schriven (v.)]
un-selhthe (n.) unhappiness, misery, wretchedness; misfortune [OE; see seli (adj.)]
un-seli (adj.) unhappy, unfortunate, wretched, pitiful; unlucky; wicked, evil-doing; unselies sahe = the saying of an wicked (person) (gen.sing. unselies) [OE; see seli (adj.)]
un-seowet (v., past part.) UNSEWN
un-seowlich (adj.) unseemly, ugly, not beautiful [OE]
un-sibsumnesse (n.) strife, trouble; (lit.) unpeacefulness [OE; see sibbe (n.)]
un-siker (adj.) unsure, uncertain [see siker (adj.)]
un-spende (v., past sing.) unclasped, unlocked, released [OE + ON]
un-sperren (v.) to unfasten, unblock, open [see sperreth (v.)]
un-steathelvest (adj.) unsteadfast; weak [OE]
un-strengen (v.) to weaken, deprive of STRENGTH (pres. 3 sing. unstrengeth; pres. pl. unstrengeth)
un-strong (adj.) not STRONG, lacking strength (compar. unstrengre)
un-talelich(e) (adj.) indescribable; uncountable, innumerable [see tale (n.)]
un-theaw (n.) vice, (lit., unvirtue); a bad habit; fault (pl. untheawes) [OE; see theaw (n.)]
un-theode (n.) a foreign, alien people (or, nation) [see un- (prefix) + theode (n.)]
un-thonc (n.) annoyance, offense, injury; ingratitude, ill will [OE]
un-thonckes, un-thonkes (semi-adv.) (usually with possessive) unwillingly, against a person's will, without one's consent; sare hire unthonkes = very much against her will [OE]
un-tiffet (adj. & v., past part.) unadorned [see a-tiffi (v.)]
un-time (n.) the wrong, improper, unsuitable TIME [OE]
un-tohe, un-tohen(e) (adj. & v., past part.) untrained, undisciplined; unruly [see teoth (v.)]
un-trusset (adj. & v., past part.) unburdened, unloaded [see trusse (v.)]
un-trust (n.) lack of trust, confidence; despair, insecurity [see trust (v.)]
un-trusten (v.) to despair, lose confidence [see trust (v.)]
un-tu (n.) an ill-mannered, wanton thing [see un-tohe (adj.)]
un-tuhtle (n.) bad manners, misbehavior [see tuhte (v.)]
un-valden (v.) to UNFOLD, uncover; reveal [OE]
un-waker (adj.) unwatchful, unawake, not vigilant [OE; see waker (adj.)]
un-warre (adj., compar.) more unprepared, less WARY [see war (adj.)]
un-wemmet (adj. & v., past part.) unblemished, unstained; pure [see wem (n.)]
un-wen(e)liche (adv.) unseemly, in an ugly way, repulsively; unworthily [OE wenlich "beautiful, excellent"]
un-weote (n.) ignorant person [OE; related to ModE wit]
un-weoteness (n.) ignorance, unawareness
un-wiht (n.) monster; evil spirit, devil; an alien WIGHT or creature (gen. sing. unwihtes; pl. unwihtes) [OE; see un- (prefix) + wiht (n.)]
un-wine (n.) enemy, foe; the devil (pl. unwines) [OE unwine "un-friend"]
un-wreast(e), un-wrest(e) (adj.) poor, vile, paltry, pitiful; evil, wicked, vicious; (lit.) unstrong [OE]
un-wreaste (adv.) weakly, feebly, poorly; wickedly
un-wreastlec (n.) wickedness, evil
un-wrench (n.) an evil design, base trick [OE; see un- (prefix) + wrench (n.)]
un-wreo(n) (v.) to uncover; reveal, strip away (imper. sing. unwreo, unwrih; pres. 2 sing. unwrisd; pres. 3 sing. unwreoth, unwrith; past sing. unwreah; past pl. unwriyen; past part. unwrihen, unwriyen) [OE; see wrihen (v.)]
un-wrestlec (n.) wickedness, sinfulness
un-wrisd (v., pres. 3 sing.) see un-wreon (v.)
un-wurth(e) (adj.) WORTH-less, without value, of no account; (n.) worthlessness, unworthiness (superlat. unwurthest) [OE]
up-breide (v., pres. subj. sing.) UPBRAID, reprimand, scold (pres. 3 sing. upbreideth) [OE]
up-brud (n.) scorn, UPBRAIDING [from OE]
uppard, uppardes, uppart (adv.) UPWARD [OE]
uppin (v.) to bring UP, raise, mention, disclose, reveal: (past part. as adj.) i-uppet = mentioned, revealed (pres. 3 sing. uppeth; past part. i-uppet) [*OE]
uppinge (n.) mention; revealing
up-rowunge (n.) (the act of) ROWING upwards
ure (adj.) OUR [OE]
ureisun (n.) prayer (pl. ureisuns) [OF]
ures (n. pl.) HOURS, the seven canonical hours of the divine office; a specific liturgical office [OF, from Lat. hora]
uri (v.) to pray [OF, from Lat. orare "to pray"]
urn (n.) (a) gallop, RUN; rush; on urn = in a hurry, in passing; an urn = violently [see eornen (v.)]
urne, urnen (v.) see eornen (v.)
us (n.) USE, application [OF]
ut-cume (n.) escape, a COMING OUT [from OE]
ute (adv.) outside, away from home [OE]
ute-with (adv.) outside, on the outside [from OE]
uthe (n.) wave (of the sea) (pl. uthen) [OE]
ut-lahen (n. pl.) OUTLAWS, criminals [late OE, from ON]
ut-nume (adj.) exceptional, supreme, extreme; (adv.) exceptionally, especially [from OE; see ute (adv.) + neomen (v.), Ger. ausnahme "exception"; see d'Ardenne (1982), p. 3]
ut-runes (n. pl.) news, gossip, whisperings; things whispered out [from OE; see ModE rune]
utterliche (adv.) UTTERLY, completely; sincerely, truly, plainly, straight out [see ute (adv.)]
ut-totunge (n.) a peeping, gazing OUT [see totin (v.)]
uttre (adj.) OUTER [OE]
ut-ward, -warde, -wart (adv.) OUTWARD, towards the outside [OE]
uvel(e) (adj.) EVIL, bad; miserable; difficult [OE]; (n.) EVIL, wrongdoing; trouble, misfortune, harm; sickness, disease; fallinde uvel = the falling disease (i.e., epilepsy) (pl. uveles) [OE]
uvele (adv.) badly, miserably, poorly; in an EVIL way [OE]
uve-mest (adj., superlat.) outermost, top-most [OE]
uvere (adj.) OVER, top; (superlat.) uvemest = topmost, outermost [OE]; (compar.) upper, top [OE]

va, van (n.) see fa (n.)
val (n.) see fal (n.)
vampez (n. pl.) feet (of a pair of stockings) [AF; from avan(t) "before" + pi "foot"]
veaste (n.) see feaste (n. 2)
veasten, veasteth (v.) see feasten (v. 1)
veieth (v., pres. 3 sing.) see feieth (v.)
veine-glorie (n.) VAINGLORY, empty glory, vanity [OF]
veiunge (n.) joining, linking, association [see feieith (v.)]
veleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) see felen (v.)
venies (n. pl.) pardon, forgiveness; kneelings or prostrations (as a sign of desire for forgiveness) [AF, from Lat. venia "pardon"]
verseilin, versaili (v.) to recite or sing (versicles or psalms) [OF]
verseilunge (n.) (the) singing or recitation (of versicles or psalms)
verset (n.) versicle, a short verse, often taken from the Psalms, said or sung in worship and usually accompanied by a response [OF]
vertu (n.) VIRTUE (pl. vertuz) [OF]
vet (n. pl.) see fot (n.)
vetles (n.) see fetles (n.)
vigilies (n. pl.) VIGILS, watches [Lat.]
vilainie (n.) VILLAINY, wrongdoing, wickedness [AF]
vile (n.) see file (n.)
vilte (n.) VILENESS, meanness; something morally or physically repulsive [OF]
vore, vorth (adv.) see fore (adv.), forth (adv.)
vox (n.) FOX (pl. voxes) [OE; see ModE vixen]
vrovre (n.) see frovre (n.)
vu (n.) VOW [OF]

wa (n.) WOE, misery, suffering, distress; (physical) pain, harm; don the/hire/him wa = to inflict distress on, or harm you/her/him (pl. weohes) [OE]
wac (adj.) WEAK (physically or morally); foolish [OE]
wacliche (adv.) WEAKLY, feebly [OE]
wacnesse (n.) WEAKNESS
waden (v.) to WADE; proceed, go (pres. 3 sing. wadeth) [OE]
waggith (v., pres. pl.) stir, move; stagger, totter; shake, tremble [OE]
wah (n.) wall (of a house), partition (pl. wahes) [OE]
wake (adj.) see wac (adj.)
wake (n.) vigil, watch, state of WAKE-FULNESS (usually for devotional purposes); celebration, OED: "The local annual festival of an English parish, observed (originally on the feast of the patron saint of the church, but now usually on some particular Sunday and the two or three days following) as an occasion for making holiday, entertainment of friends, and often for village sports, dancing, and other amusements" (pl. waken) [OE]
wake-men (n.) WATCHMEN
waker(e) (adj.) unsleeping; watchful, vigilant [OE]
wakien (v.) to stay AWAKE, to go without sleep (often for devotional purposes) (imper. pl. wakieth; pres. subj. sing. wakie; pres. 3 sing. waketh; past sing. wakede; past pl. wakeden; pres. part. wakiende, wakinde; past part. i-waket) [OE]
walde (n.) power, control [OE; see ModE wield, Ger. gewalt "power"]
walde, walden, waldest (v.) see wullen (v.)
waldes (adv.) intentionally, purposefully; willes ant waldes = willing and ready, willingly and intentionally [OE]
walewunge (n.) a rolling, thrashing, tumbling; WALLOWING [from OE]
walleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) rages, boils, seethes; (pres. part. as adj.) wallinde = boiling, raging; (fig.) fervent [OE]
wallinde (adj., pres. part.) see walleth (v.)
wanes (n. pl.) dwellings, houses; rooms, apartments [prob. ON]
war (adj.) AWARE, informed; prepared, watchful, vigilant, WARY; prudent, wise [OE]
warde (n.) GUARD, watchfulness, vigilance; guardian, protector; guardianship, control [OE; modern forms with gu- represent the F. development of the word; the native forms begin with w-]
wardein (n.) GUARDIAN, protector, WARDEN (pl. wardeins) [OE blended with OF form]
wardi (v., pres. subj. sing.) GUARD, protect (pres. 3 sing. wardeth) [OE, influenced by OF]
ware (n. 1) WARES, merchandise [OE]; (n. 2) population, inhabitants [OE]
warinesses (n. pl.) cursings; profane, impious talk [see wearien (v.)]
wariunge (n.) cursing, profane talk, blasphemy (pl. weariunges) [see wearien (v.)]
warliche (adv.) WARILY, cautiously, carefully [OE]
warne (n.) refusal, denial [OE; see wearnen (v.)]
warni(n) (v.) to caution, put on guard, WARN (pres. subj. sing. warni; pres. 3 sing. warneth; past part. i-warnet) [OE]
warningge (n.) WARNING
warpe(n) (v.) to throw, cast down, drive away (imper. sing. warp; imper. pl. warpeth; pres. subj. sing. warpe; past subj. sing. wurpe; pres. 2 sing. warpest; pres. 3 sing. warpeth; past sing. weorp; past part. i-warp[e], i-warpen) [OE; see Ger. werfen "to throw"]
warpere (n.) thrower, one who throws (something)
warre (adj.) see war (adj.)
warschipe (n.) wariness, caution, vigilance [OE; see war (adj.)]
warth (v., past sing.) see wurthen (v.)
wast, wat (v., pres.) see witen (v. 1)
Water (n.) WALTER [like Wilyam (n.)]
waxen (v.) to grow, grow stronger, develop; (of the moon) to WAX (pres. subj. sing. waxe; pres. subj. pl. waxen; past subj. sing. weoxe; pres. 3 sing. waxeth; past sing. weox) [OE; see Ger. wachsen "to grow"]
we (personal pron., 1 pl.) WE (objective form: us; reflex. us-seolf, us-seolven) [OE]
wealden (v.) WIELD, rule; have at one's disposal, possess [OE]
wealdent (n.) WIELDING (one), ruler [orig. pres. part. of wealden (v.)]
wealle (n.) WELL, wellspring; stream (from a well) (pl. weallen) [OE]
wea-mod(e) (adj.) petulant, angry; passionate [see wa (n.) and mode (n.)]
weane (n.) misery, woe [related to wa (n.)]
weari (n.) outlaw, criminal; cursed one [OE; see wearien (v.)]
wearien (v.) to curse [OE]
weari-tre, -treo (n.) gallows, gibbet [OE; see weari (n.) + treo (n.)]
weariunges (n. pl.) see wariunge (n.)
wearliche (adv.) WARILY, carefully, vigilantly [from OE]
wearnen (v.) to refuse, deny (a request); to prevent (a thing) (past sing. wearnde) [OE]
weater (n.) WATER; washing (pl. weattres) [OE]
weattri (adj.) WATERY [see weater (n.)]
web (n.) WOVEN fabric [OE]
wecche (n.) vigil, WATCH, staying AWAKE (pl. wecchen) [OE]
wed (n.) pledge; OED: "something deposited as a security for a payment or the fulfillment of an obligation" [OE]
wed(de) (adj.) maddened, mad, demented; (of dogs) rabid [orig. past part. of weden (v.); see Ger. wut "rage"]
weddet (adj. & v., past part.) WED, married [see i-weddet (v.)]
weden (n. pl.) clothes, WEEDS [OE]; (v.) to be, go mad; to rage, be furious; go wild (pres. subj. sing. wede; past sing. wedde) [OE; see wod (adj.)]
wedlac (n.) WEDLOCK, marriage [see weddet (adj.)]
wefdes (n. pl.) see weoved (n.)
wei (n.) WAY; path, road, route; manner; summes weies (adverbial gen.) = to some extent, in some way; thisses weis (adverbial gen.) = in this way (obj. weie; gen. sing. as adv. weies, weis; pl. weies) [OE]
weie (n.) a WEIGHT, (standard) measure; scales (pl. weien) [OE]
weie(n) (v.) to WEIGH; estimate, consider, judge (pres. subj. sing. weie; pres. 3 sing. weieth; past part. i-weiet) [OE]
wei-la, wei-la-wei (interj.) alas! (an exclamation of sorrow or regret) [OE, influenced by ON; see Ger. O weh!, Yiddish Oi vay!]
weiti (v., pres. subj. sing.) WAIT, lie in wait; plot, scheme (pres. 3 sing. weiteth; pres. pl. weitith) [OF]
wel (adv.) WELL; fittingly; really, entirely [OE]
wem (n.) spot, blemish, defect; scar; injury [OE]
wenchel (n.) child [OE, related to OE wancol "weak, tottering"]
wende, wenden (v., past) see wenen (v.)
wenden (v.) to turn, alter, change; turn over; direct (oneself); depart, go away; proceed, travel, WEND; happen (imper. sing. wend, went; imper. pl. wendeth; pres. subj. sing. wende; pres. 2 sing. wendest; pres. 3 sing. went, wendeth; past sing. wende; past pl. wenden; past part. i-wend, i-went) [OE]
wene (n.) expectation, hope; opinion, judgment [OE; see wenen (v.)]
wenen (v.) to consider, expect, WEEN; hope (pres. subj. sing. wene; pres. subj. pl. wenen; pres. 2 sing. wenest; pres. 3 sing. weneth; past sing. wende; past pl. wenden) [OE; see ModE overweening]
went (v.) see wenden (v.)
weohes (n. pl.) see wa (n.)
weolcne (n., obj. form) WELKIN, sky, clouds [OE; see Ger. wolken "clouds"]
weole (n.) WEALTH, riches; prosperity, happiness (pl. weolen) [OE]
weolie (adj., gen. pl.) of rich, WEALTHY (men) [OE]
weoret (n.) company, troop, host (pl. weoredes) [OE]
weorp (v., past sing.) see warpen (v.)
weorre (n.) WAR, conflict; attack (pl. weorren) [late OE, from OF]
weorreth (v., pres. 3 sing.) makes WAR on, attacks (pres. pl. weorrith, worreth; past sing. weorrede) [see weorre (n.)]
weote (n.) witness; consciousness [OE wita "wise person"]
weote (n.) see wite (n.)
weoved(e) (n.) altar (pl. wefdes) [OE]
wepen (v.) to WEEP, cry; complain, lament (imper. sing. wep; pres. subj. sing./pl. wepe; pres. 3 sing. wepeth; pres. pl. wepeth; past sing. weop; pres. pl. wepinde) [OE]
wep-man (n.) male, man (gen. sing. wep-monnes, -mones; pl. wepmen) [OE wæp-ned-man "BEWEAPENED person, male"]
wepne (n.) WEAPON (pl. wepnen, wepnes) [OE]
wergith (v., pres. pl.) grow WEARY, tire [OE]
wergunge (n.) WEARINESS, exhaustion [see wergith (v.)]
werie(n) (v.) to protect, defend (pres. 2 sing. werest; pres. 3 sing. wereth; pres. pl. werieth; past pl. wereden) [OE; Ger. wehren]
werien (v.) to WEAR, be dressed in; to wear away, waste, damage, destroy by use (pres. 3 sing. wereth; past sing. werede) [OE]
werreth (v., pres. 3 sing.) see weorreth (v.)
werunge (n.) something for WEARING: clothing, a garment [see werien (v.)]
weschen, wesschen (v.) to WASH (imper. pl. wesscheth; pres. 2 sing. weschest; pres. 3 sing. wescheth; past: wesch; past part. i-weschen, i-wesschen) [OE]
wesschunge (n.) WASHING
wet(e) (adj.) WET, moist; (n.) fluid, moisture [OE]
wicce-creftes (n. pl.) WITCHCRAFTS, demonic powers, sorceries [OE]
wid(e) (adj.) WIDE, broad; (adv.) widely, far and wide [OE]
widewe (n.) WIDOW (pl. widewen, wydewen; gen. pl. widwene) [OE]
widewe-had (n.) WIDOWHOOD [OE]
wif (n.) woman; WIFE (gen. sing. wives; gen. pl. wivene) [OE]
wigleth (v., pres. 3 sing.) staggers, WIGGLES [*OE]
wiheleare (n.) sorcerer, magician; deceiver [see wiheles (n.)]
wiheles (n. pl.) sorceries; deceptions, wiles [from OE wiglian "to perform divination," perhaps influenced by OF wile]
wiht (adj.) at all, a WHIT [OE]; (n.) creature, being [OE]
wike (n.) WEEK [OE]
wil (n.) WILL, desire, wish [OE]
wil-cweme (adj.) satisfied, pleased; well-disposed, gracious [OE; see wil (n.) + cwemen (v.)]
willeliche (adv.) WILLINGLY [OE]
willes (adj.) willing, voluntary; (adv.) willingly, voluntarily; willes ant waldes = willing and ready, willingly and intentionally [OE]
wilni(n) (v.) to wish, desire (pres. subj. sing./pl. wilni; pres. 2 sing. wilnest; pres. 3 sing. wilneth; past sing. wilnede; past part. i-wilned) [related to wil (n.)]
wilnunge (n.) desire
wil-schrift (n.) WILLING, voluntary confession
wilt (n.) WILE, guile [from OE]
wiltes (n. pl.) wiles; crafts, cunning [origin obscure]
wiltfule (adj.) wily
Wilyam (n.) WILLIAM; a generic name for a male, as in "Tom, Dick, or Harry"
wil-yeove (n.) a WILLING, voluntary, or free GIFT [see wil (n.) and yeove (n.)]
wimpel (n.) a (fashionable) head dress made of linen or silk [late OE]
wimpelles (adj.) WIMPLELESS, without a wimple
wimplin (v.) to WIMPLE, put on a wimple (past part. i-wimplet)
wimplunge (n.) WIMPLING, the way or style in which a wimple is worn
win-berien (n. pl.) WINE-BERRIES, grapes
winche (v.) to start back, recoil, flinch [AF; ModE wince]
windeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) flies up [OE; related to wenden (v.)]
wind-feallet (adj. & v., past part.) FELLED or toppled by the WIND
windwin (v.) to WINNOW, separate wheat from the chaff by tossing in the air (past: windwede) [OE]
windwunge (n.) WINNOWING
winkin (v.) to close or shut the eyes (pres. pl. winkith) [OE; ModE wink]
wint (v., pres. 3 sing.) see windeth (v.)
win-yardes (n. pl.) VINEYARDS [OE]
wipen (v.) to WIPE, dry (pres. 3 sing. wipeth)
wis (adv.) surely, certainly
wis(e) (adj.) WISE (compar. wisre, wisure; superlat. wisest) [OE]
wise (n.) manner, WISE (pl. wisen) [OE]
wisliche (adv.) WISELY (compar. wisluker)
wisse (n.) guide, advisor, rule [from OE; see Ger. weisen "to direct, guide"; see explanatory note to Pref.1]
wit (n.) WIT, faculty (of the mind), sense (as in the five bodily senses); mind, reason; wisdom (obj. form: witte; pl. wittes) [OE]
wite, weote (n.) blame, accusation, reproach; offense, wrongdoing; penalty, fining, extortion (by threatening a penalty) [OE]
witen (v. 1) to know, be familiar with (imper. pl. wite (ye), witeth; pres. subj. sing. wite; pres. sing. wat; pres. 2 sing. wast; pres. pl. witen; past sing. wiste; past part. i-wist; negative forms: pres. subj. sing. nute; pres. 2 sing. nast; pres.1, 3sing. nat; pres. pl. nute(n); past sing. nuste, nute; past pl. nuten) [OE]; (v. 2) to protect, defend; keep safe, preserve, guard (imper. sing. wite; imper. pl. witeth; pres. 3 sing. wit, witeth; past part. i-wite; inflected inf. to witene) [OE]
witer (adj.) sure, certain; clear, evident [see witerliche (adv.)]
witerliche (adv.) clearly, plainly, certainly (compar. witerluker) [ON; but see d'Ardenne (1961), p. 172]
witest (v., pres. 2 sing.) blame, find fault with [OE; see wite (n.), ed-witen (v.)]
with- (prep.) WITH, along with; against, in opposition to [OE]
with-al (adv.) along with the rest, in addition; besides, moreover, likewise
with-buhe (v.) to escape, avoid (pres. 3 sing. withbuheth) [OE]
with-drahen (v.) to WITHDRAW, take back; keep back, restrain (pres. subj. sing. withdrahe; pres. 3 sing. withdraheth; past sing. withdroh; past part. withdrahene) [from OE, modeled on Lat.]
wither-iwines (n. pl.) enemies, adversaries [OE wiþer-winna "against-fighter"]
with-halden (v.) to hold back, restrain; (reflex.) to restrain oneself (pres. 3 sing. withhalt [= withhaldeth]) [OE]
within (n.) pliant twig or bough (of willow) [OE]
with-saken (v.) to fight against [OE; see Ger. widersacher "adversary"]
with-seggen (v.) to GAINSAY, contradict, deny; oppose, resist (imper. pl. withseggeth; pres. pl. withseggeth; past sing. withseide) [OE]
with-seggunge (n.) denial, refusal
with-stonde(n) (v.) to WITHSTAND, stand against, resist (imper. pl. withstondeth; past subj. sing. withstode; past part. withstonden) [OE]
with-ward (prep.) together with [from OE]
witi (adj.) guilty; blameworthy [OE wite]
witles (adj.) WITLESS; foolish, reckless [OE]
witneth (v., pres. 3 sing.) bears WITNESS, testifies, attests [ON]
witunge (n.) guarding, safekeeping [see witen (v. 2)]
wivede (v., past sing.) married, got married, took a WIFE; had sex with (past part. i-wivet) [OE]
wivene, wives (n.) see wif (n.)
wleatie(n) (v.) to disgust, nauseate; feel disgust, gag; (impers.) ham walde wleatie = (it) would nauseate them [OE]
wleatunge (n.) disgust; nausea
wlech, wlecche (adj.) lukewarm, tepid [OE]
wlispin (v.) to LISP, imitate a child's speech [OE]
wlite (n.) beauty, splendor; face, countenance; form, appearance [OE]
wod(e) (adj.) mad, raging, insane (compar. woddre) [OE; see Ger. wut "rage"]
wodeliche (adv.) furiously, ferociously; madly [from wode (adj.)]
wodschipe (n.) madness, insanity; fury
woh (adj.) crooked, twisted; wrong; (n.) wrong, injury, harm, evil; mistake; habben woh = to be in the wrong (pl. wohes) [OE; see Baldwin (1976), pp. 275-77]
wohere (n.) WOOER, suitor [OE]
wohin (v.) to WOO, court (pres. 3 sing. woheth; past sing. wohede) [OE]
wohlech (n.) wooing, courting [from OE]
wohunge (n.) WOOING, courting
wombe (n.) belly, stomach [OE; ModE womb]
wombe-pot (n.) BELLY-POT, cauldron of the stomach [see wombe (n.) + OE pott]
wone (n.) want, lack, shortage; need, poverty [OE]
woneth (v., pres. 3 sing.) (of the moon) WANES, diminishes; woniende = waning, lacking (pres. part. woniende) [see wone (n.)]
wonte (n.) WANT, need [ON]
wonti(n) (v.) to be lacking, missing (+ obj. of person) (pres. subj. sing. wonti; pres. 3 sing. wonteth) [prob. ON]
wont-re(a)the (n.) misery, distress; hardship, poverty [ON, first element related to wonte (n.), the second to read (n.)]
wonunge (n.) WANING, diminishing [see woneth (v.)]
wop (n.) WEEPING, crying [OE]
wopi (adj.) WEEPY, tearful
word (n.) WORD; news; speech; common report praising a person or his/her accomplishments; repute, fame (obj. form: worde; pl. word, wordes) [OE]
woreth (v., pres. 3 sing.) falters, dries up; troubles, confuses, disturbs (trans.) (pres. pl. worith) [*OE]
wori (adj.) troubled, confused [see woreth (v.)]
worldlich(e), worltlich(e) (adj.) WORLDLY, of this world; not spiritual [OE]
worreth (v., pres. pl.) see weorreth (v.)
wracfulliche (adv.) vengefully, angrily [see wrake (n.)]
wrag(e)lunge (n.) struggling, striving, resisting [*OE; prob. related to ModE wriggle]
wrahte (v.) see wurchen (v.)
wrake (n.) vengeance, revenge; punishment [OE; see ModE wrack and wreak]
wrat (v., past sing.) see writen (v.)
wrath(e) (adj.) WROTH, angry, enraged; bad, evil (old fem. obj. sing. wrather - see heale [n.]) [OE]
wrathen (v.) to be, become angry; rage; to irritate, enrage (someone) [from OE; see wreaththe (n.)]
wreah (v.) see wrihen (v.)
wreastle(a)re (n.) WRESTLER [see wreastlin (v.)]
wreastli(n) (v.) to WRESTLE (pres. 3 sing. wreastleth) [OE]
wreastlunge (n.) WRESTLING
wreathen (v.) to become angry, WROTH; to anger, enrage (someone); provoke, incite (pres. subj. sing. wreathe; pres. 3 sing. wreatheth; pres. pl. wreatheth; past part. i-wreathet) [from OE; see wrath (adj.)]
wreathful(e) (adj.) WRATHFUL, filled with anger [from OE]
wre(a)ththe (n.) WRATH, anger (as one of the seven deadly sins) (gen. sing. wreaththes) [OE]
wrecche (adj.) poor, miserable, WRETCHED; despicable, vile; (n.) WRETCH, wretched person (pl. wrecchces) [OE]
wreien (v.) to accuse, arraign (imper. pl. wreie (we); pres. subj. sing. wreie; pres. 2 sing. wreieth; pres. pl. wreieth, past sing. wreide; pres. pl. wreiyende) [OE; early ModE bewray]
wreiful (adj.) accusing, full of accusation
wreiunge (n.) blame, denunciation, accusation [see wreien (v.)]
wrench (n.) trick, deceit, crooked action (pl. wrenches) [OE; ModE wrench "to twist"]
wrenche(n) (v.) to twist, WRENCH, pull; to draw out, expel; divert, deflect (pres. 2 sing. wrenchest; pres. 3 sing. wrencheth; pres. pl. wrencheth) [OE]
wrenchfule (adj.) tricky, crafty, deceitful [see wrench (n.)]
wreo, wreon (v.) see wrihen (v.)
wreoke(n) (v.) to vent (an emotion); WREAK revenge, avenge; punish (imper. pl. wreoke (ye); pres. 3 sing. wreketh; past sing. wrec) [OE]
wreothie (v., pres. subj. sing.) lean on; prop, hold up, support (oneself) [OE]
wrihe (adj. & v., past part.) see wrihen (v.)
wriheles (n.) : covering, veil; garment, clothes [OE; see wrihen (v.) + -(e)les (suffix)]
wrihen (v.) to cover, conceal; protect, disguise; wrihe (past part. as adj.) hidden, concealed, with hidden meaning (pres. subj. sing. wreo; pres. 3 sing. writh, wriheth; pres. pl. wriheth, wreoth; past sing. wreah; past part. wrihe, i-wriyen) [OE]
wrinnith (v., pres. pl.) struggle against, fight [*OE]
writ (n.) a WRIT, something written; Hali Writ = the Holy Scriptures [OE]
writen (v.) to WRITE, copy down in writing (pres. 1 sing. write; pres. 3 sing. writeth; past sing. wrat; past part. i-writen) [OE]
writere (n.) WRITER, scribe, copyist [OE]
writh (v.) see wrihen (v.)
wrong-wende (adj. & v., past part.) turned awry or aside, distorted [ON + OE; see wenden (v.)]
wruhte (n., gen. sing.) maker's, WRIGHT'S, fashioner's [OE; see wurchen (v.)]
wude (n.) WOOD [OE]
wullen (v.) to wish, WILL, want (+ inf.); (also a marker of the future tense, as in ModE, sometimes with subj.) (past subj. sing. walde; pres. 1 sing. wule, wulle, (ich) chulle; pres. 2 sing. wult; pres. 3 sing. wule, wulle; pres. pl. wulle (ye), wulleth; past sing. walde; past pl. walden; negative forms: pres. 1 sing. nulle; pres. 2 sing. nult; pres. 3 sing. nule; pres. pl. nulleth, nulle (ye); past 1 sing. nalde; past 2 sing. naldest; past sing. nalde; past pl. nalden) [OE]
wulvene (n.) SHE-WOLF [OE]
wumme (interj.) alas! WOE is ME! [from OE ]
wummon, wumman (n.) WOMAN (pl. wummen; gen. pl. wummone) [OE]
wummonlich (adj.) WOMANLY, not manly [from OE]
wunde (n.) WOUND, injury (pl. wunden) [OE]
wunder (adj.) WONDROUS, strange; monstrous, shockingly evil [see wunder (n.)]; (n.) WONDER, cause for amazement; miracle, marvel; a shocking evil or monstrosity; (adverbial phrase) to wundre = dreadfully, horribly, terribly; marvelously (pl. wundres) [OE]
wunderfule (adj.) WONDERFUL, full of wonder; marvelous
wunderlich (adj.) wonderful, remarkable, strange [OE]
wunde-studen (n. pl.) WOUND-places, places where Christ was wounded in the crucifixion [see wunde (n.) + stude (n.)]
wundi (v., pres. subj. sing.) WOUND, injure (pres. 2 sing. wundest; pres. 3 sing. wundeth; pres. part. wundinde; past part. i-wundet) [OE]
wundre (n.) see wunder (n.)
wundrin (v.) to WONDER, marvel, be amazed; (reflex.) be surprised; (pres. part. as adj.) wundrinde = wondering, amazed (imper. pl. wundri (ye); pres. 3 sing. wundreth; pres. part. wundrinde) [OE]
wune (n.) habit, custom [OE; see wunien (v.), Ger. gewohnheit "habit"]
wunie(n) (v.) to dwell, live, inhabit; remain, stay; to accustom (oneself to), be WONT to (imper. sing. wune; imper. pl. wunieth; pres. 1 sing. wunie; pres. 2 sing. wunest; pres. 3 sing. wuneth; pres. pl. wunieth; past 2 sing. wunedest; past sing. wunede; pres. part. wuniende; past part. i-wunet, i-wonet) [OE]
wunne (n.) joy (pl. wunnen) [OE]
wununge (n.) dwelling, abode, house [OE; see Ger. wohnung "apartment"]
wurchen (v.) to make, form, build, WORK (something); do, perform (pres. subj. sing. wurche; pres. subj. pl. wurchen; pres. 1 sing. wurche; pres. 3 sing. wurcheth; pres. pl. wurcheth; past sing. wraht[e]; pres. part. wurchinde; past part. i-wraht) [OE]
wurpe (v., pres. subj. sing.) see warpen (v.)
wurse (adj., compar.) WORSE, more harmful, more painful; harder, more difficult; (adv., compar.) WORSE, in a more careless, reprehensible, sinful way [OE]; (n.) a person or thing that is WORSE [OE]
wursi (v., pres. subj. sing.) WORSEN, deteriorate, grow worse (pres. 3 sing. wurseth; past part. i-wurset) [OE]
wurst(e) (adj. & n., superlat.) WORST [OE]
wursum (n.) pus, corruption [OE, related ModE worm]
wurth (n.) price, value [OE]
wurth(e) (adj.) WORTH, equal in value, valuable; worthy, honorable, deserving [OE]
wurthen (v.) to become, be; happen (pres. subj. sing. wurthe; past sing. warth; past part. i-wurthe[n]) [OE; see Ger. werden "to become"]
wurthfule (adj.) WORTHFUL, valuable; worthy [OE]
wurthgunge (n.) honor, respect [see wurth (n.)]
wurthli (adj.) WORTHY, excellent, of great value [OE]
wurthliche (adv.) WORTHILY, with dignity, splendor [OE]
wurthmunt (n.) honor, worship [OE]
wurthschipe (n.) WORSHIP, honor, recognition [OE]
wydewen (n. pl.) see widewe (n.)

yape (adj.) clever, shrewd; nimble, active [OE]
yare (adv.) a long time ago, in time past, formerly [OE; ModE yore]
yarketh (v., pres. 3 sing.) prepares, makes ready for (past part. i-yarket) [OE]
yarow (adj.) ready, prepared [OE]
ydelnesse (n.) see idelnesse (n.)
ye (interj.) YEAH, yes; indeed [OE];
(person pron., 2 pl., nominative form) you, you all [OE]
yeddeth (v., pres. 3 sing.) says, speaks [OE]
yef (conj.) IF; to see if [OE]; (v., imper.) see yeoven (v.)
yeien, yeiyen (v.) to cry out, shout (imper. pl. yeieth; pres. subj. sing. yeie; pres. 3 sing. yeieth; past subj. sing. yeide; past sing. yeide; past part. i-yeiet) [*OE; d'Ardenne (1961), p. 155]
yein-cume (n.) return, a COMING AGAIN [OE]
yeld (n.) payment [OE; see Ger. geld "money"]
yelde(n) (v.) to pay, repay; give, render; restore, compensate for; take vengeance on; YIELD up, give up (imper. sing. yeld; imper. pl. yeldeth, yelde (ye); pres. subj. sing. yelde; pres. 2 sing. yeldest; pres. 3 sing. yelt, yeldeth; past: yulde; past pl. yulden) [OE]
yelp (n.) boasting; glory [OE]
yelpen (v.) to boast, speak vaingloriously; cry aloud, sing aloud; utter a YELP [OE]
yeme (n.) attention, care, heed, caution; neomen yeme = to pay attention [OE]
yemeles (adj.) careless, heedless, negligent; (n.) negligence, carelessness
yemelesliche (adv.) carelessly, negligently, inattentively
yemelesschipe (n.) carelessness, inattentiveness, negligence
yemen (v.) to care about, pay attention to, attend to, look after; control, take charge of (pres. 3 sing. yemeth) [OE; see yeme (n.)]
yeoc (n.) YOKE; (fig.) service [OE]
yeoi (interj.) yes! indeed! [OE]
yeolow (adj.) YELLOW [OE]
yeoniende (adj., pres. part.) gaping (in order to swallow or devour something) [OE; ModE yawn]
yeorne (adv.) eagerly, earnestly, diligently, carefully; willingly, gladly; quickly; longingly, YEARNFULLY [OE]
yeornful (adj.) eager, diligent [OE]
yeornfulliche (adv.) eagerly, diligently
yeornliche (adv.) eagerly, earnestly, zealously, diligently (compar. yeornluker) [OE]
yeotteth (v., pres. 3 sing.) pours; gushes forth (imper. sing. yeot) [OE; see Ger. giessen]
yeove (n.) GIFT; grace [OE]
yeove(n) (v.) to GIVE, grant (imper. sing. yef; imper. pl. yeoveth; pres. subj. sing. yeove, yeve; pres. subj. pl. yeoven; pres. 2 sing. yevest; pres. 3 sing. yeveth; pres. pl. yeoveth; past part. i-yeve, i-yeven; inflected inf. to yeovene)
yer (n.) YEAR (pl. yeres) [OE]
yerde (n.) rod (for administering punishment), cudgel, stick (pl. yerden) [OE]
yet(e) (adv.) YET, still; besides, even; up to now; once, before; at length, ultimately; even now, to this day [OE]
yete (n.) GATE (pl. yeten) [OE]
yete-ward (n.) GATE-WARDEN, gatekeeper, porter (gen. sing. yete-wardes) [from OE]
yette (v., imper. sing.) grant, allow; bestow, concede; acknowledge, confess (pres. subj. sing. yetti; pres. 3 sing. yetteth; past sing. yettede) [OE influenced by ON; see ModE yea "yes"]
yette(n) (adv.) continually, YET, still, further [from OE]
yettunge (n.) permission, consent, granting [see yette (v.)]
yicchinde (adj., pres. part.) ITCHING [OE]
yicchunge (n.) itching
yiftes (n. pl.) GIFTS [OE]
yimmes (n. pl.) GEMS [OE]
yim-stan (n.) GEMSTONE, precious gem (pl. yim-stanes) [OE]
yirni (v.) to YEARN for, long for; to express a desire for, request (pres. 1 sing. yirne; past part. i-yirned) [OE]
yirnunge (n.) YEARNING, desire
yiscere (n.) a covetous person, one who longs enviously for something [see yiscin (v.)]
yisc(e)unge (n.) covetousness, avarice, lust (to have something) (gen. sing. yisceunges)
yiscin (v.) to covet, lust for (pres. 3 sing. yisceth) [OE]
yiver(e) (adj.) greedy, gluttonous; avaricious [OE]
yiverliche (adv.) voraciously, gluttonously, ravenously; greedily
yivernesse (n.) greediness, avarice; voracity, gluttony [OE]
ymagnes (n. pl.) IMAGES, devotional images of saints [OF]
ymne (n.) HYMN [OF, from Lat.]
yond, yont (prep.) over, throughout [OE; ModE beyond]
Yong-dayes (n. pl.) processional days, days on which processions take place [for first element, see gan (v.)]
ypallage (n.) HYPALLAGE, a rhetorical figure; OED: "A figure of speech in which there is an interchange of two elements of a proposition, the natural relations of these being reversed" [OF or Lat.]
ypocresie (n.) HYPOCRISY [OF]
ypocrite (n.) HYPOCRITE [OF]
yuhethe (n.) YOUTH, time of youth or childhood [OE]
yuhethehad (n.) YOUTHHOOD, youth [OE]
yulunges (n. pl.) deceptions, ruses; bewitchings [?related to OE geog(e)lere "magician"]
yung(e) (adj.) YOUNG (compar. yungre) [OE]
yur (n.) howl, roaring [OE, probably imitative, like ModE grrr!]

zedual (n.) SETWALL, a medicinal herb native to India [AF]