Ancrene Wisse: Part Four

ANCRENE WISSE, PART FOUR: FOOTNOTES




1-2 Ne wene nan of heh lif . . . thet is reisun, Let no one (lit., none) of high life expect that she [will] not be tempted: the good, who have climbed high, are more tempted than the weak - and that is reasonable.

2-5 For se the hul is herre . . . strengre th'ron ant mare, For the higher the hill (lit., as the hill is higher), so the wind is greater on it. The higher the hill of holy and high life (lit., as the hill of holy and high life is higher), so the enemy's blasts - the winds of temptations - are stronger on it (lit., thereon) and greater.

5-6 Yef ei ancre is . . . over-swithe i-fondet, If there is any anchoress who does not feel any temptations, let her very much dread in that point (or, case) that she is excessively (lit., over-much) and very powerfully tempted.

6 For swa, For as.

7 Tunc maxime inpugnaris . . . non sentis, "You are then precisely attacked (or, under attack) when you do not feel yourself to be attacked" (cited in Jerome, Letter to Heliodorus 4 [PL 22.349]).

7-10 Sec mon haveth twa estaz . . . ear me least wene, A sick man has two conditions, [both] very frightful: the first is when he does not feel his own sickness, and for that reason does not seek a doctor (lit., leech) or healing arts, nor asks advice from anyone, and dies suddenly before one least expect[s].

10-11 the nat nawt . . . i the Apocalipse, who does not know what temptation is. To her the angel speaks in the Apocalypse.

11-12 Dicis quia dives sum . . . et pauper et cecus, "You say 'because I am rich I am in no way in need,' and you do not know that for that reason you are pitiful and naked and poor and blind" (Revelation 3:17).

12-14 "Thu seist the nis neod . . . gastelich wrecche," "You say [that] for you there is no need of medicine, but you are blind hearted, nor do [you] see how you are poor and naked of holiness and spiritually wretched."

14-16 Thet other dredfule estat . . . thet me him heale, The second fearful condition that the sick has is quite opposite [from] this. That is when he feels so much anguish that he cannot bear that one [should] handle (or, touch) his sore or that one should heal him.

16-19 This is sum ancre . . . the betere beon i-borhen, This is the anchoress who [sometimes] feels her temptations so very much and is so sorely afraid that no spiritual comfort can gladden her or make [her] understand that she can and will be the better saved (or, rescued) through them.

19-20 Ne teleth hit . . . the unwine of helle? Does it not say (lit., tell) in the Gospel that the Holy Spirit led our Lord Himself into a solitary place, to lead a solitary life in order to be tempted by the enemy of hell?

21 Ductus est Jesus . . . a diabolo, "Jesus was led into the desert by the spirit so that He might be tempted by the devil" (Matthew 4:1).

21 Ah, But.

22 the ne mahte sunegin . . . withuten, for [him] who could not sin - was external only.

23-24 Understondeth thenne . . . beoth feole-valde, Understand then (imper.) first of all, dear sisters, that [there] are two kinds of temptations, two kinds of tests - the author glosses temptatiuns, a French word, with the native fondunges) - outer and inner, and both are manifold (i.e., numerous).

24-27 Uttre fondunge is hwer-of kimeth . . . te flesch eileth, Outer (i.e., external) temptation is [that] from which (lit., whereof) pleasure or displeasure comes inside or outside (lit., without or within). [Displeasure] outside: [such] as sickness, discomfort, shame (or, humiliation), bad fortune, and each bodily suffering which ails (or, tortures) the flesh.

27-28 Withinnen . . . is pine, [Displeasure] inside: the heart's sorrow, grief - and wrath also, in the sense that she (i.e., wrath) is pain.

28-29 Licunge withuten . . . onont swucche thinges, Pleasure outside: the body's health, food, drink, enough clothes and each comfort (lit., ease) of the flesh regarding such things.

29-31 Licunge withinnen . . . mare i-don god other menske, Pleasure inside: [such] as some false rejoicing either at men's praise (lit., praise word) or if one is loved more than another, more flattered, better treated or honored (lit., more good or honor done [to her]).

31-32 This dale of this temptatiun . . . the other half, This part (or, section) of this temptation which is called "outer" is more treacherous (or, deceptive) than the other side (or, part).

32-33 Ba beoth a temptatiun . . . twa dalen, Both are one temptation and, whether inside or outside, both [are] two parts of her (i.e., temptation).

33-35 Ah ha is uttre i-cleopet . . . te uttre thing is the fondunge, But she (i.e., this kind of temptation) is called "outer" because she is always either in the things without or from things without, and the outer thing is (i.e., brings) the temptation.

35-37 Theos fondunge . . . heale alswa ant eise, This temptation comes sometimes from God, other times from man. From God: such as a friend's death, sickness - either in them (i.e., the friends) or in yourself - poverty, accident, and other such [things], prosperity also and comfort.

38-39 Of mon . . . god-dede, From man: such as various injuries - either of word or of deed, toward others, [or] toward yours (i.e., you and yours) - also praise (lit., praise-word) or good deeds.

40 middel, go-between (i.e., human agent).

40-41 Ah with alle he fondeth . . . ant luvie, But with everything He tests a man, how (or, to what extent) he fears and loves Him.

41-42 Inre fondunges beoth misliche . . . the thuncheth thah gode, Inner temptations are various vices, either desire towards them or deceptive thoughts, which seem nevertheless good.

42-43 Theos inre fondunge . . . of ure flesch other-hwile, This inner temptation comes from the devil (lit., enemy), from the world, from our flesh sometimes.

43-44 To the uttre temptatiun . . . gastelich strengthe, For (or, in the face of) outer temptation [there] is need for patience - that is, long-suffering (see glossary - the author glosses patience, a French word, with the native tholemodnesse). In the face of the inner [there] is need for wisdom and spiritual strength.

44-46 We schulen nu speoken . . . to frovrin ham-seolven, We shall now speak of the outer [temptation] and teach those who have it (lit., her), how they can with God's grace find a remedy - that is, strength against it (lit., her, outer temptation) to comfort themselves.

47-48 Beatus vir . . . Deus diligentibus se, "Blessed [is the] man who endures temptation, for when he has been proved, he will receive the crown of life which God has promised to those who love him" (James 1:12).

48-50 "Eadi is ant seli . . . leove i-corene," "[She] is favored and blessed who has patience in temptation, for when she is proven," it says, "she will be crowned with the crown of life (te = reduced form of the after preceding -t) which God has promised to His beloved chosen."

51-52 Wel is hit i-seid . . . i the fure, It is said well, for God so proves (or, tests) His beloved chosen, as the goldsmith tests gold in the fire.

52-54 Thet false gold forwurtheth . . . as hit deth the sawle, False gold perishes in there (lit., therein); the good [gold] comes out brighter. Sickness is a burning (or, flame) hot to suffer, but nothing cleanses gold as [well as] it does the soul.

55-58 Secnesse thet Godd send . . . eveneth to martir thene tholemode, A sickness which God sends (send = reduced form of sendeth) - not [one] that someone catches through her own stupidity - does these six things: 1) washes [away] the sins which are committed before, 2) guards against those which were tending (or, coming), 3) proves (or, tests) patience, 4) keeps [one] in humility, 5) increases the reward, 6) makes the patient [one] equal to the martyr.

59-60 Thus is secnesse . . . yef secnesse hit ne lette, Thus sickness is the healing of souls, salve (or, ointment) for her wounds, a shield, so that she catch (or, receive) no more, as God sees that she would, if sickness did not prevent it.

60 mon, a man (or, one, a person).

61-62 hwet he is . . . the worldes blisse, what he is, to know himself - and, like a good teacher, [sickness] beats (beat = reduced form of beateth) in order to teach well (or, effectively) how mighty God is, [and] how vile the world's joy is.

62 thi, your.

63 the i the blisse . . . thi crune, who (or, which) in the joy of heaven [will] gild your crown.

63-65 Se the secnesse is mare . . . thurh a hwilinde wa, The greater the sickness (lit., as the sickness is more), the busier is the goldsmith - and the longer it (i.e., the sickness) lasts, the more quickly he brightens (or, shines) her to be a martyr's equal through a temporary suffering.

65-68 Hwet is mare grace . . . aa on ecnesse? What is a greater grace to those who had deserved the pains of hell, world without end? Would not one account him the stupidest of all men who would refuse a buffet (or, blow) for a spear's wound? a needle's prick for a beheading? a beating for a hanging on the gallows (lit., accursed tree) of hell, forever in eternity?

68-69 Godd hit wat . . . leaste pine, God knows (lit., God knows it), dear sisters, all the suffering of this world is compared to the least of all of hell's pain.

70-71 Al nis bute bal-plohe . . . alle worldes weattres, All [suffering in the world] is [nothing] but ball-play (i.e., a very easy and pleasant thing). All [of it] is not so much as a little drop of dew against (i.e., in comparison to) the broad sea and all the world's waters.

71-73 The mei thenne edstearten . . . seliliche mei ha seggen, Whoever can then escape that same grisly suffering, the horrific pains, through a sickness which passes, through any disease that is here [in the world] - she can call [herself] fortunate.

74-75 On other half . . . is of Godes sonde, On the other side (i.e., at the same time), learn manifold (i.e., many) comforts against the outer temptation which comes from man's evil (or, malice), for this, which I have spoken of (i.e., sickness), is of God's sending.

75-77 Hwa-se eaver misseith . . . ti ruhe of sunne, Whosoever slanders or mistreats you - pay (lit., take) attention and understand that he is your file which metal smiths (or, tinkers) have and [he] files all the rust away and your roughness of sin (ti = reduced form of thi after preceding -t).

77-78 For he fret him-seolven . . . brihteth thi sawle, For he eats himself up (or, wears himself away; fret = reduced form of fretteth), alas, as a file does, but he smoothes and brightens (or, shines) your soul.

79-80 On other wise . . . Godes yerde, In another way, think [that] whosoever harms you or does you any woe (i.e., inflicts any suffering on you), shame, anger, aggravation - he is God's rod (or, stick).

80 swa, so; muth, mouth.

81 Ego quos amo arguo et castigo, "I denounce (or, accuse) and chastise those whom I love" (Revelation 3:19).

81-83 Ne beat he nan . . . thah hit al gulte, "He does not beat any [one] but [her] whom he loves and holds (halt = reduced form of haldeth) for his daughter" (adapted from Proverbs 3:11-12 or Hebrews 12:6), no more than you would beat a strange child though it completely did wrong.

83-85 Ah nawt ne leote he wel of . . . i the fur, But [let] him who is God's rod (i.e., scourge) not think highly of [himself], for [just] as when he has beaten his child enough and has disciplined it well throws the stick in the fire, for it (lit., she, the stick) is nothing (i.e., of no use) any more, just so the Father of heaven, when he has beaten His beloved child for his [own] good with a wicked man or a wicked woman, He throws the stick - that is, the wicked [one] - into the fire of hell.

88 For-thi, For this reason; elles-hwer, elsewhere; Michi vindictam; ego retribuam, "Let vengeance be Mine; I shall repay" (Romans 12:19, see Hebrews 10:30).

88-91 "min is the wrake . . . yerde servise," "vengeance is Mine: I will repay," as though (or, if) He said, "do not avenge yourselves, nor complain or curse when [some]one does wrongs against you, but think (or, consider) at once that He is your Father's stick (or, rod) and that He will pay him for a stick's service (i.e., treat him like a stick)."

91-93 Ant nis thet child ful-itohen . . . don alswa, And is not the child ill-mannered (or, badly disciplined) who scratches against and bites on the stick? The meek (i.e., well-behaved) child, when it is beaten, if the father commands it [to do so], it kisses the stick, and you [should] do likewise, my dear sisters.

94-95 For swa hat ower feader . . . beateth, For your Father thus commands (hat = reduced form of hateth) that you [ought to] kiss, not with [your] mouth, but with love of [your] heart, those whom He thrashes you with.

95-97 Diligite inimicos vestros . . . et calumpniantibus vos, "Love your enemies. Bless those who hate you and pray for those who persecute and slander you" (Matthew 5:44 and Luke 6:27-28).

97-99 This is Godes heste . . . thet ow weorrith, This is God's command, which is much dearer (or, more preferable) to Him than that you [would] eat bran (i.e., coarse) bread or wear a rough hair[shirt]: "love your foe-men (i.e., enemy)," he says, "and do good if you can to those that attack you."

99-102 Yef ye elles ne mahen . . . his hali halhen, "If you cannot do otherwise (lit., else), pray earnestly for those who do you any injury or [who] slander (lit., missay) [you]." And the Apostle teaches, "do not ever pay evil for evil, but always do good [in return] for evil as did our Lord Himself and all His holy saints" (1 Thessalonians 5:15, see 1 Peter 3:9).

102-03 Yef ye thus haldeth Godes heaste . . . with i-thorschen, If you thus keep (lit., hold) God's command, then you are His gracious child and [you] kiss the stick which He has thrashed you with.

103-04 Nu seith other-h[w]ile sum . . . o nane wise, Now sometimes some[one] says, "I will love his soul - or hers - [but] his body in no way (or, on no account)."

104-05 Ah thet nis nawt to seggen, But that is not to [be] said (i.e., ought not to be mentioned).

105-06 The sawle ant te licome . . . to an i-sompnet? The soul and the body is but one man (or, person) and one judgment will befall both [of] them (tit = reduced form of tideth). Will you divide into two [that] which God has joined into one?

106 forbeot, forbids (forbeot = reduced form of forbeoteth).

107 Quod Deus conjunxit homo non separet, "What God has joined [let] no man put asunder (lit., separate)" (Matthew 19:6).

107-08 Ne wurthe nan se wod . . . the Godd haveth i-veiet, Let no one (lit., none) be so mad that he separate the thing which God has joined.

109-11 Thencheth yet thisses weis . . . stilleth hise teares, Think yet in this way: the child, if it trips on something or strikes against [it], one beats what it struck against, and the child is well pleased, forgets completely its hurt (or, knock) and stops its tears.

111 For-thi frovrith ow-seolven, For this reason, comfort yourselves.

111-12 Letabitur justus cum viderit vindictam, "The just [one] shall rejoice when he shall see vengeance (or, punishment)" (Psalm 57:11).

112-14 Godd schal o Domes-dei . . . he hit schal abuggen, God will on Doomsday do as though (or, if) He said, "Daughter, did this [one] hurt you (or, strike you)? Did he make you stumble in anger or in heart's sorrow (or, pain), in shame or in any hardship? Look, daughter, look," He says, "how he will pay for (lit., buy) it."

114-15 Ant ther ye schule seon . . . thes lives, And there you will see him bonked (bunkin = passive inf.: lit., you will see him [to be] beaten) with the devil's (thes = inflected def. art.) sledgehammers [so] that he will despair of his life (lit., woe is him of life).

115-17 Ye schulen beo wel i-paiet . . . al thet ye wulleth, You will be well pleased with that (lit., thereof), for your will and God's will will be so joined that you will desire all [things] that He ever desires, and He all [things] that you desire.

118-25 Over alle othre thohtes . . . helpeth him-seolven! Beyond all other thoughts in all your sufferings, think always to yourself (lit., inwardly) on God's pains, that the world's wielder (or, lord) wanted to suffer for His thralls (or, servants) such humiliations, mockings, buffets, spitting, blindfolding, crowning of thorns, which sunk into His head (lit., set Him in the head) so that the bloody streams flowed downwards and washed down to the earth; His sweet body bound naked to the hard pillar and beaten so that that precious blood ran (or, flowed) on every side; [think on] the poisonous drink that they (lit., one) gave Him, when He was thirsty (lit., when [it] thirsted to Him) on the Cross; [think on] the wagging of their heads (in derision) up at Him, when they in mockery cried so loud, "Look, here [is the one] who healed others! Look, [let us see] how He now heals and helps Himself!" (see Matthew 27:39-43).

126-30 Turneth th'ruppe ther ich spec . . . he ne agulte neaver, Turn [to the page] above (lit., up there) where I spoke [about] how he was tortured in all his five senses (see gloss to 2.667 ff.) and compare (imper.) all your woe (or, pain), sickness and anything else, insult of word or of deed, and everything that man may suffer to that which He suffered, and you will easily see how little it extends (i.e., how little man's suffering compares with His), especially if you consider that He was completely innocent, and that He suffered all this not for Himself (i.e., on his own account), for He never did wrong (or, sinned).

130-31 Yef ye tholieth wa . . . for ow-seolven, If you suffer pain, you have deserved worse, and everything that you suffer, all [of it] is for yourself (i.e., because of your own guilt).

132-34 Gath nu thenne gleadluker . . . death of helle, Go then more gladly along the difficult and laborious path toward the great feast of heaven, where your glad friend expects (lit., keeps) your coming, [go more gladly] than foolish (lit., dizzy) men of the world go by the green path toward the gallows (lit., criminal tree) and the death of hell.

134-35 Betere is ga sec to heovene . . . to wa with eise, [It] is better to go sick to heaven than whole (or, healthy) to hell; [it is better to go] to mirth with discomfort than to suffering with comfort.

136-37 Salomon: Via impiorum . . . duris afflictionibus, Solomon: "The path of the wicked is planted with stones" - that is, with hard sufferings (based on Ecclesiaticus 21:11).

137-38 Nawt for-thi witerliche . . . the heovene, Nonetheless (lit., not for that reason) certainly miserable worldly men [will] buy (or, pay for) hell more dearly (or, expensively) than you do heaven.

138-41 A thing to sothe wite ye . . . the world of golde, Know (imper.; lit., know you) one thing for certain (lit., as truth): an insult (lit., mis-word) that you suffer, a day's anxiety, a sickness of an hour, if one bargained (or, wanted to exchange) with you for one of these on Doomsday - that is, the reward which arises from it (lit., thereof) - you would not sell it for the (i.e., a) world of gold.

141 For thet schal beon . . . ure Laverd, For this will be your song before our Lord.

142 Letati sumus pro diebus . . . vidimus mala, "We have rejoiced for the days on which you humbled us, for the years in which we have seen evil [things]" (Psalm 89:15).

143 wel is us, [it] is well for us (i.e., we rejoice); dahes, days; lahedest us with other monne wohes, humbled (lit., lowered) us with other men's insults.

144-45 nu Laverd for the ilke yeres . . . sar ant sorhe, now Lord for the same years that we were sick in, and saw pain and sorrow.

145-47 Euch worltlich wa . . . with his laverd, Each earthly woe - it is God's message-bearer. A high (or, noble) man's messenger one must receive highly (or, lavishly) and [one must] welcome him (lit., make him glad cheer) - especially if he is intimate with his lord.

147-49 Ant hwa wes mare prive . . . athet his lives ende? And who was more intimate with the King of heaven while He lived here than was this message-bearer - that is, the world's misery, which did not come from (i.e., leave) Him until his life's end?

149 hwet teleth he ow? what does he tell you?

149-51 He frovreth ow . . . hit is halwende, He comforts you in this way: "God, since he loved me, He sent me to His dear friend. My coming and my stay (or, dwelling), though it seem poisonous (or, pestilential), it is healing.

151-53 Nere thet thing grislich . . . thet hit of come? Would that not be a grisly thing whose [mere] shadow you could not feel without pain? What would you say about the horrible creature [itself] that it (i.e., the shadow) came from?

153-54 Wite ye to sothe . . . the wa of helle, Know (imper.) for a truth that all the woe of this world is but a shadow of the woe of hell.

154 Ich, I.

155 worldes weane, the world's misery.

155-56 nedlunge ye moten other undervo . . . of schadewe, You must by necessity receive either me or the grisly suffering of which I am the shadow.

156-58 Hwa-se underveth me . . . ich am of schadewe, Whosoever receives me gladly and welcomes me (lit., makes me fair cheer), my lord sends her word that she is quit (or, free) of that thing which I am the shadow of.

158 For-thi, For this reason.

158-59 Omne gaudium . . . temptationes varias incideritis, "Consider [it] all joy, brothers, when you meet with (or, fall into) various temptations" (James 1:2).

159-60 Alle blisse haldeth hit . . . the uttre beoth i-haten, "Hold (i.e., consider) it all bliss to fall into various of these temptations," which are called outer (i.e., external).

161-62 Omnis disciplina . . . vero fructum, et cetera, "Every discipline for the present seems to be not joyful, but mournful; afterwards truly [it will yield the most peaceful] fruit, etc." (slightly altered from Hebrews 12:11).

162-64 "Alle the ilke fondunges . . . to eche blisse," "All the very temptations which we are now beaten with seem [to be] weeping not joy, but they turn afterwards into happiness (lit., weal) and into eternal joy."

165-67 The inre fondunge is twa-valt . . . limpeth to sunne, The inner temptation is twofold, just as the outer is. For the outer is (i.e., consists of) adversity and prosperity and these kindle the inner [temptations]: displeasure in adversity and in prosperity the pleasure which belongs to sin.

167-69 This ich segge . . . mislicunge for sunne, I say this because [there] is some pleasure and some displeasure which deserves much reward, [such] as pleasure in God's love and displeasure towards sin.

169-70 Nu as ich segge . . . slawthe, Now as I say, the inner temptation is two-fold: bodily (lit., fleshly) and spiritual. Bodily [temptations] - [such] as from lechery, from gluttony, from sloth. Spiritual [temptations] - [such] as from pride, from envy, and from wrath, also from covetousness.

171-73 Thus beoth the inre fondunges . . . to fot-wunde, Thus the inner temptations are the seven deadly (lit., head, or chief) sins and their foul progenies (or, offspring). The temptation of the flesh can be compared to a foot wound.

173-74 Gastelich fondunge . . . breost-wunde, A spiritual temptation, concerning which there is more fear (i.e., which is more frightening), can, because of the danger, be called a chest wound.

174-75 Ah us thuncheth . . . heo beoth eth-fele, But bodily temptations seem to us greater (or, more severe) because they are easy to feel.

175-77 The othre, thah we habben ham . . . drede the mare, The others (i.e., spiritual temptations), though we have them, often we do not know it, and [they] are nevertheless dangerous and horrific (lit., grisly) in God's eye and [they] are for that reason to be dreaded much the more.

177-79 For the othre the me feleth . . . ear me least wene, For the others which one feels well (or, clearly), seek (imper.) a doctor and medicine (lit., salve). The spiritual wounds do not seem severe (lit., sore), or do not heal themselves with confession or with penitence, and [so] lead to eternal death before one least expect[s].

180-81 Hali men ant wummen . . . to goder heale, Holy men and women are tempted by all temptations most strongly, and to their good (or, benefit - see heale in glossary).

181-82 For thurh the feht . . . i Jeremie, For through the fight (or, struggle) against them, they gain the joyful champions' crown. Lo (or, see), though, how they complain (reflex.) in Jeremiah.

182-83 Persecutores nostri . . . insidiati sunt nobis, "Our persecutors, swifter than eagles of the sky, have pursued us over the mountains; they have lain in wait for us in the desert" (Lamentations 4:19).

184-85 Ure wither-iwines swiftre then earnes . . . us to sleanne, Our enemies swifter than eagles on the hills have climbed after us, and there fought with us, and still they plotted (lit., spied) to slay us in the wilderness.

185-90 Ure wither-iwines beoth threo . . . the her-efter beoth i-nempnet, Our enemies are three: the devil (lit., fiend), the world, [and] our own flesh, as I said before. Sometimes one cannot easily know which of these three [is] attacking him, for each [one] helps the other, though the devil naturally (or, characteristically) incites to malice (lit., venomousness), [such] as to pride, to disdain, to envy and to wrath, and to their poisonous progenies (or, offspring) which are named hereafter.

190-92 The flesch sput proprement . . . luvien a schadewe, The flesh urges (sput = reduced form of sputteth) naturally toward sweetness, pleasure, and softness. The world asks one to covet the world's wealth and honor, and other such gewgaws (or, baubles) which deceive foolish men to love (i.e., into loving) a shadow.

192-93 "Theos wither-iwines . . . us mahen hearmin," "These enemies," it says, "follow us onto hills, and lie in wait (i.e., plot) in the wilderness how they can harm us."

194-95 Hul - thet is, heh lif . . . ancre wununge, A hill - that is, the high (or, spiritual) life, where the devil's assaults often are the strongest. The wilderness is the solitary life of the anchoress' dwelling (or, cell).

195-98 For alswa as i wildernes . . . thuncheth ham, For just as [there] are wild beasts in the wilderness, and [they] will not allow men's approach (or, nearing), but flee when they hear them, just so ought anchoresses above all other women to be wild in this way, and then are they over [all] others dear to our Lord, and seem sweetest to Him (lit., [He] thinks them [to be] sweetest to Him).

198-99 For of all flesches . . . leovest ant swetest, For of all meat (lit., flesh), wild animal's meat is the most beloved (i.e., sought after) and sweetest.

200-01 Bi this wildernesse wende ure Laverdes folc . . . hefde bihaten, Along this wilderness our Lord's people went, as Exodus tells, towards the blessed (or, rich) land of Jerusalem, which He had promised them.

201-03 Ant ye, mine leove sustren . . . his i-corene, And you, my dear sisters, go (or, walk) along the same path (lit., way) toward the high Jerusalem, the kingdom which He has promised His chosen [ones].

203-06 Gath, thah, ful warliche . . . heaved-sunnen, Go, however, very carefully (lit., warily), for in this wilderness there are many evil beasts: the lion of pride, serpent of venemous envy, unicorn of wrath, bear of dead[ly] sloth, fox of covetousness, sow of gluttony, scorpion with his (lit., the) tail of stinging lechery - that is, lechery (the author glosses French lecherie with the native galnesse). Here now the seven deadly sins (lit., head sins) are described (or, counted up) in a row (or, one by one).

207 The Liun of prude . . . nempni summe, The Lion of pride has very many whelps, and I will name some.

208-10 vana gloria . . . hire wil forthre, "vainglory" - that is, whosoever thinks well of anything that she does or says or has: beauty or knowledge, good acquaintance (i.e., connections) or a reputation better (lit., word more) than another, lineage or mastery (i.e., power), and [having] her wishes [advanced] further (i.e., getting her way; Savage/Watson: "more willpower").

210 Ant hwet is wlite wurth her? And what good (lit., worth) is beauty to her?

210-11 Gold ring . . . hit ofte, Acquaintance (i.e., connections) in religion - [it is a] gold ring in a sow's nose. It does mischief (lit., woe) often.

211-13 Al is vana gloria . . . as ha walde, All is vainglory (see Ecclesiastes 1:2), which (or, who) thinks at all well of [herself], and would have a reputation for that (lit., thereof), and is well-pleased if she is praised, displeased if she is not described such as she would [be].

213-15 An-other is indignatio . . . ei lahres lare, Another [whelp of pride] is "indignation" - that is, whoever thinks disdainfully of anything that she sees or hears concerning another, and despises (or, rejects) chastisement (i.e., correction), or the teaching of any lower [person].

215-16 ypocresis . . . ha is, "hypocrisy," whoever makes herself [out to be] better than she is.

216-19 The feorthe is presumtio . . . mei beon i-temptet, The fourth is "presumption," which (or, whoever) takes more in hand than she can overcome (i.e., manage), or inserts herself (i.e., meddles) in a thing which does not concern her (lit., fall to her), or is too over-confident of God's grace or of herself, too bold towards any man, who is fleshly (or, physical) as she is, and can be tempted.

219-22 The fifte hwelp hatte inobedience . . . euch lahre his herre, The fifth whelp is named "disobedience" - not only whoever does not obey (lit., bow), but whoever either does [so] grumbling, or delays too long: the child who does not obey [its] elders, an underling his superior (lit., prelate), a parishioner his priest, a maid her lady - each lower [one] his higher (or, superior).

222-24 The seste is loquacite . . . stureth lahtre, The sixth is loquacity (or, talkativeness): the person (lit., who) feeds this whelp who is of much talk, boasts, condemns others, lies sometimes, mocks, upbraids, chides, flatters (or, deceives by flattery), [or] stirs up laughter.

224 seovethe, seventh; nurrice, nurse.

224-26 the swereth greate athes . . . sith other hereth, whoever swears great oaths or curses bitterly, or blasphemes (i.e., says something amiss) about God or about His saints because of anything that he (i.e., the swearer) suffers, sees or hears.

226 eahtuthe, eighth.

227 This hwelp fet . . . in alle uveles, [She] feeds (fet = reduced form of fedeth) this whelp who is not patient in response to (lit., against) all insults and in all evils (or, illnesses).

227-30 The nihethe is contumace . . . ut of hire riote, The ninth is contumacy (i.e., stubbornness), and [she] feeds this, whosoever is stubborn in a thing which she has undertaken to do - be it good, be it evil - so that no wiser advice can bring her out of her extravagance (or, draw her off the wrong scent - see riote in glossary).

230-32 The teohethe is contentio . . . biyete the place, The tenth is "contention" - that is, the striving to overcome (i.e., come out ahead), so that the other may seem [to be] thrown underneath and defeated, and she [may seem the] master of the meeting (or, encounter, debate) and strut as the champion who has won the place (or, field).

232-34 I this untheaw . . . bivore yare amendet, In (or, along with) this vice is upbraiding and blame for all the evil that she can think of concerning the other - and the bitterer it bites, so [much the] better [it] pleases her, even though it were concerning a thing which was amended a long time before (lit., before yore).

234-37 Her-imong beoth other-hwiles . . . warinesses ant bileasunges, Along with this (lit., here-among) [there] are sometimes not only bitter words, but [there] are foul, stinking, shameless and disgraceful [ones], sometimes with great swearing, many and proud words with cursings and lies (or, slanders).

237-38 Her-to falleth evenunge of ham-seolf . . . of dede, To this (lit., here-to) belongs comparison of themselves, of their family (or, lineage), of their talk or of their deed (i.e., actions).

238-40 This is among nunnen . . . privee bonen! This is (i.e., sometimes happens) among nuns, and [they] go with such mouths afterwards, before confession has washed them, to praise God with praise-song, or pray intimate prayers to Him!

240-41 Me, thinges amansede . . . then ei rotet dogge? But, cursed things, do they [not] know that their songs and their prayers to God stink fouler to Him and to all His saints, than any rotted (or, decomposing) dog?

242-46 The ealleofte hwelp is i-fed . . . for then anes, The eleventh whelp is fed (or, nourished) with fancy airs, with appearances and with signs (or, gestures), [such ones] as bear [their] head[s] on high, proudly arch their necks (lit., swagger with the neck), look to the side (lit., sides), behold (or, look around) in disdain, purse the lips (lit., bind a purse with the mouth), with hand or with head make a taunting gesture (lit., sign), throw [one] leg over [the other] leg, sit or walk, stiff as if they were staked (i.e., tied to a stake, or impaled), love to look at a man, speak as an innocent, and lisp for the purpose (for then anes = for the nanes "for the nonce" - see nanes in glossary).

246-50 Her-to falleth of veil . . . with wete fingres, To this belongs (lit., here-to falls) too overwrought an adornment of the veil, of the head-cloth, of any other cloth (or, piece of clothing) either in coloring (or, ornamenting) or in pleating, belts and belting (or, wearing of belts) in a young lady's style (lit., way), plastering with ointments (i.e., makeup), foul flirtings, coloring the hair, painting [her] face, pinching (or, plucking) the brows or arching them upwards with wet fingers.

250-52 Monie othre ther beoth . . . of hali theawes, There are many others (i.e., signs of pride) which come from wealth, from joy, from high lineage, from beautiful clothing, from knowledge, from beauty, from strength. From a high (or, spiritual) life pride grows (i.e., can grow), and from holy virtues [as well].

252-53 Monie ma hwelpes . . . liun of prude, The lion of pride has many more whelps than I have named.

253-54 Ah abute theose . . . bute nempni ham, But concerning these, study (or, pay attention) very carefully, for I go lightly over [them], and do but name them (i.e., and merely list them).

254-55 Ah ye eaver i-hwer . . . tene other tweolve, But you always, wheresoever I go more quickly forward, linger there the longest, for there I load into one word ten or twelve (i.e., I pack one word with the meaning of ten or twelve).

255-57 Hwa-se-eaver haveth eani untheaw . . . i-schapet other i-heowet, Whosoever has any vice of those which I named here, or [vices] like them - she has pride surely, howsoever her gown is shaped or colored.

257-58 Heo is the liunes make . . . in-with hire breoste, She is the lion's mate which I have spoken of, and feeds (fet = reduced form of fedeth) her mad (or, raging) whelps within her breast (or, heart).

259-60 The Neddre of attri onde . . . foryet mid alle, The Serpent of venemous envy has seven whelps (or, offspring): "ingratitude" - [the person] breeds this offspring who does not acknowledge good deeds, but thinks little of them (lit., thereof) or forgets [them] as well.

261-63 God-dede . . . bithohte, Good deeds - I do not mean (lit., say) only that [which] someone does for him (i.e., the ungrateful person), but what God is doing for him, or has done for him - either him or her - more than she understands if she had considered (reflex.) well.

263-64 Of this untheaw . . . ayein his grace, People pay (lit., take) little attention to this vice, but [it] is nevertheless of all [vices] one [of] the most hateful to God and [the one] most against His grace.

264-65 The other cundel is rancor sive odium . . . great heorte, The second offspring is "rancor or hatred" - that is, hating a big (i.e., swollen) heart.

265-66 The bret hit i breoste . . . of othres god, To whomever breeds (bret = reduced form of bredeth) it in [his] heart everything that he ever does (lit., works) is venemous to God. The third offspring is grief (or, regret) at another's good.

266-68 the feorthe, gleadschipe . . . other scarnunge, The fourth, happiness for his evil (or, harming); the fifth, betrayal (or, denunciation); the sixth, backbiting; the seventh, upbraiding or scorning.

268-71 The eahtuthe is suspitio . . . ne thencheth, The eighth is "suspicion" - that is, false suspicion of a man or of a woman without sure evidence, to think, "she is making this face. She does or says this in order to anger, spite, or harm me" - and that [thought], when the other never thinks in that direction (lit., thitherward) [at all].

271-74 Her-to falleth falsdom . . . ha hit dude, To this belongs falsehood, which God forbids strongly (forbeot = reduced form of forbeodeth), as to think or say, "indeed, she does not love me. In this (lit., here-of) she betrayed (or, accused) me. Look, now they [are] talking about me, the two, the three, or more [of them] who sit together. She is a such and such, and she did it for evil (i.e., to cause harm)."

274-76 I thulli thoht . . . monnes domes false, In such a thought we are often misled, for often what seems evil is good, and for this reason men's judgments are false every day (i.e., constantly).

276-77 Her-to limpeth alswa . . . thurh onde, To this (lit., hereto) pertains also wicked new inventions (or, fabrications), and lies [made] loathsome by malice and by envy.

277-79 The nihethe cundel . . . Godd amanset, The ninth offspring is the sowing (or, planting) of strife, of wrath, and of discord. She who sows this devil's seed - she is cursed by God.

279-81 The teohethe is luther stilthe . . . ofte togederes, The tenth is wicked stillness (or, silence), the devil's silence, that (i.e., when) the one will not, for envy, speak about the other, and this type is also an offspring of wrath, for their progeny are often mixed together.

281-82 Hwer as ei of theos wes . . . of onde, Where any of these [characteristics] has been (lit., was), there has been the brood of the poisonous serpent of envy, or the original (lit., old) mother [herself].

283-84 The Unicorne of wreaththe . . . six hwelpes, The Unicorn of wrath, which bears on its nose the spine (or, horn - see note) with which he gores everything he can get at, has six whelps (or, colts).

284-87 The earste is chast other strif . . . ut of hire witte, The first is quarreling or strife. The second is madness (or, rage). Behold (i.e., look at) the eyes and the face when mad wrath has mounted up. Look at her behavior, look at her expressions (or, bearing, appearance), listen how the (i.e., her) mouth goes, and you might judge her [to be] well out of her wits.

287-89 The thridde is schentful up-brud . . . other on his ahte, The third is humiliating invective. The fourth is cursing. The fifth is violence (or, striking). The sixth is the desire that [something] evil may happen to him, either to himself or to his friend, or to his possessions.

289-92 The seovethe hwelp is . . . i bodi bathe, The seventh offspring is to do wrong because of wrath, or omit to do well, to go without food or drink, to avenge herself with tears if she cannot [do anything] else, and to damn her [own] head with cursings [uttered] in a rage, or in any way to harm herself both in soul and in body.

293 morthre, murder.

294-96 The Beore of hevi slawthe . . . luve of ure Laverd, The Bear of sluggish sloth has these whelps (or, cubs): "torpor" is the first: that is, a lukewarm heart - lack of desire (or, disinclination) for anything - which should blaze completely in flame for love of our Lord.

296-98 The other is pusillanimitas . . . of hire strengthe, The second is "pusillanimity" (or, faintheartedness) - that is, a heart too poor and cowardly as well to undertake any high (or, spiritual) thing in hope of God's help, and in trust of His grace, not in her [own] strength.

298-99 The thridde is cordis gravitas . . . mid an hevi heorte, The third is "heaviness of heart." [She] has this, whosoever does good and does it, however, with a dead and with a heavy heart.

300 hwa-se stut mid alle, whoever stops (or, quits) with everything (stut = reduced form of stutteth).

300-01 The fifte is heorte grucchunge . . . for sunne ane, The fifth is the heart's complaining (or, grumbling). The sixth is a dead[ly] sorrow for the loss of any worldly thing or for any offense, except for sin alone.

301-03 The seovethe is yemelesschipe . . . haveth to yemen, The seventh is inattentiveness either to say or to do (i.e., in saying or doing [something]), either watching out before[hand], or thinking afterwards, or neglecting anything that she has (or, ought) to pay attention to.

303-05 The eahtuthe is unhope . . . his unimete grace, The eighth is despair. This last bear's cub is the grimmest of all, for it chews apart and gobbles up God's mild forgiveness and His great mercy and His immeasurable grace.

306-09 The Vox of yisceunge . . . mon-slaht other-hwile, The Fox of covetousness has these whelps: treachery and guile, thievery, plundering, fining (or, extortion) and superior force, false witness or oath, secret simony, lending at interest (lit., tribute), usury (or, interest), stinginess, parsimony of gift or of loan (i.e., reluctance to either give or loan) - this is a tight-fisted heart, a vice most hateful to God who gives us all of Himself - manslaughter (or, killing) sometimes.

309-11 This untheaw is to vox . . . of worltlich biyete, This vice is compared to a fox for many reasons. I will mention (lit., say) two. Much guile is in the fox and so [also] in covetousness of worldly gain.

311-12 An-other: the vox awurieth . . . an frechliche swolhen, A second (i.e., the second reason): the fox strangles (i.e., rips the throats of) an entire flock though he can swallow but one [sheep] greedily.

312-14 Alswa yisceth a yiscere . . . a monnes dale, Just so a coveter covets that which many thousand could live on, but though his heart burst he cannot use (or, consume) by himself but one person's portion.

314-16 Al thet mon wilneth mare . . . deadlich sunne, Everything that a man - or woman - desires more than she can properly lead life (i.e., live) by - each according to what [rank or type of person] she is - all is covetousness and the root of deadly sin.

316-17 Thet is riht religiun . . . of alle hire thinges, This is right religion, that each borrow according to his state from this wicked world as little as she ever (lit., least) can of food, of clothing, of possessions, of all her (i.e., the world's) things.

317-18 Notith thet ich segge . . . is i-fetheret, Note that I say "each according to his state," for that word [i.e., "state"] is loaded [with meaning].

318-20 Ye mote makien . . . the limpeth ther-to, You must place (lit., make) great importance - you know this [very well] - on many a word, think long about [it], and by that same one word understand many [more] which pertain to it.

320-21 For yef ich schulde writen al . . . to ende? For if I should write everything, when would I come to an end?

322-23 The Suhe of yivernesse . . . "to frechliche," The Sow of gluttony has piglets named thus: the first is called "too early," the second "too pickily," the third, "too greedily."

323 hatte, is called.

324 I drunch mare then i mete . . . gris i-ferhet, In drink more than in food these piglets are farrowed (or, littered).

324-26 Ich speoke scheortliche . . . leste ye ham feden, I speak briefly (lit., shortly) about them, for I am not afraid, my dear sisters, that (lit., lest) you [will] feed (or, nurture, suckle) them.

327-29 The Scorpiun of leccherie . . . sulen cleane heorten, The Scorpion of lechery - that is, of lust - has such offspring that the name of some of them [is] not proper to name in a well-disciplined mouth, for the name alone could harm all well-trained ears and sully pure hearts.

329-32 Theo thah me mei nempnin wel . . . fleschliche other gasteliche, Nevertheless, one may well mention those whose names one knows well and are - more is the harm - all too known (or, familiar) to many: whoredom, adultery, loss of virginity (or, fornication), and incest - which is between natural (lit., fleshly) or spiritual kin (i.e., relatives).

332-38 Thet is o feole i-dealet . . . nule fenniliche fallen, That is divided into many [parts]: a foul desire for that filth with the reason's consent, helping (lit., to help) another [person] in that direction (lit., thitherward), to be spectator and witness to it, to hunt after it with wooing, with flirting, or with any enticement, with flirtatious (or, flighty - see gigge in glossary) laughter, whorish eye, any loose gestures (or, behavior), with gifts, with enticing words, or with love-talk, a kiss, indecent touching (or, caressing) which may be a capital (lit., head) sin, to love the time or place to come into such an encounter, and other forerunners (or, preliminaries) which one must needs avoid - who[ever does] not want to fall into the great filth muckily (or, vilely).

338-40 Omissis occasionibus . . . incolumis, "Having avoided occasions which usually open the entrance into sins, the conscience can be safe (or, unharmed)" (source unidentified).

340-41 "hwa-se wule hire in-wit witen . . . in sunne," "whosoever wants to keep (lit., protect) her conscience whole (or, healthy) and strong, she must flee the occasions which were wont often to open the entrance and let in sin."

341-45 Ich ne dear nempnin . . . th'rof i-temptet, I dare not name the unnatural progenies of this devil's scorpion, venomously tailed (i.e., with a poisonous tail). But she may be sorry who without a companion, or with [one], has thus fed (or, nursed) the progeny of her lust - I cannot speak about that for shame nor [do I] dare for fear, lest someone learn more evil than she knows [already] and is (lit., be) tempted by it (lit., thereof).

345-47 Ah thenche on hire ahne aweariede fundles . . . to deadlich sunne, But [let her] think of (or, consider) her own cursed invention in her lust: for howsoever it is satisfied, [while she is] waking (or, awake) and willing, with the body's pleasure, except only in wedlock, it goes (i.e., leads) to deadly sin.

347-50 I yuhethe me deth wundres . . . eche brune of helle, In youth people do wonders (i.e., astonishing things). Let her who feels herself [to be] guilty vomit it out in confession utterly, [precisely] as she did it, or she is (i.e., will be) condemned for the satisfaction of that foul burning to the eternal flame of hell.

350-51 The scorpiunes cundel . . . with deadbote, The scorpion's brood which she breeds (bret = reduced from of bredeth) in her bosom - let her shake it out with confession, and kill [it] with penance.

351-54 Ye, the of swucches nute nawt . . . i swuch beoth i-fallen, You who do not know anything of such [things] - you need not be amazed (reflex.), nor ponder what I mean, but give thanks to God that you have not experienced such impurity, and have pity on them who have fallen into such [things].

355-56 Inoh is etscene . . . to scorpiun i-evenet, [It] is sufficiently clear why I have likened pride to a lion, envy to a serpent, and all the others to those, except this last [one] - that is, why lust is likened to a scorpion.

357-58 Ah lo, her the skile th'rof . . . neddre is bihinden, But look (lit., lo!) here [is] the reason for it (lit., thereof), evident and clear: the scorpion is a kind of snake (lit., worm) which has a face - as they say - quite a bit (lit., some deal) like a woman's, and is a serpent behind, makes (or, presents) a fair appearance, and flatters with the head, and (or, but) stings with the tail.

360 deofles, devil's.

360-62 thet he leat to chepinge . . . thet feire heaved, which he leads (leat = reduced form of leadeth) to market, and to each gathering, and bargains to sell and deceives many, because they do not behold (i.e., look at) anything but the fair face or the fair head.

362-63 Thet heaved is the biginnunge . . . swithe swote, The head is the beginning of the sin of lust and [of] the pleasure - while it lasts - which seems very sweet.

363-65 The teil thet is the ende th'rof . . . of deadbote, The tail, which is the end of it, is painful regret and [it] stings her with the venom of bitter remorse (or, contrition), and of penance.

365-67 Ant seliliche mahen ha seggen . . . eche pine of helle, And they may be said (passive inf.) [to be] fortunate, who find the tail so (i.e., with remorse and repentance), for that venom goes away, but if it does not inflict pain here, the tail and the venomous end is the eternal pain of hell.

367-68 Ant nis he fol chapmon . . . thet heaved ane? And is he not a foolish tradesman (or, bargainer) who when he wants to buy a horse or an ox, if he does not want to look at [anything] but the head alone?

368-70 For-thi, hwen the deovel beodeth forth . . . schaweth forth the heaved, For this reason, when the devil offers up this animal - offers (beot = reduced form of beodeth) to sell it and asks (bit = reduced form of biddeth) your soul for it (i.e., in exchange) - he always hides (hut = reduced form of hudeth) the tail and shows off the head.

370-71 Ah thu, ga al abuten . . . i-attret, But you, go ( imper.) all around and bring the end into view (lit., reveal the end) as well - how the tail stings - and swiftly flee away from there before you are poisoned.

372-74 i the wildernesse . . . thulliche wurmes, in the wilderness where you go in with God's people towards the land of Jerusalem - that is, the kingdom of heaven - there are such beasts, such serpents.

374-75 Ne nat ich na sunne . . . to hare streones, I do not know any sin which cannot be led (or, traced) either to one of these seven (lit., them seven) or to their progeny.

375-77 Unsteathelvest bileave . . . on alle wicchecreftes, Unsteadfast (or, wavering) belief in response to God's teaching - is it not a (lit., the) species of proud disobedience? Under this heading (lit., Hereto) fall incantations, false (or, deceptive) sorcery, belief in dreams, in sneezing, and in all witchcrafts.

377-79 Neomunge of husel . . . hwuch sunne hit is? The taking of the Eucharist [while] in any capital sin, or [taking] any other sacrament - is it not the species of pride which I called "presumption" - if one knows what kind of sin it is (i.e., if one knows one's sin)?

379-80 Yef me hit nat nawt . . . thet ich "slawthe" cleopede, If one does not know it, then it is carelessness under [the heading of] idleness which I called "sloth."

380-81 The ne warneth other . . . other attri onde? Whoever is not on his guard either about his evil or about his profit - is it not sluggish (lit., slow) carelessness or venomous envy?

381-83 Teohethi mis . . . anes cunnes theofthe? To tithe falsely (or, improperly), withhold a legacy, a windfall (or, a treasure-trove; lit., something found), or loan, or do wrongly with them (lit., therewith) - is it not a species of covetousness, and theft of a kind? To withhold another's pay beyond its rightful term (i.e., time limit) - is it not blatant robbery [on the part of] whosoever can pay it, [but] who is [acting] under covetousness?

384-86 Yef me yemeth wurse . . . yemeles of slawthe? If one looks after anything loaned, or entrusted [to him/her] to protect, worse than he who owns it expects [him to] - is it not either treachery or carelessness [arising] from sloth?

386-89 Alswa is dusi heast . . . moder of the seove sunnen, Likewise (or, just so) is a foolish promise or foolishly plighted troth (i.e., faithfulness foolishly promised), to be unconfirmed for a long time, to go dishonestly (lit., falsely) to confession, or to wait too long, not to teach the Lord's prayer or the Creed [to a] godchild - these and all such [things] are traced to sloth - that is, the fourth mother of the seven [deadly] sins.

389-92 The dronc drunch . . . of galnesse awakenet? Whoever drank a drink (i.e., a potion) or did anything through which any child should not be conceived in her, or the conceived [child] should be destroyed (i.e., aborted) - is this not blatant murder, awakened (i.e., having arisen) from lechery?

392-93 Alle sunnen sunderliche . . . alle othre beoth bilokene, No one can reckon (or, count up) all the various sins by their particular names, but in those which I have mentioned (lit., said), all others are locked up.

393-95 Ant nis, ich wene . . . the beoth her i-writene, And [there] is not, I expect, anyone who cannot understand himself concerning his particular sin (i.e., identify his sins by name) under some of those same common [sins] which are written [down] here.

395-97 Of theose seove beastes . . . to fordonne, [It] has been (lit., is) mentioned up to this point (lit., hereto - i.e., the topic up to this point has been) concerning these seven beasts and their broods in the wilderness of the solitary life, [beasts] which attempt to destroy all wayfaring (or, forward-traveling) [people].

397-99 The liun of prude . . . alswa of the othre o rawe, The lion of pride slays all the proud [people], all [those] who are haughtily and disdainfully hearted (i.e., have haughty and disdainful hearts); the venomous serpent [slays] the envious and the evil thoughted (or, wicked minded); the unicorn [slays the] wrathful; likewise with the others in order.

399-401 To Godd ha beoth i-sleine . . . the him to falleth, They are slain (i.e., dead) to God, but they live to the fiend and are completely in his hand[s] and serve him in his court, each with the skill (or, job) that falls (or, belongs) to him.

402-04 The prude beoth . . . to schawin hare orhel, The proud are his trumpeters, [they] draw wind inward with worldly praise (lit., praise-words), and puff it back out (lit., outward) with empty boasting as trumpeters do, make noise and loud sound to display their pride.

404-08 Ah yef ha wel thohten . . . dimluker bemin, But if they thought (or, considered) well about God's trumpeters, about the trumpets of angels, which will in the four corners (lit., sides) of the world blow terrifyingly (lit., grisily) before the horrific judgment, "Arise, [you] dead! Arise! Come to the Lord's judgment to be judged!" where no proud trumpeter will be saved - if they considered this well, they would readily enough trumpet more dimly (or, faintly) in the devil's service.

409 Onager solitarius . . . ventum amoris sui, "A wild ass alone in the desire of his heart drew in (or, snuffed) the wind of love" (Jeremiah 2:24).

409-10 Of the wind . . . as ich seide, Concerning the wind, "drawing [it] in for love of praise," [Jeremiah] says just as I have said.

411-12 Summe juglurs beoth . . . with ehnen, [There] are certain jugglers (or, entertainers) who can perform no other entertainment but to make faces, wrench their mouths askew, squint (or, look askance) with [their] eyes.

412-13 Of this meoster . . . ondfule laverd, In this capacity (or, skill, job) the wretched envious [people] serve in the devil's court, to bring to laughter their envious lord.

413-16 Yef ei seith wel . . . schuleth mid either, If any[one] speaks well or does well, they (i.e., the envious) cannot in any way look in that direction (lit., thither) with the right eye of a good heart, but wink (i.e., close the eye) on that side and look to the left [to see] if there is anything (lit., aught) to blame, or [they] look askance in that direction with both [eyes] fiercely (or, disgustingly).

416-17 Hwen ha i-hereth . . . eaver wid open, When they hear the good (i.e., something good), [they] clap [their] ears down (i.e., shut), but the hearing (MS: "left ear" - see textual note) is always wide open towards evil.

417-19 Thenne he wrencheth the muth . . . to wurse, Then he twists [his] mouth when he turns good into evil, and if it is [already] somewhat evil, through more blame [he] twists it to [something] worse.

419-22 Theos beoth forecwidderes . . . i the pine of helle, These [people] are foretellers, their own prophets. These [people] prophesy before[hand] how the gruesome devils will ultimately terrify (lit., aghast) them with their grinning (or, grimacing), and how they will themselves grin and wrinkle up their noses, and make a sour face because of [their] great anguish in the torment of hell.

422-23 Ah for-thi ha beoth . . . makien grim chere, But for this reason they are the less to be lamented (passive inf.), that (or, since) they learn their occupation of making (lit., to make) grim face[s] beforehand.

424-25 The wreathfule bivore the feond . . . upon his tunge, The wrathful [one] juggles (or, fences) with knives before the fiend and is his knife-thrower, and plays (or, performs) with swords, carries them on his tongue by the sharp point.

425-30 Sweord ant cnif . . . keorvinde pinen, Sword and knife are (i.e., represent) both sharp and cutting words that he throws from himself and juggles (or, tosses) toward others, and he (i.e., the thrower) prophesies (i.e., foretells) how the devils will sport with him with their sharp awls, juggle (or, throw) about with him, and toss [him] like a ragged cloak each to the other, and gore him throughout [his body] with hell's swords - those are the sharp and horrific and cutting tortures.

431-32 The slawe lith ant slepeth . . . al thet he wule, The slow (i.e., lazy) [one] lies and sleeps in the devil's lap as his dear darling, and the devil lays his pursed lips down to his ear and whispers to him all that he wants.

432-34 For swa hit is . . . underveth luveliche his lare, For, certainly, so it is for whomsoever is idle for good (or, useless for good): the fiend talks eagerly [to him, her], and the idle (or, useless) receive lovingly his teaching.

434-36 Idel ant yemeles . . . echeliche wakien, Idle and careless is the sleep of this devil's child, but he will get up (i.e., start out of his sleep) grimly on Doomsday with the dreadful blast (or, din) of the angels' trumpets, and wake (or, stay awake) eternally in hell's misery.

436-37 Surgite! . . . ad judicium Salvatoris, "Arise!" they say, "O [you] dead, arise and come to the Judgment of the Savior" (see Ephesians 5:14 and Pseudo-Jerome, Monks' Rule 30 [PL 30.417]).

438-41 The yiscere is his eskibah . . . muche to rikenin, The covetous [person] is his hearth-tender (lit., ash-stirrer - see glossary), [who] lives (lit., fares) amidst ashes and busily bestirs himself to heap together many and huge piles; [he] blows into them (lit., therein) and blinds himself, pokes them and makes figures of calculations (i.e., scratchings which look like calculations - see note) in them, as these account-keepers (lit., reckoners) do who have much to reckon (or, calculate).

441-42 This is al the canges blisse . . . thet he bersteth, This is all the fool's joy, and the fiend (or, enemy) looks at this entertainment and laughs [so] that (i.e., until) he bursts.

442-44 Wel understont . . . in heorte prude, Each wise man understands well that both gold and silver, and each earthly possession is [nothing] but earth and ashes which blind each person who blows into them - that is, who puffs himself [up] through them in heart's pride.

444-46 Ant al thet he rukeleth . . . tadden ant neddren, And everything that he piles up (or, amasses) and gathers together and holds back (or, saves) of anything which is but ashes more than is necessary (lit., it needs) - [all these things] will in hell change into toads and serpents for him.

446-48 Ant ba, as Ysaie seith . . . ne schruden, And "both his blanket and his sheet," as Isaiah says, "will be [made] of worms (or, serpents)," who[ever did] not want to sustain (see feden in glossary) or clothe the needy with them (i.e., his coverings).

448-49 Subter te sternetur . . . tuum vermis, "Beneath you the moth will be spread, and your covering (or, blanket) will be of worm[s]" (Isaiah 14:11, slightly altered).

450-52 The yivere glutun . . . the crohhe, The voracious glutton is the fiend's manciple (or, food procurer), but he always hangs around in (or, sticks to) the cellar or in the kitchen. His heart is in the dishes, his thought completely in the mugs, his life in the barrel, his soul in the pot (lit., crock).

452-53 Kimeth bivoren his laverd . . . in his other, [He] comes before his lord besmutted (lit., stained) and besmeared, a dish in his one hand, a drinking cup in his other.

453-54 Meatheleth mis wordes . . . ant te deovel lahheth, [He] says his words amiss (i.e., slurs his words), staggers (lit., wiggles) like a drunk man who is about to fall, looks at (bihalt = reduced form of bihaldeth) his huge stomach - and the devil laughs (or, perhaps, [the devil] looks at his huge stomach and he laughs).

455 Theose threatith . . . Ysaie, God warns these [gluttons] through Isaiah, thus.

455-56 Servi mei comedent . . . et cetera, "My servants will eat and you will be hungry, etc." (Isaiah 65:13).

456-57 schulen eoten . . . buten ende, will eat, and you will always be hungry (lit., [it] will always hunger, be hungry for you), and you will be the fiend's food world without end (i.e., forever and ever).

457-58 Quantum glorificavit . . . luctum, "As much as [she] has glorified herself and has been (i.e., lived) in delights (or, pleasure), so much give (imper.) her torment and mourning" (Revelation 18:7).

458-59 In Apocalipsi . . . miscete ei duo, "In the Apocalypse: Against (i.e., In return for) one cup which she mixed (or, prepared), mix her two" (Revelation 18:6).

459-60 Yef the kealche-cuppe . . . he swelte in-with, Give the tosspot (or, drunkard) boiling brass to drink; pour [it] into his wide throat, [so] that he [might] die inside.

460 "Ayein an, yef him twa," "For one, give him two."

460-61 Thullich is Godes dom . . . i the Apocalipse, Such is God's judgment in the Apocalypse against gluttons and drunkards (lit., [people] desirous of drink).

462-64 habbeth riht hare ahne nome . . . vilainie wurchen, have, rightly, their own name (i.e., they keep their own name), for in this great court, one calls those [people] lechers who have so lost [their] shame that [there] is no whit of shame [in] them, but [on the contrary they] seek how they may carry out (lit., work) the greatest villainy (or, shameful wrongs).

464-67 The lecchur . . . eani swote rechles, The lecher in the devil's court befouls (i.e., dirties) himself disgustingly and all his comrades, stinks from that filth and pleases well his lord better with that stinking breath (or, stench) than he would with any sweet incense.

467-69 Hu he stinke to Godd . . . to biburien! How he might stink to God the angel in The Lives of the [Desert] Fathers showed, who held his nose when the proud lecher came riding and not (i.e., but did not hold his nose) because of the rotted corpse that he helped the holy hermit to bury!

470-71 fuleste meoster . . . i the put of helle, the foulest (or, most disgusting) occupation in the fiend's court, who thus befoul themselves. And he will befoul them, torture them with eternal stench in the pit of hell.

472-75 Nu ye habbeth ane dale i-herd . . . to heatien ant to schunien, Now you have heard one section [of this book], my dear sisters: [the section] on those which people call the seven mother sins, and about their broods, and in which occupations these same men serve in the devil's court who have had sex with (or, married) these seven hags, and why they are [to be] intensely hated and avoided (passive inf.).

475-76 Ye beoth ful feor from ham . . . i-thoncket! You are very far from them, our Lord be thanked!

476-78 Ah thet fule breath . . . ower heortes nease, But the foul stench (lit., breath) of this last vice - that is, of lechery - stinks so very far, for the fiend scatters it and blows [it] around everywhere (lit., over all), that I am somewhat (lit., some deal) afraid lest it leap sometime into your heart's nose.

478-80 Stench stiheth uppart . . . temptatiuns, A stench climbs upwards, and you have climbed high where the wind is great (or, powerful) with strong temptations.

481-82 Sum weneth thet . . . i the other th'refter, Some [anchoress] expects that she will be most strongly tempted in the first year that she began the anchoress' life, and in the second [year] after that.

482-84 Ant hwen ha efter feole yer . . . habbe hire al forwarpen, And when she after many years feels them strongly, [she] is very surprised (reflex.) and is frightened lest God might have thrown her over (i.e., abandoned her) completely.

484 Nai, nawt nis hit swa! No, it is not so!

484-85 I the forme yeres . . . bi a forbisne, In the first years [it] is [nothing] but ballplay to many men in [holy] order[s]. But pay (lit., take) attention how it goes (lit., fares) with an example (i.e., exemplum).

485-86 Hwen a wis mon neowliche . . . of hire maneres, When a wise man has recently led [his] wife home (i.e., married), he pays attention very quietly (lit., all softly) to her manners (or, way of behaving).

487-88 Thah he seo bi hire . . . in hire heorte, Though he see in her [something] that displeases him, he lets [it] be for the time being (lit., yet), is very kind to her (lit., makes her fair cheer - see glossary under chere), and is [aiming in] every way that she [should] love him inwardly in her heart.

489-91 Hwen he understont wel . . . as he ham nawt nuste, When he understands well that her love is truly fastened on him, then he can confidently chastise her openly about her faults (or, vices), which he tolerated before, as though he did not know them.

491-92 Maketh him swithe sturne . . . toward him unfestnin, [He] makes himself very stern, and turns (went = reduced form of wendeth) the grim tooth towards [her] (i.e., snarls, grimaces at her), in order to test further if he [might] be able to unfasten (or, shake) her love towards him.

492-96 Alest hwen he understont . . . thet he wel i-cnaweth, At last, when he understands that she is well trained, nor for anything that he does to her [does she] love him the less, but [loves him] more and more - if she can (i.e., if such a thing is possible) - then he shows her that he loves her sweetly, and does everything that she wants, as for her whom he knows well.

496-97 Thenne is al thet wa . . . ow neaver wunder, Then all that suffering (lit., woe) has turned (lit., has become) into joy. If Jesus Christ, your spouse, does also (i.e., the same) with you, my dear sisters, never let it seem strange to you.

497-99 I the frumthe . . . forbeoren ow leasse, In the beginning there is [nothing] but flattery (or, blandishments) in order to draw [one] into love. But [as] soon as he ever understands that he is quite informed (lit., acquainted) he will forbear (i.e., show patience toward) you less.

499-500 Efter the spreove . . . the muchele joie, After the testing, at the end then is great joy.

500-03 Al o this ilke wise . . . ant hare fan alle, Exactly in this same way, when He wanted to lead His people out of servitude, out of Pharaoh's hand, out of Egypt, He did for them all that they wanted, miracles many and splendid, dried up the Red Sea, and made them a free path through it (lit., her, the Red Sea), and there they went dry-footed, [and He] drowned Pharaoh and all their foes.

503-05 I the desert forthre . . . weorren muchele ant monie, Later in the desert when He had led them far into the wilderness, He let them experience suffering (lit., woe) enough: hunger, thirst, and great travail, and wars great and many.

506 ant alle weole . . . eise ant este, and all prosperity and joy, all their heart's desire, and the comfort and delight of the flesh (i.e., physical comforts).

507 Terram fluentem lacte et melle, "A land flowing with milk and honey" (Exodus 3:17, 13:5, 33:3, etc. - a common Old Testament phrase).

507-10 Thus ure Laverd speareth . . . weane to tholien, In this way our Lord spares at first the young and the feeble and draws them out of this world, sweetly and with skill (or, cunning). [As] soon as He sees them harden (or, toughen), He lets (let = reduced form of leoteth) war awaken and [He] teaches them to fight and to endure misery.

510 swinc, travail, struggle.

511 ear ha, before they.

511-12 Ant thuncheth thenne swa god . . . thuncheth se swote! And then [it] seems so good, rest after the struggle; great comfort after the great discomfort (or, suffering) seems so sweet!

513-16 Nu beoth i the Sawter . . . as is ther understonden, Now, in the Psalter [there] are under [the heading of] the two temptations that I mentioned before - those are the outer and the inner, which give birth to all the others - four parts (or, categories), divided thus: minor (lit., light) and hidden (lit., secret) temptation, minor and obvious (lit., open) temptation, severe (lit., strong) and hidden temptation, severe and obvious temptation, as is [to be] understood (passive inf.) here.

516-18 Non timebis a timore nocturno . . . demonio meridiano, "You will not be afraid of night-time terror, of an arrow flying during the day, of trouble (or, business) walking in darkness, [nor] of an attack, or of the mid-day demon" (Psalm 90:5-6).

518 Of fondunge liht ant dearne . . . theose wordes, Concerning minor and hidden temptation, Job says these words.

518-19 Lapides excavant aque . . . terra consumitur, "Waters hollow out rocks, and the earth (or, ground) is little by little eaten up by the ebb and flow [of water]" (Job 14:19).

519-21 Lutle dropen . . . a treowe heorte, Little drops which often fall thereon pierce the flint, and minor, hidden temptations of which one is not aware falsify (or, deceive) a true heart.

521 Of the lihte, openliche . . . he seith alswa, Concerning the minor, obvious [temptations] about which he says also.

521-22 Lucebit post eum semita, "The path will be clear (or, shining) after him (i.e., the Leviathan)" (Job 41:23).

522-23 nis nawt se muche dute . . . thet Job meaneth, there is not so much doubt (or, fear). Concerning severe temptation which is nevertheless hidden is also what Job bemoans.

523-24 Insidiati sunt michi . . . qui adjuvaret, "They have lain in wait against me and have grown strong (or, prevailed), and there was not [anyone] who would help" (adapted from Job 30:13).

524-25 "mine fan weitith me . . . nes hwa me hulpe," "my foes lie in wait (lit., wait) for me with treachery and treason, and they prevailed (i.e., used force) upon me and there was not [anyone] who [would] help me."

525-26 Ysaias: Veniet malum super te . . . ortum ejus, Isaiah: "Evil will come over you, and you will not know its source (or, rising)" (Isaiah 47:11).

526 "Wa schal cumen on the . . . hweonne," Woe (or, suffering) will come [up]on you, and you will not know from where (lit., whence).

526-28 Of the feorthe fondunge . . . ant seith, Concerning the fourth temptation - that is, severe and obvious - he, the holy Job, makes his moan (or, complaint) about his foes and says.

528-29 Quasi rupto muro . . . super me, "As if through a breached wall and an open door, they rushed in on me" (Job 30:14).

529-30 "ha threasten in up-o me . . . te yeten opene," "they rushed (or, poured) in upon me as though the wall were broken down and the gates open."

530-32 The forme ant te thridde fondunge . . . for-thi to felen, The first and the third temptation of these four are all mostly under [the heading of] the inner [temptations]. The second and the fourth fall under the outer [temptations] and are all mostly physical (lit., fleshly) and easy to feel.

532-34 The othre twa . . . mare to dreden, The other two are spiritual, from spiritual vices (or, faults), and are often hidden and secret when they harm the most, and are therefore to be feared (passive inf.) much more.

534-35 Moni thet ne weneth nawt . . . of hwucche Osee seith, Many [a person] who does not imagine it, breeds (bret = reduced form of bredeth) in her breast some lion's cub, some serpent's brood, which gobbles up (or, devours) the soul, concerning which Hosea says.

536 Alieni comederunt . . . ipse nesciuit, "Strangers ate up his strength and he himself did not know" (Hosea 7:9).

536-37 "Unholde forfreten the strengthe . . . nawt nuste," "Unfriendly [ones] gobbled up the strength of his soul and he did not know it."

537-39 Yet is meast dred of . . . to deadlich sunne, Yet there is most to fear for when the traitor (or, deceiver) of hell incites to a thing that seems very good perhaps, and is nevertheless the soul's murderer (or, slayer), and the path to deadly sin.

539-40 Swa he deth as ofte . . . his strengthe, So he does as often as he cannot make known his strength with obvious (or, evident) evil.

540-45 "Na," he seith . . . thet te sawle asteorve, "No," he says, "I cannot make this [woman] sin through gluttony, and (i.e., but) I will, like the wrestler, wrench (or, twist) her in the direction to which (lit., as) she most tends to (lit., pulls), and throw her on that side and fling [her] suddenly down, before she least expects," and [he] incites her to so much abstinence that she is the weaker (lit., unstronger) in God's service, and [incites her] to lead so hard a life, and to so mortify (lit., pain) the body, that the soul [may] die.

545-46 He bihalt an-other . . . is hire heorte, He beholds (or, observes - bihalt = reduced form of bihaldeth) another whom he cannot in any way make evil minded (lit., thoughted), so loving and compassionate is her heart.

546-49 "Ich chulle makien hire" . . . hire softe heorte, "I will make her," he says, "entirely too compassionate. I will do so much to her that she will love possessions, think less about God, and lose her fame (or, good reputation)," and then [he] puts some such thought in her soft heart.

549-53 Seinte Marie! . . . to huse-wif of halle, "St. Mary! [does not] this (lit., the) man or this woman have discomfort (i.e., a hard life), and no one wants to do anything for them. People would [help] me if I asked, and so I could help them and bestow (lit., do) alms on them" - [the devil] leads (lit., brings) her on to gather (or, save), and give all, first to the poor, later to other friends, finally to make feasts and become completely worldly, transformed (or, degenerated) from an anchoress [in]to a housewife (i.e., lady) of a hall.

553-56 Godd wat . . . leapeth in orhel, God knows, such feasting makes some a whore (or, makes a whore of some). [She] imagines that she does well, as stupid and silly [people] make her understand, flatter her for [her] generosity, praise and raise up (or, exalt) the charity that she does, how widely she is known. And she thinks well of [this] and leaps into pride.

556-57 Sum seith inoh-reathe . . . beon i-robbet, Some[one will] say readily enough that she [is] gathering a hoard - so that (i.e., and the result will be that) her house and she too (lit., both) may be robbed.

557-58 Reowthe over reowthe! . . . leve ye him neaver, Pity beyond pity! Thus the traitor of hell makes himself a true advisor (note the heavy irony)! Do not believe him ever.

559-60 Davith cleopeth him . . . angelum lucis, David calls him "mid-day demon," "bright, shining devil" (Psalm 90:6), and St. Paul, [calls him the] "angel of light" (2 Corinthians 11:14).

560-62 For swuch ofte he maketh him . . . bute his gile, For he often makes himself such and shows himself to many. No marvel (or, vision) that you see, either in a dream or waking, consider (imper.) [anything] but deception, for it is [nothing] but his guile.

562-64 He haveth wise men . . . efter herbearhe, He has misled wise men of holy and high (or, exalted) life often thus, like him whom he came to in woman's likeness in the wilderness, said she had gone in error (i.e., astray, was lost) and wept like a destitute thing (or, wretched creature) for lodging.

564-67 Ant te other hali mon . . . on ende, And the other holy man whom he made (i.e., caused to) believe that he was an angel, and concerning his father, that he was the devil, and made him slay his father - so often before this he (i.e., the devil) had always told him the truth, in order to deceive him pitifully in the end.

567-70 Alswa of the hali mon thet he makede cumen . . . in heaved sunne, Likewise [there is the story] of the holy man that he made (or, forced to) come home in order to distribute his father's money to the needy and to the poor, so long (i.e., he stayed at home so long), that he sinned mortally with (lit., on) a woman, and so fell into despair, and died in capital sin.

570-71 Of mon the speketh with ow . . . ne bichearre, From the person who recites to you such tales (i.e., the author?), hear (imper.) how you ought to protect yourselves against this devil's wiles, so that he does not deceive you.

572-74 Sum of ow sum-chearre . . . then rihtwisnesse, He made some of you sometimes believe that it were (i.e., would be) flattery if she spoke politely, and if she humbly complained of her needs, if she thanked a person (or, man) for his good deed - and [yet this] was more disdain (lit., over-highness) to extinguish love, than [it was] righteousness.

575-76 Sum he is umben to makien . . . thet ha dotie, He is after another (lit., some) to make [her] so quickly flee men's comfort that she [will] fall into deadly sorrow - that is, despair - or into deep thought so that she goes out of her wits (or, does foolish things - see dotie in glossary).

576-79 Sum heateth swa sunne . . . of his brethren, A certain [one] hates sin so [much] that she has disdain towards another who falls - [she] who should weep for her, and should sorely dread for such a [thing] with respect to herself, and [who ought to] say as the holy man who sighed and wept and said, when they told him [about] the fall of one of his brothers.

579-80 "Ille hodie, ego cras," "He today, I tomorrow" (The Lives of the Desert Fathers 7.16).

580-81 "Wei-la-wei . . . fallen to-marhen," "He was severely tempted before he fell so. As he fell today, I may," he said, "also fall tomorrow."

582-83 ow i-nempnet . . . with i-temptet, named for you under [the headings of] the seven sins - not, though, the thousand-fold [ones] that one is tempted with.

583-84 Ne mahte - ich wene . . . nempnin, No one - I expect - could name them specifically (lit., namely).

584-86 Ah i theo the beoth i-seid . . . other-hwile i-temptet, But in those which are mentioned (lit., said), all are locked (i.e., contained). There are few in this world, or none perhaps, who are not tempted by some of them sometime (hare = genitive pl., dependent on sum).

586-89 He haveth se monie . . . on ende undervo, He has so many boxes full of his medicines, the wicked doctor (lit., leech) of hell - whoever refuses one, he offers another up straight-away, the third, the fourth, and so on (lit., ever further) until he comes upon such [a medicine] that is accepted in the end (lit., which one accepts).

589-91 Ant he thenne with thet birleth . . . th'refter the salve, And he then plies him often with that - think (imper.) here of the number of his ampoules (or, phials)! Hear now, as I promised, [about] the many kinds of comfort against all temptations, and with God's grace (i.e., and if God gives me the ability), after that the remedy.

592-93 Siker beo of fondunge . . . mare windes, Let her be sure of temptation (i.e., sure that she will be tempted), whoever stands (stont = reduced form of stondeth) in the high life - and this is the first comfort. For the higher the tower, the more winds [it] has (lit., for ever so higher the tower, so [it] has more winds).

593-95 Ye beoth tur ow-seolven . . . of ow to other, You are tower[s] yourselves, my dear sisters, but do not fear (lit., dread) while you are so securely and firmly cemented with the lime (i.e., mortar) of resolute love, each of you to the other.

595-97 For na deofles puf . . . thurh the feond wursi, For you need fear no devil's puff (or, blast) unless the mortar fails - that is to say, unless love between you worsens because of the enemy (or, fiend).

597-99 Sone se ei unlimeth hire . . . sum suti sunne, As soon as anyone uncements (or, unsticks) herself, she is (or, will be) immediately swept away; unless (lit., but if) the others hold her, she will be immediately cast down as is the loose stone from the tower's summit (or, crown - see tur in glossary) into the deep ditch of some sooty (or, filthy) sin.

600-01 Nu an-other elne . . . ha beoth i-wunnen, Now another strength ought to comfort you much when you are tempted: the tower is not attacked (lit., assailed), nor castle nor city, when (i.e., after) they are won.

601-03 Alswa the helle weorrur . . . he naveth nawt, Likewise, the warrior of hell does not assail any[one] with temptation whom he has in his hand (i.e., power), but does [so to] those whom he does not have [in his power].

603-04 For-thi, leove sustren . . . beo biwunnen, For this reason, dear sisters, whosoever is not attacked, she may be sorely afraid lest (i.e., in case) she be conquered.

605-07 The thridde cunfort is . . . into fondunge, The third comfort is that our Lord Himself in the Paternoster (i.e., Lord's prayer) teaches us to pray, "And lead us not into temptation" (Matthew 6:13, Luke 11:4) - that is, "Lord Father, do not allow the fiend to lead us (lit., that he lead us) entirely into temptation."

607-10 Lo, neometh yeme! . . . with skiles yettunge, Look, pay (lit., take) attention! He does not want that we pray that we not be tempted, for that (i.e., temptation) is our purgatory, our cleansing fire, but [he wants us to pray] that we not be completely brought into it (lit., therein) with the consent of [our] heart, [or] with the reason's permission.

611 The feorthe frovre . . . ayein, The fourth comfort is confidence of God's help in the fighting against (i.e., resistance).

612-13 Fidelis est Deus . . . quam pati possumus, set et cetera, "God is faithful, who does not allow us to be tempted more than we can bear, but" etc. (adapted freely from 1 Corinthians 10:13).

613-14 Nule he neaver suffrin . . . we mahen tholien, He will never allow that the devil tempt us over that [which] he sees well that we can bear.

615 he haveth i-set . . . mearke, He has set the devil a limit.

616-17 Ant swa feor he yeveth . . . gan a pricke, And so far (i.e., up to this point) He gives her strength to withstand; the enemy cannot go one prick (or, jot) further.

618 frovre, comfort; don, do to.

619-20 Thet wes wel i-schawet . . . ant seiden, That was well revealed (lit., shown) as the Gospel tells, when the devils which our Lord cast out of a man begged and said.

620 Si eicitis nos hinc . . . in porcos, "If you drive us out from here, send us into the pigs" (adapted from Matthew 8:31, see also Mark 5:12 and Luke 8:33).

621-22 "Yef thu heonne drivest us . . . yettede ham," "'If you drive us away from here (lit., hence), put us in these swine here,' who were wandering (lit., went) there as one herd. And he granted [it] to them."

622-23 Lo, hu ha ne mahten nawt . . . adrenchen ham-seolven, Look, how they could not harass [even] filthy pigs without His permission. And the pigs immediately ran a gallop (or, ran violently) to the sea to drown themselves.

624-26 Seinte Marie! . . . nimeth neaver yeme! St. Mary! he (i.e., this demon) stank so to the pigs that [it] was preferable to them to drown themselves than to bear (or, carry) him, and a wretched sinful [person], bears God's likeness in his breast (or, heart) and never pays [the least] attention!

626-28 Al thet he dude . . . deofles neddre, For everything that he (i.e., the devil) did to Job, he always got permission for it from our Lord. See (i.e., Make sure) that you know the story in [Gregory's] Dialogues, how the holy man was wont (i.e., accustomed) to speak to the devil's serpent.

628-29 Si licenciam accepisti, ego non prohibeo, "If you have received permission, I do not forbid you" (Gregory, Dialogues 3.16 [PL 77.257]).

629-30 do sting yef thu maht . . . yef bileave him trukede, "make a sting (i.e., sting - imper.) if you can" - and [he] offered up his cheek. But he (i.e., the serpent) did not then have any (i.e., any permission) except to frighten him, [to see] if [his] belief would fail him.

630-32 Ant hwen Godd yeveth him leave . . . grevi sare? And when God gives him (i.e., the devil) permission [to perpetrate temptations] on his beloved children, why is it except for their great benefit, [even] though it grieves (or, agonizes) them sorely?

633 tholeth, allows.

634-37 flith from him ant hut hire . . . ehnen, flies away from him (or, it) and hides (hut = reduced form of hudeth) herself, and lets him sit alone and look longingly (or, yearningly) about, lets him cry, "Mother! Mother!" and [lets him] weep a while - and then with arms spread [wide she] leaps out laughing, hugs and kisses [him] and wipes his eyes.

637-40 Swa ure Laverd let us ane i-wurthen . . . for muche luve, Just so, our Lord lets us be alone sometimes, and withdraws His grace, His comfort, and His strength, so that we [can] find sweetness in nothing that we do well, nor savor (i.e., relish) of heart, and nevertheless in that very situation our Lord does not love us any the less, but does it because of great love.

641 tha, when; Non me derelinquas usquequaque, "Do not forsake me utterly" (Psalm 118:8).

641-42 "Allunge . . . leaf thu me nawt," "Completely," he said, "[O] Lord, do not leave me."

642-43 Lo, hu he walde . . . other-hwiles, Look (lit., lo!) how he wanted Him to leave him (lit., that He [should] leave him), but not completely. And note six reasons why God withdraws himself for our good sometimes.

643-45 An is thet we ne pruden . . . ure wacnesse, The first (lit., one) is so that we not become proud; a second [reason], that we know our own feebleness, our great lack of strength and our weakness.

645 swithe muche god, a very great good.

646 Magna perfectio . . . inperfectionis cognitio, "Great perfection is the recognition of one's imperfection" (not found in Gregory's known works).

647 to cnawen wel his wrecchehead ant his wacnesse, to know well his wretchedness and his weakness.

647-48 Ecclesiasticus: Intemptatus qualia scit? Ecclesiasticus: "What kind of things does the untempted (or, untested) person know?" (adapted from Ecclesiasticus 34:9).

648 "Hwet wat he . . . the thet is unfondet?" "What does he know, says Solomon, he who (lit., who that) is untempted?"

649-51 Melior est animus . . . et terrarum fundamenta, "The spirit to which its own weakness is known (i.e., which knows its own weakness) is better than [the spirit] which examines the heights of the heavens and the foundations of the earth" (Augustine, Concerning the Trinity 4.1 [PL 42.885, 887]).

651-52 "Betere is the the truddeth . . . hu deop the eorthe," "Better is he who tracks down and seeks out his own feebleness effectively, than he who measures how high heaven is and how deep the earth."

653-54 Hwen twa beoreth a burtherne . . . hu hit weieth, When two [people] carry a burden, and the second [one] leaves it (i.e., lets it go), then he who holds it up can feel how [much] it weighs.

654-57 Alswa, leove suster . . . yef he is to longe, Just so, dear sister, while (or, as long as) God carries your temptation with you, you never know how heavy it is, and for this reason sometimes He leaves you alone, so that you may understand your own feebleness and call for His help, and cry loudly for Him if He is [away] too long.

657-59 Hald hit wel the hwile up . . . he is to edwiten, Hold it (i.e., the burden of temptation) up well in the meantime, [even though] it torment you [ever] so sorely (i.e., however badly it taxes you). Whosoever is sure (or, confident) of help, which will come soon to him (i.e., whoever is confident that help will come soon to him), and yields up (yelt = reduced form of yeldeth) nevertheless his castle to his enemies - he is very much to blame (or, be blamed).

660 fondunge, temptation.

660-62 seh bi west . . . bi esten! saw in the west so great an army of devils [coming] against him, and lost, because of [his] great fear, the strength of his belief, until the other [one] said to him, "Look," he said, "to the east!"

662 Plures nobiscum sunt quam cum illis, "There are many more with us than with them" (The Lives of the Desert Fathers 5.18).

662-63 "we habbeth ma . . . on ure halve," "we have more than they are (i.e., have) to help on our side."

663-65 ne beo al siker . . . streonith inobedience, [should] never be completely confident, for confidence breeds carelessness and arrogance, and both these breed disobedience.

665-66 The feorthe acheisun . . . efter his moder, There is a fourth reason why our Lord hides (hut = reduced form of hudeth) Himself - so that that you should seek Him more eagerly and call and weep for Him as the little baby does for its (or, his) mother.

667-69 thet tu his yein-cume . . . his leofmon, that you receive His return (lit., again-coming) the more gladly. The sixth - that you afterwards may guard (or, keep) Him the more wisely when you have caught Him, hold [Him] the more firmly, and say with His leman (i.e., lover).

669 Tenui eum nec dimittam, "I have held Him fast, nor will I give [Him] up (or, let Him go)" (Song of Songs 3:4).

670-71 beoth under the seste frovre . . . ayeines fondunge, are under [the heading of] the sixth comfort which you can have, my dear sisters, against temptation.

672-73 alle the hali halhen . . . ure Laverd, all the holy saints were furiously tempted. Take one of the highest [saints] first of all (alre = genitive pl.): our Lord said to St. Peter.

673-74 Ecce, Sathan expetivit vos . . . sicut triticum, et cetera, "Lo, Satan desires [to have] you so that he may sift you like wheat," etc. (Luke 22:31).

675-76 yeorne abuten for-te ridli the . . . allunge ne trukie, eagerly about [his work] to sift you out from my chosen [ones]. But I have besought (i.e., interceded, prayed) for you so that your belief may not completely fail.

676-77 Seint Pawel hefde . . . pricunge, St. Paul had, as he says himself, a pricking of [his] flesh (i.e., a thorn in his flesh).

677 Datus est michi stimulus carnis mee, "A goad (or, sting) in my flesh was given to me" (2 Corinthians 12:7).

677-78 ant bed ure Laverd . . . ah seide, and [he] asked our Lord eagerly that He [might] take it from him, and He would not, but said.

678-79 Sufficit tibi gratia mea: virtus in infirmitate perficitur, "My grace is sufficient for you: strength is perfected in weakness" (2 Corinthians 12:9).

679 wite the . . . overcumen, protect you [so] that you [will] not be overcome.

680 mihte, might (or, power).

680-81 Alle the othre beoth i-crunet . . . feht of fondunge, All the other [saints] are crowned through (or, by means of) the struggle against temptation (lit., fight of temptation).

681-84 Seinte Sare . . . ah this wes hire bone, St. Sarah - was she not tempted for fully thirteen years in her flesh (or, body)? But because she knew that in great anguish, great reward would arise (lit., arose), she did not want ever once to beseech our Lord that He would completely deliver her of it (lit., thereof), but this was her prayer.

684 Domine, da michi virtutem resistendi, "Lord, give me strength of resisting (i.e., to resist)" (see The Lives of the Desert Fathers 5.10-11); yef, give.

685-88 Efter threottene yer . . . mi Laverd, After thirteen years the accursed spirit which had tempted her came, black as a Moor (lit., black man), and began to wail, "Sarah, you have overcome me!" And she answered him, "you lie," she said, "foul thing! Not I, but Jesus Christ my Lord has [overcome you]."

688-90 Lo, the sweoke . . . to Godes strengthe, Look, the traitor (or, deceiver), how he wanted to make her leap into pride at last (or, in the end). But she was well aware of that (lit., thereof) and turned (i.e., assigned) all the triumph (lit., mastery) to God's strength.

690 witen, know.

691-92 i-pruvede to treowe champiuns . . . crune, tried (or, proven) as true champions, and so by right [they] deserved the crown of champions.

693-94 Ant this is the eahtuthe elne . . . fur of fondunge, And this is the eighth strength (or, comfort) - that just as the goldsmith purifies gold in the fire, just so does God [purify] the soul in the fire of temptation.

695-98 greveth the sare . . . sunne, tortures you grievously, you torture him a hundred times more grievously (lit., sorely) when you stand against [him], for three reasons particularly. The first is that he loses, as Origen says, his strength to tempt thereafter ever again with such manner [of] sin.

698-703 The other is thet . . . murhthen, The second is that he further increases his punishment (or, pain). The third gnaws at his heart with terrible anger and vexation that he, damn his teeth (i.e., despite himself), increases your reward in the temptation which you stand against, and instead of (lit., for) the punishment that he expected to draw you toward, [he] weaves (lit., braids) you a crown of bliss - and not only one or two, but as many times as you overcome him, [he weaves] as many crowns - that is to say, so many honors of various joys.

703 swa, thus, so.

704 Quotiens vincis, totiens coronaberis, "As often as you conquer, so often you will be crowned" (Bernard, Sermons for Quadragesima 5.3 [PL 183.179]).

704-07 The tale i Vitas Patrum . . . slep swithe! The story in The Lives of the [Desert] Fathers witnesses (or, confirms) the same [thing], [the story] of the disciple who sat before his master and his master fell (lit., became) asleep while he taught him and slept until midnight when he awoke: "Are you," he said, "still here? Go and sleep at once (lit., quickly)!"

707-10 The hali mon, his meistre . . . this ilke niht ofsarvet, The holy man, his master, fell back asleep at once like a person who had been before that (lit., there-before) on a great vigil (i.e., one who had been awake for a long time), and [he] saw a very beautiful place and [saw] a throne set out, and on it seven crowns, and [there] came a voice and said: "your disciple has earned this seat and these crowns this very night."

710-12 Ant te hali mon abreaid . . . sete bivore me? And the holy man started [out of his sleep] and called him to him. "Tell [me]," he said, "how it went (lit., stood) [with] you while you sat before me as I slept?"

712-14 "Ich thohte, " . . . nalde bute leave,
" "I often thought," he said," that I would wake you up, but (lit., and) because you slept [so] sweetly, I could not [wake you] for pity. And then I thought to go away to sleep, for [it] pleased me (or, I wanted to), but (lit., and) did not want to without permission."

714-15 "Hu ofte, " . . . seide he, "How often," said his master, "did you thus overcome your thought (or, intention)?" "Seven times," he said.

715 Tha, Then.

716-17 seove cunne blissen . . . him-seolven, seven kinds of joy that his disciple had earned on each single occasion that he opposed (or, contradicted) the fiend, and overcame (or, mastered) himself.

718 Al thus, leove sustren . . . the biyete, Exactly in this way (lit., completely thus), dear sisters, in wrestling (or, struggling) with temptation, a benefit mounts up for you.

718-19 Nemo coronabitur . . . certaverit, "No one will be crowned unless he has properly struggled" (slightly altered from 2 Timothy 2:5).

719-21 "Ne schal nan . . . the feond of helle," "None will be crowned," says St. Paul, "except whoever strongly and truly (or, faithfully) fights against the world, against himself, [and] against the fiend (lit., enemy) of hell."

721-24 Theo fehteth treoweliche . . . ne prokie hit se swithe, They fight faithfully who, howsoever they are attacked with these three adversaries - especially by the flesh - whatever the desire [may] be, the more furious it is (lit., so it is more furious), the more firmly [they] struggle against [it], and deny the granting of (or, giving in to) it with a resolute heart, [even if] it goad [them] ever so powerfully.

724-25 Theo the thus doth . . . honginde o rode, Those who do (or, act) thus are Jesus Christ's comrades, for they do as He did [while He was] hanging on the Cross.

726 Cum gustasset acetum, noluit bibere, "When he had tasted the vinegar, he did not want to drink" (based on Matthew 27:34).

726-27 "he smahte thet bittre drunch . . . ofthurst were," "He tasted that bitter drink and drew Himself back immediately, and did]not want to drink it though he was very thirsty."

727-29 Heo is, the swa deth . . . his healewi to drinken, She, who does so (i.e., acts like this), is with God on His Cross, [even] though she thirst in desire (lit., [it] thirsts to her in the desire), and the devil offers her his sweet medicine to drink.

729-30 Understonde ant thenche . . . to beon i-attret, Understand and think nevertheless that there is gall under[neath] (i.e., hidden in with the sweet medicine). And though it is (lit., be) a torture, [it] is better to suffer thirst than to be poisoned.

730-32 Let lust overgan . . . bitterliche smeorten, Let desire pass over, and it will please you (i.e., you will be satisfied) afterwards. While the itching lasts it seems good to rub (i.e., scratch), though afterwards (lit., thereafter) one feels it smarting (lit., to smart) bitterly.

732-35 Wei-la-wei! . . . ne nimeth neaver yeme, Alas! And many a one is so very, very thirsty because of the great heat, moreover, that while she drinks that drink, be it ever so bitter (i.e., no matter how bitter it may be), she does not ever detect it, but gulps [it] in greedily (lit., gluttonously), nor [does she] ever notice it (lit., take care, notice).

735-37 Hwen hit is al over . . . beste thenne, When it is all gone (lit., over), [she] spits (spit = reduced form of spitteth) and shakes [her] head, starts to wrinkle her nose and make a terrible face - but [it is] too late then! Nevertheless, after evil, penitence is good. It is the best [thing] then.

737-38 Speowen hit anan ut . . . wule death breden, Spew (or, vomit - imper.) it out immediately in confession to the priest. For, [if you] leave it within, it will breed death.

738-40 For-thi, mine leove sustren . . . secheth theose salven, For this reason, my dear sisters, be aware (or, wary) before[hand], and after the comforts for all temptations which are written (or, described) here seek (imper. - i.e., you will find) these remedies (or, medicines).

741-44 ant nomeliche ayein fleschliche . . . thet hire stont stronge, and especially against fleshly (or, carnal) [temptations] - [there are] cures and remedies under God's grace: holy meditations, heartfelt (lit., inward) and continual, and anguished prayers, strong belief, reading, fasts, vigils, and physical toil (lit., bodily toils), the comfort of another [person] to talk to in the very moment that things are going badly (lit., [it] stands strongly or severely to her).

744-46 Eadmodnesse . . . beon i-wundet, Humility, generosity of heart, and all good virtues are arms (or, weapons) in this fight, and constancy of love above all the others. Whoever throws his weapons away wants to be wounded (lit., [it] pleases him to be wounded).

747-48 Hali meditatiuns . . . mine leove sustren, Holy meditations are contained (or, embraced) in a verse that was taught to you a long time ago, my dear sisters.

749-50 Mors tua, mors . . . figantur mente fideli, "[May] your death, the death of Christ, the disgrace of sin, the joys of heaven, / The terror of judgment be fixed in the [your] faithful mind" (source unidentified).

752-57 Thench ofte with sar . . . his god deden, Think often with sorrow on your sins, / Think of hell's misery, of heaven-kingdom's joys, / Think of your own death, of God's death on the Cross - / Remember (or, call to mind) often the grim judgment of Doomsday. / Think how false the world is, what sort are her (i.e., the world's) rewards, / Think what you owe God for His good deeds.

758 Euch-an of theose word . . . wel i-openet, Each one of these words would want (i.e., require) a long time to be well opened (i.e., explained).

759-62 Ah yef ich hihi forth-ward . . . schaweth ham forth as schadewe, But if I rush (lit., hie) forward, you [should] pause the longer. I [will] say one word (i.e., thing): after your sins, whensoever you think of hell's misery, and of heaven-kingdom's joys, understand that God wanted in some way to show them to men in this world by [means of] worldly pains and worldly joys, and [He] shows them forth (i.e., reveals them) as a shadow.

763-64 For na lickre ne beoth . . . hit is of schadewe, For they are no more like (lit., liker unto) the joy of heaven, or to the misery of hell than is a shadow like the thing of which it is a shadow.

764-66 Ye beoth over this worldes sea . . . the hehe brugge, You are over the sea of this world, upon the bridge of heaven - look [to it] that you be not like the skittish horse which is terrified (or, shies) because of a shadow, and falls down into the water from the high bridge.

766-68 To childene ha beoth . . . bute schadewe, They are too childish who flee [from] a painting which seems to them grisly and horrific to look at. Misery and joy in this world - all is [nothing] but painting, all is [nothing] but shadow.

769-73 Nawt ane hali meditatiuns . . . arearet i the heorte, Not only holy meditations - such as [those] on our Lord, and on all His works, and on all His words, on the dear Lady and on all holy saints - but other thoughts have helped sometimes in continual temptations; four kinds especially, [are helpful] to those who are assailed by the temptations of the flesh continually: 1) fearful, 2) wonderful (or, astounding), 3) joyful, and 4) sorrowful [thoughts] - [thoughts] voluntarily raised up in the heart without compulsion.

773-75 As thenchen hwet tu waldest don . . . i the fondunge, Think (as not translated) what you would do if you saw the devil of hell (then = declined def. art. - see glossary) stand openly before you and gaping wide upon you, as he does secretly (or, in a concealed way) in the temptation.

775-77 Yef me yeide . . . dredfule thohtes, [What would you do] if [some]one yelled, "Fire! Fire!" that the church was burning (lit., burned). [What would you do] if you heard burglars break [down] your walls - these and other such dreadful thoughts.

777-79 Wunderfule ant gleadfule . . . thet tu withstode, Wonderful (or, astounding) and joyful [thoughts]: as if you saw Jesus Christ and heard Him ask you what would be most desirable to you - after your salvation and [that of] your dearest friend - of things in this life, and [heard Him] offer you to choose provided that you withstood.

780-81 Yef thu sehe al witerliche . . . bihalde the ane, If you saw quite plainly the inhabitants of heaven and the inhabitants of hell watching you alone in [your] temptation.

781-82 Yef me come ant talde the . . . alle othre swucche, If they (lit., one) came and told you that the man that is dearest to you (te = reduced form of the), by some miracle, [such] as by the voice of heaven, were elected to Pope - and all other such [thoughts].

783-85 Wunderfule ant sorhfule . . . in hare hus forbearnde, Astounding and sorrowful [thoughts]: as if you heard tell that the man who is most dear to you were suddenly drowned, killed, or murdered, that your sisters were burned up in their house.

785-86 Thulliche thohtes ofte . . . of the othre earre, Such thoughts often wrench out (or, drive away) fleshly (or, carnal) temptations in fleshly souls sooner than some of the other earlier [thoughts do].

786-89 In-warde, ant meadlese, ant ancrefule . . . duteth ham swithe, Deeply felt (lit., Inward) and continuous and anchor-like prayers soon win succor (i.e., aid) and help from our Lord against the flesh's temptations - be they ever so (i.e., no matter if the prayers are) anguished or [on the other hand] so badly executed, the devil of hell is afraid of them very much.

789-90 For teke thet ha draheth adun sucurs . . . bindeth him ant bearneth, For besides [the fact] that they draw down aid against him, and God's [helping] hand from heaven - they do him two injuries: bind and burn him.

791-95 Lo, her preove . . . thider ten dahes fulle, Look, here [is the] proof of both: Publius, a holy man, was in his prayers and the fiend came flying through the air and was supposed to (lit., should) [go] toward the extreme western part of the world, by Julian's [the emperor's] command, and (i.e., but) was bound tightly by the holy man's prayers, which overtook him as they flew upwards toward heaven, [so] that he could not [go] hither or thither (i.e., to or fro) for fully ten days.

795-97 Nabbe ye alswa of Ruffin . . . wes i benen, Do not you also have [the story] of Ruffin the devil, Belial's brother, in your English book of St. Margaret? Concerning the second [devil] (i.e., Belial), one reads that he cried out loudly to St. Bartholomew who was much in prayers.

797-98 Incendunt me orationes tue! "Your prayers are burning me!" (see Pseudo-Bede, "Concerning St. Bartholomew," Homilies 2.90 [PL 94.490-91]).

798 wa me! woe [is] me!; Thine beoden forbearneth me! Your prayers are burning me up!

798-800 Hwa-se mei thurh Godes yeove . . . for swa we redeth, Whosoever can by God's gift have tears in [her] prayers, she can do with God all that she ever wants, for so we read.

800 Oratio lenit . . . illa pungit, "Prayer softens, tears (lit., a tear) compel; the former soothes (lit., anoints), the latter stings" (source unidentified).

801-03 Eadi bone softeth . . . al thet ha easkith, "A holy prayer softens and pleases our Lord, but tears do Him violence. Prayers anoint (or, soothe) Him with soft flattery (or, persuasion), but tears prick Him," nor do [they] ever give Him peace before He grants them all that they ask.

803-06 Hwen me asa[i]leth burhes . . . thet Davith segge bi the, When one assails (or, attacks) towns or a castle, those within pour out scalding water, and thus protect the walls. And you do likewise (imper.) as often as the fiend assails your castle and your soul's town (or, city): with inward (i.e., heartfelt) prayers cast out upon him scalding tears, [so] that David may say concerning you.

807 Contribulasti capita draconum in aquis, "You have crushed the heads of dragons in the waters" (Psalm 73:13).

807-08 thu havest forscaldet . . . hate teares, "You have scalded the dragon's head badly with boiling water" - that is, with hot tears.

808-09 Thear as this weater is . . . he beo forscaldet, Wherever (as not translated) this water is, surely the fiend flees lest (or, for fear that) he be badly scalded.

809-10 Eft an-other . . . ayeines his unwines, Yet another [example]: the castle which has a ditch around [it], and water is in the ditch - the castle is quite without fear (lit., careless) against its enemies (lit., unfriends).

810-12 Castel is euch god mon . . . ye beoth strong castel, Every good man that the devil attacks (lit., wars against) is a castle. But [if] you have a deep ditch of deep humility and wet tears besides (lit., thereto), you are a strong castle.

812-14 The weorrur of helle . . . schineth the schenre, The warrior of hell may assail you long and lose his time (or, effort). Again one says (i.e., they say), and it is true, that a great wind subsides (lit., lies down) with a little rain, and the sun shines afterwards (lit., thereafter) the brighter.

814-16 Alswa a muche temptatiun . . . to the sawle, Likewise, a great temptation - that is, the fiend's gust (or, blast) - falls down (or, dies down) with one soft rain from the tears of one little word (i.e., prayer), and the true sun shines afterwards more brightly to the soul.

816-18 Thus beoth teares gode . . . ha beoth to luvien, Thus tears with deeply felt (lit., inward) prayers are good, and if you understand (i.e., have been paying attention), I have spoken concerning them here four great efficacies (or, powers), for which reason they are to [be] loved (passive inf.).

818-19 In alle ower neoden . . . toward h[e]ovene, In all your difficulties, send quickly at once this messenger (i.e., tearful prayers) toward heaven.

819-20 Oratio humiliantis se penetrat nubes, et cetera, "The prayer of one humbling himself pierces the clouds," etc. (adapted from Ecclesiasticus 35:21).

820-21 "the eadmodies bone thurleth the weolcne," "the humble [person]'s prayer pierces the clouds (lit., the welkin)."

821 Ant ter, And here (ter = reduced form of ther after preceding -t).

821-22 Magna est virtus . . . ubi caro pervenire nequit, "Great is the power of a pure conscience, which enters to God and carries through [her] commands (or, errands) where the flesh cannot come" (source unidentified).

822-26 O muchel is the mihte . . . al thet ha easketh, "Oh, great is the might of bright and pure prayer, which flies up and comes in before almighty God" - and does the errand so well that God has written all that she says into the book of life, as St. Bernard bears witness, [and He] keeps her with Himself, and sends (sent = reduced form of sendeth) down His angel to do all that she asks.

826 Nule ich her of bone segge na mare, Here I do not want to say any more about prayer.

827 Hardi bileave . . . witneth Sein Jame, Stout belief puts (lit., brings) the devil to flight immediately - St. James bears witness to that.

828 Resistite diabolo et fugiet a vobis, "Resist the devil and he will flee from you" (James 4:7).

828-29 Edstont ane the feond . . . thurh hwet strengthe? "Only withstand the fiend, and he [will] put himself in flight (i.e., will flee)." Withstand - with what strength?

829-30 Cui resistite fortes in fide, "Resist him, firm in faith" (1 Peter 5:9).

830-31 beoth hardi of Godes help . . . bute of us-seolven, be sure (lit., hardy) of God's help and know how he (i.e., the devil) is weak, who has no power over us except from ourselves (i.e., unless we ourselves grant it to him).

831-33 Ne mei he bute schawin forth . . . bugge th'rof, Nor can he [do anything] but show forth (i.e., display) a certain amount of his ape wares, and cajole (or, flatter) or threaten [so] that people may buy from them (lit., thereof).

833-35 Hwether se he deth . . . o fluht swithe, Whichever he does, scorn him, laugh the old ape loudly to scorn through true faith, and he [will] hold (or, count) himself disgraced and [will] put himself to flight (lit., will flee) quickly.

835 Sancti per fidem vicerunt regna, "The saints conquered [entire] kingdoms through faith" (adapted from Hebrews 11:33).

835-37 the hali halhen . . . thurh sunne ane, "all the holy saints overcame through belief the devil's rule (or, sway)," which is [nothing] but sin, for he rules in no one except by sin alone.

837-38 Neometh nu gode yeme . . . On earst nu of prude, Pay (lit., take) good attention now how all the seven deadly sins may be put to flight through true belief. At first now, [let us say something] about pride.

839-40 Hwa halt him muchel . . . a povre meidenes breoste? Who holds (or, considers) himself great, as the proud [person] does, when he sees how small the great Lord made Himself inside a poor virgin's breast?

840-43 Hwa is ontful . . . dealde of his god, Who is envious who sees with eyes of belief how Jesus God - not for His good, but for others' good - acted and spoke, and suffered all that He suffered? The envious [person would] not desire that any[one should] share in his good (or, good things).

843-44 Ant Godd almihti yet . . . the god thet he hefde, And almighty God still, after all the other [acts], descended down to hell to seek out comrades and to share with them the good (or, good things) that He had.

844-46 Lo, nu hu frommard . . . hire bileave ehe, Look, now, how opposite (or, different) the envious are [from] our Lord. The anchoress who [would] deny a quire (i.e., a small, unbound book) to another as a loan - she [would] have the eye of her belief far away from here.

847-48 Hwa halt wreaththe . . . mon ant engel? Who keeps (or, harbors - halt = reduced form of haldeth) wrath, who sees that God descended to earth to make a threefold reconciliation (or, peace): between man and man, between God and man, between man and angel?

849-50 Ant efter his ariste . . . to his deore deciples, And after His rising (i.e., resurrection) when He came and showed Himself, this was His greeting to His dear disciples.

850 Pax vobis, "Peace [be] to yyou" (John 20:19, 21, 26); Sahtnesse, Reconciliation (or, Peace).

850-53 Neometh nu yeorne yeme . . . ant of sahtnesse, Pay (lit., Take) attention now carefully. When a beloved friend departs from the other, the last words that he says, they should be best paid attention to (lit., kept). Our Lord's last words, when He climbed to heaven and left His beloved friends in a strange country, were of sweet love and of peace.

853-54 Pacem relinquo vobis . . . do vobis, "Peace I leave to you; my peace I give to you" (John 14:27).

854 Sahtnesse ich do i-mong ow, Peace I put among you.

855-56 This wes his druerie . . . in his departunge, This was His love-token that He left and gave them in His departing.

856-57 In hoc cognoscetis . . . adinvicem habueritis, "By this you will recognize that you are My disciples: if you have love towards each other" (adapted from John 13:35).

857-58 Lokith nu yeorne . . . steah to heovene, Look now carefully, what kind of (lit., which) a mark, for His precious love, He laid upon His chosen when He climbed (i.e., rose) to heaven.

859-60 "Bi thet ye schulen i-cnawen . . . ow bitweonen," "By that you will know," He said, "that you are My disciples: if sweet love and peace is always between you."

860-62 Godd hit wite . . . i-heortet, May God know it - and He does know it - [it] would be preferable to me that you were all [suffering] with leprosy (lit., hospital-sickness) than [that] you were envious or cruel-hearted.

862 resteth him, rests Himself.

863 wununge, dwelling.

863-64 In pace factus est locus ejus . . . et bellum, "His place is made in peace. There [He] has shattered the powers of bows, the shield, the sword, and war" (adapted from Psalm 75:3-4).

864 sahtnesse, peace (or, reconciliation); stude, place.

864-67 Ant hwer-se sahte is ant luve . . . neh ant kene, And wheresoever [there] is peace and love, there He brings to naught all the devil's strength (thes = declined def. art.). "There he breaks his bow," it says - those are secret temptations that he shoots (scheot = reduced form of scheoteth) from afar - "and his sword as well (lit., both)" - those are sharp temptations which cut (lit., cutting) from close by.

868-70 Neometh nu yeorne yeme . . . thet ye habben, Pay (lit., take) attention now carefully by many examples (or, exempla) how good constancy of love is, and oneness (or, unity) of heart. For [there] is nothing under the sun which is more preferable to me (lit., is more beloved to me), nor so dear, that you [should] have.

870-71 Nute ye ther men fehteth . . . o neaver nane wise? Do you not know [that] where men fight in these powerful armies, the very [ones] who hold themselves firmly together cannot ever be defeated in any way?

871-73 Alswa hit is in gastelich feht . . . halt men togederes, Just so it is in the spiritual fight against the devil: all his purpose is to split (or, divide) hearts, in order to (lit., for to) take away love that holds men (or, people) together (halt = reduced form of haldeth).

873-74 For hwen luve alith . . . on euche halve, For when love subsides (lit., lies down), then they are parted (lit., sundered), and the devil puts himself between immediately and slays (i.e., kills) on both sides (lit., on each side).

875-77 Dumbe beastes habbeth this ilke warschipe . . . ant beoth the hwile sikere, Dumb beasts have (i.e., show) this same wariness (or, caution), that when they are assailed by wolf or by lion, they throng (or, band) the flock together firmly, and make a shield of themselves, each of them for the other, and are safer for the time.

877-78 Yef eani unseli went ut . . . sone awuriet, If any unfortunate [beast] goes out (went = reduced form of wendeth) [from the flock], it is immediately strangled (or, has its throat ripped out).

878-81 The thridde . . . halt him bi other, The third [exemplum]: where one walks (reflex.) alone on a slippery path, he slides (slit = reduced form of slideth) and falls quickly; where many walk together, and each [one] holds (halt = reduced form of haldeth) the other's hand, if any starts to slide, the other pulls him up before he falls fully; if they grow weary, each one holds himself [up] by the other.

881-82 Fondunge is sliddrunge . . . beoth i-nempnet th'ruppe, Temptation is sliding (or, slipping). By weariness (lit., wearying) is symbolized the vices [grouped] under sloth, which are named above (lit., up there - see 4.294-305).

882 thet, what.

882-85 Cum nos nobis per orationis . . . quanto alteri innititur, "When we unite ourselves through the power of prayer, [we are] walking through a slippery (or, dangerous) place as if we held each other's hand, so that each [of us] is more greatly strengthened to the extent that he leans on the other" (Gregory, Letters 1.25 [PL 77.478]).

885-86 Alswa i strong wind . . . forfeareth eaver, Likewise, in a strong wind and swift waters which one must wade through, each of many (i.e., each one in the group) holds up the other; [but] the sundered (or, person who is separated) is swept away and always perishes.

886-89 To wel we witen . . . with luve othres honden, We know too well how the path of this world is slippery, how the wind and the stream of temptation are strong. [There] is great need that each [one] hold with diligent prayers and with love the others' hands.

889-90 Ve soli! . . . non habet sublevantem, "Woe unto the one alone! Because when he falls, he has [no one] lifting him up (i.e., he does not have anyone to lift him up)" (adapted from Ecclesiastes 4:10).

890 Wa eaver the ane! Woe be always to the solitary [person]!; naveth, [he does] not have; hwa, anyone (lit., who); areare, raise up.

891-92 Nan nis ane the haveth Godd . . . in his heorte, No one is alone who has God as a companion, and that is each [person] who has true love in his heart (i.e., no one who has true love in his heart is alone, for he has God as a companion).

892-94 The seovethe forbisne . . . lith al stille, The seventh exemplum is this, if you are counting correctly: dust and sand, as you can see, because it is separate and none [of it] holds (i.e., sticks) to the other, a little puff of wind scatters it [in]to nothing. Where it is cemented together in a clump it lies (or, stays) completely still.

894-96 An hondful of yerden . . . lihtliche bersteth, A handful of sticks are difficult to break while they are together - separated, each one easily breaks (lit., bursts).

896-97 A treo the wule fallen . . . nihene, A tree which wants to (or, is about to) fall - support (or, underpin) it with another, and it [will] stand firmly (stont = reduced form of stondeth); separate them, and both [will] fall. Now you have nine [exempla].

897-900 Thus i thinges ute-with . . . the rihte bileave, Thus take a lesson (i.e., learn) from external things how good unity is and concord of love which holds the good together, [so] that none can perish! And certainly, right faith (lit., the right belief) wants this (i.e., unity).

900-02 Bihald yeorne ant understont . . . lesceunes lare, Look carefully and understand Jesus Christ's precious words and deeds, which were all [performed] in love and in sweetness. Above all things, I [would] wish that anchoresses learned well the teaching of this lesson (or, reading).

902-04 For monie . . . a blease bearninde, For many - more is the harm! - are Samson's foxes, which had [their] faces each one turned away from the other, and were tied together by [their] tails, as Judges tells, and in each one's tail [there was] a firebrand burning.

904-07 Of theose foxes ich spec . . . thet me heateth, I spoke about these foxes far above this (i.e., several pages back), but not in this way. Pay (lit., Take) good attention to what this is (i.e., has) to say: one turns [his] face happily toward the thing that one loves, and away from the thing that one hates.

907-09 Theo thenne habbeth the nebbes . . . the brune of galnesse, Those [people] then have [their] faces turned away each from the other, when no one loves the other, but they are joined by [their] tails, and carry the devil's firebrands (thes = declined def. art.) - the burning of lechery.

909-11 On an-other wise . . . thet fur of helle, In another way, the tail symbolizes the end. At their end (i.e., death) they will be bound together as were Samson's foxes by the tails and they will [have] firebrands set amongst them (lit., therein) - that is, the fire of hell.

912-15 thet ower leove nebbes . . . deciples, [so] that your dear faces [will] be always turned together with a loving expression and with a sweet appearance, [so] that you [will] be always be cemented together with unity of one heart and of one will, as it is written concerning our Lord's disciples.

915 Multitudinis credentium . . . anima una, "Among the multitudes of believers (lit., those believing) there was one heart and one spirit" (Acts 4:32).

915-16 Pax vobis . . . Grith beo bimong ow, "Peace [be] to you" (John 20:19, 21): this was God's greeting to His dear disciples, "Peace be among you."

916-20 Ye beoth the ancren of Englond . . . efter thet word is, You are the anchoresses of England, so many together, twenty now or more. May God multiply you in good [things], among whom [there] is the greatest peace, the greatest oneness and single-mindedness and concord in [your] unified life according to one rule, so that all pull [as] one, all are turned one way, and none away from the other, according to what the report (lit., word) is (i.e., as I have heard).

920-25 For-thi, ye gath wel forth . . . to beon in ordre, For this reason, you are going forward strongly (lit., well) and are prospering on your path, for each is [proceeding] along with the other in one way of life, as if you were a convent of London, and of Oxford, of Shrewsbury, or of Chester, where all are one, with one common custom (lit., manner), and without singularity - that is, individual contrariness (or, turning away) - a base thing in religion, for it destroys (or, smashes) unity and shared custom which [there] ought to be in an order.

925-26 This nu thenne . . . wide cuth, Now then, this is your high fame: that you are all as [if you were in] one convent. This is pleasing to God. This is widely known already.

927-29 Ye beoth as the moder-hus . . . the strunden worith alswa, You are like the mother-house from which they are born. You are like a wellspring: if the wellspring falters (or, dries up) the streams falter as well.

929-35 A, wei la . . . of heovene, O, alas, if you [were to] falter - I [would] never endure that! If [there] is any among you who walks in singularity (i.e., willful individuality), and does not follow the convent, but departs (went = reduced form of wendeth) out from the flock which is as in a cloister that Jesus is high prior over, goes out like an erring (? - see teowi in glossary) sheep and blunders herself alone into a tangle of briar[s], into the wolf's mouth, toward the throat of hell - if [there] is any such [one] among you, may God turn (or, guide) her into the flock, turn her into the convent, and [may He] grant you who are in it (i.e., the flock), so to keep yourself in it, that God, the high prior, [may] take you in the end from there up into the cloister of heaven.

935-36 Hwil ye haldeth ow in an . . . nawt mid alle, While (or, as long as) you keep yourselves in one (i.e., in unity), the fiend may frighten you - if he has permission - but [he can]not harm you at all.

937-39 Thet he wat ful wel . . . segge bi suster, He knows this very well, and is for that reason [busy] about [it] day and night (adverbial genitive) to detach (lit., un-cement) you with wrath or with wicked envy, and sends (sent = reduced form of sendeth) man or woman, who [may] tell the one some distressing tale (lit., saying) about the other that sister should not say about sister.

939-41 Ower nan . . . ant segge anan-rihtes, [Let] none of you - I forbid you - believe the devil's messenger, but look (or, see to it) that each of you recognize well when he (i.e., the devil) speaks in the evil man's tongue, and say (imper.) immediately.

942-45 "Ure meistre haveth i-writen us . . . schule beon unblamet," "Our master has written us, to keep by command (as not translated), that we tell him everything that [we] hear from each other, and therefore look to yourself that you tell me nothing that I cannot tell him, who might correct you (lit., do you an amendment) but knows to do it in such a way that both you and I, if we are in the truth (or, in the right), will be unblamed."

945-47 Euch, no-the-le[s] . . . wat to sothe, [Let] each [of you], nonetheless, warn the other through a very trustworthy messenger, sweetly and lovingly, as if it were her dear sister, about anything that she does wrong (lit., mistakes) - if she knows it for a truth (i.e., fact).

947-49 Ant makie hwa-se . . . ne cluti ther-to mare, And let (imper.) whosoever bears that message (lit., word) repeat it often in front of her, before she go, in the way she will say [it], [so] that she not say it otherwise (i.e., in any other way), nor patch (i.e., add) more onto it.

949-51 For a lute clut . . . with the Salm-wruhte, For a little patch may disfigure a large, whole (or, uncut) piece [of cloth]. She who receives from her sister this love-cure, should thank her eagerly and say with the Psalm-wright.

951-52 Corripiet me justus in misericordia . . . caput meum, "The just will accuse me in mercy, and will rebuke me, but [let] the oil of the sinner not fatten my head" (Psalm 140:5).

953 Meliora sunt vulnera corripientis quam oscula blandientis, "The wounds of an accuser are better than the kisses of a flatterer" (based loosely on Proverbs 27:6).

953-55 Yef ha ne luvede me . . . thus ondswerie eaver, "If she did not love me, she would not warn me in mercy." "Her wounds (i.e., the wounds she gives me) are more desirable to me than flattering kisses" - always answer thus (i.e., in this way).

955-58 Ant yef hit is other-weis . . . as hire-seolven, And if it is otherwise than the other [one] understands, let her send her word about it again, lovingly and softly, and [let] the other believe [it] immediately, because I wish also that each of you love the other as herself.

958-62 Yef the feond bitweonen . . . as is i-seid th'ruppe, If the fiend blows up any wrath between you, or [any] haughty heart (i.e., spirit) - which Jesus Christ forbid! - before she (i.e., wrath) is truly resolved (lit., well settled), [let] none be so witless [as] not only to take God's flesh and His blood, but moreover [let her not do] what is less [objectionable], that she once look on it (i.e., the host), or look in full wrath at Him who descended as a man to earth from heaven to make a threefold peace, as is described (lit., said) above (see 4.847-48).

962-64 Sende either thenne . . . eadmodliche Venie, Let then each [one] send word [to the] other that she has made her humble "Pardon," as though she were before her (i.e., in her presence).

964-66 Ant theo the ear . . . ha is Godes dohter, And she who first wins the love of her sister thus, and gains peace, and takes the guilt (or, fault) on herself, though the other has it more, she will be my precious and my dear daughter, for she is God's daughter.

967 Beati pacifici, quoniam filii Dei vocabuntur, "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called sons of God" (Matthew 5:9).

967-69 Thus prude . . . to the othre on a reawe, Thus, pride and envy and wrath are everywhere put to flight wherever there is true love and true belief in God's mild works and loving words. Let us go on now further to the others (i.e., the other deadly sins) in a row (i.e., one by one).

970-71 Hwa mei beo for . . . on eorthe? Who can, for the shame [of it], be drowsy, sluggish, and slow, who sees how very busy our Lord was on earth?

971 Pertransiit benefatiendo et sanando omnes, "He went about, blessing and healing everyone" (Acts 10:38).

971-74 Efter al thet other . . . earm ethre, After all the other [things], look how He, in the evening of His life, toiled on the cruel (lit., hard) Cross. Others have rest, flee the light, in [their] room[s], conceal themselves when they have (lit., are) blood let from the vein of one arm.

974-78 Ant he, o munt . . . ane o the schonken, And He, on Mount Calvary, climbed still higher on the Cross, nor [did a] man ever toil so sorely (or, heavily) as He did that very day [on] which in five places He bled streams from very wide and deep wounds, without (i.e., not to mention) the capital veins (i.e., the veins of the head) which bled on His head under the sharp crown of thorns, and not to mention the same piteous gashes from the severe scourging over all His lovely body, not only on the legs.

978-79 Toyeines slawe ant sleperes . . . from deathe to live, Against (or, in opposition to) the sluggish and the sleepers is very clearly (lit., openly) His early rising from death to life.

980-82 Ayeines yisceunge . . . beon i-leid upon, Against covetousness is His great poverty, which always grew upon Him the longer the greater (i.e., more and more). For when He was first born, [He] who made the earth did not find on earth so much space as His little body could be laid upon.

982-84 Swa nearow wes thet stude . . . with clutes biwrabbet, So narrow was that place that [only] with difficulty His mother and Joseph sat in it (lit., therein). And so they laid Him on high, up in a crèche (i.e., cradle) wrapped with rags.

984-85 Pannis eum involuit, "She wrapped him in rags" (Luke 2:7).

985-87 Thus feire he wes i-schrud . . . as meiden deh to habben, Thus excellently (lit., fairly) He was dressed, the heavenly Creator, who clothes the sun! After this, the poor maiden of heaven nursed Him and fed Him with her little milk (i.e., scarce supply of milk), as is fitting for a maiden (i.e., virgin) to have.

988-89 For lanhure the yet . . . herbearhede him, For at least as yet (lit., the yet), He had [such] food as fell to Him (i.e., was fitting for Him), and in place of an inn, a cradle lodged Him.

989-90 Seoththen, as he meande him . . . his heaved huden, Afterwards, as He complained (reflex.), He did not have [any place] where He might hide His head.

990 Filius hominis . . . capud suum reclinet, "The Son of man does not have [any place] where he might lay His head" (Matthew 8:20, Luke 9:58).

990-94 Thus povre he wes . . . ah nes ther nan, He was thus poor of (i.e., with respect to) lodging; with respect to food He was so needy that when He had preached all day in Jerusalem on Palm Sunday, and it neared night (i.e., night neared), He looked about, it says in the Gospel, [to see] if anyone would invite Him to a meal or to lodging, but there was none (i.e., no one).

994-95 Ant swa he wende ut . . . sum-chearre, And so He went out of the great city into Bethany, to Mary and Martha's house, where (as not translated) He went with his disciples sometimes.

995-97 Ha breken the eares . . . i-calenget, They broke [off] ears [of grain] along the road, and rubbed the kernels between their hands and ate [them] for hunger, and were for that reason swiftly challenged (or, accused).

997-99 Ah alre meast poverte . . . ne mahte he habben, But the greatest of all poverty came at length after that (lit., hereafter): for He was stripped stark naked on the Cross. When He complained (reflex.) of thirst, He could not have water.

999-1000 Yet thet meast wunder is . . . deien upon, Yet the greatest marvel (lit., wonder) is, of all the wide earth He must not (i.e., was not allowed to) have one particle [of land] to die on.

1000-02 The rode hefde a fot . . . worldes weole ant wunne, The Cross had (i.e., took up) a foot or a little more, and that was for His pain (or, suffering). When the world's ruler wanted to be poor in this way, he is unbelieving who loves too much and covets the world's riches and joy.

1003 Ayein glutunie . . . o rode, Against gluttony is His poor pittance (or, ration) which He had on the Cross.

1003-06 Twa manere men habbeth neode . . . spunge of galle? Two manner [of] men have need to eat well: working people and blood-let people (i.e., people who have had their blood let). The day that he was both at severe labor and was let blood, as I just said - was not his pittance [nothing] but a sponge of gall?

1006-07 Loke nu, hwa gruccheth . . . of povre pitance? Look now, who - if she thinks carefully about it (lit., thinks well on it) - grumbles about a poor meal of unsavory (i.e., unappetizing) foods, [or who complains] about a poor pittance?

1007-09 Of na mon ne of na wummon . . . ant godin ham other ow, You will (i.e., ought) not make any moan (or, complaint) about any man or about any woman, nor complain (reflex.) about any want, except to some true friend who may remedy (lit., amend) it, and do good to them or you.

1009-12 Ant thet beo priveiliche i-seid . . . o this wise, And let that be said privately (or, in confidence) as if under seal of the confession, so that you be not blamed. If you have a lack of anything, and some friend asks you earnestly if you have any lack, if you expect good from him (i.e., trust him), answer in this way.

1012-13 "Laverd Godd foryelde the! . . . then me neod were," "Lord God repay you! I fear that I have more than I am (lit., would be) worth (i.e., I have more than I am worthy of), and I suffer less want than is (lit., would be) needful for me.

1013-17 Yef he easketh yeornluker . . . thet ich hefde neode to, If he asks more earnestly, thank him earnestly and say, "I dare not lie about myself: I have a lack - as is right. What anchoress comes into the anchor-house to have her ease (i.e., to be comfortable)? But now you want to know it completely. Our Lord repay you. This now is one thing that I had need of."

1017-18 Ant thus bid . . . with milde eadmodnesse, And thus our rule directs that we show [our discomfort] to a good friend, as others of God's poor do (i.e., show) their discomfort, with mild humility.

1018-21 Ne nawt ne schule we . . . abeate ure prude, We should not refuse the grace of God's sending (i.e., what God sends), but thank Him eagerly for fear that (lit., lest) He grow angry (reflex.) with us and withdraw His generous hand and after that with too much want beat down our pride.

1021-23 Ant nis hit muchel hofles . . . thet nom uvel ende, And is it not very senseless (or, irrational) when God offers (beot = reduced form of beodeth) up his hand, to say, thrusting it back, "I do not care for it - keep [it] yourself. I will see (or, try) if I can live without it (lit., here-without)." By this [means], I have heard of such [ones] who took (i.e., had) an evil end.

1024-25 Ayein leccherie is his i-borenesse . . . the hine fuleden, Against lechery is His birth (i.e., being born) from that pure virgin and all His pure life that He led on earth, and all [those] who followed Him.

1025-28 Thus, lo, the articles . . . deadliche sunnen, So, indeed, the articles [of our faith] - which are as if one said (i.e., which can be defined as) "the joints of our belief concerning God's humanity" - whosoever considers them deeply fights against the fiend who tempts us with these deadly sins.

1028-29 Christo in carne . . . cogitatione armemini, "Christ suffered in the flesh, and with this very thought you should arm yourselves" (1 Peter 4:1).

1029-30 "Armith ow . . . wes i-pinet," "Arm yourselves," he says, "with thought (i.e., by thinking) upon Jesus Christ, who was tormented in our flesh."

1030-31 Recogitate . . . ut non fatiget[is], "Think what kind of opposition He endured in Himself, that you may not grow weary" (adapted from Hebrews 12:3).

1032-33 "hwen ye wergith i feht . . . withseggeth ower," "when you grow weary in the fight against the devil, how our Lord Himself denied His carnal desire, and deny your own.

1033-34 Nondum enim usque ad sanguinem restitistis, "Truly, you have not yet resisted to the point of [the shedding of] blood" (Hebrews 12:4).

1034 Yet, Up to now; athet te schedunge, to (or, to the point of) the shedding.

1035-38 as he dude of his for ow . . . nis bute a wah bitweonen, as He did of His for you - against Himself (or, to his own detriment), in the sense that He was a man of our kind (or, with our nature - i.e., with vulnerable flesh). Even now you have by you (or, near you), night and day, that same blood, that same blissful body which came from the virgin and died on the Cross - there is [nothing] but a wall between (i.e., between you and the host).

1038-40 Ant euche dei he kimeth . . . under breades furme, And each day He comes out and shows Himself to you physically and bodily within the mass - transformed, though, into the appearance (lit., color) of another [thing] in the form of bread.

1040-41 For in his ahne . . . tholien, For in His own [form], our eyes could not bear the bright sight [of Him].

1041-43 Ah swa he schaweth him ow . . . ower neode, But in this way He shows Himself to you: as though He said, "Look, I [am] here. What do you want? Tell me what you would like (lit., what would be dear to you). What do you need (lit., to what [is it] needful for you)? Cry out your need."

1043-44 Yef the feondes ferd . . . ant seggeth, If the fiend's army - which are his temptations - assail you mightily, answer him and say.

1044-45 Metati sumus . . . venerunt in Afech, "We have pitched tents near the stone of help. Then, the Philistines came to Aphec" (based on 1 Samuel 4:1).

1045-47 "Ye, Laverd . . . upon eani othre," "Yes, Lord, [it] is wondrous: we are lodged here by You who are the stone of help, the tower of true aid, castle of strength, and the devil's army is more enraged against us than against any other."

1047-50 This ich neome of Regum . . . "neowe wodschipe," I take this from Kings, for there it tells exactly in this way that Israel, God's people, came and lodged themselves by the stone of help and the Philistines came into Aphec. "Philistines" are monsters (or, devils). "Aphec," in Hebrew means, "new madness (or, rage)."

1050-51 Swa hit is witerliche . . . to weden, So it is certainly when one lodges himself by our Lord: then at first the devil begins to rage (or, go mad).

1051-53 Ah ther hit teleth . . . sariliche i-sleine, But there it tells that Israel soon turned [its] back and four thousand were pitifully slain in the flight.

1053-54 Ne wende ye nawt te rug . . . with stronge bileave, Do not turn [your] back (i.e., flee), my dear sisters, but withstand the fiend's army headfirst (or, in the forefront - lit., amidst the forehead) - as is described above (see 4.827-38) - with strong faith (or, belief).

1054-56 Ant with the gode Josaphath . . . the prince of heovene, And along with the good Jehosaphat send the messenger of prayer immediately for help to the Prince of heaven.

1057-63 In Paralipomenis . . . securi eritis, In Chronicles: "In fact there is not such strength in us that we can resist that host which rushes in over us. But when we do not know what we ought to do, this alone is left to us (lit., we have of a remnant), that we direct our eyes to you." It follows - Our Lord says these things to you: "Do not fear and do not be afraid of this host. For it is not your fight, but God's. Stand so much the more confidently and you will see the help of the Lord over you. Believe in the Lord your God and you will be safe" (2 Chronicles 20:12, 15, 17, 20).

1063-67 This is thet Englisch . . . to the mildfule Laverd, This is the English: "There is not so much strength in us, precious Lord, that we can withstand the devil's army, which is so strong (or, fierce) upon us. But when we are hard pressed, so fiercely harassed that we know no remedy by ourselves at all (translating mid alle), this one [thing] we can do: cast up [our] eyes to the gentle Lord."

1067 Thu send us sucurs . . . to the we lokith, Send us help (thu send = imper.). Drive away our foes, for we look to You.

1068-70 Thus with the gode Josaphath . . . to his swote earen, Thus with the good Jehosaphat - when God comes before you and asks what you will (or, desire), and each time when you have a need - show (or, reveal) it thus sweetly to His sweet ears.

1070-72 Yef he sone ne hereth ow . . . hihi the swithere, If He does not hear you immediately, cry louder and with less restraint (lit., more limitlessly), and threaten that you will yield up the castle unless He send[s] you help sooner, and hurries the faster.

1072-73 Ah wite ye hu he ondswerede . . . et cetera, But do you know how he answered Jehosaphat the good? Thus, in this way: "Do not fear," etc.

1073-76 Thus he onswereth . . . ant ye beoth al sikere, In this way He [will] answer you when you cry for help: "Do not be afraid, nor dread them at all though they are strong and many. The fight is mine, not yours. Only stand confidently and you will see My help; only have secure belief in Me, and you [will] be completely safe."

1076-79 Lokith nu hwuch help . . . nis nawt lathre, See now what help stout (lit., hardy) belief is, for all the help which God promises, the strength to stand (or, persevere) well, all is [contained] in it (lit., her, belief) alone. Stout belief makes [one] stand up straight (lit., upright), and [there] is nothing more loathsome to the devil (lit., monster).

1079 Ysaie, Isaiah; Incurvare ut transeamus, "Bend down that we may go over" (Isaiah 51:23).

1079-80 "Buh the . . . over the," "Bend yourself," he says, "downward [so] that I can [walk] over you."

1080-82 Theo buheth hire . . . rukin ne riden, She bends herself who bends her heart to his temptations, for while she stands upright (stont = reduced form of stondeth), he cannot either squat (i.e., mount) or ride on her.

1082 treitre, traitor.

1083-84 let me leapen up! . . . wenden over, let me leap up! - I do not want to ride long, but I [just] want to cross over.

1084 He liheth, seith Sein Beornard . . . then traitre, He lies, says St. Bernard, do not believe the traitor (then = declined def. art.).

1084-85 Non vult transire, set residere, "He does not want to cross over, but [instead he wants to] sit down (i.e., remain)" (source unidentified).

1085 "Nule he nawt wenden over . . . feaste sitten," "He does not want to cross over, but wants to sit quite firmly (or, unmovably)."

1085-86 Sum wes thet lefde him . . . he bihat eaver, There was someone who believed him, thought he would soon [come] down, as he always promises.

1086-88 "Do . . . ride the longe," "Do [it]," he says, "this one time, and confess yourself of it tomorrow. Bend your heart - let me up [on you]. Shake me down with confession if I would ride you at all [too] long."

1088-92 Sum, as ich seide . . . swa longe as ich seide, Someone, as I said, believed him and bowed himself and he (i.e., the devil) leapt up and rode her both day and night fully twenty years! That is, she did (or, committed) one sin in that very night through his goading, and thought that she would confess herself in the morning, and committed it (i.e., the sin) again and again and thus got into an evil habit, so that she lay and rotted in it as long as I said.

1092-94 Ant yef a miracle nere . . . helle grunde, And if there had not been (lit., were not) a miracle which blew down the devil who sat on her so firmly, she [would] have tumbled.

1094-99 For-thi, mine leove sustren . . . his herbearhe, For that reason, my dear sisters, hold yourselves steadily upright in true belief. Believe (imper.) stalwartly that all the devil's strength melts through the grace of the holy sacrament, [which is] highest above the others, which you see as often as the priest says mass: the Virgin's child, Jesus God, God's son, who physically descends sometimes to your dwelling, and humbly takes His lodging within you.

1099-1100 Deu-le-set, ha beoth . . . hardiliche ne fehteth, God knows, they are too weak and too wickedly hearted (i.e., evil-hearted), who, with such a guest, do not fight valiantly.

1100-06 Ye schulen bileave habben . . . ant god for-te donne, You must have faith, that all [which] the Holy Church does, reads (or, explains; red = reduced form of redeth), or sings, and all her sacraments strengthen you spiritually - but none as much (lit., as far) as this, for it brings to nothing all the devil's wiles (thes = declined def. art.), not only his [acts of] violence, and his powerful throws (or, tricks), but [it also] makes (lit., does) his wily trickery, his deceitful sorceries (lit., witchcrafts), and all his ruses, [such] as lying dreams, false visions, dreadful terrors, treacherous and deceitful advice (lit., advices), as though it were on God's behalf and good to do.

1106-08 For thet is his unwrench . . . thet thuncheth god, For that is his evil device, as I said before, that holy men most fear, which has horribly deceived (or, bewitched) many a holy man. When he cannot bring [a person] to any open evil, he incites (sput = reduced form of sputteth) to a thing which seems good.

1108-10 "Thu schuldest . . . into wreaththe," "You should," he says, "be milder and let your quarreling (or, dispute) be, not trouble your heart and stir [it up] to wrath."

1110-11 This he seith . . . i stude of eadmodnesse, He says this in order that you should not chastise your maiden for her fault[s] nor train [her] well, and [that you should] bring yourself into carelessness instead of humility.

1111-14 Eft riht ther-toyeines . . . with heow of riht-wisnesse, [He says] afterwards exactly the opposite: "Do not allow her any fault freely (i.e., to get away easily with any fault)," he says. "If you want that she [should] fear you, hold her narrowly (i.e., keep her strictly). Righteousness," he says, "must needs be stern," and thus he colors cruelty with the appearance (or, hue) of righteousness.

1114 Me mei beon al to riht-wis, One can be all too righteous.

1115 Noli esse justus nimis, "Do not be excessively just" (Ecclesiastes 7:17).

1115-17 Betere is wis liste . . . Sei yet a nocturne, Wise skill (or, cunning) is better than deceitful (or, severe) strength. When you have watched (or, stayed awake) long and ought to go to sleep - "Now, [it] is a virtue," he says, "to stay awake when it vexes you. Say another nocturn."

1117-18 For-hwi deth he swa? . . . to wakien, Why does he [say] so? For the reason that you should sleep again when [it] would be time to stay awake.

1118-22 Eft riht ther-toyeines . . . i nowther time, Afterwards exactly the opposite: if you can stay awake well (i.e., easily) he lays on you a heaviness or puts into your thought[s], "Wisdom is the best of things (i.e., it is better to be wise): I will now go to sleep and rise right away and do more quickly than now what I now ought to do" - and as often readily enough you do not do it on either occasion.

1122-24 Of this ilke materie . . . bigilet ofte, I spoke much of this same matter above (lit., up there - see 3.284 and ff.). In such temptations there is none so wise, or so vigilant - unless God put him on his guard - who is not often beguiled.

1124-25 Ah this hehe sacrement . . . hise strengthes, But this high sacrament, in strong belief, unravels his tricks (i.e., unbends his turns) over (i.e., better than) all other things, and breaks his powers (or, violent acts).

1125-28 I-wis, leove sustren . . . breiden ow crune? Certainly, dear sisters, when you feel him near you, provided that you have a strong belief (or, faith), will you not laugh him loudly to scorn that he is such (lit., so) a great old fool who comes to increase his own pain and to weave (lit., braid) you a crown?

1128-29 Sone se he sith ow . . . he flith sone, [As] soon as he sees you hardy and bold in God's grace, his might melts and he flees straight away.

1129-31 Ah yef he mei underyeoten . . . his mihte waxeth, But if he can observe that your faith fails (or, is weakening) so that it seems to you that you could be entirely led away (or, led astray) if you were tempted mightily in the same place (i.e., on the same point), by that you weaken and his power grows.

1132-35 We redeth i Regum . . . lokede him se uvele, We read in Kings (2 Samuel 4:1 ff.) that Isboseth lay and slept and set (i.e., appointed) a woman who winnowed (or, who was winnowing) wheat [as] gate-warden (i.e., guard), and Rechab's sons Remmon and Baana came, and found the woman stopped (or, exhausted) from her winnowing and fallen asleep, and [they] went in and slew the unfortunate Isboseth, who looked to himself so badly.

1135-36 The bitacnunge her-of . . . to understonden, There is a great need to understand the meaning of this.

1136-38 "Ysboset" on Ebrew . . . leith him to slepen? "Isboseth," in Hebrew, is (or, means) "a confused man" in English - and is he not surely confused and out of his wits, who lays himself [down] to sleep amidst his enemies?

1138-41 The yete-ward is wittes skile . . . to helle smorthre, The gate-warden (or, guard) is reason's discernment which ought to winnow wheat, separate the bristles (or, awn) and the chaff from the pure grains - that is, through diligent vigilance, divide good from evil, put the wheat in the garner (or, bin), and always blow away the devil's chaff which is [good for] nothing but hell's stifling smoke.

1141-42 Ah the bimeasede Ysboset . . . feble warde, But the confused Isboseth - look, how stupidly he did (or, acted)! He set (or, appointed) a woman as gate-warden - which is a feeble (or, weak) guardian.

1142-44 Wei-la, as feole doth thus . . . in treowe bileave, Alas, many do thus (as not translated). Reason - that is, the mind's discernment - is a woman when it grows weak, [reason] which should be manly (or, virile), stalwart and bold in true faith.

1144-46 This yete-ward lith to slepen . . . te delit waxen, This gate-warden lies down to sleep, as soon as one begins to consent to sin, to let pleasure go within and delight to grow.

1146-48 Hwen Recabes sunen . . . foryemeth him-seolven, When Rechab's sons - which are the children of hell - find so unwatchful, and so soft a gate-warden, they go in and slay Isboseth - that is, the confused spirit which in a sleepy carelessness neglects itself.

1148-50 Thet nis nawt to foryeoten . . . into the schere, This is not to be forgotten (passive inf.), that, as Holy Writ says, they pierced him down into the groin.

1150-51 In i[n]guine ferire est . . . perforare, "To strike into (or, stab) the groin is to pierce the life of the spirit with the delight of the flesh" (Gregory, Moral Discourses on Job 1.35.49 [PL 75.549]).

1151-53 The feond thurh-sticheth . . . witneth, "The fiend stabs the groin when delight of lechery pierces through the heart" - and this is only in the sleep of carelessness and sloth, as St. Gregory bears witness.

1153-58 Antiquus hostis . . . sui animum concutit, "The ancient enemy, as soon as he comes across an idle mind, comes talking to it at various opportune moments, and brings to memory a certain deed of the past. - And later: - 'My scars have festered and become worse!' (Psalm 37:6). Indeed a scar is a mark of a wound, but of a healed one. Therefore a scar begins to fester again when the wound of sin, which is healed through penitence, agitates the mind in pleasure of itself (i.e., remembering the pleasure of a sin already confessed)" (Gregory, Letters 9.2.52 [PL 77.984]).

1158-63 Hwen the alde unwine . . . ha sum-hwile wrahte, When the old enemy sees our reason [to be] sleepy, he draws himself immediately up to her and enters into speech with her: "Do you remember," he says, "how he - or she - spoke about lechery of the flesh?" And thus the old traitor speaks words toward her heart which she heard long ago said filthily, or a sight that she saw, or her own immoralities (lit., filths) which she committed (lit., wrought) once.

1163-67 Al this he put forth . . . with the Salm-wruhte, All this he puts forward before [her] heart's eyes, [in order] to befoul her with the thought (or, memory) of old sins, when he cannot [do so] with new [sins], and so he often brings the same sin into the foolish soul through pleasure, [the sins] which were atoned for a long time ago through regretful sorrow, so that she can weep and make a grievous moan (lit., moan a sorry moan) with the Psalmist (lit., Psalm-maker).

1167 Putruerunt, et cetera, "[My scars] have festered," etc. (Psalm 37:6).

1167-68 "Wei-la-wei, mine wunden . . . eft to rotien," "Alas! My wounds, which were properly (or, completely) healed, gather (i.e., are gathering) new pus and begin to fester again."

1168-70 I-healet wunde thenne . . . unwarre sawle, A healed wound, then, begins to fester when sin which was atoned for comes again with [illicit] pleasure into [one's] memory, and slays the more unprepared (or, less wary) soul.

1170-72 Gregorius: Ysboset inopinate . . . deputasset, Gregory: "Isboseth would in no way have succumbed to an unexpected death had he not placed a woman - that is, a soft (or, yielding) guardian - at the entrance of [his] mind" (Gregory, Moral Discourses on Job 1.35.49 [PL 75.549]).

1172-73 Al this unlimp i-warth . . . to overkeasten, All this calamity happened through (i.e., because of) the sleep of the gate-warden, who was not watchful and vigilant, nor was she manly, but was womanly: easy to overthrow (or, defeat).

1174-76 Beo hit wummon . . . deth him fleon anan-riht, Be it woman [or] be it man, then, all the strength [to withstand] is according to [one's] faith, and according to [the extent] that one has trust in God's help which is close by (lit., nigh) - unless faith should fail, as I said before above. She (i.e., faith) weakens the devil (lit., monster) and makes him flee immediately.

1176-78 For-thi, beoth eaver ayein him . . . thet is, galnesse, For this reason, always be as stout-hearted as a lion in true faith against him, especially in the temptation which Isboseth died from - that is, lechery.

1178-80 Lo, hu ye mahe cnawen . . . on his kempe-ifere? Look how you can know that he is cowardly and pitiful (or, wicked) when he lashes out (lit., smites; smit = reduced form of smiteth) in that direction: is he not a cowardly combatant who thrusts (or, slashes) at the feet, who attacks (lit., seeks) so low on his fellow fighter?

1180-82 Flesches lust is fotes wunde . . . thet us luste efter, The desire of the flesh is the foot's wound (i.e., a foot wound), as was said far above (see 4.172-73), and this is the reason: just as our feet carry us, also our desires carry us often to a thing which we desire for (lit., which pleases us for).

1182-87 Nu thenne thah thi va . . . ant te swealm schal setten, Now then, even though your foe hurt you on the feet - that is to say, tempt [you] with desires of the flesh - do not fret too greatly about so low a wound, unless it swell too terribly up toward the heart through the consent of reason with too much delight (i.e., when your reason wrongly consents to lust), but drink then the antidote and drive the inflammation back away from the heart - that is to say, think on the poisonous pain that God drank on the Cross (see textual note for an alternative reading), and the inflammation will subside.

1187-90 Prude, ant onde, ant wreaththe . . . beon i-salvet, Pride and envy and wrath, the heart's pain for worldly things, the miserable longing, and coveting of possessions - these and everything that flows from them are wounds of the heart, and [they] deal out a death-blow (lit., give death's blow) immediately, unless they are healed (or, anointed with salve).

1190-91 Hwen the feond smit . . . for fot-wunden, When the fiend strikes (or, attacks) in that direction, then [it] is certainly to fear (or, be feared - passive inf.) - and not because of [mere] foot wounds.

1192-94 Prude salve is eadmodnesse . . . freo heorte, The remedy for pride (lit., pride's remedy) is humility; for envy, comradely (or, "brotherly") love; for wrath, patience; of sloth, reading, various works, spiritual comfort; for covetousness, contempt for earthly things; for stinginess (i.e., avarice), a generous heart.

1194-96 Thet is to seggen nu . . . of gasteliche theawes, The first [of these remedies] is to be discussed first of all (lit., this is to be said concerning the first first of all) - if you will be humble, think always what is lacking [in] you with respect to (lit., of) holiness, and with respect to spiritual virtues.

1196-98 Thench hwet tu havest . . . yef thu ham wel bihaldest, Think what you have from yourself. You are (i.e., consist) of two parts: of body and of soul. In both there are two things which can humble you (lit., make you meek) much, if you consider them well.

1198 licome, body.

1198-1200 Ne kimeth . . . of swote basme? Does not the kind of thing come from the vessel as there is in [it]? From your body's vessel, does there come a smell of spices or of sweet balm?

1200-01 Deale! Drue spritlen . . . blostmen? What! Do dry (i.e., dead) twigs bear wine grapes? Do briars [bear] rose blossoms?

1201 openunges, openings (i.e., orifices).

1201-04 Amid te menske of thi neb . . . wurme fode? Amidst the beauty of your fair face - which is the fairest part [of the body] - what with (lit., between) the taste of the mouth and the smell of the nose, do you not bear [something] like two privy holes (i.e., toilet holes)? "Have you not come from foul slime? Are you not a vat of filth? Are you not worm's food?"

1204-05 Philosophus: Sperma es fluidum . . . esca vermium, The Philosopher: "You are liquid sperm, a vat of excrement (lit., pl.), the food of worms."

1205-08 Nu, a flehe mei eili the . . . thin ahne wake unstrengthe, Now, a fly can afflict you, make you flinch - you may easily be proud! Consider holy men who were (i.e., lived) in a former time, how they fasted, how they held vigils, in what kind of suffering, in what kind of toil they were (or, lived), and so you might recognize your own weak frailty.

1208-09 Ah wast tu hwet awildgeth . . . bihalt dune-ward, But do you know what dazzles the feeble eyes of a man (or, person), who has climbed high (i.e., in the spiritual life)? - when (lit., that) he looks downward (bihalt = reduced form of bihaldeth).

1209-12 Alswa hwa-sa bihalt . . . hu lahe thu stondest, Likewise whosoever looks to those who are of low life, that makes him think (or, makes [it] seem to him) that he is of high life. But always look (imper.) upwards towards heavenly men who climbed so high, and then you will see how low you stand.

1212-13 Augustinus: Sicut incentivum . . . consideratio superioris, Augustine: "Just as the sight of an inferior is an incentive to pride, so the consideration of a superior is a warning of humility (i.e., to be humble)" (source unidentified).

1213-15 Feasten a seove-niht . . . strenge? To fast a week on water and on bread, to watch (i.e., stay awake) three nights altogether - how would it weaken your physical strength?

1215 bihald i thi licome, consider in your body.

1216 unweotenesse, unawareness, lack of awareness.

1216-18 For ofte thet tu wenest god . . . thine scheome sunnen, For often what you consider good is evil and the soul's murder (i.e., the death, or, torment of the soul). Look on your shameful sins with a wet eye.

1218-20 Dred yet thi wake cunde . . . i flesches fulthe i-fallen, Fear (imper.) continually your weak nature which is easy to overthrow, and say with the holy man who began to weep and said when they (lit., one) told him that one of his comrades had fallen into the filth (or, corruption) of the flesh with a woman.

1220 Ille hodie, ego cras, "He today, I tomorrow" (The Lives of the Desert Fathers 7.16).

1220-21 to-marhen, tomorrow.

1221-22 "Of as unstrong cunde . . . Godd me halde," "I am of as weak a nature as he was, and exactly such [a thing] may happen to me unless God keep me."

1222-24 Thus, lo, the hali mon . . . meokith ow-seolven, Thus, see, the holy man - he did not have any remarkable disdain for the other's fall, but (lit., and) wept for his misfortune and feared (dredde = past tense of dreden) that such a [misfortune] might befall him. In this way humble and make yourselves meek.

1224-25 Bernardus: Superbia est appetitus . . . contemptus ejusdem, Bernard: "Pride is an appetite for one's own supremacy; humility, contempt for it" (Bernard, The Steps of Humility and Pride, 4.14 [PL 182.949]).

1226-28 Alswa as prude is wilnunge . . . ant of lahnesse, "Just as pride is the desire for honor, just so, by contrast, humility is the casting down (or, rejection) of honor," and the love of little praise (lit., praise-words) and of lowliness.

1228-29 This theaw is alre theawene moder . . . gode theawes, This virtue is the mother of all virtues, and gives birth to them all. Whoever is aiming to acquire (lit., gather) good virtues without her (i.e., humility).

1230-31 Qui sine humilitate . . . pulverem portat, "Whoever gathers virtues without humility, is like [someone] who carries dust in the wind" (Gregory, Homilies on the Gospels 7.4 [PL 76.1103]).

1231-33 Theos ane bith i-borhen . . . the deofles tildunge, She alone is saved (i.e., will be saved); she alone [will] escape the snares of the devil of hell, as our Lord revealed to St. Anthony, who saw all the world full of the devil's snare-setting (or, spreading of nets).

1233-34 "A, Laverd! . . . with sum i-laht?" "Oh Lord!" he says, "who can protect himself against these [snares so] that he not be caught by one [of them]?"

1234-37 Ane the tholemode . . . is euch gastelich strengthe, "Only the patient," He, our Lord, says. So elusive (or, slender, cunning, etc. - see glossary) a thing is humility and so exquisitely small and so stealthy that no snare can hold her - and, look, a great marvel: though she (i.e., humility) make herself so small and so meek, she is the strongest of things, so that from her is (i.e., comes) each spiritual strength.

1237-38 Seint Cassiodre hit witneth, St. Cassiodorus bears witnesses to it.

1238 Omnis fortitudo ex humilitate, "All strength [comes] from humility" (Augustine, Expositions in the Psalms, commentary for Psalm 91 [PL 37.1184]); Ah, But.

1239 Ubi humilitas, ibi sapientia, "Where [there is] humility, there [is] wisdom" (Proverbs 11:2); Ther-as eadmodnesse is, Where [there] is humility (as not translated).

1240 his feader wisdom . . . strengthe, His Father's wisdom and His Father's strength.

1240-42 Nis na wunder thenne . . . the thurs of helle, [It] is no wonder then though (i.e., if) strength is where He is through His indwelling grace: through the strength of humility He overthrew the giant of hell.

1242-44 The yape wreastlere . . . unmundlunge warpen, The astute wrestler pays (lit., takes) attention what throw (or, move) his opponent (lit., companion) whom he wrestles with does not know, for with that move he can throw him unexpectedly.

1244-47 Alswa dude ure Laverd . . . into helle grunde, Our Lord did likewise, and saw how many [people] the grim (or, fierce) wrestler of hell flung up on his hip and threw with the hip-throw into lechery - which rules in the loins - [He saw how the devil] heaved many on high (i.e., up high) and went around with them [over his head] and hurled them by pride down to the ground (or, bottom) of hell.

1247-49 Thohte ure Laverd . . . the turn of eadmodnesse, Our Lord, who beheld all this, thought, "I will use a throw on you (lit., do you a turn) that you never knew how [to do] nor can ever know: the throw of humility."

1249 fallinde turn, falling throw.

1249-52 ant feol from heovene . . . the hine wel cunnen, and [He] fell from heaven to earth and stretched Himself out so close to the ground that the fiend thought that He was completely earthly (i.e., made of earth) and was tricked (lit., lured) by that throw - and is still [tricked] every day by humble men and women who know it (or, him: the devil) well.

1252-53 On other half . . . bihalden hehe, On the other side (i.e., furthermore), as Job says, "he (i.e., the devil) cannot for pride [do anything] but continually gaze [up] high."

1253 Omne sublime vident oculi ejus, "His eyes see every high thing" (based on Job 41:25).

1253-56 Hali men the haldeth ham . . . of his tuskes, Holy men who keep themselves small (lit., little) and of lowly life are out of his sight. The wild boar cannot bend himself [down] to strike (i.e., gore): whosoever falls down and through meek humility stretches himself close to the ground (ther = inflected form of def. art.), he is free of worry (i.e., need not worry) about his tusks.

1256-58 This nis nawt toyeines thet . . . up-o Godes strengthe, This is not against (or, contradicting) that which I have said before - that one must always stand against the devil - for that standing is the true trust of steadfast faith in God's strength.

1258-59 This fallunge is eadmod . . . thin unstrengthe, This falling is a humble knowing (i.e., acknowledgment) of your own weakness and of your lack of strength.

1259-61 Ne nan ne mei stonde . . . awilgeth the ehe, None (i.e., no one) can so stand unless he falls in this way - that is, [unless he] consider himself of little account and unworthy and insignificant, [unless he] look at his black and not his white, for white dazzles the eye.

1262-63 Eadmodnesse ne mei beon . . . with worde, Humility can never be fully praised (i.e., praised too much), for that was the lesson that our Lord most fervently taught His chosen [ones], with both deed and word.

1263-64 Discite a me . . . humilis corde, "Learn from me, for I am mild and humble of heart" (Matthew 11:29).

1264-65 In hire he healdeth nawt . . . the Salmiste, In her (i.e., humility) He pours not only drop by drop, but, flowing, pours out streams of His grace (or, streams of His grace gush forth flowing), as the Psalmist says.

1265-66 Qui emittis fontes in convallibus, "[You] who send out wellsprings in the valleys" (Psalm 103:10).

1266 I the dealen, In the dales (i.e., valleys).

1267-70 Heorte tobollen ant i-hoven . . . egede is orhel, A heart swollen up and raised up like a hill does not retain any moisture of grace (i.e., it runs off). A bladder swollen with wind does not dive (i.e., cannot submerge) into these healing waters. But the pricking of a needle casts (i.e., ejects) all the wind out - an insignificant stitch (or, pricking) or ache makes [one] understand how little pride is worth, how foolish haughtiness is.

1271-72 Ondes salve . . . of dede wonteth, Envy's remedy, I said, was comradely (or, "brotherly") love and good granting (i.e., well-wishing) and good will, where the power of action is lacking (i.e., where one cannot do good in deed).

1273-74 Sulement luve [h]is god . . . th'rof, Only love his (i.e., the other's) good, be pleased and glad of it.

1274 to the, to yourself.

1275 Aliena bona si diligis, tua facis, "If you love another's good [deeds], you make [them] yours" (Gregory, Pastoral Care 3.10 [PL 77.63]).

1275-76 Yef thu havest onde . . . with salve, If you have envy of another's good, you poison yourself with antidote (see healewt in glossary) and wound yourself with medicine (or, ointment).

1277-78 Thi salve hit is . . . yef thu hit wel unnest, If you love it, it is your medicine for the soul's injuries. And your strength against the fiend (ti = reduced form of thi after preceding -t) is all the good which the other does, if you wish it well (i.e., if you desire the other person's good).

1278-82 Witerliche, ich leve ne schulen . . . of thin ahne, Certainly, I believe [that] neither the temptations of the flesh any more than spiritual [temptations] will ever master you if you are sweet-hearted, humble and mild and [if you] love so deeply (lit., inwardly) all men and women and especially anchoresses, your dear sisters, that you are sorry for their evil (or, harm) and glad for their good as [if you were glad] for your own [good].

1282-83 Unnen thet al . . . frovre as the, Wish (imper.) that all who love you would love them (i.e., the anchoresses) as [they love] you and would comfort (lit., would do comfort to) them as [they do] you.

1283-85 Yef thu havest cnif . . . thet heo hit hefden, If you have a knife or [some] clothing, or food or drink, a scroll or quire (i.e., small book), the comfort of a holy man, or any other thing that would help them, desire that you yourself had the lack of these things (lit., thereof), in order that they [could] have it.

1286-88 Yef eani is . . . habbe hire swuch aturnet, If there is anyone who does not have the heart thus disposed, [let her] cry to our Lord with sorrowful sighs both by day and by night, and never give Him peace until He has transformed her so through His grace.

1289-90 Salve of wreaththe . . . hehe heovene, The remedy for wrath, I said, is patience (or, long-suffering). That has three stairs (or, steps): high and higher and highest of all and nearest (lit., next) to high heaven.

1290-91 Heh is the steire . . . for thi god-dede, The stair is high if you suffer for your offense, higher if you do not have offense (or, guilt), highest of all if you suffer for your good deed.

1291-92 "Nai! . . . neaver meanen," "No!" says some confused thing (i.e., creature), "if I had guilt for it (lit., thereto) I would not ever complain."

1293 ut of the-seolven, out of yourself (i.e., out of your wits).

1293-94 Is the leovere . . . Cristes fere? Is [it] preferable to you to be Judas' comrade (or, accomplice? - see feolahe in glossary) rather than Jesus Christ's companion?

1294-95 Ba weren ahonget . . . ahon o rode, Both were hanged, but Judas for his offense (or, crime). Jesus, without offense, was hung up on a Cross for His great goodness.

1295 Hwetheres fere, Whose companion (or, the companion of which of these two).

1295-97 With hwether . . . misdeth the, With which of these two do you want to suffer? Concerning this, much is written above, how he who slanders or wrongs you is a file (see 4.75-78).

1297-99 Nis hit or acurset . . . scureth hearde? Is it not an accursed ore (i.e., execrable metal) which becomes darker and rougher the more it is filed, and rusts the quicker (or, more severely) because one polishes (lit., scours) it hard?

1299 irn, iron; ham, themselves; hare, their.

1300 fur, fire; yef thu gederest . . . ayein cunde, if you gather (or, accumulate) dross in it (lit., therein), that is against nature.

1300-03 The chaliz the wes ther-in i-mealt . . . his wruhte honden? The chalice (or, drinking cup) which was melted in it (i.e., the fire) and vigorously boiled and [which was] afterwards by so many a [hammer] blow and polishing (or, working) so very beautifully made into God's drinking cup - would he (i.e., the cup), if he could speak, curse his (or, its) cleansing fire and the hands of his maker?

1303-04 Argentum reprobum vocate eos, "Call them rejected (or, false) silver" (Jeremiah 6:30).

1305 smith, [black]smith; to smeothien his i-corene, to forge (lit., to smith) His chosen [ones].

1305-07 Wult tu thet Godd . . . the the hearmith, Do you wish that God [should] have no fire in His smithy, nor bellows or hammers? Fire is shame and punishment; your bellows are [those] who slander you; your hammers, [those] who harm you.

1308-09 Hwen dei of riht is i-set . . . on him-seolven? When a day is set for judgment, does not he do the judge an insult who breaks the truce on this side of (i.e., before) the set day and avenges himself on the other by himself (or, perhaps, on his own authority)?

1310 Augustinus: Quid gloriatur impius . . . Pater meus? Augustine: "Why does the evil [man] rejoice proudly if my Father makes a scourge of him?" (Augustine, Expositions in the Psalms, commentary for Psalm 36:17, 61:6 [PL 36.738]).

1311-13 Ant hwa nat . . . bitwenen ow, And who does not know that Doomsday is the day set to do justice to all men? Keep the truce until that time, whatever insult they do to you: the righteous judge has set the day to see justice between you.

1313-14 Ne do thu nawt him scheome . . . thin ahne, Do not do him (i.e., the judge) an insult, despise (or, think little of) the vengeance of his judgment, and take on your own [vengeance].

1314 Twa thinges beoth, There are two things; edhalden, reserved.

1315-16 Gloriam meam . . . Ego retribuam, "I will give my glory to no other" (Isaiah 42:8). Again: "Vengeance is mine. I will repay" (Romans 12:19, Hebrews 10:30, based on Deuteronomy 32:35).

1317 owther, either; reaveth, steals [from him].

1317-19 Deale! . . . mid strengthe? What! Are you so angry with man or with woman that you want, in order to avenge yourself, to steal [from] God with strength (i.e., violence)?

1320-21 Accidies salve . . . monnes muthe, The remedy of sloth is spiritual gladness and the comfort of glad hope through reading, through holy thought (i.e., meditation), or from man's mouth.

1321-23 Ofte, leove sustren . . . biyet hit efter, Often, dear sisters, you should pray less in order to read more. Reading is [in itself] good prayer. Reading teaches how and what one should pray for, and prayer acquires it afterwards.

1323-24 Amidde the redunge . . . wurth monie benen, In the middle of reading, when the heart is pleased, a devotion (or, reverence) comes up which is worth many prayers.

1324-26 Jeronimus: Semper in manu tua . . . pagina sancta suscipiat, Jerome: "Let there always be holy reading in your hand; may sleep steal upon you holding a book, and may holy pages receive your nodding (lit., falling) face" (Jerome, Letters 22 [PL 22.411]).

1327 Slep ga up-o the, "Let sleep go (i.e., come) upon you."

1327-29 ant te hali pagne . . . eaver mete, "and let the holy page receive your falling face" - thus, you must read eagerly and long. Each thing, though, one can overdo (i.e., can be overdone): moderation is always best.

1330 Ayeines yisceunge . . . gederunge, Against covetousness I would that others, as you do, avoided saving (lit., gathering).

1330-32 To muche freolec . . . of hire-seolven, Too much generosity often kindles (or, breeds - see cundleth in glossary) her (i.e., covetousness). You should be generously hearted, [but an] anchoress, with another [kind of] generosity, has sometimes been too generous with herself.

1333-35 Galnesse . . . leccheries lustes, Lechery comes from gluttony and from enjoyment of the flesh, for as St. Gregory says, "Food and drink wrongly (lit., beyond [what is] right) give birth to three broods: frivolous words, frivolous deeds, and lechery's desire" (Gregory, Pastoral Care 3.19 [PL 77.82]).

1335-36 Ure Laverd beo i-thonket . . . of flesches fondunge, Our Lord be thanked, who has healed you of gluttony entirely! But lechery is not ever completely (lit., entirely purely) quenched (i.e., eliminated) from the temptation of the flesh.

1337 understondeth, understand (imper.); thet threo degrez beoth th'rin, that there are three stages (lit., steps) in it (lit., therein).

1338 forme, first; cogitatiun, cogitation (i.e., thinking about it); other, second; affectiun, emotion; cunsence, consent.

1339 fleonninde, fleeting (lit., flying); teo, they (teo = reduced form of theo after preceding -t).

1340-42 Ah thah ha bispottith hire . . . ha beo i-wesschen, But nevertheless they (i.e., cogitations) stain (lit., bespot) her (i.e., the soul) with their black specks so (or, to such an extent) that she is not worthy that Jesus, her lover, who is completely fair (or, beautiful), should embrace her or kiss her before she be washed.

1342-43 Swuch fulthe . . . alle god-deden, Such filth (or, vileness), since it comes lightly (or, easily), [it] goes away easily with pardons (or, kneeling - see glossary), with "I confess" (i.e., confession), with all good deeds.

1343 Affectiun, Feeling (or, emotion).

1344 te lust waxeth, and desire grows (lit., the desire).

1344-46 Thenne, as wes spot . . . delit th'rin forthre, Then [where there] was a spot before on the white hood, there grows a wound and (i.e., which) goes deep in towards the soul after desire, and delight in it (lit., therein) goes further.

1346-47 Ant forthre . . . ich am i-wundet, And then there is further need to cry out, "Heal me, Lord!" (Psalm 6:3, Jeremiah 17:14). "Ah, Lord, heal me! for I am wounded."

1347-48 Ruben, primogenitus meus, ne crescas! "Ruben, my firstborn, do not grow!" (condensed from Genesis 49:3-4).

1348-49 "Ruben, thu reade thoht . . . neaver!" "Ruben, you red thought, you bloody delight, may you never grow!"

1349-50 Cunsense, thet is skiles yettunge . . . to fulle the dede, Consent, which is the reason's permission, when the delight in the desire has gone so over-far that there (ter = reduced form of ther) would be no refusing if there were opportunity (or, leisure) to fulfill the deed.

1350-53 This is hwen the heorte . . . ase softe swohninde, This (i.e., consent) is when the heart, like a thing which was maimed (or, severely wounded), draws evil desire to herself and begins to shut [her] eyes, to let the fiend be (i.e., to stop fighting against him), and lays herself down, submits to him as he asks (bit = reduced form of biddeth) and cries, "I give up! I give up!" as if swooning (i.e., fainting) compliantly.

1353-54 Thenne is he kene . . . ear curre, Then he is ferocious who before was a [mere] cur (or, a harmless, growling dog - see cur(re) in glossary).

1354-56 Thenne leapeth he to . . . a wed dogge, Then he leaps near who before stood far off, and bites (bit = reduced form of biteth) the bite of death on God's dear spouse - certainly the bite of death, for his teeth are [as] venemous as [those] of a mad (or, rabid) dog.

1356 cleopeth hine dogge, calls him a dog (hine = old accusative of he).

1356-57 Erue a framea . . . unicam meam, "God, deliver my spirit from the sword and my one and only [spirit] from the clutches (lit., hand) of the dog" (Psalm 21:21).

1358-61 sone se thu eaver underyetest . . . ne sei thu nawt slepinde, as soon as you ever perceive that this dog of hell (tes = reduced form of thes) comes sneaking with his bloody flies (perhaps, fleas) of stinking thoughts, do not lie still or sit either to see what he will do, or how far he will go, or do not say, sleeping (i.e., sleepily).

1361 "Ame, dogge! . . . nu her inne?" "Hey, dog! Get out of here! What are you doing in here? (lit., go out of here! What do you want in here?)"

1361-65 This tolleth him . . . honden toward heovene, This attracts him inside. But (i.e., instead) take straightaway the Rood-staff with the naming [of it] in your mouth (i.e., speak the name of the Cross), with the sign (lit., mark) in your hand, with thought in your heart, and order him out sternly, the foul cur-dog, and let loose on him viciously strong back-blows (i.e., blows to the back) with the holy Rood-staff - that is, get up, stir yourself, hold up [your] eyes on high and [hold your] hands towards heaven.

1365-66 Gred efter sucurs, Cry out for help.

1366 Deus, in adjutorium . . . adjuvandum, "God, come to my aid. Lord, [rush] to help [me]" (Psalm 69).

1366-67 Veni Creator spiritus, "Come, Creator Spirit" (hymn).

1367 Exurgat Deus . . . inimici ejus, "God rises up and His enemies scatter" (Psalm 67).

1367-68 Deus, in nomine tuo salvum me fac, "Lord, in Your name save me" (Psalm 53).

1368 Domine, quid multiplicati sunt, "Lord, how they are multiplied [who rise up against me]" (Psalm 3).

1368-69 Ad te, Domine, levavi animam meam, "To You, Lord, I have lifted up my spirit" (Psalm 24).

1369 Ad te levavi oculos meos, "To You I have lifted up my eyes" (Psalm 122); Levavi oculos meos in montes, "I have lifted up my eyes to the mountains" (Psalm 120).

1369-70 Yef the ne kimeth . . . hat heorte, If help does not come soon to you, cry out louder with a hot (or, ardent) heart.

1370-71 Usquequo, Domine . . . faciem tuam a me? "How long, Lord, will You forget me utterly? How long will You turn Your face away from me?" (Psalm 12).

1371-72 al the Salm over, the whole Psalm (i.e., Psalm 12) through.

1372-73 with halsinde bonen . . . ahne ledene, with pleading prayers in your own language.

1373-75 Smit smeortliche . . . eadi rode-taken, Smite (i.e., drop) your knees down sharply to the ground and seize (or, brandish) the Rood-staff (i.e., Crucifix) and swing it in the four directions (i.e., north, south, east, and west) against hell's dog - that is not anything else but bless yourself all about (i.e., in every direction) with the holy sign of the Cross.

1375-76 Spite him amid te beard . . . dogge fahenunge, Spit in his beard (dat. of possession) for contempt and for scorn [of him], who so toys with you and flatters [you] with a dog's fawning.

1376-80 Hwen he for se liht wurth . . . ant beo on hire the deorre, When he for so cheap a price - for the pleasure of desire [which lasts only] for a short time - bargains for your soul - God's dear (or, expensive) purchase which He bought with His blood and with His precious death on the dear Cross - always consider (imper.) the price that He paid for her (i.e., your soul) and judge according to that (lit., thereafter) her price and be (i.e., think) on her the dearer.

1380-82 Ne sule thu . . . reowthe over reowthe, Do not ever sell so readily to His foe, and yours as well, His precious spouse who cost Him so dearly. To make the devil's whore of her is the pity of pities (lit., pity beyond pity).

1382-83 To unwreast mid alle . . . for slawthe, She is entirely too wicked who can with [the mere] lifting up of three of her fingers overcome her foe and does not want to because of laziness (lit., sloth).

1383-87 Hef for-thi with treowe . . . flih to his wunden, Lift up (imper.) therefore with true and courageous faith your three fingers, and with the holy Rood-staff (i.e., Crucifix), which is the most loathsome (or, hateful) cudgel to him (i.e., the devil), lay on the dog-devil, name (i.e., call out the name of) Jesus often, cry out [for the] help of His sufferings, plead by His pain, by His precious blood, by His death on the Cross, flee to His wounds.

1387-88 Muchel he luvede us . . . ne beoth ha al opene? He loved us much who let such holes be made (makien = passive inf.) in Himself in order to hide us in. Creep (or, crawl) into them in your thought - are they not completely open?

1388-89 Ant with his deore-wurthe blod . . . thin heorte, And with His precious blood bloody your heart (or, make your heart all bloody).

1389 Ingredere in petram . . . humo, "Enter into the rock, hide in the hollowed-out earth" (Isaiah 2:10).

1390 "ant hud te i the dolven eorthe," "and hide yourself in the dug (i.e., hollowed-out) earth."

1391-92 the wes as i-dolven . . . vore seide, who was as [if] dug into (or, gouged) with the dull (or, blunt) nails, as he said long before in the Psalter.

1392 Foderunt manus meas et pedes meos, "They [have] dug (or, gouged) my hands and my feet" (Psalm 21:17).

1393 "ha dulven me bathe the vet ant te honden," "they gouged both my feet and the hands" (me = dat. of possession).

1393-95 Ne seide he nawt "thurleden," . . . to pinin him sarre, He did not say "pierced," for according to this letter (i.e., literal meaning) - as our teachers say - the nails were so dull that they dug into his flesh and broke up the bone more than pierced [it], to torture him the more sorely (or, painfully).

1396 cleopeth the toward teose wunden, calls you towards these wounds (teose = reduced form of theose after preceding -d).

1396-97 Columba mea . . . in cavernis macerie, "My dove, in the openings of the rock, in the hollowed-out places of the garden wall [show your face to me]" (Song of Songs 2:14).

1397 culvre, dove.

1397-98 "cum, hud te . . . mi side," "come, hide yourself in the piercings (or, openings) of my limbs, in the hollow (or, cave) in my side."

1398-1401 Muche luve he cudde . . . with Jeremie, He revealed great love to his beloved dove that he made such a hiding place. See now that you, whom He calls "dove," have a dove's nature - that is, [be] without bitterness - and come to Him boldly, and make a shield of His Passion, and say with Jeremiah.

1401 Dabis scutum cordis laborem tuum, "You will give [them] the shield of the heart, your suffering" (adapted from Lamentations 3:65).

1402 heorte scheld, the heart's shield; thi swincfule pine, your toilsome pain.

1402-04 Thet hit swincful wes . . . to ther eorthe, That it was toilsome, he showed it plainly enough when he sweat, as if sweat of blood, drops which ran to the ground (ther = declined def. art.).

1404-05 Me schal halden . . . hit bihinden, In a fight, one must hold a shield up above the head or against the chest, not drag it behind.

1405-07 Al riht swa . . . i thine breoste ehnen, Just so, if you desire that the Rood-shield and God's powerful Passion [should] falsify (or, cause to fail) the devil's weapons, do not drag hit after (or, behind) you, but lift it on high above your heart's head in your breast's eyes.

1408 toyein, against, opposite; schaw hit him witerliche, show it to him clearly.

1408-11 The sihthe th'rof ane . . . his prude strengthe, The sight of it alone brings (i.e., puts) him to flight, for [he] both shames himself (i.e., is ashamed) with it and shudders (or, is frightened) out of his mind after the same time (i.e., ever since) our Lord with it (lit., therewith) brought his clever treachery and his proud strength to ground (i.e., overthrew).

1411-17 Yef thu thurh thi yemeles . . . o gure-blode, If you through your carelessness [at] first defend yourself weakly and give to the fiend an entrance too far advanced in the beginning, so that you cannot beat him back again, because of your great lack of strength, but are brought so exceedingly far (lit., over far) that you cannot hold this shield on your heart, nor pull her (i.e., the heart) under it (i.e., the shield) away from the devil's arrows, [- if all this is the case, then] take out for yourself at last St. Benedict's remedy, though it need not be so excessively severe as his was, whose back and side and belly in the rolling [in thorns] ran completely in gory blood (lit., in gore-blood) from rolling [in thorns].

1417-18 Ah lanhure . . . into smeortunge, But at least give yourself a sharp discipline when to you it stands most severe (i.e., when things are going their worst), and as he (i.e., St. Benedict) did, drive that sweet pleasure into a smarting (i.e., a smarting pain).

1418-22 Yef thu thus ne dest nawt . . . se longe hit mei leasten, If you do not do thus, but defend yourself sleeping (i.e., sluggishly), he will go too far with you, before you least expect [it], and bring you from foul thought into pleasure of foul desire, and so he [will] bring you completely over to the consent of the reason, which is mortal sin without the deed, and so also is the delight in that stinking desire [a sin], [even] without granting of the act, as long as it may last.

1422-24 Nunquam enim . . . negat assensum, "But (lit., For) pleasure is never to be judged as wayward, as long as the reason struggles against [it] and denies [its] consent" (source unidentified).

1424-26 Thenne hit least to longe . . . of his fondunge, "It lasts then too long (least = reduced form of leasteth), when the reason does not fight any longer against it (lit., there-against)." Therefore, dear sister, as our Lord teaches, stomp on (lit., tread down) the serpent's head - that is, the beginning of his temptation.

1426-27 Beatus qui tenebit . . . ad petram, "Blessed [is the person] who shall seize and dash her (i.e., the Queen of Babylon's) young on a rock" (adapted from Psalm 136:9).

1427 Eadi, Blessed.

1427-28 the withhalt hire on earst . . . ha beoth yunge, who restrains herself at first (withhalt = reduced form of withhaldeth), and shatters on the rock the first stirrings, when the flesh (i.e., carnal desire) arises, while they are young.

1429 Ure Laverd . . . his treownesse, Our Lord is called a rock for His loyalty.

1429-30 Et in Canticis . . . que destruunt vineas, And in the Song of Songs: "Catch for us the young foxes which pull down our vines" (adapted from Song of Songs 2:15).

1430 leofmon, beloved (or, sweetheart).

1431 "the strueth the win-yardes," "which destroy the vineyards."

1432-33 the earste procunges . . . win-berien, the first proddings which destroy our souls, which need (lit., must [have]) much tending to, to bear wineberries (i.e., grapes).

1433-34 The deovel is . . . i the frumthe, The devil is of a bear's character and has an ass' nature, for he is strong behind and feeble in the head, as is a bear and an ass - that is, in the beginning.

1434-37 Ne yef thu him neaver in-yong . . . wunest inne, Do not ever give him an entrance, but rap him on the skull, for he is cowardly like a bear in that part (lit., thereon), and hurry (imper.) him thus away from there, and chase him shamefully (i.e., in a humiliating way) as soon as you perceive him, so that he may be afraid of (reflex.) the place which you live in.

1438 him is scheome lathest, and shame is [a thing] most loathsome to him.

1439-41 Alswa, leove suster . . . totred his heaved, Likewise, dear sister, as soon as you ever feel that your heart (tin = reduced form of thin after preceding -t) falls in love (lit., with love) with any thing at all over [what is] appropriate, immediately be wary of the serpent's venom and trample on his head.

1441-42 The cwene seide ful soth . . . of lutel, The old woman (lit., quean) who ignited her house with a straw said the absolute truth, that much comes from little.

1442-45 Ant nim nu yeme . . . ear me least wene, And now pay (lit., take) attention how it happens (lit., fares): the spark which flies up (wint = reduced form of windeth) does not immediately bring the house completely in flame, but lies and catches more fire and nurses [it] further, and grows from less to more, until the entire house blazes up before one least expects.

1445-46 Ant te deovel blaweth . . . as hit waxeth, And the devil blows towards [it], from [the time] that it (i.e., the fire) first kindles, and [he] increases his bellow-blasts continually as it grows.

1446-49 Understond tis . . . ne mahe cwenchen, Understand this by yourself: a sight that you see, or a single word that you mishear - if it stir (or, move) you at all, quench it with the water of tears and with Jesus Christ's blood while it is [nothing] but a spark, before it may grow and ignite you so (i.e., to such an extent) that you cannot quench it.

1449-50 For swa hit timeth ofte . . . hwen ha walde, For thus it happens often, and it is God's just judgment, that who[ever does] not act when she can, may not when she would.

1451 Ecclesiasticus . . . augetur ignis, Ecclesiasticus: "From a single spark grows a fire" (Ecclesiasticus 11:34).

1452-53 Moni cunnes fondunge . . . moten helpen, Many kinds of temptation are (lit., temptation of many a kind is) in this fourth part, various comforts and manifold (or, a variety of) remedies. May our Lord give you grace [so] that they may help you.

1453-55 Of alle the othre . . . as ich thear seide, Of all the others (i.e., other remedies) then, is confession the most beneficial. The fifth part will be about this as I promised above (lit., there-up). And take (i.e., pay) attention how each single part falls into (i.e., leads to) the other, as I said there (see Pref.130-51).


 

ANCRENE WISSE, PART FOUR: EXPLANATORY NOTES




    The structure of Part Four, by far the longest section of AW, is much more straightforward than the preceding sections, however intricate the subdivisions may be. The author keeps the focus squarely on temptations, with the lion's share of the attention going to the inner temptations: the seven deadly sins, the comforts, and finally the remedies for them.
    In his study of the seven deadly sins, Morton Bloomfield points out that AW follows the Gregorian order (with pride at the beginning and gluttony and lechery at the end) rather than the earlier monastic ordering (codified in Cassian's listing of the eight deadly sins): gluttony, fornication, greed, wrath, despair, sloth, vainglory, and finally pride (pp. 69, 72, 150). Cassian does exert some influence on Part Four, however: in the Institutes, he discusses the remedies for each of the deadly sins, and in the Collationes or "Conferences" (chapter 16), he traces the offspring or children of each sin. Cassian's writings exerted a strong influence throughout the Middle Ages, particularly on monastic writers. Bloomfield also identifies AW as the first text in English which portrays the sins as animals (p. 151). For an index of other associations between the sins and animals see Bloomfield's Appendix I (pp. 245-49). See also Siegfried Wenzel's "The Seven Deadly Sins: Some Problems of Research," Speculum 43 (1968), 1-22.
    In some ways, Part Four hangs closely together with Parts Five and Six since the seven deadly sins were often used as a mnemonic device to organize confession (see 5.415-19 for an explicit statement of this idea) - in fact, Parts Four, Five, and Six might be said to form a miniature treatise on penance. J. H. Gray goes so far as to say that Parts Four and Five did not originally belong to AW but were excerpted from a separate treatise on penance, an idea that Linda Georgianna (The Solitary Self, p. 120) rightly rejects.
    It may also be significant that late twelfth-century preachers' manuals often included an extensive treatment of the seven deadly sins. Alan of Lille's treatise on the art of preaching, the Summa de arte praedicatoria (PL 210, cols. 109-98), for example, contains a series of remedies for each of the seven deadly sins as well as a discussion of the cardinal virtues. The author of Hali Meiðhad, a text closely associated with AW, may have known and borrowed from Alan's work directly, according to Millett (Hali Meiðhad, p. xlvi). Much of the content and method of treatment in Part Four, then, has interesting points of contact with a variety of manuals and preachers' aids, suggesting that in this regard these sections of AW are best understood in the context of works like the Manuel des Pechiez and Handlyng Synne, rather than in the context of mystical writings written for or by women, such as Julian of Norwich's Divine Showings or The Book of Margery Kempe.

Outline

    Introduction (4.1-199). The main division between outer and inner temptations appears here, with further subdivisions, including a brief discussion of how to handle outer temptations (4.55-164), already the subject of Part Two.
    Inner Temptations: The Seven Deadly Sins (4.200-471). The rest of Part Four is dedicated to the inner sins, beginning with a detailed list of the seven deadly sins and their offspring (4.200-401), followed by the comic set-piece of the seven deadly sinners as entertainers in the devil's court (4.402-71).
    Theory of Inner Temptation (4.472-591). This section includes a discussion of when temptation is most likely to come (4.472-80), the reasons for and the good that comes from temptation (4.481-512), and goes on to divide temptations into four categories according to how strong and how obvious they are (4.513-81) and warn against their almost endless variations (4.582-91).
    Comforts for Inner Temptations (4.592-740). This section lists nine comforts which compensate for the pain of inner temptation (4.592-717) and then describes the rewards for those who stand against the devil's assaults (4.718-40).
    Remedies (or Medicines) for Inner Temptations (4.741-1455). Much of this vast section imagines the struggle against temptation as a kind of spiritual warfare, and each of the remedies becomes a weapon with which to fight the devil. The remedies are first listed in a loose outline form (4.741-46) and then discussed in turn: [1] holy meditations and other thoughts and images (4.747-85), [2] continual prayer (4.786-826), [3] hardy faith (or, right thinking) applied against each of the seven deadly sins in turn: pride, envy, wrath (with an extensive discussion of peace and the strength of community as a remedy against wrath), sloth, covetousness, gluttony, and lechery (4.827-1023), followed by a more general discussion of hardy belief as a weapon against the various subtle wiles of the devil, moving to a discussion of the seven deadly sins as serious wounds (4.1024-1191), [4] specific remedies for each of the seven deadly sins in turn: for pride (4.1192-1270), envy (4.1271-88), wrath (4.1289-1319), sloth (4.1320-29), covetousness (4.1330-32), lechery and gluttony (4.1333-57), [5] other weapons to use against the devil (the crucifix, the sign of the cross, devotion to the wounds of Christ, the shield of the passion, tears of penitence) (4.1358-1451), and [6] above all, confession - the subject of Part Five (4.1452-55).

4 windes of fondunges. For the idea of temptations as winds, see Gregory, Moral Discourses on Job 2.53.76 (PL 75, col. 592), etc.

75-76 The comparison of an enemy to a file is paralleled in Peter of Blois' De XII Utilitatibus Tribulationis ("On the Twelve Uses of Suffering") (PL 207, col. 994), according to Baldwin ("Ancrene Wisse and its Background," pp. 186-87).

92-93 Thet deboneire child . . . cusseth the yerde. Proverbial. See Whiting, Y3.

164 After eche blisse, Corpus omits a long paragraph, preserved in Nero, addressed apparently to the original audience of three sisters. In revising Corpus for a wider readership, the author probably deleted the section because of its personal references. From it we learn that the sisters were of noble birth, were well provided for by a single male patron or family member, and that they entered their anchorholds at a young age:

Ye, mine leove sustren, beoth theo ancren thet ich i-knowe thet habbeth lest neode to vrovre ayean theos temptaciuns, bute one of sicnesse. Vor mid more eise ne mid more men[s]ke not ich none ancre thet habbe al thet hire neod is, thene ye threo habbeth, ure Loverd beo hit i-thoncked. Vor ye ne thencheth nowiht of mete, ne of cloð, ne to ou ne to ouwer meidenes. Everich of ou haueth of one vreonde al thet hire is neod. ne therf thet meiden sechen nouther bread ne suvel fur þene et his halle. God hit wot moni other wot lutel of thisse eise, auh beoth ful ofte i-derved mid wone ant mid scheome, ant mid teone. In hire hond yif this cumeth, hit mei beon ham vrovre. Ye muwen more dreden þe nesche dole thene the herde of theos fondunges thet is uttre ihoten. Vor vein wolde þe hexte cwemen ou, yif he muhte mid oluhnunge makien ou ful-itowen, yif ye [MS. heo] nere the hendure. Muche word is of ou, hu gentile wummen ye beoth, for godleic ant for vreoliec i-yirned of monie, and sustren of one veder ant of one moder - ine blostme of ower yuwethe vorheten alle wor[l]des blissen, ant bicomen ancren. (Day, p. 85)

[You, my dear sisters, are the anchoresses whom I know (i.e., of all those I know) who have the least need of comfort for these temptations, except only for sickness. For I know of no anchoress who may have with more comfort and more honor all that she might need than you three have, our Lord be thanked. For you do not worry (lit., think) about food or about clothing, either for you or for your maidens. Each one of you has all that she needs from one friend, nor does your servant (lit., maiden) need to seek either bread or food (see suvel in glossary) further than at his hall. God knows, many others know little of this kind of ease (or, abundance) but are often afflicted with want, with shame, and with hardship. If this [book] comes into their hands, it may be a comfort to them. You must fear the soft more than the hard portion (i.e., share) of these temptations which is called outer. For happily would the devil (lit., sorcerer) please you if he might with flattery make you badly behaved (or perverse), [and this might happen] if you were not cleverer (or, more gracious). There is much talk of you, what noble women you are, sought after for your goodness and generosity, and sisters of one father and one mother - in the blossom of your youth [you] forsook all the world's joys and became anchoresses.]


Another paragraph, also omitted in the Corpus MS but preserved in Nero, warns the anchoresses against those who would flatter them and then follow their flattery with the offer of a lecherous kiss. This paragraph ends with a more explicit link between outer and inner temptations: "hwat-se cume withuten to vonden ou mid licunge, other mid mislicunge, holdeth ever ower heorte in on withinnin, leste the uttre vondunge kundlie the inre" (Day, pp. 85-86) ["whatever may come from the outside to tempt [or, test] you with pleasure or displeasure, always keep your heart continuously within, for fear that external temptation may kindle inner temptation"]. Both these paragraphs may be based loosely on a passage in Aelred's De Institutis Inclusarum (see chapter 4, p. 48).

185-86 Ure wither-iwines beoth threo: the feond, the worlt, ure ahne flesch. This three-fold division probably comes from Bernard's Sermon on Various Things 23 (PL 183, col. 601) - see Siegfried Wenzel's "The Three Enemies of Man."

206 Her beoth nu o rawe i-tald the seoven heaved sunnen. Savage and Watson observe that the "order given here is not that given two paragraphs before, where the spiritual sins are given as pride, envy, anger and covetousness, the bodily sins as lechery, gluttony and sloth. The author prefers to end with lechery, which he tends to use as an image for sin in general, and to expatiate on at some length. The Corpus revision of AW adds a good deal of extra material to the already lengthy discussion of the sins in the original work" (p. 373n23).

230-52 The teohethe is contentio . . . The ealleofte hwelp . . . of hali theawes. As Savage and Watson point out, the tenth and eleventh whelps of pride, "which pointedly depict specially female vices," have been added in the Corpus version (p. 374n26).

242 ff. Bernard also describes the facial expressions and body language of the prideful - see The Steps of Humility and Pride 10.28 (Conway, pp. 57 ff.).

242 supersticiuns. The context makes it unlikely that this word takes its modern meaning, "an irrational belief based on fear." In medieval Latin, superstitio could mean "frivolity" and "wrongheadedness," while in classical Latin, it could refer (in a transferred sense) to excessive attention to detail, or punctilliousness. White is probably right in reading supersticiuns etymologically, "in a sense derived from its component elements 'above' and 'standing'" (p. 221). Here it is translated as "superior airs" - see the glossary for other meanings. The Latin version translates this word as nutus superbie "the nod of pride."

259 The Neddre of attri onde haveth seove hwelpes. There are actually ten offspring, not seven: the Corpus version adds three whelps.

283 ff. The Unicorne of wreaththe. In medieval bestiaries, the unicorn is not usually allegorized as wrath or ferocity. The more common treatment makes the unicorn out to be a small, wily creature which cannot be caught by hunters. It is attracted to the lap of a virgin who is the only one who can catch it. The unicorn, despite the sexual suggestiveness of this story, was most often seen as a symbol of Christ who is "caught" in the womb of the Virgin. For a typical treatment, see the Physiologus (Curley, p. 51). Wrath is appropriate to the unicorn, however, if its horn is seen as a weapon, and it may be that the picture of the wrathful unicorn owes something to that of the charging rhinoceros. This is the case in Isidore's Etymologies, who calls the unicorn a monoceros (the description immediately follows that of the rhinoceros). He says that the horn of the unicorn is "sharp and powerful, so that whatever it attacks it either tosses or gores," and goes on to describe how the unicorn lays its head in a virgin's lap "having put aside all its ferocity" (Lindsay, Book XII, chapter 2, pp. 12-13).

287 wel ut of hire witte. See the opening section of Part Three (also about wrath) for the comparison of anger to madness (3.23).

289 ff. The seovethe hwelp. Another of Corpus' additions to the basic text.

294 ff. The Beore of hevi slawthe. Nancy Hunt traces the theme of sloth throughout the entire AW in "Sloth in a Guide for Contemplatives, The Ancrene Riwle," Centerpoint 1 (1974), 66-70.

322-36 For a similar division of gluttony into five parts, see Gregory's Moral Discourses on Job 30.18.60 (PL 76, cols. 556-57).

327 The Scorpiun of leccherie. Lucinda Rumsey's "The Scorpion of Lechery" provides useful background on this section by tracing lore about scorpions from naturalistic writers, the Bible, and surveying the allegorizations of the scorpion in various patristic and literary sources. According to Rumsey, the AW author knows and develops motifs from the traditional handling of the scorpion (p. 56).

341 ff. Ich ne dear nempnin the uncundeliche cundles of this deofles scorpiun. Savage and Watson remark that "Lechery cannot be anatomized like the other sins, since the very names of some of its offspring are corrupting. It nonetheless takes up more space than any of them, partly in exhortation, partly in this satirical portrait of the devil's beast, which acts as a transition to the next, predominantly satirical section. Here, as in part II . . . and several times later in this part, lechery appears to be operating as a symbol for all sin" (pp. 374-75n37).

376-77 lefunge . . . o nore. This phrase refers to the belief that sneezing could be used to foretell the future. J. A. W. Bennett cites a passage from an unpublished penitential handbook which condemns, among other superstitions and pagan beliefs, "divinatio sternutationibus, sompniis, et sortibus quas falso dicunt apostolorum" ("Lefunge O Swefne," p. 280) - that is, "divination by sneezes, dreams, and lots which they falsely say are of the apostles." As Joy Russell-Smith points out, the practice of divination by sneezing was condemned by various writers including Pseudo-Augustine, Ælfric, and Thomas de Chabham, an author nearly contemporary with the Ancrene Wisse. In his Summa de Casibus (dated to around 1217-22), Thomas mentions, among many other serious sins and superstitions, divination by sneezing: "Alii si surgentes sternutaverint bonum vel malum inde sibi credunt futurum" (p. 267) - that is, "Others, if they sneeze upon rising (i.e., standing up), believe that from that the future will be good or bad for them." Russell-Smith believes that references to such superstitions may "have been commonplace in penitential literature," especially since several are mentioned in Canon Law, including the belief that one ought "redire ad lectum, si quis, dum se calciat, sternutauerint" (p. 267) - that is, "to return to bed, if someone has sneezed while putting on one's shoes."

In his magisterial A History of Magic and Experimental Science, Lynn Thorndike summarizes a discussion of augury in Michael Scot's Phisionomia: "Michael also discusses the significance of sneezes. If anyone sneezes twice or four times while engaged in some business and immediately rises and moves about, he will prosper in his undertaking. If one sneezes twice in the course of the night for three successive nights, it is a sign of death or some catastrophe in the house. If after making a contract, one sneezes once, it is a sign that the agreement will be kept inviolate; but if one sneezes thrice, the pact will not be observed" (II, p. 330).

392 ff. As Georgianna points out, these lines look forward to Part Five: "the author indicates one purpose for the long section of the deadly sins: to teach the anchoress how to classify her own sins. This purpose looks forward to part V ("Confession"), where the sinful anchoress is instructed to examine her conscience according to the seven deadly sins" (The Solitary Self, p. 130).

400 ff. servith him in his curt. There is no known source for the seven deadly sinners as entertainers in the devil's court. See Savage and Watson's helpful note for a number of general references to similar satirical portraits (p. 375n39). Comedy of this sort abounded in popular preaching - see G. R. Owst's Literature and Pulpit in Medieval England (chapter seven).

413 ff. Yef ei seith wel. Compare Bernard's description of the person giddy with pride: "His eyes are closed to anything that shows his own vileness or the excellence of others, wide open to what flatters himself" (The Steps of Humility and Pride 12; Conway, p. 67).

438 eskibah. Though the second element in eski-bah has yet to be convincingly explained, it is clear that the entire word must refer to a hearth tender or ash stirrer, more than likely in a pejorative sense, since Vitellius translates his eskibah as son despit enfant "his contemptible child." For a full discussion of the -bah element, see Joan Turville-Petre's article, "Two Etymological Notes."

462 ff. The exemplum of the stinking lecher comes from The Lives of the Desert Fathers 6.3 (PL 73, col. 1014).

481 ff. Sum weneth that ha schule stronglukest beon i-fondet. This paragraph is based largely on Gregory's Moral Discourses in Job 24.11 (PL 76, cols. 302-03), as Savage and Watson point out (p. 376n45).

485 ff. Hwen a wis mon. This exemplum about the husband who puts his wife through unreasonable tests has roots in medieval folklore. See the last tale of Boccaccio's Decameron as well as Chaucer's adaptation of the same story in The Clerk's Tale.

513 ff. Savage and Watson cite a number of parallels to the interpretation of Psalm 90:5-6 given here (p. 376n48).

559-81 This series of exempla comes from The Lives of the Desert Fathers 6.4 (PL 73, col. 1022), 5.7 (PL 73, col. 899), and 7.16 (PL 73, col. 1039).

586 He haveth se monie buistes ful of his letuaires. Compare a story told of Macarius (see Explanatory Note to Pref.99-101) in the Verba Seniorum section of The Lives of the Desert Fathers: "The old man was surveying the road when he saw Satan drawing near in the likeness of a man and he passed by his dwelling. He seemed to be wearing some kind of cotton garment, full of holes, and a small flask hung at each hole. . . . The old man [i.e., Macarius] said, 'And what is the purpose of these small flasks?' He replied, 'I am taking food for the brethren to taste.' The old man said, 'All those kinds?' He replied, 'Yes, for if a brother does not like one sort of food, I offer him another, and if he does not like the second any better, I offer him a third; and of all these varieties he will like at least one'" (Ward, The Sayings of the Desert Fathers, p. 126).

593 ff. Dobson sees the references to cement (ME lime) as a veiled reference to Limebrook Priory where he believes the original anchoresses lived (see Origins, pp. 274 ff.).

600 ff. From this point on, there are a number of echoes and adaptations from Gregory's Moral Discourses on Job. See Savage and Watson's notes (pp. 377 ff.) for a fuller picture of the borrowings.

633-34 he pleieth with us. In Jesus as Mother, Caroline Walker Bynum lists several writers such as Hugh Lacerta, Bernard, Julian of Norwich, Mechthild of Hackeborn, and St. Bridget of Sweden who employ the theme of God as a loving and tender mother (p. 131n72). This passage, Savage and Watson argue, may have conceivably influenced Julian of Norwich (p. 378n61).

659-64 The story of the demon armies of the West comes from a section of The Lives of the Desert Fathers 5.7 known as the Verba Seniorum ("The Sayings of the Elders") - the story is told of Abba Moses and collected under the heading "On Foresight or Contemplation" (PL 73, col. 982). See Explanatory Note to 2.310 for more information about The Lives of the Desert Fathers.

681-89 The account of Sarah's thirteen-year temptation comes from The Lives of the Desert Fathers 5.10-11 (PL 73, col. 876; see Explanatory Note to 2.310): "It was related of Amma [i.e., Mother] Sarah that for thirteen years she waged warfare against the demon of fornication. She never prayed that the warfare should cease, but she said, 'O God, give me strength.' Once the same spirit of fornication attacked her more insistently, reminding her of the vanities of the world. But she gave herself up to the fear of God and to asceticism and went up to her little terrace to pray. The spirit of fornication appeared corporally to her and said, 'Sarah, you have overcome me.' But she said, 'It is not I who have overcome you, but my master, Christ'" (Ward, The Sayings of the Desert Fathers, pp. 229-30). This story occurs under the heading "On Fornication."

E. G. Stanley points out that Sarah's cursing of the demon, "thu lihest . . . ful thing!" (4.687) has a close parallel in The Owl and the Nightingale (line 1335; see "The Owl and the Nightingale," p. 152).

690 Sein Beneit, Seint Antonie, ant te othre. See Explanatory Notes to Pref.99-101 and 3.489-90.

741-46 This list of the remedies against temptation does not exactly mirror the structure of the following discussion (see the headnote to Part Four for an outline). The first three (meditation, prayer, and strong belief) are each treated in turn, but the list which follows (reading, fasting, holding vigils, physical disciplines, comfort from another person, humility, generosity of heart, unity) is a rather random collection of remedies from the two following sections: a) hardy faith applied to each of the seven deadly sins (see 4.839-1024) and b) the remedies against each of the seven deadly sins (see 4.1192-94). That is, reading, fasting, holding vigils, and physical disciplines are all remedies against sloth and lechery, while humility is a remedy for pride, generosity for covetousness, and unity for wrath. Savage and Watson note that the remedies "are not merely described; many of them are accompanied by meditations designed to help apply them. Hence this is one of the most important, as well as being one of the lengthiest, discussions in the course of AW" (p. 379n72).

749 nota culpe. The more literal translation of this phrase is "the mark of guilt"; Bennett and Smithers think that it may refer to the mark made on the forehead on Ash Wednesday (p. 404, note to line 11).

752 ff. The first four lines of this metrical passage also occur in St. Marherete (Mack, Seinte Marherete, p. 34). In Corpus, at least two lines are metrically defective. "Thench ofte with sar of thine sunnen" should probably read "Thench ofte with sare of thine shome synne" (4.752), as Vernon reads. Line 755 mistakenly repeats ofte (Bennett and Smithers, p. 404).

759 ff. Smithers sees the following discussion of earthly pain and joy (as mere shadows and paintings of hell and heaven) as an example of high medieval Platonism (the parable of the cave), transmitted through Hugh of St. Victor; he attempts to match the concepts to technical philosophical terms of substance and shadow ("Two Typological Terms," pp. 126-28). Millett, however, makes the convincing case that the treatment of shadow and painting probably comes from "practical pastoral writing" and cites a parallel from Alan of Lille's manual for preachers, the Summa de arte praedicatoria ("Peintunge and Schadewe," pp. 402-03).

785 fleschliche sawlen. Baldwin argues that the phrase "fleshly souls" is an unlikely paradox, suggesting that sawlen here must refer to "persons." She translates fleschliche sawlen as "carnal people" ("Some Difficult Words," p. 284).

791 ff. This exemplum about the power of prayer is contained in The Lives of the Desert Fathers 6.2 (PL 73, col. 1003) as well as in some twelfth-century sermons (see Bennett and Smithers, pp. 405-06).

795-96 For the account of Ruffin the devil, who attacked St. Margaret, see St. Marherete (Mack, Seinte Marherete, pp. 28, 30). As Bennett and Smithers note, "The cryptic allusion of AW is clarified by the information in St. Marherete, and thus not only shows the latter to have been composed before AW, but constitutes the kind of link between the two that would support a case for common authorship" (p. 406). Savage and Watson remark that "though Margaret was written for public reading . . ., it is described here as 'your book,' i.e., one of which the anchoresses had a private copy" (p. 380n78).

796-98 This anecdote comes from the life of St. Bartholomew. See The Golden Legend (Ryan, vol. 2, p. 110) for an accessible account. Another version can be found in The South English Legendary (D'Evelyn and Mill, vol. 2, pp. 373-84).

798 ff. The gift of tears figures largely in The Book of Margery Kempe. See Sandra McEntire's "The Doctrine of Compunction from Bede to Margery Kempe," in The Medieval Mystical Tradition in England, ed. Marion Glasscoe (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1987), pp. 77-90, for more details.

814 ant te sunne th'refter schineth the schenre. Proverbial. See Whiting, C315 and R15.

839 ff. The seven deadly sins appear in different guises at least three times in Part Four: the first in the discussion of inner temptations, the second (this one) in a discussion of how right thinking (lit., "hardy belief") can counter the seven deadly sins, and finally in an extensive explanation of the remedies for the seven deadly sins (see the headnote to Part Four).

892 The seovethe forbisne. As Bennett and Smithers point out (p. 408), this is apparently the fifth exemplum, not the seventh.

897 Nu ye habbeth nihene. There seem to be only seven examples illustrating the power of unity.

916 ff. Ye beoth the ancren of Englond. The direct address occurs only in the Corpus version. By the time it was written, the audience of AW seems to have expanded from the original three sisters to a group of anchoresses numbering twenty or more. As sections in Parts Four and Eight indicate, individual anchoresses apparently were united in a kind of community via their maidens who carried messages between anchorholds (see 4.942-45 and 8.267 ff.). It is important to note that the author says that this group is like an order, implying that they are in fact not nuns. The "motherhouse" probably refers to the Cistercian organizational model in which daughter monasteries answered to the authority of their founding motherhouses. This schema exerted a strong influence on other orders, especially after the Fourth Lateran Council (1215). For a further discussion of this passage, see the Introduction, pp. 15 ff. Dobson argues that Englondes ende (4.927) refers to the Welsh borders, not far from Limebrook Priory (Origins, pp. 284-86).

922 an cuvent of Lundene ant of Oxnefort, of Schreobsburi, other of Chester. If, as Dobson believes, AW was written by a canon near Wigmore, the exclusion of Worcester (the closest center of learning) is puzzling (Origins, p. 134). There seem to be at least two answers for this: Millett, arguing for a Dominican origin for AW, points out that all of these towns had significant Dominican foundations, Chester being the latest in 1236 ("The Origins," p. 219). On the other hand, Margaret Laing and Angus McIntosh, using dialectical features of Titus (containing the Katherine Group texts and a version of the Ancrene Wisse), place the scribal origin of this particular MS much further north from Wigmore in southern Cheshire, not very far from Chester. Though these conclusions are based on an analysis of Titus only, Laing and McIntosh make the case that the Titus scribe carries over dialectical features from the exemplar. The evidence is, however, incomplete at this stage (pp. 257-59).

942-45 "Ure meistre haveth i-writen us . . . schule beon unblamet." These lines were added in the Corpus version.

945-47 Part Eight also offers advice about messengers and how to prevent misunderstandings (see 8.267 ff.).

1007 ff. The discussion of complaints to friends about a lack of food does not occur in Cleo., Nero, or Titus. It seems to have been added for the wider audience which AW was acquiring, since we know that the original anchoresses were well provided for (see Explanatory Note to 4.164).

1025 ff. This passage plays on the etymological sense of article, which originally meant "a little joint" - see glossary.

1049-50 "Afech" on Ebreisch spealeth "neowe wodschipe." Savage and Watson refer to Pseudo-Jerome's On Hebrew Names (PL 23, col. 1314), where Aphec is etymologized as furor novus "new madness" (p. 383n100).

1079 Incurvare ut transeamus. "Bow down that we may go over" (Isaiah 51:23). The verse continues: "And you have laid down your body as if (it were) the ground, and a path to them that went over." See also 4.1082.

1133 Recabes sunen, Remon ant Banaa. The text mistakenly transposes Recab and Remon, as 2 Samuel 4:1 (in some Bibles, 2 Kings 4:1) makes clear. Rechab and Baana were the sons of Remon the Berothite.

1198 I the licome is fulthe ant unstrengthe. Savage and Watson (p. 384nn109-10) point out that the disgust with the human body in the following lines belongs to the contemptus mundi tradition, influenced by Pope Innocent III's Misery of the Human Condition (c. 1195). See also Chaucer's The Pardoner's Tale, especially CT VI(C)517-59, for similar rhetoric in popular preaching.

1218 ff. This exemplum also appears in 4.576-81.

1231-35 The account of Anthony's vision of a world covered with snares and traps comes from The Sayings of the Desert Fathers, where Abba Anthony says, "I saw the snares that the enemy spreads out over the world and I said groaning, 'What can get through from such snares?' Then I heard a voice saying to me, 'Humility'" (Ward, p. 2).

1275 ff. Aliena bona si diligis, tua facis. The following passage in AW is based on Gregory's discussion in the Pastoral Care.

1353 ff. Thenne is he kene, the wes ear curre. Here curre must refer to a dog whose bark is worse than its bite - a growling but cowardly dog (see glossary). In fact, many of the other versions substitute a word meaning "coward" for curre. In Cleo., scribe D altered curre to read cuard "coward"; Nero has eruh (from OE earg "cowardly"); Vitellius couard; Trinity porous (OF for "fearful"); and Lat. timidus, while Caius, Titus and Vernon preserve curre.

1382-83 the mei with toheoven up hire threo fingres overcumen hire fa. Dobson points to a similar passage in Moralities on the Gospels: "Likewise, that person would be considered more wretched than the most miserable human being if he fell to the enemy in a battle which he could have won by the lifting up of three fingers" (p. 151).

1386 ff. his wunden. This passage on the wounds of Christ is, according to Savage and Watson, one of the earliest treatments of this theme in English. The devotion to the wounds became very popular in the later Middle Ages and may have been inspired by medieval interpretations of the Song of Songs 2:14 (p. 385n127).

1415 Sein Beneites salve. St. Benedict's remedy is the scourge or whip, which (as Savage and Watson point out) was "used in all medieval monasteries, and by many secular and devout laypeople. When prayer, meditation and fantasy couched in the most forceful and physical language fails to work, the physical remedy is all that is left" (p. 386n130). In The Golden Legend's version of his life, Benedict applies physical pain as a remedy for lust: "Soon the devil brought to the holy man's mind the image of a woman whom he had once seen, and he was so aroused by the memory of her that he was almost overcome with desire, and began to think of quitting the solitary way of life. But suddenly, touched by the grace of God, he came to himself, shed his garment, and rolled in the thorns and brambles which abounded thereabouts; and he emerged so scratched and torn over his whole body that the pain in his flesh cured the wound in his spirit. Thus he conquered sin by putting out the fire of lust, and from that time on he no longer felt the temptations of the flesh" (Ryan, vol. 1, p. 187).

1427-28 ant tobreketh [to] the stan. See Genesis 3:15 for this image, developed further by Cassian, Gregory, and Benedict (Savage and Watson, p. 386n133).

1434 i the heaved feble. In his Etymologies, Isidore says that "The head of bears is feeble (invalidum): their greatest power is their arms and loins" (Lindsay, Book XII, chap. ii, 22). Neckham reflects this tradition (Wright, pp. 212, 366).

1442 muchel kimeth of lutel. Proverbial, with reference to popular narrative. See Whiting, M783 and M776.


 

ANCRENE WISSE, PART FOUR: TEXTUAL NOTES




18 ha mahe ant schule. MS: ha mahen ant schulen. Tolkien notes that these plural forms are a misreading for the singular (p. 93, fol. 48r, line 16), and thus they are emended to the singular forms. [Cleo.: ha muhte ant schulde; Titus: ho muhe; Nero: þet heo muwe ant schule; Vernon: þat heo mowe and schulle; Pepys: þat he may for hem þe better ben yholpen; Caius (lacking); Vitellius (lacking); Trinity: ke il ou ele puisse le mieuz estre par icels temptacions sauuez; Lat.: quod possit et debeat per temptationes melius saluari.]

27 MS: þet te flesch eileð. wiðinnen; heorte sar. Tolkien: "mislicunge omitted before wiðinnen" (p. 93, fol. 48r, line 26). The textual evidence for this emendation is slim, especially since Cleo., Titus, and Lat. apparently assume that mislicunge carries over from the previous sentence. [Cleo.: eileð. Wið innen; heorte sare; Titus: eiles. Wið innen; heorte sar; Nero ðet eileð þe vlesche. Mislikunge wiðinnen; ase heorte sor; Vernon (lacking); Pepys: þat þe flessche feleþ. wiþinnen hert sore; Caius (lacking); Vitellius (lacking); Trinity: ke ala char nuist. Desplesance par de denz si est; doel de quer; Lat.: quodlibet nocumentum corporale carni nocens. Interior, dolor cordis.]

27-28 grome - ant wreaththe alswa, onont thet ha is pine. Licunge withuten. MS: grome. ant wreaððe. Alswa onont þet ha is pine. licunge wiðuten. Tolkien makes the plausible case that the capital A in Alswa is a mistake since this entire phrase belongs together. Tolkien also believes that there is a problem with the word pine "pain": "pine, sic for i pine or ipinet" and that the mistake must have come early in the textual transmission since each version attempts to solve the problem differently (p. 93, fol. 48r, line 27). It is possible to make good sense of the MS reading onont þet ha is pine "in the sense that she (i.e., wrath) is pain" since it explains why wrath, which does not at first seem to be an internal displeasure, really is one. [Cleo. (lacking); Titus: grome wraððe. Alswa onont þet he is ipinet likinge wið uten; Nero: grome. ant wreððe. also onont ðet heo is likunge wiðuten; Vernon: Grome. and. Wraþþhe. ¶ Also anont þat heo is pyne. þat is sunnes ernynge ¶ Likynge wiþouten; Pepys: greme oiþer tene oiþer wraþþe for þat he is pyned in his body; Caius (lacking); Vitellius (lacking); Trinity: corouz. e ire. ausint en droit de ceo ke il est penez; Lat.: ira, iracundia. Similiter placencia seu delectatio exterior.]

42 the thuncheth thah gode. MS: þe þencheð þah god. Tolkien: "þencheð, sic for þuncheð" (p. 94, fol. 48v, line 17). [Cleo.: þet þuncheð þach gode; Titus: þet semen þah gode; Nero: ðet þuncheð þauh gode; Vernon: þat þuncheþ þauh gode; Pepys: þat men þenchen þat hij ben good; Caius (lacking); Vitellius (lacking); Trinity: e si resemblent nekedent bones; Lat.: apparentes tamen bone.]

49 for hwen ha is i-pruvet. MS: for hwen ha is ipruet. Tolkien: "ipruet, sic" (p. 94, fol. 48v, line 26). [Cleo.: for þenne he bið ipreoued; Titus: Hwen he is ipreouet; Nero: vor hwon heo is ipreoued; Vernon: ffor whon he is i.preuet; Pepys: for what he is yproued; Caius (lacking); Vitellius (lacking); Trinity: quant il auera este temptez; Lat.: cum probatus fuerit.]

58 mede, [vi]. MS: mede. The scribe has numbered each of the six benefits of sickness by placing a Roman numeral above the first word of each. The number six, which does not appear, is supplied.

72 thet ageath, thurh ei uvel. MS: þet agead þurh ei uuel. Tolkien: "agead, sic" (p. 95, fol. 49r, line 27). A common exchange of d for ð, which also occurs in Cleo. [Cleo.: þet aged þurh ani uuel; Titus: þet ouergas. þurh ani uuel; Nero: þet ageð; þuruh eni vuel; Vernon: þat ageþ ffor eni euel; Pepys: He þat may þan atstirten þat ilche griselich wo; Caius (lacking); Vitellius (lacking); Trinity: par aucun mal corporel ke isci tost passe; Lat.: per transitoriam infirmitatem, per aliquid malum.]

88 MS: Michi uindictam. Tolkien: "uindictam, sic" (p. 96, fol. 49v, line 19). Another instance of Tolkien regularizing quotations from the Vulgate. [Cleo.: Michi vindictam; Titus: Michi uindictam; Nero: michi uindictam; Vernon: michi vindictam; Pepys: Michi vindictam; Caius (lacking); Vitellius (lacking); Trinity: Michi uindictam; Lat.: Michi vindictam.]

94 thet ye cussen nawt with muth. MS: þet 3e cussen nawd wið muð. As Tolkien points out, nawd should read nawt "not" (p. 96, fol. 49v, line 27). [Cleo.: þe 3e cussen naut Mid muð; Titus: þet 3e cussen. nawt wið muð; Nero: þet 3e cussen. nout mid muðe; Vernon: þat 3e cussen not wiþ mouþ; Pepys: ne kisse nou3th wiþ mouþ; Caius (lacking); Vitellius (lacking); Trinity: ne ou bouche corporele les acolez e beisez; Lat.: non osculari ore eos.]

103 other-h[w]ile. MS: o/þerhile. The missing p (wynn) is restored. [Cleo.: oðerhwile; Titus: oðerhwile; Nero: oþerhwule; Vernon: oþerwhile; Pepys: oiþer while; Caius (lacking).]

152 nawt withuten hurt felen. MS: nawt wið uter hurt felen. Clearly, wið uter should read withuten. [Cleo.: ne machten hit for uten hurt felen; Titus: hwas schadewe 3e ne mihten naht for grislich bihalden; Nero: nout for grislich biholden; Vernon: not. wiþ oute hurt felen; Pepys: nou3th with outen hirt it þolien; Caius (lacking); Vitellius (lacking); Trinity: la puissez sanz blesceure sentir; Lat.: pre (pro?) horrore conspicere non possetis.]

165-67 For the uttre is [adversite ant prosperte ant theos cundleth the inre: mislicunge] in adversite ant i prosperite licunge the limpeth to sunne. MS: for þe uttre / is in aduersite ant i prosperite licunge þe limpeth to sunne. Several words have apparently dropped out of Corpus due to eye-skip from is aduersite to in aduersite. The missing words are restored here from Cleo. [Cleo.: for þe uttere is asper aduersite ant prosperte ant þeos cundleð þe inre. Aduersite Mislicunge. per(s)perite. licunge þe limpeth to sunne; Nero: uor þe uttre uondunge is mislicunge in aduersite; ant ine prosperite. and þeos foundunge kundleð þe inre uondunge. þet is. in aduesite; mislikunge; Titus: for þe uttre is in aduersite and in prosperite. and teose cundlen þen inre. Aduersite; mislikinge. prosperite; likinge þet limpes to sunne; Vernon: ffor the uttere is in aduersite. and prosperite. and þeos cundeleth the innore. aduersite. myslykynge. prosperite. lykinge that toucheth to synne; Pepys (recast): þe vtter in aduersite and prosperite. þat is in wele and in wo. and boþe þise kyndelen þe inner fondynge. Aduersite is miys-likynge. And prosperite is lykyng that likeneþ to synne; Caius (lacking); Vitellius (lacking); Trinity: Car la foreine temptacion si est; en aduersitez en prosperitez e icestes si conceiuent en lui. Aduersite; desplesance. prosperite; plesance. dont pecche en auient; Lat.: Exterior enim est in aduersitate et prosperitate. Est igitur, ut dixi, temptatio interior.]

188 proprement. MS: proprement (ouneliche). A later hand (in darker ink and with a different script) crossed out the original proprement "naturally" (from OF) and substituted the presumably native form ouneliche just above the deleted word. Tolkien comments, "The emendation . . . had the same motive as that seen in darnliche [3.318]; but if due to the same purist, he took more care here to imitate the main hand. The natural native word here is cundeliche and may have suggested it" (p. 100, note to fol. 52a, lines 2, 4). The MED dates the addition to 1300 apparently on paleographical grounds and derives it from OE agen "own." Since these changes represent a later intervention in the text, the original readings are restored.

199 flesch. MS: fleschs. A clear mistake for flesch, probably influenced by the plural form a few words before: fles/ches.

219-20 nawt ane the ne buheth, [ah the] other grucchinde deth, other targeth to longe. MS: nawt ane þe ne buheð. oðer grucchinde deð. oðer targeð to longe. An ah þe ("but [also] the person who") is necessary here to complete the phrase which began with nawt ane ("not only"), as Tolkien notes: "ah þe probably omitted after buheð" (p. 102, fol. 52v, line 15). [Cleo. (lacking); Titus (lacking); Nero (lacking); Vernon: Oþer gricchinde idon. oþer tarende; Pepys (lacking); Caius (lacking); Vitellius (lacking); Trinity (lacking); Lat.: factum cum murmure seu tarditate.]

247 to ove[r]gart acemunge. MS: to ouegart acemunge. Tolkien rightly points out that an r is missing from ove[r]-gart "excessive" (p. 103, fol. 53r, line 22). [Cleo. (lacking); Titus (lacking); Nero (lacking); Vernon: ouergart semynge; Pepys: to ouer girt as meninge. oiþer hei3einge; Caius (lacking); Vitellius (lacking); Trinity (lacking); Lat.: subtilitas in gestu.]

251-52 Of heh lif waxeth prude. MS: Of heh cun waxeð prude. The other versions bear out Tolkien's observation that heh cun "high kin" (repeated from the previous line) has inadvertently replaced heh lif "high (or, holy) life" (p. 103, fol. 53r, line 28). [Cleo.: of hech lif of strengðe þet waxeð of Prude; Titus: of heh lif waxen prude; Nero: of heie liue waxeð prude; Vernon: of hei3 lyf. waxeþ pruyde; Pepys: of holy þewes comeþ pride; Caius: of heh lif waxed prude; Vitellius (lacking); Trinity (lacking); Lat.: ex sublimi vita pululat superbia.]

259 haveth seove hwelpes. MS: haueð seoue hwelpes. The expanded text in Corpus in fact goes on to include ten whelps. [Cleo.: haueð seoue cundles; Titus: haues seouen cundles; Nero: haueð seoue kundles; Vernon: haþ þeos whelpes cundles; Pepys: haþ þise kyndlen; Caius: haued seoue cundles; Vitellius (lacking); Trinity (lacking); Lat.: habet hos catulos.]

261 mon. MS: godd (mon). The scribe has marked godd for deletion and inserted mon just above it. This appears to be a correct emendation since the scribe seems originally to have skipped ahead to the next phrase ah þet godd deð him. The uncorrected text reads, "I do not say only that God does it, but the God does it." The scribe's corrected text is retained. [Cleo.: Ich segge naut ane þet mon deð him, ach þet god deð him.]

263 me nimeth to muche (lutel) yeme. MS: me nimeð to muche 3eme. The scribe has canceled muche with a vertical stroke and inserted lutel just above. The uncorrected text reads, "too much attention is paid [to this sin]." The scribe's emendation is preferable to make sense of the phrase and is thus reproduced here. [Cleo.: Me nimeð tolute 3eme.]

271 thide[r]-ward. MS: þideward. The missing r is restored. [Cleo. (lacking); Titus (lacking); Nero (lacking); Vernon: þiderward; Pepys (lacking); Caius (lacking).]

283 MS: bereð on his nease þe þorn. Tolkien thinks that þorn "spine, thorn" is a mistake for horn (p. 104, fol. 54r, line 14). Though a significant number of versions have horn where Cleo. and Corpus have thorn, the MS form is retained since it does make sense as "spine." [Cleo.: bereð on his nase þe þorn; Titus: beres on his nase þe horn; Nero: bereð on his neose þene horn; Vernon: bereþ horn on his neose; Pepys: þat haþ þe horne in þe heued; Caius: bered on his n(e)ase þe horn; Vitellius (lacking); Trinity (lacking); Lat.: fert cornu seu spinam super nasum.]

308 MS: prinschipe of 3eoue. The MED believes prinschipe "parsimony" to be a mistake for privschipe "deprivation, robbery" from OF priver "to deprive, rob," though Dobson claims that Cleo.'s Principe is a mistake for the correct form prinschipe in Corpus. Both Titus and Caius preserve the spelling of Corpus, and thus it seems best to treat it as a genuine form. Zettersten (1969, p. 244) derives the word from OF prin - see MED prinnen "to take, acquire." [Cleo.: Principe of 3eoue; Titus: prinschipe of 3eoue; Nero: uestschipe of 3eoue; Vernon: Prinueschupe of gift; Pepys: Pinching; Caius: prinshipe. of 3eoue; Vitellius (lacking); Trinity (lacking); Lat.: au[g]mentum vltra donum uel comodatum.]

340 incolumis. MS: incolimis. This seems to be a mistake for incolumis (see Tolkien, p. 106, fol. 55v, line 4). [Cleo.: incolumis; Titus: incolumis; Nero: incolumis; Vernon: incolumis; Pepys: incolumis; Caius: incolums; Vitellius (lacking); Trinity (lacking); Lat.: incolumis.]

351 ant slea with deadbote. MS: ant wið deadbote slea. Tolkien: "wið deadbote and slea marked for transposition with "above de and sl" (p. 107, fol. 55v, line 20). [Cleo.: ant slea wið dedbote; Titus: ant swa (sic?) wið deaðbote (sic); Nero: ant slea hit mid dedbote; Vernon: and sle hit wiþ dedbote; Pepys (lacking); Caius: and slea wid deatbote; Vitellius (lacking); Trinity (lacking); Lat.: et satisfactione interficiat.]

359 fiketh mid te heaved. MS: fikeð mid te heaueð. A common mistake here of ð for d in heaueð is corrected. [Cleo.: sikeð wið þe heaued; Titus: fikeð mid te heaued; Nero: fikeð mid te heaued; Vernon: fekeþ myd þe hed; Pepys: fikeleþ wiþ þe heued; Caius: fiked mid þet heaued; Vitellius (lacking); Trinity: de la teste blandist; Lat.: blanditur cum capite.]

396 alle the for[th]-fearinde. MS: alle þe forfearinde. Tolkien: "forfearinde, sic, probably for forð-" (p. 109, fol. 56v, line 24). ME forfearen usually means "to perish" while forðfearen would mean "to travel forth, pass along," a meaning more appropriate for this context. [Cleo.: alle þe forð farinde; Titus: alle þe forð farinde; Nero: alle ðe uorðfarinde; Vernon: alle þe forþfarynde; Pepys (lacking); Caius: alle þe forfarinde; Vitellius: touz les passanz; Trinity (lacking); Lat. (lacking).]

409-10 Of the wind "drahinde in for luve of here-word," seith [Jeremie] as ich seide. MS: Of þe wind drahinde in for luue of hereword seið as ich seide. Tolkien's suggestion, corroborated by Nero and Vitellius and adopted here, is to supply Ieremie between seið and as. [Cleo.: Of þe wind dra3inde for luue of hereword seið as ich seide; Titus: Of þe prud drahinge in for luue of hereword seið as ich seide; Nero: of þeo ðet draweð wind inward uor luue of hereword, seið Ieremie ase ich er seide; Vernon: Of þe wynt drawinde in . for loue of preysinge. seiþas i seyde; Pepys: Of þe wynde draweyinge in for þe loue of weredelich ernynge. summe þere ben . . . (Ieremias in margin); Caius: Of þe wind drahinde in for luue of hereword; seid as ich seide; Vitellius: Del vent tra . . . z pur amour de renoun dit [Jerem]i come ieo dis; Trinity (lacking); Lat. (lacking).]

416 thider-ward schuleth mid either. MS: þiderward schuleð mið eiðer. The scribe writes mið for mid, a common mistake. [Cleo.: þiderwart schuleð wið eiðer; Titus: þiderward. sculeð mid eiðer; Nero: þiderward heo schuleð mid eiðer eien; Vernon: þiderward. stareþ mid eiþer; Pepys (lacking); Caius: þiderward shuled mid eiþer; Vitellius: regardent en esclench dambe parz; Trinity: garde del un e del autre oil; Lat. (lacking).]

417 ah the lust ayein thet uvel is eaver wid open. MS: ah the luft ayein thet uvel is eaver wid open. Following Dobson ("Affiliations," p. 134n1), Zettersten (p. 150) suggests that in this phrase, luft ("left"), is a mistake for lust ("hearing") and would translate "but the hearing is always wide open for evil" as opposed to the current reading, which translates, "but the left [ear] is always wide open for evil." The two forms lust/luft would be easy to confuse, since f and long s are very similar. In fact, it is difficult to decide which form was intended in Vernon, where the cross-bar of the following t touches the vertical stroke of s or f without continuing through it. Since the envious have clapped down both ears, it makes less sense that the left is open. Though Vitellius was able to make sense of luft as "left," it seems best to emend to lust ("hearing"). [Cleo.: Ach þe luft a3ein þe uuel is eauer wid opene; Titus: Ah þe luf a3ein þet uuel is eauer wið opene earen; Nero: auh þet lust a3ean þet vuel; is eauer wid open; Vernon: Ac þe luft (lust?) a3eyn þe euel; is euer wyd opene; Pepys: ac þe loue a3ein þat yuel is euere yopened redy; Caius: Ah þe lust agein þet uuel is eawid (sic for eauer wid) opene; Vitellius: Mez la senestre enqore al mal est touz iours ouerte; Trinity: en contre mal ad il tot dis les oreilles ouertes; Lat.: sed auditus contra malum est sempter apertus.]

443 nis bute eorthe ant esken. MS: nis bute eorðe ant ahte esken. An apparent dittography (i.e., unintentional repetition): the scribe, seeing the preceding phrase eorðlich/ahte (line 443), mistakenly inserts ahte after the second eorðe-form (Tolkien, p. 111, fol. 58r, line 2). [Cleo.: nis buten eorðe ant esken; Titus: nis bute eorðe ant askes; Nero: nis buten eorðe ant asken; Vernon: nis bote eorþe and asken; Pepys: nys bot askes; Caius: nis buten eorðe and esken; Vitellius: nest fors terre et ceindre; Trinity: ne est fors terre e cendre; Lat.: non sunt nisi terra et cineres.]

456-57 ant ye schule beon feo[ndes fod]e. MS: ant 3e schule beon feorle. The text is muddled here. Tolkien notes that MS feorle (misprinted in Tolkien's text as feode) must stand for feo[ndes fo]de (p. 111, fol. 58r, line 19), a reading supported by the other versions. The scribe apparently blended the two words, imperfectly, into one. [Cleo.: ant 3e schule beon feondes fode; Titus: and 3e schulen beo feondes fode; Nero: ant 3e schulen beon ueondes fode; Vernon: And 3e schul beon. feondes foode; Pepys: and 3e schullen ben þe fendes fode; Caius: and ge shulen beon feondes fode; Vitellius: et vous serrez la pouture del enemy; Trinity (lacking); Lat. (lacking).]

481 MS: tweof-moneð. The form without l seems to be genuine (see 1.145 above). [Cleo.: tweolf moneð; Titus: twelf / moneð; Nero: tweolf moneð; Vernon: twelfmoneþ; Pepys: in þe first 3ere; Caius (lacking).]

519 alluvione. MS: alliuione. Tolkien: "alliuio/ne, sic for alluuione" (p. 114, fol. 59v, lines 22-23). [Cleo.: alluuione; Titus: aluuione; Nero: alluuione; Vernon: alluuione; Pepys: allimone; Caius (lacking); Vitellius: aluu(i)one; Trinity (lacking); Lat.: alluuione.]

546 se reowthful is hire heorte. MS: se reowðful is heorte. hire. Tolkien: "heorte. hire marked for transposition with two strokes above each h" (p. 115, fol. 60v, line 3). [Cleo.: se rewful is hire heorte; Titus: se rewful is hire herte; Nero: se reouðful is hire heorte; Vernon: so reuþful is hire herte; Pepys: haþ a rewful hert and a sorou3ful; Caius (lacking); Vitellius: son queor qest si plein damour et de pitee; Trinity (lacking); Lat.: cor caritatiuum et misericordem habentem.]

564 wes i-gan o dweole, [ant weop] as meoseise thing. MS: wes igan o dweole as meoseise þing. Corpus seems to have omitted the necessary verb weop "wept," which is restored here, so that the sentence reads "she said she had gone astray, [and wept] as an unfortunate creature for lodging." [Cleo.: wes igan adweoleð. ant weop efter (as) meoseise þing; Titus: was iGan o dweole. ant wep as mesaise þing; Nero: was igon a dweoleð. ant weop ase meoseise þing; Vernon: was i.gon a dwelet. and weop as meseise þin; Pepys (recast): a Man com to hym and wepe as mysaise vpon hym; Caius (lacking); Vitellius (recast): fut fornee et plorrout sicome chose meseisee querant herberge; Trinity (lacking); Lat.: quod oberrauerat, fleuit tanquam misera ut haberet hospicium.]

583-84 MS: Ne mahte ich wene ham namon nomeliche nempnin. Discussing the corresponding passage in Cleo., Dobson suggests that the "text which underlies the scribe's was probably ne muchte ich wene ham nan muð nomeliche nempnin (cf. [Vitellius], Corpus, Titus, Nero; but even Corpus has namon for nan muð)" (p. 167n5). However, the wording in Corpus makes good sense and probably represents a minor revision; thus, namon "no one" is not emended to nan muð "no mouth" here. [Cleo.: ne muchte ich wið muðe nomeliche nempnen; Titus: ne muhte ic wene muð nomeliche nempni ham; Nero: nene muhte ase ich wene mid none muðe; nomeliche nemmen ham; Vernon: Ne mou3te ich wene no mouþ nomeliche nempnen; Pepys: Ac þat alle þat Men wiþ ytempted ne may ich nou3th nempny hem; Caius (lacking); Vitellius: ne les porreit ceo quid nule boche par noun nomer; Trinity (lacking); Lat.: Dictum est . . . non de millesima parte temptationum.]

661 athet te othre seide him. MS: aþet te oðre seiden him. Tolkien rightly points out that seiden "said" should be singular seide (p. 120, fol. 63r, lines 16-17). [Cleo.: oðet þe oðer seide him; Titus: Aðet oðer seide him; Nero: uort tet þe oðer holi mon seide to him; Vernon: On þat oþer syde; Pepys: and his felawe seide vn to hym; Caius (lacking); Vitellius: desqatant qi laltre li dit; Trinity (lacking); Lat. (lacking).]

710 MS: þis ilke niht ofsaruet. Tolkien thinks that of-saruet is a mistake for of-earnet "earned, deserved," and indeed Cleo. and Nero have this form. However, the word ofseruet occurs later in the account (see 4.717) and is a genuine form, attested in St. Katherine and St. Juliene and other early texts. According to the MED, -sarven is a Northern and early Southwest Midlands form of -serven. [Cleo.: þis ilke nicht of earned; Titus: þis ilke niht ofearned; Nero: þeos ilke niht of earned; Vernon: þis niht i ernet; Pepys: erned while þat þou slepe; Caius (lacking); Vitellius: en cest nuit deseruies; Trinity (lacking); Lat.: tuus meruit discipulus hac nocte.]

713 ne mah[te] ich for reowthe. MS: ne mah / ich for reowðe. The scribe, coming to the end of the line, has inadvertently failed to finish the word mahte. [Cleo.: ne machte ich for reuðe; Titus: ne mihte ich for reowðe; Nero: ich ne muhte uor reouðe; Vernon: ne mouht ich for rouþe; Pepys: I ne mi3th nou3th for rewþe; Caius (lacking); Vitellius: ieo nen poiei pur pitee; Trinity (lacking); Lat.: misertus non potui.]

736-37 ah to leate thenne [naut-for-thi! For efter uvel, god is penitence. Thet is the best thenne.] Speowen hit anan ut. MS: ah to leate þenne. Speowen hit anan ut. Corpus omits a sentence after þenne which appears in Cleo. (somewhat altered), Nero, and Vitellius. The omission seems to be inadvertent (due to eye-skip from þenne to þenne) and is restored from Cleo. - however, omitting the apparently false repetition of for. [Cleo.: to late þenne. naut for þi. for efter uuel god is penitence þet is þe best þenne; Titus: ah to late þenne. Spewe hit anan ut; Nero: nout for þi; efter vuel; god is penitence. þet is ðet beste þeonne; Vernon: Ac to late þenne. not forþi. aftur euel. good is penitence. þis is þe beste þenne. Scheuh hit anon riht to þe prest; out wiþ schrift; Pepys: for þan better is late þan neuere. After yuel þan is goode penaunce spewe out þat venym; Caius (lacking); Vitellius: Nepu(rquant) ceo; apres le mal. bon est penitence. Cest dunque le mielz le vomir; Trinity (lacking); Lat.: sed tunc tarde. Nichilominus post peccatum bona est penitencia. Tunc melius est statim vomere, hoc est, in confessione sacerdoti expuere.]

755 munneth ofte i mode. MS: munneð ofte / ofte i mode. As Tolkien notes (p. 123, fol. 65r, lines 21-22), there is an unintentional repetition of ofte in this passage.

765 MS: nawt þe hors eschif iliche. Hors eschif "horse skittish" is a French construction (with a French-derived adjective following the noun it modifies) not shared by Cleo. and Nero, but very similar to Vitellius. [Cleo.: lokeð þet 3e ne beon naut ilich þe scheunchinde hors þet scheuncheð for an shadewe; Titus: Lokes þet 3e ne beo nawt þe skerre hors iliche þet schuntes for a schadwe; Nero: lokeð þet 3e ne beon nout i liche ðe horse þet is scheouh. ant blencheð uor one sheadewe; Vernon: Lokeþ þat 3e beo not þe hors. restif iliche. þat schuncheþ for a schadewe; Pepys: Be we nou3th eschu of þe schadewe. Þe hors þat stondeþ opon þe brynk ant is eschu for þe schadewe; Caius (lacking); Vitellius: Veez qe vous ne resemblez le chiual eschieu. qi se eschieu pur vne vmbre; Trinity (lacking); Lat.: Videatis ne sitis tanquam equus vmbratilis qui dum timet vmbram.]

778-79 MS: ant þine leoueste freond. Tolkien observes that in this sentence freond must stand for the genitive "friend's" (p. 124, fol. 65v, line 24), "your and your dearest friend's salvation." [Cleo.: ant of þine leoueste freont; Titus: and tine leueste frendes; Nero: ant þine leoueste ureond; Vernon: and þine leoueste frend; Pepys (recast); Caius (lacking); Vitellius: apres vostre saluacion et de voz chers amis; Trinity: apres uostre sauacion a vus e a vostre plus cher ami; Lat.: tuam et amicorum tuorum saluationem.]

803 Hwen me asa[i]leth burhes. MS: hwen me asaleð burhes. As Tolkien points out, the form asaleð is apparently a mistake for asaileð (p. 125, fol. 66v, line 1). [Cleo.: me asaileð burch3es; Titus: mon assail3es burhes; Nero: me asaileð buruhwes; Vernon: Whon me sayleþ citees; Pepys (recast): Whan þe deuel assaileþ 3ou; Caius (lacking).]

807 te drake heaved. MS: te drake heaueð. As frequently elsewhere, the scribe writes here an ð for d. [Cleo.: þe drake heaued; Titus: þe drake heaued; Nero: þe drake heaued; Vernon: þe drake heued; Pepys (recast); Caius (lacking); Vitellius: la teste del dragon; Trinity: la teste au dragoun; Lat.: capita draconum.]

816 ant [te] sothe sunne schineth. MS: ant soðe sunne schineð. A te (the reduced form of þe after a preceding dental) has apparently fallen out between ant and soðe, as Tolkien points out (p. 126, fol. 66v, line 18). [Cleo.: ant þe soðe sune schineð; Titus: ant te soðe sunne schines; Nero: ant te soðe sunne þet is iesu crist schineð; Vernon: And þe soþe sonne schyneþ; Pepys: And so doþe þe soþ sunne; Caius (lacking); Vitellius: et le verrai solailz lust; Trinity: e li uerai solail lust; Lat.: et verus sol postmodum clarius splendet.]

819 toward h[e]ovene. MS: toward houene. A clear mistake for heouene. [Cleo.: towart heouene; Titus: toward heuene; Nero: touward heouene; Vernon: touward heuene; Pepys (recast): perceþ heuen; Caius (lacking).]

835 the hali halhen alle overcomen. MS: þe hali halhen al/hen alle ouercomen. As Tolkien notes, and the other versions confirm, halhen alhen alle is most likely a copying error for halhen alle (p. 126, fol. 67r, lines 16-17). [Cleo.: þe hali hale3en alle ouercomen; Titus: Þe hali halhes alle ouercomen; Nero: alle ðe holie haluwen ouercomen; Vernon: þe holy halewen. alle ouercomen; Pepys: Þise holy halewen ouercomen; Caius (lacking); Vitellius: les seinz touz venqirent; Trinity: les seinz hommes uenquirent; Lat. (lacking).]

846 f[e]or ha hefde heone-ward hire bileave ehe. MS: for ha hefde heoneward hire bileaue ehe. Tolkien suggests that for reads better as feor "far" (p. 127, fol. 167v, line 3), a reading corroborated by Cleo., Nero, and Vitellius. [Cleo.: feor ha hefde heoneward hire bileaue ech3e; Titus: for he hafde heoðenward hire bileaue ehe; Nero: ful ueor heo hefde heoneward hire eien of bileaue; Vernon: for heo hedde heneward hire bileeue ei3e; Pepys (recast): an ancre had almest lorne þe ei3e of hir bileue for a quayer þat on of hire susters wolde haue borowed at hir and sche nolde nou3th lene it hir; Caius: feor he haued heneward his bi leaue ehe; Vitellius: il auoit loinz deci loil de sa creance; Trinity: il ne ad pas regard asez nostre seignur par le oil de fei; Lat. (lacking).]

847 thr[e]o-fald. MS: þrofald. A mistake for þreofald. [Cleo.: þreofald; Titus: þreo fald; Nero: þreo uold; Vernon: þreofold; Pepys: þrefold; Caius: þreofold.]

856 In hoc cognoscetis quod dicipuli mei sitis. MS: In hoc cognoscetis quoð discipuli mei sitis. Though the Vulgate reads quia where Corpus has the clearly mistaken quoð ("said" in ME), the form is emended to quod here and in 4.859 where it appears again. [Cleo: In hoc cognoscitis quod dicipuli mei sitis; Titus: In hoc cognoscetis quod discipuli mei sitis; Nero: In hoc cognoscetis quia discipuli mei sitis; Vernon: In hoc cognoscetis quod discipuli mei estis; Pepys: In hoc cognoscetis si discipuli mei sitis; Caius: In hoc cognoscetis quod discipuli mei sitis; Vitellius: In hoc cognoscetis; quod discipuli mei sitis; Trinity: In hoc inquit cognoscent omnes homines quod uere mei discipuli estis; Lat.: In hoc cognoscent homines quod discipuli mei estis.]

882 the beoth i-nempnet th'ruppe. MS: þe beoð itemptet þruppe. As Tolkien points out and the other versions confirm, itemptet "tempted" is a clear mistake for inempnet "named." [Cleo.: þe beoð inempned þeruppe; Titus: þet arn inempnet þruppe; Nero: ðet beoð inemmed þer uppe; Vernon: þat beoþ inempnet þeruppe; Pepys (lacking); Caius: þat beod inemned þer uppe; Vitellius: qe sunt auant nomez la sus; Trinity (lacking); Lat.: supra sub accidia nominata.]

917-18 MS: god ow mutli. It is tempting, with Tolkien (p. 130, fol. 69r, line 15) to emend mutli to the more standard form mucli "to increase," since it seems to contain a plausible error: c and t have very similar forms in Corpus. However, Bennett and Smithers think the spelling is the result of a phonological process - see Textual Note to 4.1445-46 below [all other versions lack this section].

945 Euch, no-the-le[s], warni. MS: Euch noðele warni. The scribe failed to complete noðele[s]. [Cleo.: euchan noðeles warne; Titus: Euchan naðeles warni; Nero: euerich noðeleas warnie; Vernon: Uche noþeles warne oþer; Pepys (recast); Caius: Euch noþeles warni.]

957 MS: þet euch of ow luuie oþer. As Tolkien indicates, other authoritative versions have leve "trust" where Corpus has luuie "love." However, since the text makes good sense, luuie may well represent a revision and thus is retained (p. 132, fol. 70r, line 12). [Cleo.: þet euch of ow luuie oþer; Titus (lacking); Nero: ðet euerich of ou i leue oðer; Vernon: þet uche of ow. leeue oþer; as hire owne seluen; Pepys (lacking); Caius: and luuie as him seoluen; Vitellius: qe chescune de vous creie altre; Trinity: e lui autre creit alui si come a lui memes; Lat.: quod quelibet alteri credat tanquam sibi.]

999-1000 ne moste he habben a grot for-te deien upon. MS: ne moste he habben a greot forte deien up on. The word greot "sand" is most likely a mistake for grot "fragment, particle" (Tolkien, p. 133, fol. 71r, line 14). [Cleo.: ne moste he habben agrot forto dei3en upon; Titus: ne moste he habben a grot for to deien upon; Nero: ne moste he habben agrot forte deien uppon; Vernon: ne moste he habben a greot forte dyen onne; Pepys: of nou3th ne hadde bot a fote of erþe to dyen opon; Caius: ne moste he habben agrot forte deien up on; Vitellius: ne poeit il auer vne bleste pur morir sure; Trinity: ne poeit li sire de totes terres point auer amorir sure; Lat.: non habuit aliquid in quo moreretur.]

1023 ich habbe i-herd of swuch. MS: ich habbe iherd þetof swuch. As Tolkien points out, the abbreviation for þet which immediately precedes of must be a mistaken addition (p. 134, fol. 71v, line 18). The concordance (p. xiii) reads þet of as þer of, though this compound is unnecessary given the following object, swuch "such a one" [all other versions lack this section].

1031 non fatiget[is]. MS: non fatiget. Although the Vulgate has fatigemini "you (pl.) will grow weary," it seems best to read MS fatiget as an incomplete form of fatiget[is] "you (sing.) will grow weary" (Tolkien, p. 135, fol. 72r, line 1). [Cleo.: non fatigemini; Titus: non fatigemini; Nero: non fatigetis; Vernon: non fatigetis; Pepys: non fatiget; Caius: non fatigemini; Vitellius: fatigemini; Trinity: non fatigemini; Lat.: non fatigaremini (Magdalen 67: fatigemini).]

1034-36 athet te schedunge of ower blod," [as he dude of his for ow - ayeines him-seolven, anont he mon wes of ure cunde. Yet ye habbeth thet ilke blod], the[t] ilke blisfule bodi. MS: aþet te schedunge of ower blod. þe ilke blisfule bodi. As Tolkien notes, Corpus omits part of a sentence here, skipping from one blod to the next and leaving out the text in between (p. 135, fol. 72r, line 5). The missing text (necessary to complete the sense) is supplied from Cleo. and MS the is emended to thet. [Cleo.: oðet schedunge of ower blod. as he dude of his for ow a3eines him seoluen anont þet he mon wes of ure cunde 3et 3e habbeð þet ilke blod þet ilke blisfule bodi; Titus: aðat te scheadinge of ower blod as he dude of his for ow a3aines himseluen onont þet he mon was of ure cunde. 3et 3e ha(bben) þet ilke blod. þet ilke blisfule bodi; Nero: ðet þe schedunge of ower blode. ase he dude of his for ou; a3eines him suluen. ononte ðet he was mon of ure kunde. and 3et 3e habbeð þet ilke blod. ant tet ilke blisfule bodi; Vernon: anont þe scheding of oure blood. as he dude of his for ow. a3eynes him seluen. anont þet he mon was. of ure kuynde ¶ 3it 3e habbeþ. þat ilke blod. þat ilke blisfole bodi; Pepys: tyl schedyng of 3oure blode. as he dude for vs. wil we clepe hym to help he is euer redy biforne vs atte Messe and scheweþ hym as þei3 he seide; Caius: aþet þe shedunge of ower blod. as he dude of his for ow. ageines him seoluen onont þat he mon wes of ure cunde. get ge habbeð þat ilke bloð. þat ilke blisfule bodi; Vitellius: desqe al espandre de vostre sang sicome il fist del seon pur vous (encontre) sei meismes endroit de c(eo qil) fut homme de nostre nature. Vnquore auez vous cel mei(s)me sang cel meisme gloriouse corps; Trinity: deske al espandre de uostre sanc. ausi com il espandi soen sanc pur nus . . . Oncore aues vus en le sacrement del auter soen precious sanc e soen beneit cors; Lat.: v[sque] ad sanguinis effusionem, sicut ipse fecit pro uobis quatenus homo erat. Ad huc habetis eundem sanguinem, idem gloriosum corpus.]

1039-40 MS: on oþres lite under breades furme. Though Tolkien thinks lite "color" a mistake for liche "likeness, appearance" (p. 135, fol. 72r, line 9), the word lite can be traced to ON litr "color," and is a legitimate word (see also litunge ["painting, coloring"]). It may be that lite has been influenced by its cognate form wlite (see glossary) which can mean both "color" and "appearance, form." [Cleo.: on oðeres liche under breades furme; Titus: on oðres liche vnder breades furme; Nero: in oðres like; under breades heowe; Vernon: bitornd þauh also under bredes foorme; Pepys (lacking); Caius: an oþer liche under breades furme; Vitellius: en altrui colour desouz la especie de pain; Trinity: nekedent de sur la forme de pain; Lat.: tectum et velatum sub forma panis.]

1051 beginneth the deovel to weden. MS: biginneð þe deovel to lihen weden. The scribe first wrote lihen ("to lie or deceive") but crossed it out and wrote weden. This change brings Corpus into line with the other manuscripts: "the devil begins to rage." [Cleo.: bigineð þe deoflen to weden.]

1057 In Paralipomenis. MS: IN parabolis. Tolkien: "wrongly for paralipomenon, or -is" (p. 136, fol. 72v, line 1). [Cleo.: Inparalipomenon; Titus: In paralipomenon; Nero: In parabolis; Vernon: In parabolis; Pepys (lacking); Caius: In parabolis; Vitellius: In parabolis; Trinity: In libro enim paralipomenon; Lat.: Paralipo-menorum.]

1075-76 ye schulen [seon] mi sucurs. MS: 3e schulen stonden sikerliche mi sucurs. The scribe has canceled stonden sikerliche ("stand confidently") which seems to be repeated from the previous phrase. As Tolkien points out (p. 137, fol. 72v, line 24), the word seon ("to see") has been replaced by this mistaken repetition and is restored here. [Cleo.: 3e schule seon mi sucurs; Titus: and 3e schulen seo mi sucurs; Nero: 3e schulen haben mi sukurs; Vernon: 3e schulen ise myne socours; Pepys (lacking); Caius: ge schulen seon mi sucurs.]

1090 ha dude a sunne i the il[ke] niht. MS: ha dude a sunne in þe il/ niht. The scribe has apparently failed to complete the last word in the line: il[ke] (Tolkien, p. 137, fol. 73r, lines 14-15). [Cleo.: ha dude an sunne in þe nicht; Titus (lacking); Nero: heo dude one swuche sunne i ðet ilke niht; Vernon: he dude a sunne iþe niht; Pepys (lacking); Caius: ha dude a sunne iþe nicht; Vitellius: ele fist vn pecche en la nuit; Trinity (lacking); Lat.: vna nocte per temptationem peccatum commisit.]

1099-1100 MS: þe wið swilli gest hardiliche ne fehteð. Though Tolkien thinks that the form swilli is a mistake for the more usual þulli or swuch, both meaning "such" (p. 138, fol. 73r, line 26), Zettersten makes the plausible case that swilli is probably a blending of OE forms of these two words: þyllic and swilc (p. 106). [Cleo. (lacking); Titus: þet wið þulli Gast hardiliche ne fihteð; Nero: ðet wið swuche gost herdeliche ne uihteh; Vernon: þet wiþ such a blessed gost. hardiliche ne fihteþ; Pepys (lacking); Caius: wid þulli gest herdiliche ne fechteð; Vitellius: qi od . . . hardiement ne combatent; Trinity: ke ne combatent hardiement en contre le maligne spirit; Lat.: qui cum adiutorio talis hospitis audacter non pugnant.]

1105 as thah hit were o Godes half. MS: ah þah hit were o godes half. As Tolkien points out and the other versions confirm, ah should probably read as (p. 138, fol. 73v, line 5). [Cleo.: as þach hit were on godes half; Titus: as þah were o godes half; Nero: ase þauh hit were a godes halue; Vernon: As þau3 hit weore a godes halue; Pepys (lacking); Caius: As þat hit were o godes half; Vitellius: ausi come (s)il fust de part dieu; Trinity: de par deu; Lat.: tanquam essent ex parte Dei.]

1107 thet haveth moni hali mon grimliche biyulet. MS: þet he haueð moni hali mon grimliche bi3ulet. The readings in Cleo., Vitellius, and Lat., which omit Corpus' apparently mistaken he, make better sense (Tolkien, p. 138, 73v, line 7) than Corpus, and thus he is omitted here. [Cleo.: þet haueð Moni halimon grimliche bi3euled; Titus: þet he haueð wið. moni hali mon grimliche biGulet; Nero: þet he haueð monie holie men grimliche bi3uleð; Vernon: þat he haþ mony holy men. gimliche (sic) bigiled; Pepys: For þe fende haþ many bigiled þere þorou3; Caius: þat he haued moni hali men grimliche ibuled; Vitellius: qad meinte seint hom horriblement deceu; Trinity: par ont il li ad meint seint homme e femme greuousement deceu; Lat.: per quam multos sanctos decepit.]

1119 yef thet [tu] maht wakien wel. MS: 3ef þet maht wakien wel. Tolkien's suggestion (that the abbreviation for þet should read þu or, more likely, þet tu - p. 139, fol. 73v, line 23) is supported by Cleo. and Nero and thus adopted here. Though the other readings include the personal ending for the second-person singular, maht is the usual form in Corpus' language - in fact, mahtest occurs only once, and only when separated from the pronoun (see 5.67). [Cleo.: 3ef þet þu machtest wakien wel; Titus: 3if þu mihtes waken wel; Nero: 3if þet tu muhtest wel wakien; Vernon: 3if þu mouhtest waken wel; Pepys (lacking); Caius: gif þat þu mahtest wakien wel; Vitellius: si vous pensez bien veiller; Trinity: se il uout ke vus poez bien uelier; Lat.: Si bene poteris vigilare.]

1133 ant comen Recabes sunen. MS: ant comer recabes sunen. As Tolkien points out, comer is a clear mistake for comen (p. 139, fol. 74r, line 12). [Cleo.: ant Comen Re(cabes) sune(n); Titus: and comen Recabes sunes; Nero: ant comen recabes sunen; Vernon: And coomen Recabus sones; Pepys: And þan com recasbesones (sic); Caius: and comen racabes sunes; Vitellius: et vindrent les fiz Rechabee; Trinity: e vindrunt les fiz recab; Lat.: Venerunt filij Rechabes.]

1138-39 schaden the eilen ant te chef. MS: schaden þe eilen ant te ant te chef. The scribe inadvertently repeats ant te, a repetition which is removed here. [Cleo.: schade þe eilen ant þe chef; Titus: Scheaden þe eiles ant te chaf; Nero: scheaden ðe eilen ant tet chef; Vernon: scheden þe eilen from þe chaf; Pepys: departen þe whete fram þe chaf; Caius: Sheaden þe eilen and þe chef; Vitellius: seuerir les arestes et la paille; Trinity: seuerir e de partir la uaspail du net ble; Lat.: separare granum a palea.]

1147 unwaker, ant swa nesche yete-ward. MS: unwaker. ant swa nesfhe 3eteward. Tolkien: "nesfhe, sic, but f is probably alteration of tall s to c, without erasure of top" (p. 140, fol. 74v, line 2). [Cleo.: unwaker ant swa nesche 3etewart; Titus: vnwaker. ant se nesch 3ateward; Nero: unwaker ant so nesche 3eteward; Vernon: so unwakere. and so nessche 3ateward; Pepys (lacking); Caius: unwaker and se neshe geteward.]

1150 In i[n]guine. MS: In iguine. A mistake for in inguine (Tolkien, p. 140, fol. 74v, line 6). [Cleo.: In ingwine; Titus: In inguine; Nero: Ininguine; Vernon: In ing(i)ne; Pepys: Igniuie; Caius: In inguine; Vitellius: In inguine; Trinity: In inguine; Lat.: In ynguine.]

1186-87 MS: þench o þe attri pine þet godd dronc o þe rode. Tolkien apparently follows Nero here in suggesting that Corpus' dronc is a mistake for droh "suffered" (p. 142, fol. 75r, line 21). However, every version except Cleo. and Nero supports Corpus' dronc - the witness of Vernon and Vitellius carry particular weight. Though droh would make better literal sense, the meaning here is figurative. [Cleo.: þench on þe attri pine þe god drong on þe rode; Titus (lacking); Nero: þench o þe attrie pinen ðet god suffrede o ðe rode; Vernon: þench on þe attri pynen þat God dronk o þe roode; Pepys: þench on attry pyne þat Ihesus drank opon þe rode; Caius: þench o þe eattri pinen þat god dronc o þe rode; Vitellius: pensez de la venimouse peine dunt nostre seignour beut en la croiz; Trinity: pensez enterinement tantost de la grant peine ke deu soffri pur vus en la seinte croiz; Lat.: cogita de amaris penis Christi quas bibit in cruce.]

1194 MS: freo heorte. þet is to seggen. Nu of þe earste. The phrase þet is to seggen ("that is to say") occurs in no other version. Generally, this phrase introduces a subsequent explanation or clarification which is lacking here. Though it might be that the phrase is a mistaken addition, from eye-skip back to heorte in fol. 75r, line 20, frommard te heorte. þet is to seggen. þench o þe attri pine (line 1186), it is possible to make reasonably good sense of the phrase: "It [i.e., the following] is to be said [passive inf.] now first of all concerning the first [of these remedies]." [Cleo.: freo heorte. Nu of þe earste; Titus (lacking); Nero: ureo heorte. nu of ðe uorme; Vernon: freo herte Now aller furst. at þe bigynninge; Pepys (recast); Caius: freo heorte. Nu of þe eareste on alre earest; Vitellius: franc queor. Ore de la primere tout al comencement; Trinity (lacking); Lat.: cor liberale. Nunc de primo.]

1203-04 MS: nart tu fulðe fette. Tolkien would bring Corpus into agreement with the other versions by emending fette ("vat") to fetles ("vessel") (p. 142, fol. 75v, line 14). Dobson describes the reading in Cleo.: "Between lines, beginning over l of fulðe, B writes oðer vetles (alternative, or gloss, to vette)" (p. 203, note a). There seems to be no reason to emend, however, since fette, derived from OE fæt "vat, vessel," makes perfectly good sense. [Cleo.: Nart þu nu fulðe vette (oðer vetles); Titus (lacking); Nero: nert tu mid fulðe al i fulled; Vernon: Nartou fulþe uessel; Pepys (lacking); Caius: Nartu fulþe fette; Vitellius: Nestes vous ore vessel dordure; Trinity: ne estes vus uessel de soilleure e de feens; Lat.: Nonne es vas sordium.]

1216-17 For ofte thet tu wenest god. MS: for ofte þet tu wenest godd. As Tolkien suggests, godd (the usual form of "God") is emended to god "good" (p. 143, fol. 76r, line 2). [Cleo.: for ofte þet þu wenest good; Titus: for ofte þet tu wenes God; Nero: vor ofte ðet tu wenest þet beo god; Vernon: ffor ofte þat þu wenest beo good; Pepys (lacking); Caius: for ofte þat þu wenest god; Vitellius: kar souent ceo qe vous quidez qe soit bien; Trinity: kar souent ceo ke vus quidez ke est bien; Lat.: quia sepe quod putas bonum.]

1226 thet [is], "Alswa as prude is wilnunge. MS: þet alswa as prude is wilnunge. An is is supplied after þet to complete the sense - no other version contains a þet, and it is possible that it is a mistaken or incomplete addition. [Cleo.: Alswa as prude is wilnunge; Titus: Al swa se prude is wilninge; Nero: also ase prude is wilnunge of wurðschipe; Vernon: Also as prude. is wilnynge of worþschupe; Pepys: Also as pride is willyng of worschipp; Caius: Alswa as prude is winunge of wurdshipe; Vitellius: Ausi come orgoil est desir; Trinity: ausi com orgoil est vn amur de sa propre hautesce; Lat. (lacking).]

1237-38 Seint Cassiodre hit witneth. MS: Seint Cassi/oðre hit witneð. Tolkien: "not [a] normal ð" (p. 144, fol. 76r, line 28). [Cleo.: Seint Cassiodre hit witneð; Titus: Sein Cassiodre; Nero: Seint cassiodere; Vernon: Seint Cassiodre; Pepys: cassiodorus; Caius: Seint cassiodere; Vitellius: Seint cassiodre; Trinity: cassiodre; Lat.: Cassiodorus.]

1239 Ubi humilitas, ibi sapientia. MS: Vbi humilitas; ibi humilitas; ibi sapientia. The phrase ibi humilitas is a false repetition, as Tolkien observes (p. 144, fol. 76v, lines 1-2) - it is removed here. [Cleo.: vbi humilitas ibi sapiencia; Titus: Vbi humiltas; ibi sapientia; Nero: vbi humilitas ibi sapiencia; Vernon: Ubi humilitas ibi sapiencia; Pepys: Vbi humilitas. ibi sapiencia; Caius: Vbi humilitas ibi sapiencia; Vitellius: Vbi humilitas; ibi sapiencia; Trinity: Vbi humilitas. ibi sapiencia; Lat.: Vbi humilitas, ibi sapiencia.]

1264-65 MS: ah flowinde 3eotteð weallen of his graces. Tolkien, with an eye on Nero, thinks that the double t of 3eotteð is a mistake (p. 145, fol. 77r, line 4). Since it corroborated by Cleo., however, the spelling of 3eotteð with two t's is retained. [Cleo.: Ach flowinde 3eotteð wellen of his graces; Titus: ah flowinde wattres walles of his grace; Nero: auh 3eoteð vlowinde wellen of his grace; Vernon: ac flowynde stremed wellen of his grace; Pepys: ac foloweand he heldeþ in hem his grace; Caius: Ah flowinde geoted wellen of his grace; Vitellius: mes espand par grant cours les fontaignes de sa grace; Trinity: mes fet par funteines decorans; Lat.: sed habundanter influit fontes suarum graciarum.]

1273-74 Sulement luve [h]is god. MS: Sulement luue is god. Though it might be possible to make sense of is here, the following þrof suggests that the best reading, following Cleo., Vitellius, Lat., and Titus, is his. Since Corpus does not use is for "his," the spelling is emended here. [Cleo.: Sulement luue his god; Titus: Sulement luue his god; Nero: Sulement luue is god; Vernon: Outerliche loue is good; Pepys: Loue oþere Mennes gode; Caius: Sulement luue is god; Vitellius: Soulement amez son bien; Trinity: Amez donc autri bien; Lat.: Solum ama bonum eius.]

1309 MS: wrekeð him. o þe oðer on him seoluen. Tolkien: "on: false addition" (p. 147, fol. 78r, line 1). Following Tolkien and on the authority of Cleo. and Vitellius, it seems attractive to remove the on before him seoluen, but it is possible to make good, though slightly difficult, sense of the Corpus reading, and thus it is retained here, and can be translated as "avenges himself on the other by himself." [Cleo.: wrekeð him o þe oðer him seoluen; Titus: wrekes him o þe oðer on him seluen; Nero: ant awrekeð him of þe. oðer of him suluen; Vernon: and awrekeþ him. or þet day come; Pepys: þat demes þe or þat day come; Caius: awreked him oþe oþer on him seoluen; Vitellius: se venge sur laltre. il meismes; Trinity: euenge sei memes del autre; Lat.: se de alio vindicat.]

1312-13 hwet woh se me deth the: [the richtwise deme haveth i-set te dei to loki richt bitwenen ow.] Ne do thu nawt him scheome. MS: hwet woh se me deð þe. ne do þu nawt him scheome. Tolkien: "after deð þe twelve words referring to Judge (him) omitted" (p. 147, fol. 78r, line 4). The text is restored, with one emendation, from Cleo. [Cleo.: hwet woch seme doð þe. Þe richtwise deme haueð iset todei to loki richt bitwenen ow. no do þu naut him scheome; Titus: hwat who se mon dos te. þe rihtwise deme haues iset te dai to don riht bitwenen ow. Ne do þu him nawt schome; Nero: hwat wouh so me euer doð þe. þe rihtwise demare haueð iset enne dei uorte loken riht bitweonen ou. ne do ðu nout him scheome; Vernon: What harm so me doþ þe. þe ri3twyse demere. haþ i.set þulke day; to loken riht bitwenen ou. Ne do þu not him schome; Pepys (lacking); Caius: hwet woh þat me ded þe, þe rihtwise demere haued iset þene dai to lokin riht bitweonen ow. Ne do þu him nawt shome; Vitellius: qel tort qe len vous face. li droiturel iuge ad assis le iour de esgardier droit entre vous. Ne li fetes pas honte; Trinity: ke lem vus mes face ore en ceo secle isci. kar li dreiturel iuge ad assis le iour a fere dreit entre vus e uostre mesfesour. Ne lui facet point de hontage; Lat.: quecumque tibi fiat iniuria. Justus et sapiens iudex diem prefixit ad ius discernendum inter vos. Non iniurieris ei desperando.]

1333 for as Sein Gregoire seith. MS: for as as sein Gregoire seið. The scribe mistakenly repeats as (Tolkien, p. 148, fol. 78r, line 28).

1388-89 with his deore-wurthe blod biblodge thin heorte. MS: wið his deorewurðe blod biblod/de þin heorte. Tolkien is probably right in observing that biblodde should read biblodge (p. 151, fol. 79v, lines 13-14), an idea supported by Zettersten (p. 215) and suggested by OE blodegian "to make bloody." [Cleo.: biblodgede; Titus: biblodeke; Nero: biblodege; Vernon: biblodgi; Pepys (recast); Caius: biblodege.]

1390 hud te i the dolven eorthe. MS: hud te i þe deoluen eorðe. The context requires dolven "hollowed out," the past participle (acting as an adj.), rather than the deolven "to dig out," the infinitive (see Tolkien, p. 151, fol. 79v, line 15). [Cleo.: hud þe in þe doluen eorðe; Titus: huid te þu (sic) doluen i þe eorðe; Nero: hud þe i ðe doluene eorðe; Vernon: huid þe in þe doluene eorþe; Pepys: crepe in to þe doluen erþe; Caius: hud þe iþe doluen eorðe; Vitellius: muscez vous en la terre foue; Trinity: muscez vus en la terre fuie; Lat.: abscondere fossa humo.]

1418-19 Yef thu thus ne dest nawt, [ah] slepinde werest te. MS: 3ef þu þus ne dest nawt; / slepinde werest te. Almost certainly an ah has been inadvertently dropped before slepinde, probably because of the line break (Tolkien, p. 152, fol. 80r, line 25) - it is restored here. [Cleo.: 3ef þu þus ne dest naut. Ach slepinde werest þe; Titus: 3if þu þus ne dost nawt. ah slepende wereste; Nero: ant 3if þu þus ne dest nout. auh slepinde werest ðe; Vernon: 3if þu þus ne dest not. ac slepynge werest þe; Pepys: 3if þou werest þe slepeande he wil come vpe þe for delytt; Caius: gif þu þus ne dest nawt. Ah slepinde werest þe; Vitellius: Si vous issi ne fetes; mes en dormant vous defendez; Trinity: Si vus issi nel facet; mes ausi com en dormant us defendez; Lat.: Si sic non facis, si quasi dormiens te defendis.]

1427-28 the withhalt hire on earst, ant tobreketh [to] the stan the earste sturunges, hwen the flesch ariseth, hwil thet ha beoth. MS: þe wið / halt hire on earst. ant tobrekeð þe stan. þe earste sturunges beoð. The text as it stands reads, "and breaks the stone, which are the first stirrings." Apparently the scribe, after leaving out a to after tobrekeð, reinterpreted the following phrase as a relative clause and inserted beoth to complete it. Most other versions read "and shatter the first stirrings on the stone." Tolkien: "to omitted after tobrekeð; beoð falsely inserted after sturunges" (p. 152, fol. 80v, lines 7-9). The most authoritative versions follow Tolkien's reading, and thus it is restored here, especially since beoth (pl.) refers only awkwardly to stan (sing.). [Cleo.: þe wið halt hire on earest. ant to brekeð to þe stan þe earste sturunges; Titus: þet wið haldes him on earst. ant to breokes to þe stan þe earste sturinges; Nero: ðet wiðhalt hire on erest and tobrekeð to ðe stone ðe ereste sturunges; Vernon: þat wiþ stont hire atte biginninge. and to brekeþ to þe ston þe furste sturynges; Pepys: þat brekeþ to þe ston atte first skirminge; Caius: þe wid halt him anerest. and to breked to þe stan; þe eareste surunge; Vitellius: se tient al comencemen(t et . . . ) pesce a la piere les primers moeuementz; Trinity: se detient au comencement; e depiece alapiere les premers pointures; Lat.: ab incio abstinet et primos motus carnis insurgentes allidit ad petram.]

1445-46 MS: ant mutleð his beali bleas. Though Tolkien thinks that mutleð a mistake (p. 153, fol. 81r, line 4 - see also Textual Note to 4.917-18), it appears to be a genuine spelling, and so is retained here. Of the form "mutli," Bennett and Smithers comment, "examples of this form are restricted to the 'Katherine Group'. Cf. mutleð in Ancrene Wisse f. 81a.4; mutli in St. Juliene 174; and muclin in St. Marherete 34.28 . . . . It is evidently a form of mucli, much(e)lin. However, it is probably not the product of the standard palæographical error of writing t for c (or vice versa), but a phonetically significant spelling and an early example of the tendency for [k] to become [t] before l or n (for which see E. J. Dobson, English Pronunciation, ii, § 378)" (p. 409n223). [Cleo.: Mudleð his bali bles; Titus: muccles his balies; Nero: mucheleð his beli bles; Vernon: and mucheleþ his baly bles; Pepys (lacking); Caius: and mucheled his bali bles; Vitellius: li diable soefle del houre quil primes nest. de ses fols et apres toutz iours sicome il crest; Trinity: li dyable la soffle. e la norist e le crest plus e plus e enflamme tot le cors; Lat.: et flatum suum auget.]






















 
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Ancrene Wisse: Part Four

from: Ancrene Wisse  2000







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Part Four

Temptations


Ne wene nan of heh lif thet ha ne beo i-temptet: mare beoth the gode, the
beoth i-clumben hehe, i-temptet then the wake - ant thet is reisun. For se
the hul is herre, se the wind is mare th'ron. Se the hul is herre of hali lif
ant of heh, se the feondes puffes - the windes of fondunges - beoth strengre
th'ron ant mare. Yef ei ancre is the ne veleth nane fondunges, swithe drede i thet
puint thet ha beo over-muchel ant over-swithe i-fondet. For swa Sein Gregoire
seith: Tunc maxime inpugnaris cum te inpugnari non sentis. Sec mon haveth
twa estaz swithe dredfule: thet an is hwen he ne feleth nawt his ahne secnesse, ant
for-thi ne secheth nawt leche ne lechecreft, ne easketh na-mon read, ant asteorveth
ferliche ear me least wene. This is the ancre the nat nawt hwet is fondunge. To
theos speketh the engel i the Apocalipse: Dicis quia dives sum et nullius egeo, et
nescis quia miser es et nudus, et pauper et cecus. "Thu seist the nis neod na
medecine, ah thu art blind i-heortet, ne ne sist nawt hu thu art povre ant naket of
halinesse ant gastelich wrecche." Thet other dredfule estat thet te seke haveth is al
frommard this. Thet is hwen he feleth se muchel angoise thet he ne mei tholien
thet me hondli his sar ne thet me him heale. This is sum ancre the feleth se swithe
hire fondunges ant is se sare ofdred thet na gastelich cunfort ne mei hire gleadien
ne makien to understonden thet ha mahe ant schule thurh ham the betere beon i-
borhen. Ne teleth hit i the Godspel thet te Hali Gast leadde ure Laverd seolf into
anlich stude, to leaden anlich lif for-te beon i-temptet of the unwine of helle?
Ductus est Jesus in desertum a spiritu ut temptaretur a diabolo. Ah his
temptatiun - the ne mahte sunegin - wes ane withuten.
    Understondeth thenne on alre earst, leove sustren, thet twa cunne temptatiuns,
twa cunne fondunges beoth - uttre ant inre, ant ba beoth feole-valde. Uttre
fondunge is hwer-of kimeth licunge other mislicunge withuten other withinnen.
Mislicunge withuten: ase secnesse, meoseise, scheome, unhap, ant euch licomlich
derf thet te flesch eileth. Withinnen: heorte sar, grome - ant wreaththe alswa,
onont thet ha is pine. Licunge withuten: licomes heale, mete, drunch, clath inoh
ant euch flesches eise onont swucche thinges. Licunge withinnen: as sum fals
gleadschipe other of monne here-word, other yef me is i-luvet mare then an-other,
mare i-olhnet, mare i-don god other menske. This dale of this temptatiun thet is
uttre i-cleopet, is swikelure then the other half. Ba beoth a temptatiun ant, either
withinnen ant withuten, bathe of hire twa dalen. Ah ha is uttre i-cleopet, for ha is
eaver other i thing withuten other of thing withuten, ant te uttre thing is the
fondunge. Theos fondunge kimeth other-hwile of Godd, of mon other-hwiles. Of
Godd: as of freondes death, secnesse other on ham other o the-seolven, poverte,
mishapnunge, ant othre swucche, heale alswa ant eise.
    Of mon: as mislich woh - other of word other of werc, o the other, o thine -
alswa here-word other god-dede. Theos cumeth alswa of Godd, ah nawt as doth
the othre, withuten euch middel. Ah with alle he fondeth mon hu he him drede ant
luvie. Inre fondunges beoth misliche untheawes, other lust towart ham other thohtes
swikele, the thuncheth thah gode. Theos inre fondunge kimeth of the feond, of the
world, of ure flesch other-hwile. To the uttre temptatiun is neod patience - thet
is, tholemodnesse. To the inre is neod wisdom ant gastelich strengthe. We schulen
nu speoken of the uttre ant teachen theo the habbeth hire, hu ha mahen with Godes
grace i-finde remedie - thet is, elne ayeines hire to frovrin ham-seolven.
    Beatus vir, qui suffert temptationem, quoniam cum probatus fuerit, accipiet
coronam vite quam repromisit Deus diligentibus se
. "Eadi is ant seli the haveth
i temptatiun tholemodnesse, for hwen ha is i-pruvet," hit seith, "ha schal beon i-
crunet mid te crune of lif the Godd haveth bihaten his leove i-corene." "Hwen ha
is i-pru[v]et," hit seith. Wel is hit i-seid, for alswa pruveth Godd his leove i-
corene, as the golt-smith fondeth thet gold i the fure. Thet false gold forwurtheth
th'rin; thet gode kimeth ut brihtre. Secnesse is a brune hat for-te tholien, ah na
thing ne clenseth gold as hit deth the sawle.
    Secnesse thet Godd send - nawt thet sum lecheth thurh hire ahne dusi-schipe
- deth theose six thinges: (i) wescheth the sunnen the beoth ear i-wrahte, (ii)
wardeth toyein theo the weren towardes, (iii) pruveth pacience, (iiii) halt in
eadmodnesse, (v) muchleth the mede, [vi] eveneth to martir thene tholemode.
Thus is secnesse sawlene heale, salve of hire wunden, scheld, thet ha ne kecche
ma, as Godd sith thet ha schulde, yef secnesse hit ne lette. Secnesse maketh mon
to understonden hwet he is, to cnawen him-seolven - ant, as god meister, beat
for-te leorni wel hu mihti is Godd, hu frakel is the worldes blisse. Secnesse is thi
gold-smith the i the blisse of heovene overguldeth thi crune. Se the secnesse is
mare, se the golt-smith is bisgre, ant se hit lengre least, se he brihteth hire swithere
to beo martirs evening thurh a hwilinde wa. Hwet is mare grace to theo the hefde
ofearnet the pinen of helle, world abuten ende? Nalde me tellen him alre monne
dusegest, the forseke a buffet for a speres wunde? a nelde pricchunge for an
bihefdunge? a beatunge for an hongunge on helle weari-treo, aa on ecnesse? Godd
hit wat, leove sustren, al the wa of this world is i-evenet to helle alre leaste pine.
Al nis bute bal-plohe. Al nis nawt swa muchel as is a lutel deawes drope toyeines
the brade sea ant alle worldes weattres. The mei thenne edstearten thet ilke grisliche
wa, the eateliche pinen thurh secnesse thet ageath, thurh ei uvel thet her is, seliliche
mei ha seggen.
    On other half leornith moni-valde frovren ayein the uttre fondunge the kimeth
of monnes uvel, for theos, the ich habbe i-seid of, is of Godes sonde. Hwa-se
eaver misseith the other misdeth the - nim yeme ant understond thet he is thi vile
the lorimers habbeth ant fileth al thi rust awei ant ti ruhe of sunne. For he fret
him-seolven, weilawei, as the file deth, ah he maketh smethe ant brihteth thi sawle.
    On other wise thench hwa-se-eaver hearmeth the other eni wa deth the, scheome,
grome, teone - he is Godes yerde. For swa he seith thurh Sein Juhanes muth i the
Apocalipse: Ego quos amo arguo et castigo. "Ne beat he nan bute hwam-se he
luveth ant halt for his dohter," na-mare then thu waldest beaten a fremede child
thah hit al gulte. Ah nawt ne leote he wel of thet is Godes yerde, for as the feader
hwen he haveth inoh i-beaten his child ant haveth hit i-tuht wel, warpeth the
yerde i the fur, for ha nis noht na-mare, alswa the Feder of heovene hwen he
haveth i-beaten with an unwreast mon other an unwrest wummon his leove child
for his god, he warpeth the yerde - thet is, the unwreste - into the fur of helle.
For-thi he seith elles-hwer, Michi vindictam; ego retribuam - thet is, "min is
the wrake: ich chulle yelden," as thah he seide, "ne wreoke ye nawt ow-seolven,
ne grucchi ye ne wearien hwen me gulteth with ow, ah thencheth anan thet he is
ower feadres yerde ant thet he wule yelden him yerde servise." Ant nis thet child
ful-itohen thet scratleth ayein ant bit up-o the yerde? Thet deboneire child hwen
hit is i-beaten, yef the feader hat hit, hit cusseth the yerde - ant ye don alswa,
mine leove sustren. For swa hat ower feader thet ye cussen nawt with muth, ah
with luve of heorte theo the he ow with beateth. Diligite inimicos vestros.
Benefacite hiis qui oderunt vos et orate pro persequentibus et calumpniantibus
vos
. This is Godes heste, thet him is muchel leovre then thet tu eote gruttene bred
other weredest hearde here: "luvieth ower va-men," he seith, "ant doth god yef ye
mahen to theo thet ow weorrith." Yef ye elles ne mahen, biddeth yeorne for theo
thet ow eni eil doth other misseggeth. Ant te Apostle leareth, "ne yelde ye neaver
uvel for uvel, ah doth god eaver ayein uvel" as dude ure Laverd seolf ant alle his
hali halhen. Yef ye thus haldeth Godes heaste, thenne beo ye his hende child ant
cusseth the yerde the he haveth ow with i-thorschen. Nu seith other-h[w]ile sum,
"his sawle - other hiren - ich chulle wel luvien, his bodi o nane wise." Ah thet
nis nawt to seggen. The sawle ant te licome nis bute a mon ant ba ham tit a dom.
Wult tu dealen o twa, the Godd haveth to an i-sompnet? He forbeot hit ant seith,
Quod Deus conjunxit homo non separet. Ne wurthe nan se wod thet he to-deale
the thing the Godd haveth i-veiet.
    Thencheth yet thisses weis: thet child, yef hit spurneth o sum thing other hurteth,
me beat thet hit hurte on, ant thet child is wel i-paiet, foryeteth al his hurt ant
stilleth hise teares. For-thi frovrith ow-seolven: Letabitur justus cum viderit
vindictam. Godd schal o Domes-dei don as thah he seide, "Dohter, hurte thes
the? Dude he the spurnen i wreaththe other in heorte sar, i scheome other in eani
teone? Loke, dohter, loke," he seith, "hu he hit schal abuggen." Ant ther ye schule
seon bunkin him with thes deofles betles, thet wa bith him thes lives. Ye schulen
beo wel i-paiet th'rof, for ower wil ant Godes wil schal swa beon i-veiet thet ye
schulen wullen al thet he eaver wule, ant he al thet ye wulleth.
    Over alle othre thohtes in alle ower passiuns, thencheth eaver inwardliche up-
Godes pinen, thet te worldes wealdent walde for his threalles tholien swucche
schendlakes, hokeres, buffez, spatlunge, blindfeallunge, thornene crununge thet
set him i the heaved swa thet te blodi strundes striken adun ant leaveden dun to
ther eorthe; his swete bodi i-bunden naket to the hearde piler ant i-beate swa thet
tet deore-wurthe blod ron on euche halve; thet attri drunch thet me him yef, tha
him thurste o rode; hare heafde sturunge upon him, tha heo on hokerunge gredden
se lude, "Lo, her the healde othre! Lo, hu he healeth nu ant helpeth him-seolven!"
Turneth th'ruppe ther ich spec hu he wes i-pinet in alle his fif wittes ant eveneth al
ower wa, secnesse ant other-hwet, woh of word other of werc, ant al thet mon mei
tholien to thet tet he tholede, ant ye schulen lihtliche i-seon hu lutel hit reacheth,
nomeliche yef ye thencheth thet he wes al ladles ant thet he droh al this nawt for
him-seolven, for he ne agulte neaver. Yef ye tholieth wa, ye habbeth wurse ofservet,
ant al thet ye tholieth al is for ow-seolven.
    Gath nu thenne gleadluker bi strong wei ant bi swincful toward te muchele
feaste of heovene, ther-as ower gleade freond ower cume i-kepeth, thenne dusie
worldes men gath bi grene wei toward te weari-treo ant te death of helle. Betere is
ga sec to heovene then hal to helle, to murhthe with meoseise then to wa with eise.
Salomon: Via impiorum complantata est lapidibus - id est, duris
afflictionibus
. Nawt for-thi witerliche wrecche worltliche men buggeth deorre
helle then ye doth the heovene. A thing to sothe wite ye - a misword thet ye
tholieth, a deies longunge, a secnesse of a stunde, yef me chapede ed ow an of
theos o Domes-dei - thet is, the mede the ariseth th'rof - ye hit nalden sullen
for al the world of golde. For thet schal beon ower song bivoren ure Laverd:
Letati sumus pro diebus quibus nos humiliasti, annis quibus vidimus mala -
thet is, "wel is us for the dahes thet tu lahedest us with other monne wohes, ant
wel is us nu Laverd for the ilke yeres thet we weren seke in, ant sehen sar ant
sorhe." Euch worltlich wa - hit is Godes sonde. Heh monnes messager me schal
hehliche undervon ant makien him glead chere - nomeliche yef he is prive with
his laverd. Ant hwa wes mare prive with the king of heovene hwil he her wunede
then wes thes sondes-mon - thet is, worldes weane, the ne com neaver from him
athet his lives ende? Thes messager - hwet teleth he ow? He frovreth ow o this
wise: "Godd, as he luvede me, he send me to his leove freond. Mi cume ant mi
wununge, thah hit thunche attri, hit is halwende. Nere thet thing grislich, hwas
schadewe ye ne mahte nawt withuten hurt felen? Hwet walde ye seggen bi thet
eisfule wiht thet hit of come? Wite ye to sothe thet al the wa of this world nis bute
schadewe of the wa of helle. Ich am the schadewe," seith thes messager - thet is,
worldes weane - "nedlunge ye moten other undervo me other thet grisliche wa
thet ich am of schadewe. Hwa-se underveth me gleadliche ant maketh me feier
chere, mi laverd send hire word thet ha is cwite of thet thing thet ich am of
schadewe." - Thus speketh Godes messager. For-thi seith Sein Jame: Omne
gaudium existimate, fratres, cum in temptationes varias incideritis. "Alle blisse
haldeth hit to fallen i misliche of theose fondunges," the uttre beoth i-haten. Ant
Seint Pawel: Omnis disciplina in presenti videtur esse non gaudii set meroris;
postmodum vero fructum, et cetera. "Alle the ilke fondunges the we beoth nu i-
beaten with thuncheth wop, nawt wunne, ah ha wendeth efter-ward to weole ant
to eche blisse."
    The inre fondunge is twa-valt, alswa as is the uttre. For the uttre is [adversite
ant prosperte ant theos cundleth the inre: mislicunge] in adversite ant i prosperite
licunge the limpeth to sunne. This ich segge for-thi thet sum licunge is ant sum
mislicunge the ofearneth muche mede, as licunge i Godes luve ant mislicunge for
sunne. Nu as ich segge, the inre fondunge is twa-vald: fleschlich ant gastelich.
Fleschlich - as of leccherie, of glutunie, of slawthe. Gastelich - as of prude, of
onde, ant of wreaththe, alswa of yiscunge. Thus beoth the inre fondunges the
seoven heaved sunnen ant hare fule cundles. Flesches fondunge mei beon i-evenet
to fot-wunde. Gastelich fondunge, thet is mare dred of, mei beon for the peril i-
cleopet breost-wunde. Ah us thuncheth greattre flesliche temptatiuns for-thi thet
heo beoth eth-fele. The othre, thah we habben ham, ofte nute we hit nawt ant
beoth thah greate ant grisliche i Godes ehe ant beoth muchel for-thi to drede the
mare. For the othre the me feleth wel secheth leche ant salve. The gasteliche hurtes
ne thuncheth nawt sare, ne ne salvith ham with schrift ne with penitence ant draheth
to eche death ear me least wene.
    Hali men ant wummen beoth of alle fondunges swithest ofte i-temptet, ant ham
to goder heale. For thurh the feht toyeines ham, ha biyeoteth the blisfule kempene
crune. Lo, thah hu ha meaneth ham i Jeremie: Persecutores nostri velociores
aquilis celi, super montes persecuti sunt nos; in deserto insidiati sunt nobis.
Thet is, "Ure wither-iwines swiftre then earnes up-o the hulles ha clumben efter
us, ant ther fuhten with us, ant yet i the wildernesse ha spieden us to sleanne. Ure
wither-iwines beoth threo: the feond, the worlt, ure ahne flesch, as ich ear seide.
Lihtliche ne mei me nawt other-hwile i-cnawen hwuch of theos threo him weorreth,
for euch helpeth other, thah the feond proprement eggeth to atternesse, as to prude,
to over-hohe, to onde ant to wreaththe, ant to hare attri cundles the her-efter beoth
i-nempnet. The flesch sput proprement toward swetnesse, eise, ant softnesse. The
world bit mon yiscin worldes weole ant wurthschipe, ant othre swucche give-
gaven the bidweolieth cang men to luvien a schadewe. "Theos wither-iwines," hit
seith, "folhith us on hulles, ant weitith i wildernesse hu ha us mahen hearmin."
Hul - thet is heh lif, ther the deofles asawz ofte beoth strengest. Wildernesse is
anlich lif of ancre wununge. For alswa as i wildernes beoth alle wilde beastes ant
nulleth nawt tholien monne nahunge, ah fleoth hwen ha heom i-hereth, alswa
schulen ancres over alle othre wummen beo wilde o thisse wise, ant thenne beoth
ha over othre leove to ure Laverd, ant swetest him thuncheth ham. For of all flesches
is wilde deores flesch leovest ant swetest.
    Bi this wildernesse wende ure Laverdes folc, as Exode teleth, toward te eadi
lond of Jerusalem, thet he ham hefde bihaten. Ant ye, mine leove sustren, wendeth
bi the ilke wei toward te hehe Jerusalem, the kinedom thet he haveth bihaten his i-
corene. Gath, thah, ful warliche, for i this wildernesse beoth uvele beastes monie:
liun of prude, neddre of attri onde, unicorne of wreaththe, beore of dead slawthe,
vox of yisceunge, suhe of yivernesse, scorpiun with the teil of stinginde leccherie
- thet is, galnesse. Her beoth nu o rawe i-tald the seoven heaved sunnen:
    The Liun of prude haveth swithe monie hwelpes, ant ich chulle nempni summe:
vana gloria - thet is, hwa-se let wel of ei thing thet ha deth other seith, other
haveth: wlite other wit, god acointance other word mare then an-other, cun other
meistrie, ant hire wil forthre. Ant hwet is wlite wurth her? Gold ring i suhe nease
- acointance i religiun. Wa deth hit ofte. Al is vana gloria, the let ea-wiht wel
of, ant walde habben word th'rof, ant is wel i-paiet yef ha is i-preiset, mispaiet yef
ha nis i-tald swuch as ha walde. An-other is indignatio - thet is, the thuncheth
hokerlich of ei thing thet ha sith bi other other hereth, ant forhoheth chastiement,
other ei lahres lare. The thridde hwelp is ypocresis, the maketh hire betere then
ha is. The feorthe is presumtio, the nimeth mare on hond then ha mei overcumen,
other entremeteth hire of thing thet to hire ne falleth, other is to overtrusti up-o
Godes grace other on hire-seolven, to bald upon ei mon, thet is fleschlich as heo
is, ant mei beon i-temptet. The fifte hwelp hatte inobedience - nawt ane the ne
buheth, [ah the] other grucchinde deth, other targeth to longe: thet child the ne
buheth ealdren, underling his prelat, paroschien his preost, meiden hire dame -
euch lahre his herre. The seste is loquacite: the fedeth this hwelp the is of muche
speche, yelpeth, demeth othre, liheth other-hwile, gabbeth, upbreideth, chideth,
fikeleth, stureth lahtre. The seovethe is blasphemie. This hwelpes nurrice is, the
swereth greate athes other bitterliche curseth, other misseith bi Godd other bi his
halhen for ei thing thet he tholeth, sith other hereth. The eahtuthe is inpatience.
This hwelp fet, the nis tholemod ayein alle wohes ant in alle uveles. The nihethe
is contumace, ant this fet hwa-se is ane-wil i thing thet ha haveth undernume to
donne - beo hit god, beo hit uvel - thet na wisure read ne mei bringen hire ut of
hire riote. The teohethe is contentio - thet is, strif to overcumen, thet te other
thunche underneothen awarpen ant cravant, ant heo meistre of the mot, ant crenge
ase champiun the haveth biyete the place. I this untheaw is upbrud, ant edwitunge
of al thet uvel thet ha mei bi the other ofthenchen - ant eaver se hit biteth bittrure,
se hire liketh betere, thah hit were of thing the wes bivore yare amendet. Her-
imong beoth other-hwiles nawt ane bittre wordes, ah beoth fule stinkinde
scheomelese ant schentfule, sum-chearre mid great sware, monie ant prude wordes
with warinesses ant bileasunges. Her-to falleth evenunge of ham-seolf, of hare
cun, of sahe other of dede. This is among nunnen, ant gath with swuch muth
seoththen, ear schrift ham habbe i-weschen, to herie Godd with loft-song, other
biddeth him privee bonen! Me, thinges amansede, nuten ha thet hare song ant hare
bonen to Godd stinketh fulre to him ant to alle his halhen, then ei rotet dogge?
The ealleofte hwelp is i-fed with supersticiuns, with semblanz ant with sines, as
beoren on heh thet heaved, crenge with swire, lokin o siden, bihalden on hokere,
winche mid ehe, binde seode mid te muth, with hond other with heaved makie
scuter signe, warpe schonke over schench, sitten other gan stif as ha i-staket were,
luve lokin o mon, speoken as an innocent, ant wlispin for then anes. Her-to falleth
of veil, of heaved clath, of euch other clath to ove[r]gart acemunge other in
heowunge other i pinchunge, gurdles ant gurdunge o dameiseles wise, scleaterunge
mid smirles, fule fluthrunges, heowin her, litien leor, pinchen bruhen other bencin
ham uppart with wete fingres. Monie othre ther beoth the cumeth of weole, of
wunne, of heh cun, of feier clath, of wit, of wlite, of strengthe. Of heh lif waxeth
prude, ant of hali theawes. Monie ma hwelpes then ich habbe i-nempnet haveth
the liun of prude. Ah abute theose studieth wel swithe, for ich ga lihtliche over, ne
do bute nempni ham. Ah ye eaver i-hwer se ich ga swithere vorth, leaveth ther
lengest, for ther ich fetheri on a word tene other tweolve. Hwa-se-eaver haveth
eani untheaw of theo the ich her nempnede, other ham iliche - ha haveth prude
sikerliche hu-se-eaver hire curtel beo i-schapet other i-heowet. Heo is the liunes
make thet ich habbe i-speken of, ant fet hire wode hwelpes in-with hire breoste.
    The Neddre of attri onde haveth seove hwelpes: ingratitudo - this cundel
bret hwa-se nis i-cnawen god-dede, ah teleth lutel th'rof other foryet mid alle.
God-dede - ich segge nawt ane thet mon deth him, ah thet Godd deth him, other
haveth i-don him - other him other hire - mare then ha understont yef ha hire
wel bithohte. Of this untheaw me nimeth to lutel yeme, ant is thah of alle an
lathest Godd ant meast ayein his grace. The other cundel is rancor sive odium -
thet is, heatunge other great heorte. The bret hit i breoste, al is attri to Godd thet
he eaver wurcheth. The thridde cundel is ofthunchunge of othres god; the feorthe,
gleadschipe of his uvel; the fifte, wreiunge; the seste, bac-bitunge; the seovethe,
up-brud other scarnunge. The eahtuthe is suspitio - thet is, misortrowunge bi
mon other bi wummon withuten witer tacne, thenchen, "this semblant ha maketh.
This ha seith other deth, me for-te gremien, hokerin other hearmin" - ant thet
hwen the other neaver thide[r]-ward ne thencheth. Her-to falleth falsdom, thet
Godd forbeot swithe, as thenchen other seggen, "ye, ne luveth ha me nawt. Her-of
ha wreide me. Lo, nu ha speoketh of me the twa - the threo, other the ma the
sitteth togederes. Swuch ha is ant swuch, ant for uvel ha hit dude." I thulli thoht
we beoth ofte bichearret, for ofte is god thet thuncheth uvel, ant for-thi beoth al
dei monnes domes false. Her-to limpeth alswa luthere neowe fundles ant leasunges
ladliche thurh nith ant thurh onde. The nihethe cundel is sawunge of unsibsumnesse,
of wreaththe, ant of descorde. Theo the saweth this deofles sed - ha is of Godd
amanset. The teohethe is luther stilthe, the deofles silence, thet te an nule for onde
speoken o the other, ant this spece is alswa cundel of wreaththe, for hare teames
beoth i-mengt ofte togederes. Hwer as ei of theos wes, ther wes the cundel -
other the alde moder - of the attri neddre of onde.
    The Unicorne of wreaththe, the bereth on his nease the thorn thet he asneaseth
with al thet he areacheth, haveth six hwelpes. The earste is chast other strif. The
other is wodschipe. Bihald te ehnen ant te neb hwen wod wreaththe is i-munt.
Bihald hire contenemenz, loke on hire lates, hercne hu the muth geath, ant tu maht
demen hire wel ut of hire witte. The thridde is schentful up-brud. The feorthe is
wariunge. The fifte is dunt. The seste is wil thet him uvel tidde, other on him-
seolf, other on his freond, other on his ahte. The seovethe hwelp is, don for
wreaththe mis, other leaven wel to don, forgan mete other drunch, wreoken hire
with teares yef ha elles ne mei, ant with weariunges hire heaved spillen o grome,
other on other wise hearmin hire i sawle ant i bodi bathe. Theos is homicide ant
morthre of hire-seolven.
    The Beore of hevi slawthe haveth theose hwelpes: torpor is the forme: thet is,
wlech heorte - unlust to eni thing - the schulde leitin al o lei i luve of ure
Laverd. The other is pusillanimitas - thet is, to povre heorte ant to earh mid alle
ei heh thing to underneomen in hope of Godes help, ant i trust on his grace, nawt
of hire strengthe. The thridde is cordis gravitas. This haveth hwa-se wurcheth
god ant deth hit tah mid a dead ant mid an hevi heorte. The feorthe is ydelnesse,
hwa-se stut mid alle. The fifte is heorte grucchunge. The seste is a dead sorhe for
lure of ei worltlich thing other for eni unthonc, bute for sunne ane. The seovethe
is yemelesschipe other to seggen other to don, other to biseon bivoren, other to
thenchen efter, other to miswiten eni thing thet ha haveth to yemen. The eahtuthe
is unhope. This leaste beore hwelp is grimmest of alle, for hit tocheoweth ant
tofret Godes milde milce ant his muchele mearci ant his unimete grace.
    The Vox of yisceunge haveth theose hwelpes: triccherie ant gile, theofthe,
reaflac, wite, ant herrure strengthe, false witnesse other ath, dearne symonie, gavel,
oker, festschipe, prinschipe of yeove other of lane - this is i-cluht heorte, untheaw
Gode lathest the yef us al him-seolven - mon-slaht other-hwile. This untheaw is
to vox for moni reisun i-evenet. Twa ich chulle seggen. Muche gile is i vox ant
swa is i yisceunge of worltlich biyete. An-other: the vox awurieth al a floc thah he
ne mahe buten an frechliche swolhen. Alswa yisceth a yiscere thet tet moni thusent
mahten bi flutten, ah thah his heorte berste ne mei he bruken on him-seolf bute a
monnes dale. Al thet mon wilneth mare - other wummon - then ha mei rihtliche
leade thet lif bi - euch efter thet ha is - al is yisceunge ant rote of deadlich
sunne. Thet is riht religiun, thet euch efter his stat borhi ed tis frakele world se
lutel se ha least mei of mete, of clath, of ahte, of alle hire thinges. Notith thet ich
segge "euch efter his stat," for thet word is i-fetheret. Ye mote makien - thet
wite ye - i moni word muche strengthe, thenchen longe ther-abuten, ant bi thet
ilke an word understonden monie the limpeth ther-to. For yef ich schulde writen
al, hwenne come ich to ende?
    The Suhe of yivernesse haveth gris thus i-nempnet: "to earliche" hatte thet an,
thet other "to esteliche," thet thridde "to frechliche." Thet feorthe hatte "to muche,"
thet fifte "to ofte." I drunch mare then i mete beoth theos gris i-ferhet. Ich speoke
scheortliche of ham, for nam ich nawt ofdred, mine leove sustren, leste ye ham
feden.
    The Scorpiun of leccherie - thet is, of galnesse - haveth swucche cundles
thet in a wel i-tohe muth, hare summes nome ne sit nawt for-te nempnin, for the
nome ane mahte hurten alle wel i-tohene earen ant sulen cleane heorten. Theo
thah me mei nempnin wel, hwas nomen me i-cnaweth wel, ant beoth - mare
hearm is - to monie al to cuthe: horedom, eaw-bruche, meith-lure, ant incest -
thet is bituhe sibbe fleschliche other gasteliche. Thet is o feole i-dealet: ful wil to
thet fulthe with skiles yettunge, helpen othre thider-ward, beo weote ant witnesse
th'rof, hunti th'refter with wohunge, with toggunge, other with eni tollunge, with
gigge lahtre, hore ehe, eanie lihte lates, with yeove, with tollinde word, other with
luve-speche, cos, unhende grapunge, thet mei beon heaved sunne, luvie tide other
stude for-te cumen i swuch keast, ant othre foreridles the me mot nede forbuhen,
the i the muchele fulthe nule fenniliche fallen. As Seint Austin seith, Omissis
occasionibus que solent aditum aperire peccatis, potest consciencia esse
incolumis
. Thet is, "hwa-se wule hire in-wit witen hal ant fere, ha mot fleon the
foreridles the weren i-wunet ofte to openin the in-yong ant leoten in sunne." Ich
ne dear nempnin the uncundeliche cundles of this deofles scorpiun, attri i-teilet.
Ah sari mei ha beon the bute fere, other with, haveth swa i-fed cundel of hire
galnesse - thet ich ne mei speoken of for scheome ne ne dear for drede, leste sum
leorni mare uvel then ha con ant beo th'rof i-temptet. Ah thenche on hire ahne
aweariede fundles in hire galnesse: for hu se hit eaver is i-cwenct, wakinde ant
willes, with flesches licunge, bute ane i wedlac, hit geath to deadlich sunne. I
yuhethe me deth wundres. Culche hit i schrift ut utterliche, as ha hit dude, the
feleth hire schuldi, other ha is i-demet thurh thet fule brune cwench to thet eche
brune of helle. The scorpiunes cundel the ha bret in hire bosum - schake hit ut
with schrift, ant slea with deadbote. Ye, the of swucches nute nawt, ne thurve ye
nawt wundrin ow, ne thenchen hwet ich meane, ah yeldeth graces Godd thet ye
swuch uncleannesse nabbeth i-fondet, ant habbeth reowthe of ham the i swuch
beoth i-fallen.
    Inoh is etscene hwi ich habbe i-evenet prude to liun, onde to neddre, ant of theo
alle the othre, withute this leaste - thet is, hwi galnesse beo to scorpiun i-evenet.
Ah lo, her the skile th'rof, sutel ant etscene: scorpiun is a cunnes wurm the haveth
neb - as me seith - sum-deal i-lich wummon, ant neddre is bihinden, maketh
feier semblant, ant fiketh mid te heaved, ant stingeth mid te teile. This is leccherie.
This is the deofles beast thet he leat to chepinge, ant to euch gederunge, ant chepeth
for-te sullen ant biswiketh monie, thurh thet ha ne bihaldeth nawt bute the feire
neb other thet feire heaved. Thet heaved is the biginnunge of galnesse sunne, ant
te licunge - hwil hit least - the thuncheth swithe swote. The teil thet is the ende
th'rof is sar ofthunchunge ant stingeth her with atter of bitter bireowsunge, ant of
deadbote. Ant seliliche mahen ha seggen, the the teil swuch i-findeth, for thet
atter ageath, ah yef hit ne suheth her, the teil ant te attri ende is the eche pine of
helle. Ant nis he fol chapmon the hwen he wule buggen hors other oxe, yef he
nule bihalden bute thet heaved ane? For-thi, hwen the deovel beodeth forth this
beast - beot hit to sullen ant bit ti sawle ther-vore - he hut eaver the teil ant
schaweth forth the heaved. Ah thu, ga al abuten ant schaw the ende forth mid al -
hu the teil stingeth - ant swithe flih ther-frommard ear thu beo i-attret.
    Thus, mine leove sustren, i the wildernesse ther ye gath in with Godes folc
toward Jerusalemes lond - thet is, the riche of heovene - beoth thulliche beastes,
thulliche wurmes. Ne nat ich na sunne thet ne mei beon i-lead other to an of ham
seovene other to hare streones. Unsteathelvest bileave ayein Godes lare - nis hit
te spece of prude inobedience? Her-to falleth sygaldren, false teolunges, lefunge
swefne, o nore, ant on alle wicchecreftes. Neomunge of husel in eani heaved
sunne, other ei other sacrement - nis hit te spece of prude thet ich cleopede
presumptio - yef me wat hwuch sunne hit is? Yef me hit nat nawt, thenne is hit
yemeles under accidie, thet ich "slawthe" cleopede. The ne warneth other of his
uvel other of his biyete - nis hit slaw yemeles other attri onde? Teohethi mis,
edhalden cwide, fundles other lane, other ther-with misfearen - nis hit spece of
yisceunge, ant anes cunnes theofthe? Edhalden othres hure over his rihte terme -
nis hit strong reaflac - hwa-se yelden hit mei, the is under yisceunge? Yef me
yemeth wurse ei thing i-leanet, other bitaht to witene, then he wene the ah hit -
nis hit other triccherie other yemeles of slawthe? Alswa is dusi heast other folliche
i-pliht trowthe, longe beon unbischpet, falsliche gan to schrift, other to longe
abiden, ne teache Pater noster god-child ne Credo - theos ant alle thulliche
beoth i-lead to slawthe - thet is, the feorthe moder of the seove sunnen. The
dronc drunch other ei thing dude hwer-thurh na child ne schulde beon on hire i-
streonet, other thet i-streonede schulde forwurthen - nis this strong mon-slaht of
galnesse awakenet? Alle sunnen sunderliche bi hare nomeliche nomen ne mahte
na-mon rikenin, ah i theo the ich habbe i-seid, alle othre beoth bilokene. Ant nis,
ich wene, na-mon the ne mei understonden him of his sunne nomeliche under sum
of the ilke i-meane the beoth her i-writene. Of theose seove beastes ant of hare
streones i wildernesse of anlich lif is i-seid her-to, the alle the for[th]-fearinde
fondith to fordonne. The liun of prude sleath alle the prude, alle the beoth hehe
ant over-hohe i-heortet; the attri neddre, the ontfule ant te luthere i-thonket;
wreathfule, the unicorne; alswa of the othre o rawe. To Godd ha beoth i-sleine, ah
ha libbeth to the feond ant beoth alle in his hond ant servith him in his curt, euch
of the meoster the him to falleth.
    The prude beoth his bemeres, draheth wind in-ward with worltlich here-word,
ant eft with idel yelp puffeth hit ut-ward as the bemeres doth, makieth noise ant
lud dream to schawin hare orhel. Ah yef ha wel thohten of Godes bemeres, of the
englene bemen, the schulen o fowr half the world bivore the grurefule dom grisliche
blawen, "Ariseth, deade! Ariseth! Cumeth to Drihtines dom for-te beon i-demet!"
thear na prud bemere ne schal beon i-borhen - yef ha thohten this wel, ha walden
inoh-reathe i the deofles servise dimluker bemin. Of theose bemeres seith Jeremie,
Onager solitarius in desiderio anime sue attraxit ventum amoris sui. Of the
wind "drahinde in for luve of here-word," seith [Jeremie] as ich seide.
    Summe juglurs beoth the ne cunnen servin of nan other gleo bute makien cheres,
wrenche the muth mis, schulen with ehnen. Of this meoster servith the unseli
ontfule i the deofles curt, to bringen o lahtre hare ondfule laverd. Yef ei seith wel
other deth wel, ne mahen ha nanes weis lokin thider with riht ehe of god heorte,
ah winkith o thet half ant bihaldeth o luft yef ther is eawt to edwiten, other ladliche
thider-ward schuleth mid either. Hwen ha i-hereth thet god, skleatteth the earen
adun, ah the lust ayein thet uvel is eaver wid open. Thenne he wrencheth the
muth, hwen he turneth god to uvel, ant yef hit is sum-del uvel, thurh mare lastunge
wrencheth hit to wurse. Theos beoth forecwidderes, hare ahne prophetes. Theos
bodieth bivoren hu the eateliche deoflen schulen yet ageasten ham with hare
grennunge, ant hu ha schulen ham-seolf grennin ant nivelin ant makien sur semblant
for the muchele angoise i the pine of helle. Ah for-thi ha beoth the leasse to meanen
thet ha bivoren-hond leornith hare meoster to makien grim chere.
    The wreathfule bivore the feond skirmeth mid cnives ant is his cnif warpere,
ant pleieth mid sweordes, bereth ham bi the scharp ord upon his tunge. Sweord
ant cnif either beoth scharpe ant keorvinde word thet he warpeth from him ant
skirmeth toward othre, ant he bodeth hu the deoflen schulen pleien with him mid
hare scharpe eawles, skirmi with him abuten ant dusten ase pilche-clut euch to-
ward other, ant with helle sweordes asneasen him thurh-ut - thet beoth kene ant
eateliche ant keorvinde pinen.
    The slawe lith ant slepeth o the deofles bearm as his deore deorling, ant te
deovel leith his tutel dun to his eare ant tuteleth him al thet he wule. For swa hit is
sikerliche to hwam-se is idel of god: meatheleth the feond yeorne, ant te idele
underveth luveliche his lare. Idel ant yemeles is thes deofles bearnes slep, ah he
schal o Domes-dei grimliche abreiden with the dredfule dream of the englene
bemen, ant in helle wontreathe echeliche wakien. Surgite! - aiunt - Mortui,
surgite! et venite ad judicium Salvatoris.
    The yiscere is his eskibah, feareth abuten esken ant bisiliche stureth him to
rukelin togederes muchele ant monie ruken, blaweth th'rin ant blent him-seolf,
peathereth ant maketh th'rin figures of augrim, as thes rikeneres doth the habbeth
muche to rikenin. This is al the canges blisse ant te feond bihalt tis gomen ant
laheth thet he bersteth. Wel understont, euch wis mon, thet gold ba ant seolver,
ant euch eorthlich ahte, nis bute eorthe ant esken the ablendeth euch mon the ham
in blaweth - thet is, the bolheth him thurh ham in heorte prude. Ant al thet he
rukeleth ant gedereth togederes ant ethalt of ei thing thet nis bute esken mare then
hit neodeth, schal in helle wurthen him tadden ant neddren. Ant ba, as Ysaie
seith, schulen beon of wurmes - his cuvertur ant his hwitel - the nalde ther-
with neodfule feden ne schruden. Subter te sternetur tinea et operimentum
tuum vermis.
    The yivere glutun is the feondes manciple, ah he stiketh eaver i celer other i
cuchene. His heorte is i the dissches, his thoht al i the neppes, his lif i the tunne,
his sawle i the crohhe. Kimeth bivoren his laverd bismuddet ant bismulret, a disch
in his an hond, a scale in his other. Meatheleth mis wordes, wigleth as fordrunke
mon the haveth i-munt to fallen, bihalt his greate wombe - ant te deovel lahheth.
Theose threatith thus Godd thurh Ysaie: Servi mei comedent et vos esurietis, et
cetera. "Mine men schulen eoten, ant ow schal eaver hungrin, ant ye schule beon
feo[ndes fod]e world buten ende." Quantum glorificavit se et in deliciis fuit,
tantum date illi tormentum et luctum. In Apocalipsi: Contra unum poculum
quod miscuit miscete ei duo.
Yef the kealche-cuppe wallinde bres to drinken,
yeot in his wide throte thet he swelte in-with. "Ayein an, yef him twa." Thullich is
Godes dom ayein yivere ant drunc-wile i the Apocalipse.
    The lecchurs i the deofles curt habbeth riht hare ahne nome, for i thes muchele
curz, theo me cleopeth lecchurs the habbeth swa forlore scheome thet heom nis
na-wiht of scheome, ah secheth hu ha mahen meast vilainie wurchen. The lecchur
i the deofles curt bifuleth him-seolven fulliche ant his feolahes alle, stinketh of
thet fulthe ant paieth wel his laverd with thet stinkinde breath betere then he schulde
with eani swote rechles. Hu he stinke to Godd, i Vitas Patrum the engel hit
schawde, the heold his nease tha ther com the prude lecchur ridinde, ant nawt for
thet rotede lich thet he healp the hali earmite to biburien! Of alle othre thenne
habbeth theos the fuleste meoster i the feondes curt, the swa bidoth ham-seolven.
Ant he schal bidon ham, pinin ham with eche stench i the put of helle.
    Nu ye habbeth ane dale i-herd, mine leove sustren: of theo the me cleopeth the
seove moder-sunnen, ant of hare teames, ant of hwucche meosters thes ilke men
servith i the feondes curt, the habbeth i-wivet o theose seoven haggen, ant hwi ha
beoth swithe to heatien ant to schunien. Ye beoth ful feor from ham, ure Laverd
beo i-thoncket! Ah thet fule breath of this leaste untheaw - thet is, of leccherie
- stinketh se swithe feor, for the feond hit saweth ant toblaweth over al, thet ich
am sum-del ofdred leste hit leape sum-chearre into ower heortes nease. Stench
stiheth uppart, ant ye beoth hehe i-clumben ther the wind is muchel of stronge
temptatiuns. Ure Laverd yeove ow strengthe wel to withstonden.
    Sum weneth thet ha schule stronglukest beon i-fondet i the forme tweof-moneth
thet ha bigon ancre lif, ant i the other th'refter. Ant hwen ha efter feole yer feleth
ham stronge, wundreth hire swithe, ant is ofdred leste Godd habbe hire al
forwarpen. Nai, nawt nis hit swa! I the forme yeres nis bute bal-plohe to monie
men of ordre. Ah neometh yeme hu hit feareth bi a forbisne: Hwen a wis mon
neowliche haveth wif i-lead ham, he nimeth yeme al softeliche of hire maneres.
Thah he seo bi hire thet him mispaieth, he let yet i-wurthen, maketh hire feire
chere, ant is umben euches weis thet ha him luvie inwardliche in hire heorte.
Hwen he understont wel thet hire luve is treoweliche toward him i-festnet, thenne
mei he sikerliche chastien hire openliche of hire untheawes, thet he ear forber as
he ham nawt nuste. Maketh him swithe sturne, ant went te grimme toth to, for-te
fondin yetten yef he mahte hire luve toward him unfestnin. Alest hwen he
understont thet ha is al wel i-tuht, ne for thing thet he deth hire ne luveth him the
leasse, ah mare ant mare - yef ha mei - from deie to deie, thenne schaweth he
hire thet he hire luveth sweteliche, ant deth al thet ha wule, as theo thet he wel i-
cnaweth. Thenne is al thet wa i-wurthe to wunne. Yef Jesu Crist, ower spus, deth
alswa bi ow, mine leove sustren, ne thunche ow neaver wunder. I the frumthe nis
ther buten olhnunge for-te drahen in luve. Ah sone se he eaver understont thet he
beo wel acointet, he wule forbeoren ow leasse. Efter the spreove, on ende thenne
is the muchele joie. Al o this ilke wise tha he walde his folc leaden ut of theowdom,
ut of Pharaones hond, ut of Egypte, he dude for ham al thet ha walden: miracles
feole ant feire, druhede the Reade Sea, ant makede ham freo wei thurh hire, ant
ther ha eoden dru-fot, adrencte Pharaon ant hare fan alle. I the desert forthre tha
he hefde i-lead ham feor i the wildernesse, he lette ham tholien wa inoh, hunger,
thurst, ant muche swinc, ant weorren muchele ant monie. On ende, he yef ham
reste, ant alle weole ant wunne, al hare heorte wil, ant flesches eise ant este.
Terram fluentem lacte et melle. Thus ure Laverd speareth on earst the yunge ant
te feble, ant draheth ham ut of this world, swoteliche ant with liste. Sone se he
sith ham heardin, he let weorre awakenin ant teacheth ham to fehten ant weane to
tholien. On ende efter long swinc, he yeveth ham swote reste - her, ich segge, i
this world, ear ha cumen to heovene. Ant thuncheth thenne swa god, the reste
efter the swinc; the muchele eise efter the muchele meoseise thuncheth se swote!
    Nu beoth i the Sawter under the twa temptatiuns thet ich ear seide - thet beoth
the uttre ant te inre, the temeth alle the othre - fowr dalen todealet thus: fondunge
liht ant dearne, fondunge liht ant openlich, fondunge strong ant dearne, fondunge
strong ant openlich, as is ther understonden: Non timebis a timore nocturno, a
sagitta volante in die, a negotio perambulante in tenebris, ab incursu et
demonio meridiano.
Of fondunge liht ant dearne seith Job theose wordes: Lapides
excavant aque, et alluvione paulatim terra consumitur. Lutle dropen thurlith
the flint the ofte falleth th'ron, ant lihte, dearne fondunges the me nis war of
falsith a treowe heorte. Of the lihte, openliche bi hwam he seith alswa, Lucebit
post eum semita, nis nawt se muche dute. Of strong temptatiun, thet is thah dearne,
is ec thet Job meaneth: Insidiati sunt michi et prevaluerunt, et non erat qui
adjuvaret. Thet is, "mine fan weitith me with triccherie ant with treisun, ant ha
strengden up-o me ant nes hwa me hulpe." Ysaias: Veniet malum super te et
nescies ortum ejus. "Wa schal cumen on the, ant tu ne schalt witen hweonne." Of
the feorthe fondunge - thet is, strong ant openlich - he maketh his man of his
fan, the hali Job, ant seith: Quasi rupto muro et aperta janua irruerunt super
me. Thet is, "ha threasten in up-o me as thah the wal were tobroken ant te yeten
opene." The forme ant te thridde fondunge of theose fowre beoth al meast under
the inre. The other ant te feorthe falleth under the uttre, ant beoth al meast
fleschliche ant eth for-thi to felen. The othre twa beoth gasteliche, of gasteliche
untheawes, ant beoth i-hud ofte ant dearne hwen ha derveth meast, ant beoth muche
for-thi the mare to dreden. Moni thet ne weneth nawt, bret in hire breoste sum
liunes hwelp, sum neddre cundel the forfret the sawle, of hwucche Osee seith:
Alieni comederunt robur ejus et ipse nesciuit. Thet is, "Unholde forfreten the
strengthe of his sawle ant he hit nawt nuste." Yet is meast dred of hwen the sweoke
of helle eggeth to a thing thet thuncheth swithe god mid alle, ant is thah sawle
bone, ant wei to deadlich sunne. Swa he deth as ofte as he ne mei with open uvel
cuthen his strengthe. "Na," he seith, "ne mei ich nawt makien theos to sungin
thurh yivernesse, ant ich chulle, as the wreastleare, wrenchen hire thider-ward as
ha meast dreaieth, ant warpen hire o thet half ant breiden ferliche adun, ear ha
least wene," ant eggeth hire toward se muchel abstinence thet ha is the unstrengre
i Godes servise, ant to leaden se heard lif, ant pinin swa thet licome, thet te sawle
asteorve. He bihalt an-other thet he ne mei nanes-weis makien luthere i-thoncket,
se luveful, ant se reowthful is hire heorte: "Ich chulle makien hire," he seith, "to
reowthful mid alle. Ich schal don hire se muchel thet ha schal luvien ahte, thenchen
leasse of Godd, ant leosen hire fame," ant put thenne a thulli thonc in hire softe
heorte: "Seinte Marie! naveth the mon, other the wummon, meoseise ant na mon
nule don ham nawt. Me walde me yef ich bede, ant swa ich mahte helpen ham ant
don on ham ealmesse" - bringeth hire on to gederin, ant yeoven al earst to povre,
forthre to other freond, aleast makien feaste ant wurthen al worldlich, forschuppet
of ancre to huse-wif of halle. Godd wat, swuch feaste maketh sum hore. Weneth
thet ha wel do, as dusie ant adotede doth hire to understonden, flatrith hire of
freolec, herieth ant heoveth up the ealmesse thet ha deth, hu wide ha is i-cnawen.
Ant heo let wel of ant leapeth in orhel. Sum seith inoh-reathe thet ha gedereth
hord - swa thet hire hus mei, ant heo ba, beon i-robbet. Reowthe over reowthe!
Thus the traitre of helle maketh him treowe reades-mon! Ne leve ye him neaver.
Davith cleopeth him demonium meridianum, "briht, schininde deovel," ant Seinte
Pawel, angelum lucis - thet is, "engel of liht." For swuch ofte he maketh him
ant schaweth him to monie. Na sihthe thet ye seoth, ne i swefne ne waken, ne telle
ye bute dweole, for nis hit bute his gile. He haveth wise men of hali ant of heh lif
ofte swa bichearret, as the thet he com to i wummone liche i the wildernesse,
seide ha wes i-gan o dweole, [ant weop] as meoseise thing, efter herbearhe. Ant te
other hali mon thet he makede i-leven thet he wes engel, bi his feader, thet he wes
the deovel, ant makede him to slean his feader - swa ofte ther-bivoren he heafde
i-seid him eaver soth, for-te biswiken him sariliche on ende. Alswa of the hali
mon thet he makede cumen ham for-te dealen his feader feh to neodfule ant to
povre, se longe, thet he deadliche sunegede o wummon, ant swa feol into unhope,
ant deide in heaved sunne. Of mon the speketh with ow thulliche talen, hereth hu
ye schulen witen ow with thes deofles wiltes, thet he ow ne bichearre.
    Sum of ow sum-chearre he makede to leven thet hit were fikelunge yef ha speke
feire, ant yef ha eadmodliche meande hire neode, yef ha thonckede mon of his
god-dede - ant wes mare over-hohe for-te acwenchen chearite, then rihtwisnesse.
Sum he is umben to makien se swithe fleon monne frovre, thet ha falleth i deadlich
sar - thet is, accidie - other into deop thoht swa thet ha dotie. Sum heateth swa
sunne, thet ha haveth over-hohe of othre the falleth, the schulde wepen for hire,
ant sare dreden for a swuch onont hire-seolven, ant seggen as the hali mon the
seac ant weop ant seide, tha me him talde the fal of an of his brethren, "Ille hodie,
ego cras." "Wei-la-wei, strongliche wes he i-temptet ear he swa feolle. As he feol
to-dei, ich mei," quoth he, "alswa fallen to-marhen."
    Nu, mine leove sustren, monie temptatiuns ich habbe ow i-nempnet under the
seove sunnen - nawt, thah, the thusent-fald thet me is with i-temptet. Ne mahte
- ich wene - ham na-mon nomeliche nempnin. Ah i theo the beoth i-seid, alle
beoth bilokene. Lut beoth i this world, other nan mid alle, thet ne beo with hare
sum other-hwile i-temptet. He haveth se monie buistes ful of his letuaires, the
luthere leche of helle - the forsaketh an, he beot an-other forth anan-riht, the
thridde, the feorthe, ant swa eaver forth athet he cume o swuch thet me on ende
undervo. Ant he thenne with thet birleth him i-lome - thencheth her of the tale of
his ampoiles! Hereth nu, as ich bihet, ayein alle fondunges moni cunne frovre, ant
with Godes grace, th'refter the salve.
    Siker beo of fondunge hwa-se eaver stont in heh lif - ant this is the earste
frovre. For eaver se herre tur, se haveth mare windes. Ye beoth tur ow-seolven,
mine leove sustren, ah ne drede ye nawt hwil ye beoth se treoweliche ant se feste
i-limet with lim of an-red luve, euch of ow to other. For na deofles puf ne thurve
ye dreden bute thet lim falsi - thet is to seggen, bute luve bitweonen ow thurh the
feond wursi. Sone se ei unlimeth hire, ha bith sone i-swipt forth; bute yef the
othre halden hire, ha bith sone i-keast adun as the lowse stan is from the tures cop
into the deope dich of sum suti sunne.
    Nu an-other elne muchel ah to frovrin ow hwen ye beoth i-temptet: the tur nis
nawt asailit, ne castel ne cite, hwen ha beoth i-wunnen. Alswa the helle weorrur
ne asaileth nan with fondunge the he haveth in his hond, ah deth theo the he naveth
nawt. For-thi, leove sustren, hwa-se nis nawt asailet, ha mei sare beon ofdred
leste ha beo biwunnen.
    The thridde cunfort is thet ure Laverd seolf i the Pater noster teacheth us to
bidden, Et ne nos inducas in temptationem - thet is, "Laverd Feader, ne suffre
thu nawt the feond thet he leade us allunge into fondunge." Lo, neometh yeme!
He nule nawt thet we bidden thet we ne beon nawt i-fondet, for thet is ure
purgatoire, ure cleansing fur, ah thet we ne beon nawt allunge i-broht th'rin with
consens of heorte, with skiles yettunge.
    The feorthe frovre is sikernesse of Godes help i the fehtunge ayein, as Seinte
Pawel witneth: Fidelis est Deus, qui non sinit nos temptari ultra quam pati
possumus, set et cetera. "Godd," he seith, "is treowe. Nule he neaver suffrin thet
te deovel tempti us over thet he sith wel thet we mahen tholien." Ah i the temptatiun
he haveth i-set to the feond a mearke, as thah he seide, "Tempte hire swa feor, ah
ne schalt tu gan na forthre!" Ant swa feor he yeveth hire strengthe to withstonden;
the feond ne mei nawt forthre gan a pricke.
    Ant this is the fifte frovre, thet he ne mei na thing don us, bute bi Godes leave.
Thet wes wel i-schawet as the Godspel teleth, tha the deoflen thet ure Laverd
weorp ut of a mon bisohten ant seiden, Si eicitis nos hinc, mittite nos in porcos.
"'Yef thu heonne drivest us, do us i theos swin her,' the eoden ther an heorde. Ant
he yettede ham." Lo, hu ha ne mahten nawt fule swin swenchen withuten his
leave. Ant te swin anan-riht urnen an urn to the sea to adrenchen ham-seolven.
Seinte Marie! swa he stonc to the swin, thet ham wes leovre to adrenchen ham-
seolven then for-te beoren him, ant an unseli sunful, Godes i-licnesse, bereth him
in his breoste, ant ne nimeth neaver yeme! Al thet he dude Job eaver he nom leve
th'rof ed ure Laverd. The tale i Dyaloge lokith thet ye cunnen, hu the hali mon
wes i-wunet to seggen to the deofles neddre, Si licenciam accepisti, ego non
prohibeo. "Yef thu havest leave, do sting yef thu maht" - ant bead forth his
cheke. Ah he nefde tha nan bute to offearen him, yef bileave him trukede. Ant
hwen Godd yeveth him leave on his leove children, hwi is hit bute for hare muchele
biheve thah hit ham grevi sare?
    The seste confort is thet ure Laverd, hwen he tholeth thet we beon i-temptet, he
pleieth with us as the moder with hire yunge deorling, flith from him ant hut hire,
ant let him sitten ane ant lokin yeorne abuten, cleopien, "Dame! Dame!" ant wepen
ane hwile - ant thenne with spredde earmes leapeth lahhinde forth, cluppeth ant
cusseth ant wipeth his ehnen. Swa ure Laverd let us ane i-wurthen other-hwile,
ant withdraheth his grace, his cunfort ant his elne, thet we ne findeth swetnesse i
na thing thet we wel doth, ne savur of heorte, ant thah i thet ilke point ne luveth us
ure Laverd neaver the leasse, ah deth hit for muche luve. Ant thet understod wel
Davith, tha he seide, Non me derelinquas usquequaque. "Allunge," quoth he,
"Laverd, ne leaf thu me nawt." Lo, hu he walde thet he leafde him, ah nawt allunge.
Ant six acheisuns notith hwi Godd for ure god withdraheth him other-hwiles. An
is thet we ne pruden; an-other, thet we cnawen ure ahne feblesce, ure muchele
unstrengthe ant ure wacnesse. Ant this is a swithe muche god, as Seint Gregoire
seith: Magna perfectio est sue inperfectionis cognitio - thet is, "muche godnesse
hit is to cnawen wel his wrecchehead ant his wacnesse." Ecclesiasticus:
Intemptatus qualia scit? "Hwet wat he," seith Salomon, "the thet is unfondet?"
Ant Seint Austin bereth Seint Gregoire witnesse with theose wordes: Melior est
animus cui propria est infirmitas nota, quam qui scrutatur celorum fastigia
et terrarum fundamenta.
"Betere is the the truddeth ant ofsecheth wel ut his
ahne feblesce, then the the meteth hu heh is the heovene, ant hu deop the eorthe."
Hwen twa beoreth a burtherne, ant te other leaveth hit, thenne mei the the up
haldeth hit felen hu hit weieth. Alswa, leove suster, hwil thet Godd with the bereth
thi temptatiun, nast tu neaver hu hevi hit is, ant for-thi ed sum-chearre he leaveth
the ane, thet tu understonde thin ahne feblesce ant his help cleopie, ant yeie lude
efter him yef he is to longe. Hald hit wel the hwile up, ne derve hit te se sare.
Hwa-se is siker of sucurs thet him schal cume sone, ant yelt tah up his castel to his
wither-iwines - swithe he is to edwiten. Thencheth her of the tale hu the hali
mon in his fondunge seh bi west toyeines him se muche ferd of deoflen ant forleas,
for muche dred, the strengthe of his bileave, athet te othre seide him: "Bihald,"
quoth he, "bi esten!" Plures nobiscum sunt quam cum illis - "we habbeth ma
then heo beoth to help on ure halve." For the thridde thing is thet tu neaver ne beo
al siker, for sikernesse streoneth yemeles ant over-hohe, ant ba theose streonith
inobedience. The feorthe acheisun is hwi ure Laverd hut him - thet tu seche him
yeornluker, ant cleopie ant wepe efter him as deth the lutel baban efter his moder.
Th'refter is the fifte - thet tu his yein-cume undervo the gleadluker. The seste -
thet tu th'refter the wisluker wite him hwen thu havest i-caht him ant festluker
halde, ant segge with his leofmon, Tenui eum nec dimittam. Theose six reisuns
beoth under the seste frovre the ye mahen habben, mine leove sustren, ayeines
fondunge.
    The seovethe confort is thet alle the hali halhen weren wodeliche i-temptet.
Nim of the heste on alre earst: to Seinte Peter seide ure Laverd: Ecce, Sathan
expetivit vos, ut cribraret sicut triticum, et cetera. "Lo!" quoth he, "Sathan is
yeorne abuten for-te ridli the ut of mine i-corene. Ah ich habbe for the bisoht thet
ti bileave allunge ne trukie." Seint Pawel hefde, as he teleth him-seolf, flesches
pricunge: Datus est michi stimulus carnis mee - ant bed ure Laverd yeorne thet
he dude hit from him, ant he nalde, ah seide, Sufficit tibi gratia mea: virtus in
infirmitate perficitur - thet is, "mi grace schal wite the, thet tu ne beo overcumen.
Beo strong in unstrengthe: thet is muche mihte." Alle the othre beoth i-crunet
thurh feht of fondunge. Seinte Sare - nes ha fulle threottene yer i-temptet of hire
flesch? Ah for-thi thet ha wiste thet i the muchele angoise aras the muchele mede,
nalde ha neaver eanes bisechen ure Laverd thet he allunge delivrede hire th'rof,
ah this wes hire bone: Domine, da michi virtutem resistendi. "Laverd, yef me
strengthe for-te withstonden." Efter threottene yer com the acursede gast the hefde
hire i-temptet, blac ase bla-mon, ant bigon to greden, "Sare, thu havest me
overcumen!" Ant heo him ondswerede, "thu lihest," quoth ha, "ful thing! Nawt
ich, ah haveth Jesu Crist, mi Laverd." Lo, the sweoke, hu he walde makien hire
aleast to leapen into prude. Ah ha wes wel war th'rof ant turnde al the meistrie to
Godes strengthe. Sein Beneit, Seint Antonie, ant te othre - wel ye witen hu ha
weren i-temptet, ant thurh the temptatiuns i-pruvede to treowe champiuns, ant
swa with rihte ofserveden kempene crune.
    Ant this is the eahtuthe elne - thet alswa as the golt-smith cleanseth thet gold
i the fur, alswa deth Godd te sawle i fur of fondunge.
    The nihethe confort is thet yef the feond with fondunge greveth the sare, thu
grevest him hwen thu edstondest hundret sithe sarre, for threo reisuns nomeliche.
The an is thet he forleoseth, as Origene seith, his strengthe for-te temptin eaver
mare ther-onuven of swuch manere sunne. The other is thet he forthluker echeth
his pine. The thridde fret his heorte of sar grome ant of teone thet he, unthonc hise
teth, i the temptatiun thet tu stondest ayein, muchleth thi mede, ant for pine thet
he wende for-te drahe the toward, breideth the crune of blisse - ant nawt ane an
ne twa, ah ase feole sithen as thu overkimest him, ase feole crunen - thet is to
seggen, ase feole mensken of misliche murhthen. For swa Sein Beornard seith,
Quotiens vincis, totiens coronaberis. The tale i Vitas Patrum witneth this ilke,
of the deciple the set bivoren his meistre, ant his meistre warth o slepe hwil thet he
learde him ant slepte athet mid-niht, tha he awakede: "Art tu," quoth he, "yet her?
Ga ant slep swithe!" The hali mon, his meistre, warth eft o slep sone as the the
hefde ther-bivoren i-beon i muche wecche, ant seh a swithe feier stude, ant i-set
forth a trone, ant th'ron seove crunen, ant com a stevene ant seide: "this sege ant
theose crunen haveth thin deciple this ilke niht ofsarvet." Ant te hali mon abreaid
ant cleopede him to him. "Sei," quoth he, "hu stod te hwil thu, as ich slepte, sete
bivore me?" "Ich thohte," quoth he, "ofte thet ich walde awakenin the, ant for thu
sleptest swote, ne mah[te] ich for reowthe. Ant thenne thohte ich gan awei to
slepen for me luste, ant nalde bute leave." "Hu ofte," quoth his meister, "over-
come thu thi thoht thus?" "Seove sithen," seide he. Tha understond his meister
wel hwet weren the seove crunen - seove cunne blissen thet his deciple hefde in
euch a chearre ofservet, thet he withseide the feond, ant overcom him-seolven.
    Al thus, leove sustren, i wreastlunge of temptatiun ariseth the biyete. Nemo
coronabitur nisi qui legittime certaverit. "Ne schal nan beon i-crunet," seith
Seinte Pawel, "bute hwa-se strongliche ant treoweliche fehteth ayein the world,
ayein him-seolf, ayein the feond of helle." Theo fehteth treoweliche, the hu se ha
eaver beoth i-weorret with theos threo wither-iwines - nomeliche of the flesch
- hwuch se eaver the lust beo, se hit meadluker is, wrinnith ayein festluker, ant
withseggeth the grant th'rof with ane-wile heorte, ne prokie hit se swithe. Theo
the thus doth beoth Jesu Cristes feolahes, for ha doth as he dude honginde o rode.
Cum gustasset acetum, noluit bibere - thet is, "he smahte thet bittre drunch,
ant withdroh him anan, ant nalde hit nawt drinken thah he ofthurst were." Heo is,
the swa deth, with Godd on his rode, thah hire thurste i the lust, ant te deovel beot
hire his healewi to drinken. Understonde ant thenche thah thet ter is galle under.
Ant tah hit beo a pine, betere is for-te tholien thurst then to beon i-attret. Let lust
overgan, ant hit te wule eft likin. Hwil the yicchunge least hit thuncheth god to
gnuddin, ah th'refter me feleth hit bitterliche smeorten. Wei-la-wei! Ant moni an
is for muchel heate se swithe ofthurst mid alle, thet hwil ha drinketh thet drunch,
ne beo hit ne se bitter, ne feleth ha hit neaver, ah gluccheth in yiverliche, ne nimeth
neaver yeme. Hwen hit is al over, spit ant schaketh thet heaved, feth on for-te
nivelin, ant makien grim chere - ah to leate thenne [naut-for-thi! For efter uvel,
god is penitence. Thet is the best thenne.] Speowen hit anan ut with schrift to the
preoste. For leave hit in-with, hit wule death breden. For-thi, mine leove sustren,
beoth bivoren warre, ant efter the frovren the beoth her i-writene ayein alle
fondunges secheth theose salven:
    Ayein alle temptatiuns - ant nomeliche ayein fleschliche - salven beoth ant
bote under Godes grace: halie meditatiuns in-warde ant meadlese, ant angoisuse
bonen, hardi bileave, redunge, veasten, wecchen, ant licomliche swinkes, othres
frovre for-te speoke toward i the ilke stunde thet hire stont stronge. Eadmodnesse,
freolec of heorte, ant alle gode theawes beoth armes i this feht, ant anrednesse of
luve over alle the othre. The his wepnen warpeth awei, him luste beon i-wundet.
    Hali meditatiuns beoth bicluppet in a vers thet wes yare i-taht ow, mine leove
sustren,
    Mors tua, mors Christi, nota culpe, gaudia celi,
    Judicii terror, figantur mente fideli.

Thet is,
    Thench ofte with sar of thine sunnen,
    Thench of helle wa, of heove-riches wunnen,
    Thench of thin ahne death, of Godes death o rode -
    The grimme dom of Domes-dei munneth ofte i mode.
    Thench hu fals is the worlt, hwucche beoth hire meden,
    Thench hwet tua hest Godd for his god deden.
Euch-an of theose word walde a long hwile for-te beo wel i-openet.

    Ah yef ich hihi forth-ward, demeori ye the lengre. A word ich segge: efter
ower sunnen, hwen-se ye thencheth of helle wa ant of heove-riches wunnen,
understondeth thet Godd walde o sum wise schawin ham to men i this world bi
worltliche pinen ant worltliche wunnen, ant schaweth ham forth as schadewe.
For na lickre ne beoth ha to the wunne of heovene, ne to the wa of helle then is
schadewe to thet thing thet hit is of schadewe. Ye beoth over this worldes sea, up-
the brugge of heovene - lokith thet ye ne beon nawt the hors eschif i-liche the
schuncheth for a schadewe, ant falleth adun i the weater of the hehe brugge. To
childene ha beoth the fleoth a peinture the thuncheth ham grislich ant grureful to
bihalden. Wa ant wunne i this world - al nis bute peintunge, al nis bute schadewe.
    Nawt ane hali meditatiuns - as of ure Laverd, ant of alle his werkes, ant of alle
his wordes, of the deore Leafdi ant of alle hali halhen - ah othre thohtes sum-
chearre i meadlese fondunges habbeth i-holpen, fowr cunne nomeliche, to theo
the beoth of flesches fondunges meadlese asailet: dredfule, wunderfule, gleadfule,
ant sorhfule - willes withute neod arearet i the heorte. As thenchen hwet tu waldest
don yef thu sehe openliche stonde bivore the, ant yeoniende wide up-o the, then
deovel of helle - as he deth dearnliche i the fondunge. Yef me yeide, "Fur! Fur!"
thet te chirche bearnde. Yef thu herdest burgurs breoke thine wahes - theos ant
othre thulliche dredfule thohtes. Wunderfule ant gleadfule: as yef thu sehe Jesu
Crist, ant herdest him easki the hwet te were leovest efter thi salvatiun, ant thine
leoveste freond, of thing o thisse live, ant beode the cheosen with thet tu withstode.
Yef thu sehe al witerliche heovene ware ant helle ware i the temptatiun bihalde
the ane. Yef me come ant talde the thet mon thet te is leovest, thurh sum miracle,
as thurh stevene of heovene, were i-coren to Pape - ant alle othre swucche.
Wunderfule ant sorhfule: as yef thu herdest seggen thet mon thet te is leovest
were ferliche adrenct, i-slein other i-murthret, thet tine sustren weren in hare hus
forbearnde. Thulliche thohtes ofte i fleschliche sawlen wrencheth ut sonre
fleschliche temptatiuns then sum of the othre earre. In-warde, ant meadlese, ant
ancrefule bonen biwinneth sone sucurs ant help ed ure Laverd ayeines flesches
fondunges - ne beon ha neaver se ancrefule ne se ful-itohene, the deovel of
helle duteth ham swithe. For teke thet ha draheth adun sucurs ayein him, ant
Godes hond of heovene - ha doth him twa hearmes: bindeth him ant bearneth.
Lo, her preove of bathe: Publius, an hali mon, wes in his bonen ant com the feond
fleonninde bi the lufte, ant schulde al on toward te west half of the worlt, thurh
Julienes heast (the empereur), ant warth i-bunden hete-veste with the hali monne
bonen, the oftoken him as ha fluhen uppard toward heovene, thet he ne mahte
hider ne thider ten dahes fulle. Nabbe ye alswa of Ruffin the deovel, Beliales
brother, in ower Englische boc of Seinte Margarete? Of thet other me redeth thet
he gredde lude to Sein Bartholomew the muchel wes i benen: Incendunt me
orationes tue! "Bartholomew, wa me! Thine beoden forbearneth me!" Hwa-se
mei thurh Godes yeove i beoden habbe teares, ha mei don with Godd al thet ha
eaver wule, for swa we redeth: Oratio lenit, lacrima cogit; hec ungit, illa pungit.
"Eadi bone softeth ant paieth ure Laverd, ah teares doth him strengthe. Beoden
smirieth him with softe olhnunge, ah teares prikieth him," ne ne yeoveth him neaver
pes ear then he yetti ham al thet ha easkith. Hwen me asa[i]leth burhes other castel,
theo withinnen healdeth scaldinde weater ut, ant werieth swa the walles. Ant ye
don alswa as ofte as the feond asaileth ower castel ant te sawle burh: with in-
warde bonen warpeth ut upon him scaldinde teares, thet Davith segge bi the,
Contribulasti capita draconum in aquis - "thu havest forscaldet te drake heaved
with wallinde weater" - thet is, with hate teares. Thear as this weater is, sikerliche
the feond flith leste he beo forscaldet. Eft an-other: castel the haveth dich abuten,
ant weater beo i the dich - the castel is wel carles ayeines his unwines. Castel is
euch god mon thet te deovel weorreth. Ah habbe ye deop dich of deop eadmodnesse,
ant wete teares ther-to, ye beoth strong castel. The weorrur of helle mei longe
asailin ow ant leosen his hwile. Eft me seith, ant soth hit is, thet a muche wind
alith with a lute rein, ant te sunne th'refter schineth the schenre. Alswa a muche
temptatiun - thet is, the feondes bleas - afealleth with a softe rein of ane lut
wordes teares, ant [te] sothe sunne schineth th'refter schenre to the sawle. Thus
beoth teares gode with in-warde bonen, ant yef ye understondeth, ich habbe i-seid
of ham her fowr muchele efficaces for-hwi ha beoth to luvien. In alle ower neoden,
sendeth cwicliche anan thes sonde toward h[e]ovene. For as Salomon seith, Oratio
humiliantis se penetrat nubes, et cetera - thet is, "the eadmodies bone thurleth
the weolcne." Ant ter seith Seint Austin, Magna est virtus pure conscientie, que
ad Deum intrat et mandata peragit, ubi caro pervenire nequit. "O muchel is
the mihte of schir ant cleane bone, the flith up ant kimeth in bivoren almihti Godd"
- ant deth the ernde se wel, thet Godd haveth o lives boc i-writen al thet ha seith,
as Sein Beornard witneth, edhalt hire with him-seolf, ant sent adun his engel to
don al thet ha easketh. Nule ich her of bone segge na mare.
    Hardi bileave bringeth the deovel o fluht anan-rihtes - thet witneth Sein Jame:
Resistite diabolo et fugiet a vobis. "Edstont ane the feond, ant he deth him o
fluhte." Edstond - thurh hwet strengthe? Seinte Peter teacheth, Cui resistite
fortes in fide. "Stondeth ayein him with stronge bileave," beoth hardi of Godes
help, ant witeth hu he is wac, the na strengthe naveth on us bute of us-seolven. Ne
mei he bute schawin forth sum-hwet of his eape-ware, ant olhnin other threatin
thet me bugge th'rof. Hwether se he deth, scarnith him, lahheth the alde eape lude
to bismere thurh treowe bileave, ant he halt him i-schent ant deth him o fluht
swithe. Sancti per fidem vicerunt regna - thet is, "the hali halhen alle overcomen
thurh bileave the deofles rixlunge" thet nis bute sunne, for ne rixleth he i nan,
bute thurh sunne ane. Neometh nu gode yeme hu alle the seovene deadliche sunnen
muhen beon afleiet thurh treowe bileave. On earst nu of prude.
    Hwa halt him muchel, as the prude deth, hwen he bihalt hu lutel the muchele
Laverd makede him in-with a povre meidenes breoste? Hwa is ontful, the bihalt
with ehnen of bileave hu Jesu Godd - nawt for his god, ah for othres god -
dude, ant seide, ant tholede al thet he tholede? The ontfule ne kepte nawt thet eani
dealde of his god. Ant Godd almihti yet, efter al thet other, lihte dun to helle for-
te sechen feolahes ant to deale with ham the god thet he hefde. Lo, nu hu frommard
beoth ontfule ure Laverd. The ancre the wearnde an-other a cwaer to lane -
f[e]or ha hefde heone-ward hire bileave ehe.
    Hwa halt wreaththe, the bihalt thet God lihte on eorthe to makien thr[e]o-fald
sahte: bitweone mon ant mon, bitweone Godd ant mon, bitweone mon ant engel?
Ant efter his ariste tha he com ant schawde him, this wes his gretunge to his deore
deciples: Pax vobis. "Sahtnesse beo bitweonen ow." Neometh nu yeorne yeme.
Hwen leof freond went from other, the leaste wordes thet he seith, theo schulen
beo best edhalden. Ure Laverdes leaste wordes, tha he steah to heovene ant leafde
his leove freond in uncuthe theode, weren of swote luve ant of sahtnesse: Pacem
relinquo vobis; pacem meam do vobis. Thet is - "Sahtnesse ich do i-mong ow.
Sahtnesse ich leave with ow." This wes his druerie thet he leafde ant yef ham in
his departunge. In hoc cognoscetis quod dicipuli mei sitis, si dilectionem
adinvicem habueritis. Lokith nu yeorne, for his deore-wurthe luve, hwuch a
mearke he leide upon his i-corene tha he steah to heovene. In hoc cognoscetis
quod, et cetera. "Bi thet ye schulen i-cnawen," quoth he, "thet ye beoth mine
deciples: yef swete luve ant sahtnesse is eaver ow bitweonen." Godd hit wite -
ant he hit wat - me were leovere thet ye weren alle o the spitel-uvel then ye
weren ontfule other feol i-heortet. For Jesu is al luve, ant i luve he resteth him ant
haveth his wununge. In pace factus est locus ejus. Ibi confregit potencias arcum,
scutum, gladium, et bellum - thet is, "i sahtnesse is Godes stude." Ant hwer-se
sahte is ant luve, thear he bringeth to nawt al thes deofles strengthe. "Ther he
breketh his bohe," hit seith - thet beoth dearne fondunges thet he scheot of feor
- "ant his sweord bathe" - thet beoth temptatiuns keorvinde of neh ant kene.
    Neometh nu yeorne yeme bi moni forbisne hu god is an-rednesse of luve, ant
an-nesse of heorte. For nis thing under sunne thet me is leovere, ne se leof, thet ye
habben. Nute ye ther men fehteth i thes stronge ferdes, the ilke the haldeth ham
feaste togederes ne muhe beo descumfit o neaver nane wise? Alswa hit is in
gastelich feht ayeines the deovel: al his entente is for-te tweamen heorten, for-te
bineomen luve thet halt men togederes. For hwen luve alith, thenne beoth ha i-
sundret, ant te deovel deth him bitweonen anan-riht ant sleath on euche halve.
Dumbe beastes habbeth this ilke warschipe, thet hwen ha beoth asailet of wulf
other of liun, ha thrungeth togederes al the floc feste, ant makieth scheld of ham-
seolf, euch of heom to other, ant beoth the hwile sikere. Yef eani unseli went ut,
hit is sone awuriet. The thridde: ther an geath him ane in a slubbri wei, he slit ant
falleth sone; ther monie gath togederes, ant euch halt othres hond, yef eani feth to
sliden, the other hine breid up ear he ful falle; yef ha wergith euch-an halt him bi
other. Fondunge is sliddrunge. Thurh wergunge beoth bitacnet the untheawes un-
der slawthe, the beoth i-nempnet th'ruppe. This is thet Sein Gregoire seith, Cum
nos nobis per orationis opem conjungimus, per lubricum incedentes, quasi
adinvicem manus teneamus, ut tanto quisque amplius roboretur quanto alteri
innititur.
Alswa i strong wind ant swifte weattres the me mot overwaden, of monie
euch halt other; the i-sundrede is i-swipt forth ant forfeareth eaver. To wel we
witen hu the wei of this world is slubbri, hu the wind ant te stream of fondunge
aren stronge. Muche neod is thet euch halde with bisie bonen ant with luve othres
honden, for as Salomon seith, Ve soli! quia cum ceciderit, non habet
sublevantem. "Wa eaver the ane! for hwen he falleth, naveth he hwa him areare."
Nan nis ane the haveth Godd to fere, ant thet is euch thet soth luve haveth in his
heorte. The seovethe forbisne is this, yef ye riht telleth: dust ant greot, as ye
seoth, for hit is i-sundret ant nan ne halt to other, a lutel windes puf todriveth hit
al to nawt. Thear hit is in a clot i-limet togederes, hit lith al stille. An hondful of
yerden beoth earveth to breoken hwil ha beoth togederes - euch-an i-tweamet
lihtliche bersteth. A treo the wule fallen - undersete hit with an-other, ant hit
stont feste; tweam ham, ant ba falleth. Nu ye habbeth nihene. Thus i thinges ute-
with neometh forbisne hu god is an-nesse of luve ant somet-readnesse thet halt
the gode somet, thet nan ne mei forwurthen! Ant this wule i-wiss habben the rihte
bileave. Bihald yeorne ant understont Jesu Cristes deore-wurthe wordes ant werkes,
the i luve weren alle ant i swetnesse. Over alle thing ich walde thet ancren leorneden
wel this lesceunes lare. For monie - mare hearm is! - beoth Samsones foxes,
the hefden the neb euch-an i-wend frommard other, ant weren bi the teiles i-teiet
togederes, as Judicum teleth, ant in euch-anes teil a blease bearninde. Of theose
foxes ich spec feor th'ruppe, ah nawt o thisse wise. Neometh gode yeme hwet this
beo to seggen: me turneth the neb blitheliche towart thing thet me luveth, ant
frommard thing thet me heateth. Theo thenne habbeth the nebbes wrong-wende
euch frommard other, hwen nan ne luveth other, ah bi the teiles ha beoth somet,
ant beoreth thes deofles bleasen - the brune of galnesse. On an-other wise, teil
bitacneth ende. In hare ende ha schulen beon i-bunden togederes as weren
Samsones foxes bi the teiles ant i-set bleasen th'rin - thet is, thet fur of helle.
    Al this is i-seid, mine leove sustren, thet ower leove nebbes beon eaver i-went
somet with luveful semblant ant with swote chere, thet ye beon aa with an-nesse
of an heorte ant of a wil i-limet togederes, as hit i-writen is bi ure Laverdes deore
deciples: Multitudinis credentium erat cor unum et anima una. Pax vobis:
this wes Godes gretunge to his deore deciples: "Grith beo bimong ow." Ye beoth
the ancren of Englond, swa feole togederes, twenti nuthe other ma. Godd i god ow
multi, thet meast grith is among, meast an-nesse ant an-rednesse ant somet-
readnesse of an-red lif efter a riwle, swa thet alle teoth an, alle i-turnt anes-weis,
ant nan frommard other, efter thet word is. For-thi, ye gath wel forth ant spedeth
in ower wei, for euch is with-ward other in an manere of lif-lade, as thah ye weren
an cuvent of Lundene ant of Oxnefort, of Schreobsburi, other of Chester, thear as
alle beoth an, with an i-meane manere, ant withuten singularite - thet is, an-ful
frommardschipe - lah thing i religiun, for hit towarpeth an-nesse ant manere i-
meane, thet ah to beon in ordre. This nu thenne - thet ye beoth alle as an cuvent
- is ower hehe fame. This is Godd i-cweme. This is nunan wide cuth, swa thet
ower cuvent biginneth to spreaden toward Englondes ende. Ye beoth as the moder-
hus thet heo beoth of i-streonet. Ye beoth ase wealle: yef the wealle woreth, the
strunden worith alswa. A, wei la, yef ye worith! - ne bide ich hit neaver! Yef ei
is i-mong ow the geath i singularite, ant ne folheth nawt the cuvent, ah went ut of
the floc, thet is as in a cloistre thet Jesu is heh priur over, went ut as a teowi schep
ant meapeth hire ane into breres teilac, into wulves muth, toward te throte of helle
- yef ei swuch is i-mong ow, Godd turne hire into floc, wende hire into cuvent,
ant leve ow the beoth th'rin, swa halden ow th'rin, thet Godd the hehe priur neome
ow on ende theonne up into the cloistre of heovene. Hwil ye haldeth ow in an,
offearen ow mei the feond - yef he haveth leave - ah hearmin nawt mid alle.
Thet he wat ful wel, ant is for-thi umben deies ant nihtes to unlimin ow with
wreaththe other with luther onde, ant sent mon other wummon, the telle the an bi
the other sum suhinde sahe thet suster ne schulde nawt segge bi suster. Ower nan
- ich forbeode ow - ne leve the deofles sondes-mon, ah lokith thet euch of ow i-
cnawe wel hwen he speketh i the uvele monnes tunge, ant segge anan-rihtes: "Ure
meistre haveth i-writen us, as in heast to halden, thet we tellen him al thet euch of
other hereth, ant for-thi loke the thet tu na thing ne telle me thet ich ne muhe him
tellen, the mei don the amendement, ant con swa-liches don hit, thet ich ant tu
bathe, yef we beoth i the soth, schule beon unblamet." Euch, no-the-le[s], warni
other thurh ful siker sondes-mon sweteliche ant luveliche, as hire leove suster, of
thing thet ha misnimeth - yef ha hit wat to sothe. Ant makie hwa-se bereth thet
word recordin hit ofte bivoren hire, ear ha ga - hu ha wule seggen, thet ha ne
segge hit other-weis, ne cluti ther-to mare. For a lute clut mei ladlechin swithe a
muchel hal pece. Theo the ed hire suster this luve-salve underveth, thoncki hire
yeorne, ant segge with the Salm-wruhte, Corripiet me justus in misericordia, et
increpabit me, oleum autem peccatoris non inpinguet caput meum. Ant th'refter
with Salomon, Meliora sunt vulnera corripientis quam oscula blandientis. "Yef
ha ne luvede me, nalde ha nawt warni me i misericorde." "Leovere me beoth hire
wunden then fikiende cosses" - thus ondswerie eaver. Ant yef hit is other-weis
then the other understont, sende hire word ayein th'rof, luveliche ant softe, ant te
other leve anan-riht, for thet ich chulle alswa, thet euch of ow luvie other as hire-
seolven. Yef the feond bitweonen ow toblaweth eani wreaththe, other great heorte
- thet Jesu Crist forbeode! - ear ha beo i-set wel, nawt ane to neomen Godes
flesch ant his blod, ne wurthe nan se witles, ah yet thet is leasse, thet ha eanes ne
bihalde ther-on, ne loki i ful wreaththe toward him the lihte to mon in eorthe of
heovene to makien threo-vald sahte, as is i-seid th'ruppe. Sende either thenne
other word, thet ha haveth i-maket hire - as thah ha were bivoren hire -
eadmodliche Venie. Ant theo the ear ofdraheth thus luve of hire suster, ant ofgeath
sahte, ant nimeth the gult toward hire, thah the other hit habbe mare, ha schal beo
mi deore-wurthe ant mi deore dohter, for ha is Godes dohter. He him-seolf hit
seith, Beati pacifici, quoniam filii Dei vocabuntur. Thus prude, ant onde, ant
wreaththe beoth i-hwer afleiet hwer-se soth luve is ant treowe bileave to Godes
milde werkes ant luvefule wordes. Ga we nu forthre to the othre on a reawe.
    Hwa mei beo for scheome slummi, sloggi, ant slaw, the bihalt hu swithe bisi
ure Laverd wes on eorthe? Pertransiit benefatiendo et sanando omnes. Efter al
thet other, bihaldeth hu he i the even of his lif swong o the hearde rode. Othre
habbeth reste, fleoth liht i chambre, hudeth ham hwen ha beoth i-lete blod on an
earm ethre. - Ant he, o munt Calvaire, steah yet o rode herre, ne ne swong neaver
mon se swithe ne se sare as he dude thet ilke dei thet he bledde o fif half brokes of
ful brade wunden ant deope, withuten the ethren capitale the bledden on his heaved
under the kene thornene crune, ant withuten the ilke reowfule garces of the luthere
scurgunge yont al his leofliche lich, nawt ane o the schonken. Toyeines slawe ant
sleperes is swithe openliche his earliche ariste from deathe to live.
    Ayeines yisceunge is his muchele poverte, the weox eaver upon him se lengre
se mare. For tha he wes i-boren earst, the thet wrahte the eorthe, ne fond nawt on
eorthe swa muche place as his lutle licome mahte beon i-leid upon. Swa nearow
wes thet stude, thet unneathe his moder ant Josep seten th'rin. Ant swa ha leiden
him on heh, up in a crecche with clutes biwrabbet, as thet Godspel seith, Pannis
eum involuit. Thus feire he wes i-schrud, the heovenliche Schuppent, the schrudeth
the sunne! Her-efter the povre meiden of heovene fostrede him ant fedde with
hire lutle milc as meiden deh to habben. This wes muche poverte, ah mare com
th'refter. For lanhure the yet, he hefde fode as feol to him, ant i stude of in, his
cradel herbearhede him. Seoththen, as he meande him, nefde he hwer he mahte
his heaved huden: Filius hominis non habet ubi capud suum reclinet. Thus
povre he wes of in; of mete he wes se neodful thet tha he hefde i Jerusalem o
Palm-sunnedei al dei i-preachet, ant hit neolechede niht, he lokede abuten, hit
seith i the Godspel, yef ei walde cleopien him to mete other to herbearhe, ah nes
ther nan. Ant swa he wende ut of the muchele burh into Bethanie, to Marie hus ant
to Marthen, ther-as he eode mid his deciples sum-chearre. Ha breken the eares bi
the wei, ant gnuddeden the curnles ut bitweonen hare honden ant eten for hunger,
ant weren ther-vore swithe i-calenget. Ah alre meast poverte com yet her-efter:
for steort-naket he wes despuilet o the rode. Tha he meande him of thurst, weater
ne mahte he habben. Yet thet meast wunder is of al the brade eorthe ne moste he
habben a grot for-te deien upon. The rode hefde a fot other lute mare, ant thet wes
to his pine. Hwen the worldes Wealdent walde beo thus povre, unbilevet he is the
luveth to muchel ant yisceth worldes weole ant wunne.
    Ayein glutunie is his povre pitance thet he hefde o rode. Twa manere men habbeth
neode to eote wel: swinkinde ant blod-letene. The dei thet he wes bathe i sar
swinc ant i-lete blod, as ich nest seide - nes his pitance o rode bute a spunge of
galle? Loke nu, hwa gruccheth - yef ha thencheth wel her-on - mistrum mel of
unsavuree metes, of povre pitance? Of na mon ne of na wummon ne schule ye
makie na man, ne pleainin ow of na wone, bute to sum treowe freond thet hit mei
amendin, ant godin ham other ow. Ant thet beo priveiliche i-seid as under seel of
schrift, thet ye ne beon i-blamet. Yef ye of ei thing habbeth wone, ant sum freond
yeorne freini ow yef ye ei wone habbeth, yef ye hopieth god of him, ondswerieth
this wise: "Laverd Godd foryelde the! Ich drede mare ich habbe then ich were
wurthe, ant leasse wone ich tholie then me neod were." Yef he easketh yeornluker,
thonkith him yeorne ant seggeth, "Ich ne dear nawt lihen o me-seolven: wone ich
habbe - ase riht is. Hwuch ancre kimeth into ancre-hus to habben hire eise? Ah
nu thu wult hit alles witen. Ure Laverd te foryelde. This is nu an thing thet ich
hefde neode to." Ant thus bid ure riwle thet we schawin to gode freond, as othre
Godes povre doth hare meoseise, with milde eadmodnesse. Ne nawt ne schule we
forsaken the grace of Godes sonde, ah thonkin him yeorne leste he wreathe him
with us ant withdrahe his large hond ant th'refter with to muche wone abeate ure
prude. Ant nis hit muchel hofles hwen Godd beot his hond forth, puttinde hire
ayein, segge, "Ne kepe ich hit nawt - have the-seolf. Ich wulle fondin yef ich
mei libben her-buten." Thurh this ich habbe i-herd of swuch thet nom uvel ende.
    Ayein leccherie is his i-borenesse of thet cleane meiden ant al his cleane lif thet
he leadde on eorthe, ant alle the hine fuleden. Thus, lo, the articles - thet beoth
as thah me seide, "the lithes of ure bileave onont Godes monhead" - hwa-se
inwardliche bihalt ham fehteth toyein the feond the fondeth us with theose deadliche
sunnen. For-thi seith Seinte Peter, Christo in carne passo et vos eadem
cogitatione armemini. "Armith ow," he seith, "with thoht up-o Jesu Crist, the in
ure flesch wes i-pinet." Ant Seinte Pawel, Recogitate qualem aput semet ipsum
sustinuit contradictionem ut non fatiget[is]. "Thencheth, thencheth," seith
Seinte Pawel, "hwen ye wergith i feht ayeines the deovel, hu ure Laverd seolf
withseide his fleschliche wil, ant withseggeth ower." Nondum enim usque
ad sanguinem restitistis. "Yet nabbe ye nawt withstonden athet te schedunge
of ower blod," [as he dude of his for ow - ayeines him-seolven, anont he
mon wes of ure cunde. Yet ye habbeth thet ilke blod], the[t] ilke blisfule bodi
thet com of the meiden ant deide o the rode niht ant dei bi ow - nis bute a
wah bitweonen. Ant euche dei he kimeth forth ant schaweth him to ow
fleschliche ant licomliche in-with the measse - biwrixlet, thah, on othres
lite under breades furme. For in his ahne, ure ehnen ne mahten nawt the brihte
sihthe tholien. Ah swa he schaweth him ow, as thah he seide, "Lowr, ich her.
Hwet wulle ye? Seggeth me hwet were ow leof. Hwer-to neodeth ow? Meaneth
ower neode." Yef the feondes ferd - thet beoth his temptatiuns - asailith
ow swithe, ondswerieth him ant seggeth, Metati sumus castra juxta lapidem
adjutorii. Porro Philistiini venerunt in Afech. "Ye, Laverd, wunder is: we beoth
i-loget her bi the thet art stan of help, tur of treowe sucurs, castel of strengthe, ant
te deofles ferd is woddre upon us then upon eani othre." This ich neome of Regum,
for ther hit teleth al thus thet Israel, Godes folc, com ant logede him bi the stan of
help, ant te Philistews comen into Afech. "Philistews" beoth unwihtes. "Afech"
on Ebreisch spealeth "neowe wodschipe." Swa hit is witerliche, hwen mon logeth
him bi ure Laverd: thenne on earst biginneth the deovel to weden. Ah ther hit
teleth thet Israel wende sone the rug, ant weren fowr thusent i the fluht sariliche i-
sleine. Ne wende ye nawt te rug, mine leove sustren, ah withstondeth the feondes
ferd amidde the forheaved - as is i-seid th'ruppe - with stronge bileave. Ant
with the gode Josaphath sendeth beode sondes-mon sone efter sucurs to the prince
of heovene.
    In Paralipomenis: In nobis quidem non est tanta fortitudo ut possimus huic
multitudini resistere que irruit super nos. Set cum ignoremus quid agere
debeamus, hoc solum habemus residui, ut oculos nostros dirigamus ad te.
Sequitur - Hec dicit Dominus vobis: Nolite timere et ne paveatis hanc
multitudinem. Non enim est vestra pugna set Dei. Tantummodo confidenter
state et videbitis auxilium Domini super vos. Credite in Domino Deo vestro,
et securi eritis.
This is thet Englisch: "In us nis nawt, deore-wurthe Laverd, swa
muchel strengthe thet we mahen withstonden the deofles ferd, the is se strong
upon us. Ah hwen we swa beoth bisteathet, swa stronge bistonden, thet we mid
alle na read ne cunnen bi us-seolven, this an we mahe don: heoven ehnen up to the
mildfule Laverd. Thu send us sucurs. Thu todreaf ure fan, for to the we lokith."
Thus with the gode Josaphath - hwen Godd kimeth bivoren ow ant freineth hwet
ye wulleth, ant in euch time hwen ye neode habbeth - schawith hit swa sweteliche
to his swote earen. Yef he sone ne hereth ow, yeieth luddre ant meadlesluker, ant
threatith thet ye wulleth yelden up the castel bute he sende ow sonre help, ant hihi
the swithere. Ah wite ye hu he ondswerede Josaphath the gode? Thus, o thisse
wise: Nolite timere, et cetera. Thus he onswereth ow hwen ye help cleopieth:
"Ne beo ye nawt offearede, ne drede ye ham na-wiht thah ha beon stronge ant
monie. The feht is min, nawt ower. Sulement stondeth sikerliche ant ye schulen
[seon] mi sucurs; habbeth ane to me trusti bileave, ant ye beoth al sikere." Lokith
nu hwuch help is hardi bileave, for al thet help the Godd bihat, the strengthe to
stonde wel, al is in hire ane. Hardi bileave maketh stonden up-riht, ant te unwiht
nis nawt lathre. For-thi this is his word in Ysaie: Incurvare ut transeamus. "Buh
the," he seith, "dune-ward thet ich mahe over the." Theo buheth hire the to hise
fondunges buheth hire heorte, for hwil ha stont up-riht, ne mei he nowther upon
hire rukin ne riden. Lo, the treitre, hu he seith: Incurvare ut transeamus. "Buh
the, let me leapen up! - nule ich the nawt longe riden, ah ich chulle wenden
over." He liheth, seith Sein Beornard, ne lef thu nawt then traitre. Non vult tran-
sire, set residere. "Nule he nawt wenden over, ah wule ful feaste sitten." Sum
wes thet lefde him, thohte he schulde sone adun as he bihat eaver. "Do," he seith,
"this en-chearre, ant schrif the th'rof to-marhen. Buh thin heorte - let me up.
Schec me with schrift adun, yef ich alles walde ride the longe." Sum, as ich seide,
lefde him ant beah him, ant he leop up ant rad hire bathe dei ant niht twenti yer
fulle! Thet is, ha dude a sunne i the il[ke] niht thurh his procunge, ant thohte thet
ha walde hire schriven ine marhen, ant dude hit eft ant eft ant fealh swa i uvel
wune, thet ha lei ant rotede th'rin swa longe as ich seide. Ant yef a miracle nere,
the pufte adun then deovel the set on hire se feaste, ha hefde i-turplet with him,
bathe hors ant lade, dun into helle grunde. For-thi, mine leove sustren, haldeth ow
efne up-riht i treowe bileave. Hardiliche i-leveth, thet al the deofles strengthe
mealteth thurh the grace of thet hali sacrement, hest over othre, thet ye seoth as
ofte as the preost measseth: the meidene bearn, Jesu Godd, Godes sune, the
licomliche lihteth other-hwiles to ower in, ant in-with ow eadmodliche nimeth his
herbearhe. Deu-le-set, ha beoth to wake ant to unwreaste i-heortet, the with swilli
gest hardiliche ne fehteth. Ye schulen bileave habben, thet al Hali Chirche deth,
red, other singeth, ant alle hire sacremenz strengeth ow gasteliche - ah nan ase
forth ase this, for hit bringeth to noht al thes deofles wiheles, nawt ane his
strengthes, ant his stronge turnes, ah deth his wiltfule crokes, his wrenchfule
wicche-creftes, ant alle his yulunges, ase lease swefnes, false schawunges, dredfule
offearunges, fikele ant sweokele reades, as thah hit were o Godes half ant god for-
te donne. For thet is his unwrench, as ich ear seide, thet hali men meast dredeth,
thet haveth moni hali mon grimliche biyulet. Hwen he ne mei nawt bringen to nan
open uvel, he sput to a thing thet thuncheth god. "Thu schuldest," he seith, "beo
mildre, ant leoten i-wurthe thi chast, nawt trubli thin heorte ant sturien into
wreaththe." This he seith for-thi thet tu ne schuldest nawt chastien for hire gult ne
tuhte wel thi meiden, ant bringe the into yemeles i stude of eadmodnesse. Eft riht
ther-toyeines: "Ne let tu hire na gult toyeves," he seith. "Yef thu wult thet ha
drede the, hald hire nearowe." "Riht-wisnesse," he seith, "mot beo nede sturne,"
ant thus he liteth cruelte with heow of riht-wisnesse. Me mei beon al to riht-wis.
Noli esse justus nimis (In Ecclesiaste). Betere is wis liste then luther strengthe.
Hwen thu havest longe i-waket ant schuldest gan to slepen - "nu is vertu," he
seith, "wakien hwen hit greveth the. Sei yet a nocturne." For-hwi deth he swa?
For thet tu schuldest slepen eft hwen time were to wakien. Eft riht ther-toyeines:
yef thet [tu] maht wakien wel, he leith on the an hevinesse, other deth i thi thoht,
"Wisdom is thinge best: Ich chulle ga nu to slepen, ant arise nunan ant don
cwicluker thene nu, thet ich don nuthe schulde" - ant swa ofte inoh-reathe ne
dest tu hit i nowther time. Of this ilke materie ich spec muchel th'ruppe. I thulliche
temptatiuns nis nan se wis, ne se war - bute Godd him warni - thet nis bigilet
ofte. Ah this hehe sacrement, in hardi bileave, over alle othre thing unwrith hise
wrenches, ant breketh hise strengthes. I-wis, leove sustren, hwen ye neh ow feleth
him, for-hwon thet ye habben hardi bileave, nulle ye bute lahhen him lude to
bismere thet he is se muchel ald cang, the kimeth his pine to echen, ant breiden
ow crune? Sone se he sith ow hardi ant bald i Godes grace, his mihte mealteth ant
he flith sone. Ah yef he mei underyeoten thet ower bileave falsi, swa thet ow
thunche thet ye mahten beon allunge i-lead forth over yef ye weren swithe i the
ilke stude i-temptet, ther-with ye unstrengeth ant his mihte waxeth.
    We redeth i Regum thet Ysboset lei ant slepte, ant sette a wummon yete-ward
the windwede hweate, ant comen Recabes sunen, Remon ant Banaa, ant funden
the wummon i-stunt of hire windwunge ant i-folen o slepe, ant wenden in ant
slohen Ysboset the unseli, thet lokede him se uvele. The bitacnunge her-of is
muche neod to understonden. "Ysboset" on Ebrew is "mon bimeaset" on Englisch
- ant nis he witerliche ameaset, ant ut of his witte, the amidden his unwines leith
him to slepen? The yete-ward is wittes skile, thet ah to windwin hweate, schaden
the eilen ant te chef from the cleane cornes - thet is, thurh bisi warschipe, sundri
god from uvel, don the hweate i gerner, ant puffen eaver awei the deofles chef
thet nis noht bute to helle smorthre. Ah the bimeasede Ysboset - lo, hu measeliche
he dude! Sette a wummon to yete-ward - thet is feble warde. Wei-la, as feole
doth thus. Wummon is the reisun - thet is, wittes skile - hwen hit unstrengeth,
the schulde beo monlich, steale-wurthe ant kene in treowe bileave. This yete-
ward lith to slepen, sone se me biginneth consenti to sunne, leoten lust gan in-
ward, ant te delit waxen. Hwen Recabes sunen - thet beoth helle bearnes - i-
findeth swa unwaker, ant swa nesche yete-ward, ha gath in ant sleath Ysboset -
thet is, the bimeasede gast the in a slepi yemeles foryemeth him-seolven. Thet nis
nawt to foryeoten, thet as Hali Writ seith, ha thurh-stichden him dun into the
schere. Her seith Sein Gregoire, In i[n]guine ferire est vitam mentis carnis
delectatione perforare. "The feond thurh-sticheth the schere, hwen delit of
leccherie thurleth the heorte" - ant this nis bute i slep of yemeles ant of slawthe,
as Sein Gregoire witneth: Antiquus hostis, mox ut mentem otiosam invenerit,
ad eam sub quibusdam occasionibus locuturus venit, et quedam ei de gestis
preteritis ad memoriam reducit. - Et infra: - "Putruerunt et deteriorate
sunt cicatrices mee!" Cicatrix quidem est figura vulneris, set sanati. Cicatrix
ergo ad putredinem redit, quando peccati vulnus, quod per penitentiam
sanatum est, in delectationem sui animum concutit.
This is thet Englisch: Hwen
the alde unwine sith slepi ure skile, he draheth him anan toward hire ant feleth
with hire i speche: "Thenchest tu," he seith, "hu the spec - other theo - of
flesches galnesse?" Ant speketh thus the alde sweoke toward hire heorte wordes
thet ha yare herde fulliche i-seide, other sihthe thet ha seh, other hire ahne fulthen
thet ha sum-hwile wrahte. Al this he put forth bivore the heorte ehnen, for-te
bifulen hire with thoht of alde sunnen, hwen he ne mei with neowe, ant swa he
bringeth ofte ayein into the adotede sawle thurh licunge the ilke sunnen, the thurh
reowthful sar weren i-bet yare, swa thet heo mei wepen ant meanen sari man with
the Salm-wruhte: Putruerunt, et cetera. "Wei-la-wei, mine wunden, the weren
feire i-healet, gederith neowe wursum ant foth on eft to rotien." I-healet wunde
thenne biginneth to rotien, hwen sunne the wes i-bet kimeth eft with licunge into
munegunge, ant sleath the unwarre sawle. Gregorius: Ysboset inopinate morti
nequaquam succumberet, nisi ad ingressum mentis mulierem - id est, mollem
custodiam - deputasset.
Al this unlimp i-warth thurh the yete-wardes slep thet
nes war ant waker, ne nes nawt monlich, ah wes wummonlich: eth to overkeasten.
Beo hit wummon beo hit mon, thenne, is al the strengthe efter the bileave, ant
efter thet me haveth trust to Godes help, thet is neh - bute bileave trukie, as ich
ear buven seide. Heo unstrengeth the unwiht ant deth him fleon anan-riht. For-thi,
beoth eaver ayein him hardi ase liun i treowe bileave, nomeliche i the fondunge
thet Ysboset deide on - thet is, galnesse. Lo, hu ye mahe cnawen thet he is earh
ant unwreast hwen he smit thider-ward: Nis he earh champiun the skirmeth to-
ward te vet, the secheth se lahe on his kempe-ifere? Flesches lust is fotes wunde
- as wes feor i-seid th'ruppe - ant this is the reisun: As ure fet beoreth us, alswa
ure lustes beoreth us ofte to thing thet us luste efter. Nu thenne thah thi va hurte
the o the vet - thet is to seggen, fondeth with flesches lustes - for se lah wunde
ne dred tu nawt to sare, bute hit to swithe swelle thurh skiles yettunge with to
muchel delit up toward te heorte, ah drinc thenne atter-lathe ant drif thet swealm
ayein-ward frommard te heorte - thet is to seggen, thench o the attri pine thet
Godd dronc o the rode, ant te swealm schal setten. Prude, ant onde, ant wreaththe,
heorte sar for worltlich thing, dreori oflongunge, ant yisceunge of ahte - theose
beoth heorte wunden, ant al thet of ham floweth, ant yeoveth deathes dunt anan,
buten ha beon i-salvet. Hwen the feond smit thider-ward, thenne is i-wis to dreden
- ant nawt for fot-wunden.
    Prude salve is eadmodnesse; ondes, feolahlich luve; wreaththes, tholemodnesse;
accidies, redunge, misliche werkes, gastelich frovre; yisceunges, over-hohe of
eorthliche thinges; festschipes, freo heorte. Thet is to seggen nu of the earste on
alre earst - yef thu wult beon eadmod, thench eaver hwet te wonteth of halinesse
ant of gasteliche theawes. Thench hwet tu havest of the-seolf. Thu art of twa
dalen: of licome ant of sawle. In either beoth twa thinges the mahen muchel meokin
the, yef thu ham wel bihaldest. I the licome is fulthe ant unstrengthe. Ne kimeth of
thet vetles swuch thing as ther is in? Of thi flesches fetles kimeth ther smeal of
aromaz other of swote basme? Deale! Drue spritlen beoreth win-berien? Breres,
rose blostmen? Thi flesch - hwet frut bereth hit in all his openunges? Amid te
menske of thi neb - thet is the fehereste deal - bitweonen muthes smech ant
neases smeal, ne berest tu as twa prive thurles? "Nart tu i-cumen of ful slim? Nart
tu fulthe fette. Ne bist tu wurme fode?" Philosophus: Sperma es fluidum, vas
stercorum, esca vermium. Nu, a flehe mei eili the, makie the to blenchen -
eathe maht tu pruden! Bihald hali men the weren sum-hwile, hu ha feasten, hu ha
wakeden, i hwuch passiun, i hwuch swinc ha weren, ant swa thu maht i-cnawen
thin ahne wake unstrengthe. Ah wast tu hwet awildgeth monnes feble ehnen, thet
is hehe i-clumben? - thet he bihalt dune-ward. Alswa hwa-se bihalt to theo the
beoth of lah lif, thet maketh him thunchen thet he is of heh lif. Ah bihald aa uppart
toward heovenliche men the clumben se hehe, ant thenne schalt tu seon hu lahe
thu stondest. Augustinus: Sicut incentivum est elationis respectus inferioris,
sic cautela est humilitatis consideratio superioris. Feasten a seove-niht to weater
ant to breade, threo niht togederes wakien - hu walde hit unstrengen thi fleschliche
strenge? Thus theos twa thinges bihald i thi licome: fulthe ant unstrengthe; i thi
sawle other twa: sunne ant ignorance - thet is, unwisdom ant unweotenesse. For
ofte thet tu wenest god is uvel ant sawle morthre. Bihald with wet ehe thine scheome
sunnen. Dred yet thi wake cunde thet is eth-warpe, ant sei with the hali mon the
bigon to wepen, ant seide tha me talde him thet an of his feren wes with a wummon
i flesches fulthe i-fallen: Ille hodie, ego cras - thet is, "he to-dei, ant ich to-
marhen," as thah he seide, "Of as unstrong cunde ich am as he wes, ant al swuch
mei me i-limpen bute yef Godd me halde." Thus, lo, the hali mon - nefde he of
the othres fal na wunderlich overhohe, ant biweop his unhap ant dredde thet him a
swuch mahte bitiden. O this wise eadmodieth ant meokith ow-seolven. Bernardus:
Superbia est appetitus proprie excellencie; humilitas, contemptus ejusdem
- thet [is], "Alswa as prude is wilnunge of wurthschipe, riht alswa ther-toyeines,
eadmodnesse is forkeastunge of wurthschipe," ant luve of lutel here-word ant of
lahnesse. This theaw is alre theawene moder, ant streoneth ham alle. The is umben
withuten hire to gederin gode theawes, he bereth dust i the wind, as Sein Gregoire
seith, Qui sine humilitate virtutes congregat, quasi qui in vento pulverem
portat. Theos ane bith i-borhen; theos ane withbuheth the deofles grunen of helle,
as ure Laverd schawde to Seint Antonie, the seh al the world ful of the deofles
tildunge. "A, Laverd!" quoth he, "hwa mei with theose witen him thet he ne beo
with sum i-laht?" "Ane the tholemode," quoth he, ure Laverd. Swa sutil thing is
eadmodnesse, ant swa gentilliche smeal ant se smuhel, thet na grune ne mei hire
edhalden - ant, lo, muche wunder: thah ha hire makie swa smeal ant se meoke,
ha is thinge strengest, swa thet of hire is euch gastelich strengthe. Seint Cassiodre
hit witneth: Omnis fortitudo ex humilitate. Ah Salomon seith the reisun hwi:
Ubi humilitas, ibi sapientia. "Ther-as eadmodnesse is, ther," he seith, "is Jesu
Crist" - thet is, his feader wisdom ant his feader strengthe. Nis na wunder thenne
thah strengthe beo ther-as he is thurh his in-wuniende grace: thurh the strengthe
of eadmodnesse he weorp the thurs of helle. The yape wreastlere nimeth yeme
hwet turn his fere ne kunne nawt, thet he with wreastleth, for with thet turn he mei
him unmundlunge warpen. Alswa dude ure Laverd, ant seh hu feole the grimme
wreastlere of helle breid upon his hupe ant weorp with the hanche-turn into galnesse
- the rixleth i the lenden - hef on heh monie ant wende abuten with ham ant
swong ham thurh prude dun into helle grunde. Thohte ure Laverd the biheold al
this, "Ich schal do the a turn thet tu ne cuthest neaver, ne ne maht neaver cunnen:
the turn of eadmodnesse" - thet is, the fallinde turn - ant feol from heovene to
eorthe, ant strahte him swa bi the eorthe, thet te feond wende thet he were al
eorthlich, ant wes bilurd with thet turn - ant is yet euche dei of eadmode men ant
wummen the hine wel cunnen. On other half, as Job seith, "he ne mei for prude
yet bute bihalden hehe." Omne sublime vident oculi ejus. Hali men the haldeth
ham lutle ant of lah lif beoth ut of his sihthe. The wilde bar ne mei nawt buhen
him to smiten: hwa-se falleth adun ant thurh meoke eadmodnesse strecheth him bi
ther eorthe, he is carles of his tuskes. This nis nawt toyeines thet thet ich habbe i-
seid ear - thet me schal stonden eaver toyeines the deovel - for thet stondinge
is treowe trust of hardi bileave up-o Godes strengthe. This fallunge is eadmod
cnawunge of thin ahne wacnesse, ant of thin unstrengthe. Ne nan ne mei stonde
swa bute he thus falle - thet is, leote lutel tale ant unwurth ant ethelich eaver of
him-seolven, bihalde his blac ant nawt his hwit, for hwit awilgeth the ehe.
Eadmodnesse ne mei beon neaver ful preiset, for thet wes the lesceun thet ure
Laverd inwardlukest learde his i-corene, with werc ba ant with worde: Discite a
me, quia mitis sum et humilis corde. In hire he healdeth nawt ane drope-mel, ah
flowinde yeotteth weallen of his graces, as seith the Salmiste: Qui emittis fontes
in convallibus. "I the dealen, thu makest" - he seith - "weallen to springen."
Heorte tobollen ant i-hoven ase hul ne edhalt na wete of grace. A bleddre i-bollen
of wind ne deveth nawt into theose halwende weattres. Ah a nelde prichunge
warpeth al the wind ut - an ethelich stiche other eche maketh to understonden hu
lutel prude is wurth, hu egede is orhel.
    Ondes salve, ich seide, wes feolahlich luve ant god unnunge ant god wil, ther
mihte of dede wonteth. Swa muchel strengthe haveth luve ant god wil, thet hit
maketh othres god ure god ase wel as his thet hit wurcheth. Sulement luve [h]is
god, beo wil-cweme ant glead th'rof. Thus thu turnest hit to the, ant makest hit
thin ahne. Sein Gregoire hit witneth, Aliena bona si diligis, tua facis. Yef thu
havest onde of othres god, thu attrest te with healewi, ant wundest te with salve.
Thi salve hit is - yef thu hit luvest - ayein sawle hurtes. Ant ti strengthe ayein
the feond is al the god thet other deth, yef thu hit wel unnest. Witerliche, ich leve
ne schulen flesches fondunges, na-mare then gasteliche, meistrin the neavere, yef
thu art swote i-heortet, eadmod ant milde, ant luvest se inwardliche alle men ant
wummen, ant nomeliche ancres, thine leove sustren, thet tu art sari of hare uvel,
ant of hare god glead as of thin ahne. Unnen thet al the luveth the, luvede ham ase
the ant dude ham frovre as the. Yef thu havest cnif other clath, other mete other
drunch, scrowe other cwaer, hali monne frovre, other ei other thing thet ham walde
freamien, unnen thet tu hefdest wonte the-seolf th'rof, with thon thet heo hit hefden.
Yef eani is, the naveth nawt the heorte thus afeitet, with sorhfule sikes ba bi dei
ant bi niht grede on ure Laverd, ne neaver grith ne yeove him athet he thurh his
grace habbe hire swuch aturnet.
    Salve of wreaththe, ich seide, is tholemodnesse. Thet haveth threo steiren: heh,
ant herre ant alre hest ant nest te hehe heovene. Heh is the steire yef thu tholest for
thi gult, herre yef thu navest gult, alre hest yef thu tholest for thi god-dede. "Nai!"
seith sum ameaset thing, "yef ich hefde gult ther-to, nalde ich neaver meanen."
Art tu, thet swa seist, ut of the-seolven? Is the leovere to beon Judase feolahe then
Jesu Cristes fere? Ba weren ahonget - ah Judas for his gult. Jesu withute gult for
his muchele godlec wes ahon o rode. Hwetheres fere wult tu beon? With hwether
wult tu tholien? Of this is th'ruppe i-writen muchel, hu he is thi file the misseith
other misdeth the. "Lime" is the Frensch of "file." Nis hit or acurset, the i-wurtheth
swartre ant ruhre se hit is i-filet mare, ant rusteth the swithere thet me hit scureth
hearde? Gold, seolver, stel, irn - al is or. Gold ant seolver cleansith ham of hare
dros i the fur: yef thu gederest dros th'rin, thet is ayein cunde. The chaliz the wes
ther-in i-mealt ant strongliche i-weallet, ant seoththen thurh se moni dunt ant
frotunge to Godes nep se swithe feire afeitet - walde he, yef he cuthe speoken,
awearien his cleansing fur, ant his wruhte honden? Argentum reprobum vocate
eos.
    Al this world is Godes smith to smeothien his i-corene. Wult tu thet Godd nabbe
na fur in his smiththe, ne bealies ne homeres? Fur is scheome ant pine; thine
bealies beoth the the misseggeth; thine homeres, the the hearmith. Thench of this
essample: Hwen dei of riht is i-set, ne deth he scheome the deme, the a this half
the i-sette dei breketh the triws ant wreketh him o the other on him-seolven?
Augustinus: Quid gloriatur impius, si de ipso flagellum fatiat Pater meus?
Ant hwa nat thet Domes-dei nis the dei i-set to don riht alle men? Hald the triws
the hwiles, hwet woh se me deth the: [the richtwise deme haveth i-set te dei to loki
richt bitwenen ow.] Ne do thu nawt him scheome, forhohie wrake of his dom, ant
neomen to thin ahne. Twa thinges beoth thet Godd haveth edhalden to him-seolven:
thet beoth wurthschipe ant wrake, as Hali Writ witneth: Gloriam meam alteri
non dabo. Item: Michi vindictam. Ego retribuam. Hwa-se eaver on him-seolf
taketh owther of theos twa, he robbeth Godd ant reaveth. Deale! Art tu se wrath
with mon other with wummon thet tu wult, for-te wreoke the, reavin Godd mid
strengthe?
    Accidies salve is gastelich gleadschipe ant frovre of gleadful hope thurh redunge,
thurh hali thoht, other of monnes muthe. Ofte, leove sustren, ye schulen uri leasse,
for-te reden mare. Redunge is god bone. Redunge teacheth hu ant hwet me bidde,
ant beode biyet hit efter. Amidde the redunge, hwen the heorte liketh, kimeth up a
devotiun thet is wurth monie benen. For-thi seith Sein Jerome, Jeronimus: Sem-
per in manu tua sacra sit lectio; tenenti tibi librum sompnus subripiat, et
cadentem faciem pagina sancta suscipiat.
"Hali redunge beo eaver i thine honden.
Slep ga up-o the as thu lokest th'ron, ant te hali pagne i-kepe thi fallinde neb" -
swa thu schalt reden yeornliche ant longe. Euch thing, thah, me mei overdon: best
is eaver mete.
    Ayeines yisceunge ich walde thet othre schuneden, as ye doth, gederunge. To
muche freolec cundleth hire ofte. Freo i-heortet ye schule beon. Ancre of other
freolec haveth i-beon other-hwiles to freo of hire-seolven.
    Galnesse kimeth of yivernesse ant of flesches eise, for as Sein Gregoire seith,
"Mete ant drunch over riht temeth threo teames: lihte wordes, lihte werkes, ant
leccheries lustes." Ure Laverd beo i-thonket, the haveth of yivernesse i-healet ow
mid alle! Ah galnesse ne bith neaver allunge cleane acwenct of flesches fondunge.
Ah thet understondeth wel, thet threo degrez beoth th'rin as Seint Beornard witneth.
The forme is cogitatiun. The other is affectiun. The thridde is cunsence. Cogitatiuns
beoth fleonninde thohtes the ne leasteth nawt, ant teo, as Sein Beornard seith, ne
hurteth nawt te sawle. Ah thah ha bispottith hire with hare blake speckes swa thet
nis ha nawt wurthe thet Jesu, hire leofmon, thet is al feier, bicluppe hire ne cusse
hire ear ha beo i-wesschen. Swuch fulthe, as hit kimeth lihtliche, lihtliche geath
awei with Venies, with Confiteor, with alle god-deden. Affectiun is hwen the
thoht geath in-ward, ant delit kimeth up, ant te lust waxeth. Thenne, as wes spot
ear up-o the hwite hude, ther waxeth wunde ant deopeth in toward te sawle efter
thet te lust geath ant te delit th'rin forthre. Ant forthre thenne is neod to yeiyen,
Sana me, Domine! "A, Laverd, heal me! for ich am i-wundet." Ruben,
primogenitus meus, ne crescas! "Ruben, thu reade thoht, thu blodi delit, ne waxe
thu neaver!" Cunsense, thet is skiles yettunge, hwen the delit i the lust is i-gan se
overforth thet ter nere nan withseggunge yef ther were eise to fulle the dede. This
is hwen the heorte draheth to hire unlust, as thing the were amainet, ant feth on as
to winkin, to leote the feond i-wurthen, ant leith hire-seolf dune-ward, buheth him
as he bit, ant yeieth, "Cravant! Cravant!" ase softe swohninde. Thenne is he kene,
the wes ear curre. Thenne leapeth he to, the stod ear feorren to, ant bit deathes bite
Godes deore spuse - i-wiss deathes bite, for his teth beoth attrie as of a wed
dogge. Davith i the Sawter cleopeth hine dogge: Erue a framea, Deus, animam
meam et de manu canis unicam meam.
    For-thi, mi leove suster, sone se thu eaver underyetest thet tes dogge of helle
cume snakerinde with his blodi flehen of stinkinde thohtes, ne li thu nawt stille,
ne ne site nowther to lokin hwet he wule don, ne hu feor he wule gan, ne sei thu
nawt slepinde, "Ame, dogge! Ga her ut! Hwet wult tu nu her inne?" This tolleth
him in-ward. Ah nim anan the rode-steaf mid nempnunge i thi muth, mid te mearke
i thin hond, mid thoht i thin heorte, ant hat him ut heterliche, the fule cur-dogge,
ant lithere to him lutherliche mid te hali rode-steaf stronge bac-duntes - thet is,
rung up, sture the, hald up ehnen on heh ant honden toward heovene. Gred efter
sucurs: Deus, in adjutorium meum intende. Domine, ad adjuvandum. Veni
Creator spiritus. Exurgat Deus et dissipentur inimici ejus. Deus, in nomine
tuo salvum me fac. Domine, quid multiplicati sunt. Ad te, Domine, levavi
animam meam. Ad te levavi oculos meos. Levavi oculos meos in montes.
Yef
the ne kimeth sone help, gred luddre with hat heorte: Usquequo, Domine,
oblivisceris me in finem? Usquequo averteris faciem tuam a me? - ant swa al
the Salm over, Pater noster, Credo, Ave Maria, with halsinde bonen o thin ahne
ledene. Smit smeortliche adun the cneon to ther eorthe, ant breid up the rode-
steaf, ant sweng him o fowr half ayein helle dogge - thet nis nawt elles bute
blesce the al abuten with the eadi rode-taken. Spite him amid te beard to hoker ant
to scarne, the flikereth swa with the ant fiketh dogge fahenunge. Hwen he for se
liht wurth - for the licunge of a lust ane hwile stucche - chapeth thi sawle -
Godes deore bune, thet he bohte mid his blod ant mid his deore-wurthe death o
the deore rode - aa bihald hire wurth thet he paide for hire, ant dem th'refter hire
pris ant beo on hire the deorre. Ne sule thu neaver se etheliche his fa, ant thin
either, his deore-wurthe spuse thet costnede him se deore. Makie deofles hore of
hire is reowthe over reowthe. To unwreast mid alle ha is, the mei with toheoven
up hire threo fingres overcumen hire fa, ant ne luste for slawthe. Hef for-thi with
treowe ant hardi bileave up thine threo fingres, ant with the hali rode-steaf, thet
him is lathest cuggel, lei o the dogge-deovel, nempne ofte Jesu, cleope his passiunes
help, halse bi his pine, bi his deore-wurthe blod, bi his death o rode, flih to his
wunden. Muchel he luvede us the lette makien swucche thurles in him for-te huden
us in. Creop in ham with thi thoht - ne beoth ha al opene? Ant with his deore-
wurthe blod biblodge thin heorte. Ingredere in petram, abscondere fossa humo.
"Ga into the stan," seith the prophete, "ant hud te i the dolven eorthe" - thet is,
i the wunden of ure Laverdes flesch, the wes as i-dolven with the dulle neiles, as
he i the Sawter longe vore seide: Foderunt manus meas et pedes meos - thet
is, "ha dulven me bathe the vet ant te honden." Ne seide he nawt "thurleden," for
efter this leattre - as ure meistres seggeth - swa weren the neiles dulle, thet ha
dulven his flesch ant tobreken the ban mare then thurleden, to pinin him sarre. He
him-seolf cleopeth the toward teose wunden: Columba mea, in foraminibus petre,
in cavernis macerie. "Mi culvre," he seith, "cum, hud te i mine limen thurles, i
the hole of mi side." Muche luve he cudde to his leove culvre, thet he swuch
hudles makede. Loke nu thet tu, the he cleopeth culvre, habbe culvre cunde -
thet is, withute galle - ant cum to him baldeliche, ant make scheld of his passiun,
ant sei with Jeremie: Dabis scutum cordis laborem tuum - thet is, "thu schalt
yeove me, Laverd, heorte scheld ayein the feond, thi swincfule pine." Thet hit
swincful wes, he schawde hit witerliche inoh, tha he sweatte, ase blodes swat,
dropen the runnen to ther eorthe. Me schal halden scheld i feht up abuven heaved,
other ayein the breoste, nawt ne drahen hit bihinden. Al riht swa, yef thu wult thet
te rode-scheld ant Godes stronge passiun falsi the deofles wepnen, ne dragse thu
hit nawt efter the, ah hef hit on heh buve thin heorte heaved i thine breoste ehnen.
Hald hit up toyein the feond, schaw hit him witerliche. The sihthe th'rof ane
bringeth him o fluhte, for ba him scheometh ther-with ant griseth ut of witte efter
the ilke time thet ure Laverd ther-with brohte swa to grunde his cointe coverschipe,
ant his prude strengthe. Yef thu thurh thi yemeles werest te earst wacliche, ant
yevest to the feond in-yong to forth i the frumthe, swa thet tu ne mahe nawt reculin
him ayein-ward, for thi muchele unstrengthe, ah art i-broht se over-forth thet tu ne
maht this scheld halden o thin heorte, ne wrenchen hire ther-under frommard te
deofles earowen, nim the aleast forth Sein Beneites salve, thah ne thearf hit nawt
beon se over-strong as his wes, the, of the walewunge, rug, ant side, ant wombe,
ron al o gure-blode. Ah lanhure yef the-seolf hwen the strongest stont a smeort
discepline, ant drif as he dude thet swete licunge into smeortunge. Yef thu thus ne
dest nawt, [ah] slepinde werest te, he wule gan to feor on the, ear thu least wene,
ant bringe the of ful thoht into delit of ful lust, ant swa he bringeth the al over to
skiles yettunge, thet is deadlich sunne withuten the dede, ant swa is ec the delit of
thet stinkinde lust withute grant of the werc, se longe hit mei leasten. Nunquam
enim judicanda est delectatio esse morosa, dum ratio reluctatur et negat
assensum.
"Thenne hit least to longe, hwen the skile ne fehteth na lengre ther-
toyeines." For-thi, leove suster, as ure Laverd leareth, totred te neddre heaved -
thet is, the biginnung of his fondunge. Beatus qui tenebit et allidet parvulos
suos ad petram. "Eadi is," seith Davith, "the withhalt hire on earst, ant tobreketh
[to] the stan the earste sturunges, hwen the flesch ariseth, hwil thet ha beoth yunge.
Ure Laverd is i-cleopet stan for his treownesse. Et in Canticis: Capite nobis
vulpes parvulas que destruunt vineas. "Nim ant keche us, leofmon, anan the
yunge foxes" - he seith, ure Laverd - "the strueth the win-yardes" - thet beoth
the earste procunges the strueth ure sawlen, the mot muche tilunge to, to beoren
win-berien. The deovel is beore cunnes, ant haveth asse cunde, for he is bihinden
strong, ant i the heaved feble, swa is beore ant asse - thet is, i the frumthe. Ne
yef thu him neaver in-yong, ah tep him o the sculle, for he is earh as beore th'ron,
ant hihe him swa theone-ward, ant askur him se scheomeliche sone se thu
underyetest him, thet him grise with the stude thet tu wunest inne. For he is thinge
prudest, ant him is scheome lathest.
    Alswa, leove suster, sone se thu eaver felest thet tin heorte with luve falle to
eani thing eawt over mete, anan-rihtes beo war of the neddre atter, ant totred his
heaved. The cwene seide ful soth, the with a strea ontende alle hire wanes, thet
muchel kimeth of lutel. Ant nim nu yeme hu hit feareth: the sperke the wint up ne
bringeth nawt anan-riht the hus al o leie, ah lith ant kecheth mare fur, ant fostreth
forth, ant waxeth from leasse to mare, athet al the hus bleasie forth ear me least
wene. Ant te deovel blaweth to, from thet hit earst cundleth ant mutleth his beali-
bleas eaver as hit waxeth. Understond tis bi the-seolf: a sihthe thet tu sist, other
anlepi word thet tu misherest - yef hit eawt stureth the, cwench hit with teares
weater ant mid Jesu Cristes blod, hwil hit nis bute a sperke, ear then hit waxe ant
ontende the swa, thet tu hit ne mahe cwenchen. For swa hit timeth ofte, ant hit is
riht Godes dom, thet hwa ne deth hwen ha mei, ne schal ha hwen ha walde.
Ecclesiasticus: A scintilla una augetur ignis.
    Moni cunnes fondunge is i this feorthe dale, misliche frovren ant moni-falde
salven. Ure Laverd yeove ow grace thet ha ow moten helpen. Of alle the othre
thenne is schrift the biheveste. Of hit schal beon the fifte dale as ich bihet th'ruppe.
Ant neometh yeme hu euch-an dale falleth into other, as ich thear seide.

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