The Carle of Carlisle

THE CARLE OF CARLISLE: FOOTNOTES

1 Lines 55-58: He bore arms of blue and gold, / [Emblazoned] with several griffins, / And the distinguishing mark of a mullet (i.e., star) / He always bore on his crest (see note)

2 "You imagined more (than you said)"


THE CARLE OF CARLISLE: NOTES

Abbreviations: P = Percy Folio; M = Madden's edition; HF = Hales' and Furnivall's edition; K = Kurvinen's edition. See Select Bibliography for these editions.


19 grass-time. The term refers to the "grease" time, when herds have fattened; see explanation of this idiom, and of the assay or "breaking" of the deer in Ragnelle, line 46 note.

20 breake the deere. This term is frequently used for the prescribed, almost ritualized, dressing of the dead animal. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (lines 1325 ff.) offers a striking and detailed account, in which brek occurs at line 1333; briefer descriptions of the hunt appear in Ragnelle (lines 46 ff.), Carlisle (lines 29 ff., 85-87, 103 ff.), Avowyng (lines 25 ff.), and Awntyrs (lines 5 ff.).

21 ff. On the catalogue of knights, see notes on the corresponding passage in Carlisle, lines 34 ff.

31 cozen Mordred. In Cornwall, line 1, Arthur calls Gawain "cuzen" or kinsman; see note on Carlisle, line 49, which refers to "The Kyngus uncull, Syr Mordrete."

55 ff. Sir Ironside's coat of arms consists of a field of blue, emblazoned in gold with a griffon lesse or more. The phrase lesse or more, which may have been composed for metrical rather than descriptive purposes, seems to suggest arms decorated with more than one griffin, though how the animals are arranged is unclear. Lesse or more may indicate the presence of an inescutcheon, i.e. one smaller coat of arms set within a larger to signify a family connection, or, geratting, where the family symbol or totem is repeated across the field of the coat. The griffin, a mythical beast, may symbolize the traits of the bearer, as is suggested in John Trevor's fifteenth-century Welsh Llyfr Arfau [Book of Arms]: "A griffon borne in arms signifies that the first to bear it was a strong, pugnacious man in whom were found two distinct natures and qualities: for the griffon is a bird in its head and talons and resembles an eagle, and its hind part is like that of a lion" (in Evan John Jones' Medieval Heraldry: Some Fourteenth-Century Heraldic Works [Cardiff, Wales: William Lewis, 1903], p. 45). Also, Lycurgus, the King of Thrace in Chaucer's Knight's Tale, is intimidatingly described as glaring around "lik a grifphon" (line 2133). Ironside's coat of arms contains a difference, or cadence mark designed to distinguish it from that of his father or other senior kinsman. In this case it is a mullet, a figure resembling a five-pointed star (cp. with Gawain's pentangle [line 664] in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight), which became the particular mark of the third son of a family: "originally the mullet was a spur rowel, from the French word molette, but it now has a stereotyped form and more often symbolizes a star" (J. P. Brooke-Little, An Heraldic Alphabet, rev. ed., [London: Robson Books, 1985], p. 145). Griffins, either as crests or ornamentation, appear elsewhere in Arthurian poems in association with Gawain. In Awntyrs, this hero bears arms engraved with griffons of golde (line 509). In Libeaus Desconus, Arthur gives Gawain's son (i.e., The Fair Unknown) "a rich sheeld all over gilte / with a griffon soe gay" (lines 92-93 in Hales' and Furnivall's edition of the Percy Folio [see Bibliography of Editions and Works Cited], vol. 2, p. 419); in the Cotton version of this romance (edited by Mills [see Bibliography of Editions and Works Cited]) "Lybeau Desconus" receives a golden shield with a griffin (lines 78-81). Interestingly, there also exists a fifteenth-century depiction of a coat of arms composed of a green field emblazoned with three gold griffins registered to "SIR GAWAYNE the good knyght" (Harleian MS 2169; this is reproduced in The Ancestor: A Quarterly Review of County and Family History, Heraldry and Antiquities 3 [1902], p. 192; see also General Introduction, note 21). The description of Ironside's arms in both Carlisle and Carle suggests by its placement some confusion with the distinct armorial bearings associated with Gawain and his kin. See Awntyrs, line 509 and note, and Carlisle, lines 82 ff. and note. Baron Simon de Montagu (d. 1317) bore arms resembling those of Sir Ironside, composed of blue and gold, with, depending on the particular campaign, either one or two griffins - the animal assumed to be the symbol of his house, which died out in 1428.

61 they. P: the; HF prints thé in instances where the scribal spelling the represents "they." I emend to they here and at lines 73, 81, 82, and 459. Elsewhere the scribe uses they as the form of the demonstrative adjective or the definite article. I have emended this spelling to the at lines 63, 170, 171, 215, 216, 287, 289, 290, 295, 299, 331, 345, 349, 359, 365, and 375.

121 ff. All these remarks are proverbial; see Carlisle line 160 and note.

125 gaine. This is a broken rhyme, whose meaning is unclear. M in a note suggests the emendation him for he, which would give, "win him [the Carl] over." gaine may be the adverbial form (meaning "back," "in return") used as a verb, giving "reply to," "respond to"; or it may be the noun gein, "reward," "profit" (whose northern form, gawin, would suit the rhyme) used as a verb, giving "reward," "respond favorably to."

152 Theres. K: There's, with no indication of punctuation in P.

179 ff. Given the obviously fantastic dimensions of the Carle, who is clearly a fairy-tale giant, it may seem pointless to note that his size here far exceeds that in Carlisle: here his shoulders are nine feet broad (rather than six), and he is seventy-five feet tall (as opposed to twenty-seven in Carlisle; see lines 256 ff.).

269 This overt anti-clerical (or, more precisely, anti-episcopal in its focus on miter and ringe) outburst seems to reflect a post-Reformation rather than a medieval attitude. In Carlisle, when Baldwin claims a similar benefit of clergy, the Carle simply attacks his want of courtesy. Turke, lines 154 ff., contains a similar intrusive anti-clericalism.

309 race. In Carlisle, the Carl asks Gawain to "take thy passe," to take his position at the door.

367 bloody serke. This is a traditional phrase; see note at line 535 of Carlisle.

379 ff. The beheading scene, by which the Carle is "delivered . . . From all false witchcrafft" (lines 402-03) is inexplicably missing from Carlisle. The manner of disenchantment resembles the similar episode in Turke (see lines 271 ff. and note). The Carle's revelation that he had been "by nigromancé . . . shapen" (line 405) echoes Ragnelle's use of the same term; see Ragnelle, line 691 and note.
 
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The Carle of Carlisle


   
   
   
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Listen to me a litle stond -
Yee shall heare of one that was sober and sound.
Hee was meeke as maid in bower,
Stiffe and strong in every stoure.
Certes, withouten fable,
He was one of the Round Table.
The knights name was Sir Gawaine,
That much worshipp wan in Brittaine.
The Ile of Brittaine called is
Both England and Scottland iwis.
Wales is an angle to that ile,
Where King Arthur sojorned a while,
With him twenty-four knights told
Besids barrons and dukes bold.
The King to his bishopp gan say,
"Wee will have a Masse today -
Bishopp Bodwim shall itt done.
After to the forrest wee will gone,
For now itts grass-time of the yeere:
Barrons bold shall breake the deere."
Faine theroff was Sir Marrocke,
Soe was Sir Kay, the knight stout.
Faine was Sir Lancelott Du Lake;
Soe was Sir Percivall, I undertake.
Faine was Sir Ewaine
And Sir Lott of Lothaine;
Soe was the Knight of Armes Greene
And alsoe Sir Gawaine the sheene.
Sir Gawaine was Steward in Arthurs hall:
Hee was the curteous knight amongst them all.
King Arthur and his cozen Mordred,
And other knights withouten lett.
Sir Lybius Disconyus was there
With proud archers lesse and more.
Blanch Faire and Sir Ironside,
And many knights that day can ryde.
And Ironside, as I weene,
Gate the Knight of Armour Greene,
Certes, as I understand,
Of a faire lady of Blaunch Land.
Hee cold more of honor in warr
Then all the knights that with Arthur weare.
Burning dragons he slew in land
And wilde beasts, as I understand.
Wilde beares he slew that stond:
A hardyer knight was never found.
He was called in his dayes
One of King Arthurs fellowes.
Why was hee called Ironsyde?
For ever armed wold he ryde;
Hee wold allwais armes beare,
For gyants and hee were ever att warr.
Dapple-coulour was his steede,
His armour, and his other weede.
Azure of gold he bare
With a griffon lesse or more,
And a difference of a molatt
He bare in his crest allgate.1
Wheresoever he went, east nor west,
He never forsooke man nor beast.
Beagles keenely away they ran;
The King followed affter with many a man.
The grayhounds out of the leashe;
They drew downe the deere of grasse.
Fine tents in the feild were sett:
A merry sort there were mett
Of comely knights of kind.
Uppon the bent there can they lend,
And by noone of the same day
A hundred harts on the ground lay.
Then Sir Gawaine and Sir Kay
And Bishopp Bodwin, as I heard say,
After a redd deere they rode
Into a forrest wyde and brode.
A thicke mist fell them among
That caused them all to goe wronge.
Great moane made then Sir Kay
That they shold loose the hart that day:
That red hart wold not dwell.
Hearken what adventures them beffell.
Full sore they were adread
Ere they any lodginge had.
Then spake Sir Gawaine:
"This labour wee have had in vaine.
This red hart is out of sight -
Wee meete with him no more this night.
I reede wee of our horsses do light,
And lodge wee heere all this night.
Truly itt is best, as thinketh mee,
To lodge low under this tree."
"Nay!" said Kay, "Goe wee hence anon!
For I will lodge whersoere I come;
For there dare no man warne me
Of whatt estate soever hee bee."
"Yes," said the Bishopp, "that wott I well.
Here dwelleth a carle in a castele.
The Carle of Carlile is his name;
I know itt well, by St. Jame.
Was there never man yett soe bold
That durst lodge within his hold
But and if hee scape with his liffe away
Hee ruleth him well, I you say."
Then said Kay, "All in fere
To goe thither is my desire.
For and the Carle be never so bolde,
I thinke to lodge within his hold.
For if he jangle and make itt stout,
I shall beate the Carle all about.
And I shall make his bigging bare
And doe to him mickle care.
And I shall beate him, as I thinke,
Till he both sweate and stinke."
Then said the Bishopp, "So mote I fare,
Att his bidding I wil be yare."
Gawaine said, "Lett be thy bostlye fare,
For thou dost ever waken care.
If thou scape with thy liffe away
Thou rules thee well, I dare say."
Then said Kay, "That pleaseth mee;
Thither let us ryde all three.
Such as hee bakes, such shall hee brew;
Such as hee shapes, such shall hee sew;
Such as he breweth, such shall he drinke."
"That is contrary," said Gawaine, "as I thinke.
But if any faire speeche will he gaine,
Wee shall make him lord within his owne.
If noe faire speech will avayle,
Then to karp on Kay wee will not faile."
Then said the Bishopp, "That senteth mee.
Thither lett us ryde all three."
When they came to the Carles gate,
A hammer they found hanging theratt.
Gawaine hent the hammer in his hand
And curteouslye on the gates dange.
Forth came the porter with still fare
Saying, "Who is soe bold to knocke there?"
Gawaine answered him curteouslye:
"Man," hee said, "that is I.
Wee be two knights of Arthurs inn
And a bishopp, no moe to min.
Wee have rydden all day in the forrest still
Till horsse and man beene like to spill.
For Arthurs sake, that is our Kinge,
Wee desire my Lord of a nights lodginge
And harbarrow till the day att morne
That wee may scape away without scorne."
Then spake the crabbed knight Sir Kay:
"Porter, our errand I reede the say,
Or else the castle gate wee shall breake
And the keyes thereof to Arthur take."
The porter sayd with words throe,
"Theres no man alive that dares doe soe.
If a hundred such as thou his death had sworne,
Yett he wold ryde on hunting tomorne."
Then answered Gawain, that was curteous aye,
"Porter, our errand I pray thee say."
"Yes," said the porter, "withouten fayle,
I shall say your errand full well."
As soone as the porter the Carle see
Hee kneeled downe upon his knee.
"Yonder beene two knights of Arthurs in
And a bishopp, no more to myn.
They have roden all day in the forrest still
That horsse and man is like to spill.
They desire you for Arthurs sake, their King,
To grant them one nights lodginge
And herberrow till the day att morne,
That they may scape away without scorne."
"Noething greeves me," sayd the Carle, "without doubt,
But that the knights stand soe long without."
With that the porter opened the gates wyde,
And the knights rode in that tyde.
Their steeds into the stable are tane;
The knights into the hall are gone.
Heere the Carle sate in his chaire on hye
With his legg cast over the other knee.
His mouth was wyde and his beard was gray;
His lockes on his shoulders lay.
Betweene his browes, certaine,
Itt was large there a spann.
With two great eyen brening as fyer,
Lord, hee was a lodlye syer.
Over his sholders he bare a bread
Three taylors yards, as clarkes doe reede.
His fingars were like to teddar-stakes,
And his hands like breads that wives may bake.
Fifty cubitts he was in height.
Lord, he was a lothesome wight!
When Sir Gawaine that Carle see
He halched him full curteouslye
And saith, "Carle of Carlile, God save thee
As thou sittes in thy prosperitye."
The Carle said, "As Christ me save,
Yee shall be welcome for Arthurs sake.
Yet is itt not my part to doe soe,
For Arthur hath beene ever my foe.
He hath beaten my knights and done them bale
And send them wounded to my owne hall.
Yett the truth to tell I will not leane,
I have quitt him the same againe."
"That is a kind of knave," said Kay, "without leasing,
Soe to revile a noble king."
Gawaine heard and made answere,
"Kay, thou sayest more then meete weere."
With that they went further into the hall,
Where bords were spredd and covered with pall.
And four welpes of great ire
They found lying by the fire.
There was a beare that did rome,
And a bore that did whett his tushes fome;
Alsoe a bull that did rore,
And a lyon that did both gape and rore -
The lyon did both gape and gren.
"O peace, whelpes," said the Carle then.
For that word that the Carle did speake
The four whelpes under the bord did creepe.
Downe came a lady faire and free
And sett her on the Carles knee.
One whiles shee harped, another whiles song
Both of paramours and lovinge amonge.
"Well were that man," said Gawaine, "that ere were borne
That might lye with that lady till day att morne."
"That were great shame," said the Carle free,
"That thou sholdest doe me such villanye."
"Sir," said Gawaine, "I sayd nought."
"No, man!" said the Carle; "More thou thought."2
Then start Kay to the flore
And said hee wold see how his palfrey fore.
Both corne and hay he found lyand,
And the Carles palfrey by his steed did stand.
Kay tooke the Carles palfrey by the necke,
And soone hee thrust him out att the hecke.
Thus Kay put the Carles fole out,
And on his backe he sett a clout.
Then the Carle himselfe hee stood thereby
And sayd, "This buffett, man, thou shalt abuy."
The Carle raught Kay such a rapp
That backward he fell flatt.
Had itt not beene for a feald of straw,
Kayes backe had gone in two.
Then said Kay, "And thow were without thy hold,
Man, this buffett shold be deere sold."
"What," sayd the Carle, "dost thou menace me?
I swere by all the soules sicerlye,
Man, I swere further thore:
If I heere any malice more
For this one word that thou hast spoken,
Itt is but ernest thou hast gotten."
Then went Kay into the hall,
And the Bishopp to him can call,
Saith, "Brother Kay, where you have beene?"
"To looke my palfrey, as I weene."
Then said the Bishopp, "Itt falleth me
That my palfrey I must see."
Both corne and hay he found lyand
And the Carles palffrey, as I understand.
The Bishopp tooke the Carles horsse by the necke,
And soone hee thrust him out att the hecke.
Thus he turned the Carles fole out
And on his backe he sett a clout,
Sais, "Wend forth, fole, in the devills way.
Who made thee soe bold with my palfrey?"
The Carle himselfe he stood thereby:
"Man, this buffett thou shalt abuy."
He hitt the Bishopp upon the crowne
That his miter and he fell downe.
"Mercy," said the Bishopp, "I am a clarke!
Somewhatt I can of Christs werke."
He saith, "By the clergye I sett nothing,
Nor yett by thy miter nor by thy ringe.
It fitteth a clarke to be curteous and free
By the conning of his clergy."
With that the Bishopp went into the hall,
And Sir Gawaine to him can call,
Saith, "Brother Bishopp, where have you beene?"
"To looke my palfrey, as I weene."
Then sayd Sir Gawaine, "Itt falleth mee
That my palfreye I must needs see."
Corne and hay he found enoughe lyand,
And the Carles fole by his did stand.
The Carles fole had beene forth in the raine;
Therof Sir Gawaine was not faine.
Hee tooke his mantle that was of greene
And covered the fole, as I weene;
Sayth, "Stand up, fole, and eate thy meate.
Thy master payeth for all that wee heere gett."
The Carle himselfe stood thereby
And thanked him of his curtesye.
The Carle tooke Gawaine by the hand,
And both together in the hall they wend.
The Carle called for a bowle of wine,
And soone they settled them to dine.
Seventy bowles in that bowle were -
He was not weake that did itt beare.
Then the Carle sett itt to his chin
And said, "To you I will begin."
Fifteen gallons he dranke that tyde
And raught to his men on every side.
Then the Carle said to them anon,
"Sirrs, to supper gett you gone."
Gawaine answered the Carle then,
"Sir, att your bidding wee will be ben."
"If you be bayne att my bidding
You honor me without leasinge."
They washed all and went to meate
And dranke the wine that was soe sweete.
The Carle said to Gawaine anon,
"A long speare see thou take in thy hand:
Att the buttrye dore take thou thy race,
And marke me well in middest the face."
"A," thought Sir Kay, "that that were I,
Then his buffett he shold deere abuy!"
"Well," quoth the Carle, "when thou wilt thou may,
When thou wilt thy strenght assay."
"Well, Sir," said Kay, "I said nought."
"Noe," said the Carle, "but more thou thought."
Then Gawaine was full glad of that,
And a long spere in his hand he gatt.
Att the buttery dore he tooke his race
And marked the Carle in the middst the face.
The Carle saw Sir Gawaine come in ire
And cast his head under his speare.
Gawaine raught the wall such a rapp
The fyer flew out and the speare brake;
He stroke a foote into the wall of stone.
A bolder barron was there never none.
"Saft," said the Carle, "thow was to radd."
"I did but, Sir, as you me bade."
"If thou had hitt me as thou had ment,
Thou had raught me a fell dint."
The Carle tooke Gawaine by the hand,
And both into a chamber they wend.
A full faire bed there was spred:
The Carles wiffe therin was laid.
The Carle said, "Gawaine, of curtesye
Gett into this bedd with this faire ladye.
Kisse thou her thrice before mine eye:
Looke thou doe no other villanye."
The Carle opened the sheetes wyde.
Gawaine gott in by the ladyes syde;
Gawaine over her put his arme -
With that his flesh began to warme.
Gawaine had thought to have made infare.
"Hold!" quoth the Carle, "Man, stopp thee!
Itt were great shame," quoth the Carle, "for me
That thou sholdest doe me such villanye.
But arise up, Gawaine, and goe with me;
I shall bring thee to a fairer lady then ever was shee."
The Carle tooke Gawaine by the hand;
Both into another chamber they wend.
A faire bedd there found they spred,
And the Carles daughter therin laid.
Saith, "Gawaine, now for thy curtesye
Gett thee to bedd to this faire lady."
The Carle opened the sheetes wyde;
Sir Gawaine gott in by the ladyes side.
Gawaine put his arme over that sweet thing.
"Sleepe, daughter," sais the Carle, "on my blessing."
The Carle turned his backe and went his way
And lockt the dore with a silver kaye.
On the other morning when the Carle rose
Unto his daughters chamber he goes.
"Rise up, Sir Gawaine, and goe with mee,
A marvelous sight I shall lett thee see."
The Carle tooke him by the hand,
And both into another chamber they wend.
And there they found many a bloody serke
Which were wrought with curyous werke.
Fifteen hundred dead mens bones
They found upon a rooke att once.
"Alacke!" quoth Sir Gawaine; "What have beene here?"
Saith, "I and my welpes have slaine all there."
Then Sir Gawaine, curteous and kind,
He tooke his leave away to wend
And thanked the Carle and the ladyes there
Right as they worthy were.
"Nay," said the Carle, "wee will first dine,
And then thou shalt goe with blessing mine."
After dinner, the sooth to say,
The Carle tooke Gawaine to a chamber gay
Where were hanginge swords towe.
The Carle soone tooke one of tho
And sayd to the knight then,
"Gawaine, as thou art a man,
Take this sword and stryke of my head."
"Nay," said Gawaine, "I had rather be dead.
For I had rather suffer pine and woe
Or ever I wold that deede doe."
The Carle sayd to Sir Gawaine,
"Looke thou doe as I thee saine,
And therof be not adread.
But shortly smite of my head:
For if thou wilt not doe itt tyte
For ssooth thy head I will ofsmyte."
To the Carle said Sir Gawaine,
"Sir, your bidding shall be done."
He stroke the head the body froe:
And he stood up a man thoe
Of the height of Sir Gawaine -
The certaine soothe, withouten laine.
The Carle sayd, "Gawaine, God blese thee!
For thou hast delivered mee
From all false witchcrafft -
I am delivred att the last.
By nigromancé thus was I shapen
Till a knight of the Round Table
Had with a sword smitten of my head,
If he had grace to doe that deede.
Itt is forty winters agoe
Since I was transformed soe.
Since then none lodged within this woonn
But I and my whelpes driven them downe.
And but if hee did my bidding soone
I killed him and drew him downe,
Every one but only thee.
Christ grant thee of his mercye:
He that the world made reward thee this,
For all my bale thou hast turned to blisse.
Now will I leave that lawe;
There shall no man for me be slawe.
And I purpose for their sake
A chantrey in this place to make,
And five preists to sing for aye
Untill itt be doomesday.
And Gawaine, for the love of thee
Every one shall bee welcome to me."
Sir Gawaine and the young lady clere,
The Bishopp weded them in fere.
The Carle gave him for his wedding
A staffe, a miter, and a ringe.
He gave Sir Kay, that angry knight,
A blood-red steede and a wight.
He gave his daughter, the sooth to say,
An ambling white palfrey:
The fairest hee was on the mold;
Her palfrey was charged with gold.
Shee was soe gorgeous and soe gay
No man cold tell her array.
The Carle commanded Sir Gawaine to wend
And say unto Arthur our King
And pray him that hee wold,
For His love that Judas sold
And for His sake that in Bethelem was borne,
That hee wold dine with him tomorne.
Sir Gawaine sayd the Carle unto,
"For ssooth, I shall your message doe."
Then they rode singing by the way
With the ladye that was gay.
They were as glad of that lady bright
As ever was fowle of the daylyght.
They told King Arthur where they had beene,
And what adventures they had seene.
"I thanke God," sayd the King, "cozen Kay,
That thou didst on live part away."
"Marry," sayd Sir Kay againe,
"Of my liffe I may be faine.
For His love that was in Bethlem borne
You must dine with the Carle tomorne."
In the dawning of the day they rode:
A merryer meeting was never made.
When they together were mett,
Itt was a good thing, I you hett.
The trumpetts plaid att the gate,
With trumpetts of silver theratt.
There was all manner of minstrelsye -
Harpe, gyttorne, and sowtrye.
Into the hall the King was fett
And royallye in seat was sett.
By then the dinner was readye dight;
Tables were covered all on height.
Then to wash they wold not blinn,
And the feast they can beginn.
There they were mached arright,
Every lady against a knight,
And minstrells sate in windowes faire
And playd on their instruments cleere.
Minstrells for worshipp att every messe
Full lowd they cry, "Largnesse!"
The Carle bade the King, "Doe gladlye,
For heere yee gett great curtesye."
The King said, "By Seint Michaell,
This dinner liketh me full well."
He dubd the Carle a knight anon.
He gave him the country of Carlile soone,
And made him Erle of all that land,
And after knight of the Table Round.
The King said, "Knight, I tell thee
Carlile shall thy name bee."
When the dinner was all done,
Every knight tooke his leave soone
To wend forward soberlye
Home into their owne countrye.
He that made us all with His hand,
Both the sea and the land,
Grant us all for His sake
This false world to forsake -
And out of this world when wee shall wend
To heavens blisse our soules bringe.
God grant us grace itt may soe bee.
Amen, say all, for charitye.
   
FINIS.
while
trustworthy and brave
maiden in a chamber
battle
Surely
   
   
won
   
indeed
corner
stayed
[And]; all told (in number)
   
did
   
perform
   
it's time when the deer are fattened; (see note)
dress; (see note)
Glad; (see note)
   
   
dare say
   
   
   
brilliant one
   
most courteous
kinsman; [were there]; (see note)
without end
The Fair Unknown
   
   
did
   
Begot
   
   
knew
were
on land
   
time
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Spotted
attire
(see note)
   
   
   
   
   
Hunting dogs; (see note)
   
[were released]
in meadows
   
crowd
by nature
field; linger
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
stay behind
   
   
Before
   
   
   
   
from
   
   
   
now
wherever
forbid me
   
know
Nearby; churl
   
   
   
castle
But if only
does very well
together
   
no matter whether
   
complain and resist
   
dwelling
cause for him
   
   
However I
[Kay's]; ready
noisy claims
stir up
   
   
That's fine with me
   
(see note)
intends
   
perverse
respond to; (see note)
own [castle]
profit [us]
complain
I assent
   
   
   
took
knocked
quietly
   
   
   
household
mention
desolate
perish
   
   
hospitality
harm
prickly
advise you to convey our mission
   
   
angry
(see note)
   
tomorrow
   
   
   
   
saw the Carl
   
household
   
   
perish
   
   
   
   
   
outside
   
time
taken
   
   
   
   
   
(see note)
as broad there as
   
loathly sire (lord)
Across; breadth
reckon
thick pegs
   
   
creature
   
greeted
   
   
   
   
   
   
hurt
sent
lie
requited (given him back)
churl's nature; lying
reproach
   
right
   
tables; rich cloth
   
   
wander unleashed
boar; foamy tusks
   
   
glare and snarl
   
   
table
   
   
For a time
among other subjects
ever
   
   
   
   
   
got up
fared
spread about
   
   
stall door
   
struck a blow
   
pay for
delivered
   
   
   
If; own castle
dearly paid for
threaten
surely
then
   
Beyond
a token
   
did
   
   
It happens
   
   
   
   
stall door
warhorse
   
   
   
   
[And said]
head
   
ordained priest
I have some power through
(The Carle) says; (see note)
   
befits
knowledge
   
did
   
look after; guess
   
   
   
   
   
glad
   
   
[He] says; food
   
   
   
   
made their way
   
   
might be put
lift
   
For
time
And passed it
   
   
   
happy
happy
lie
   
   
   
   
pantry door prepare your attack; (see note)
aim at
if only
   
whenever you're ready
make trial
   
   
   
   
prepared his attack
   
with violence
ducked
made against
sparks
   
   
Soft; quick
only
aimed to
given
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
intercourse
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
says; with
   
   
next
   
   
   
   
   
battle shirt; (see note)
designs
   
rock
has happened
[The Carl] says; these
   
   
   
Accordingly
   
depart
(see note)
   
two
   
   
   
off
   
pain
   
   
   
   
in short order; off
quickly
strike off
   
   
from
then
   
lie
   
   
   
   
magic (necromancy); transformed
   
   
my permission
years
   
dwelling
Except that; destroyed
unless
   
   
[some] of
[for] this
sorrow
custom
through; slain
   
   
   
   
   
traveler
   
together
for celebration of the
   
   
powerful (one)
   
   
   
laden
handsome
could justly describe
   
   
   
[i.e., Jesus]
   
[Arthur with the Carl]
   
perform
   
handsome
   
   
   
   
   
get out alive
Indeed
glad
   
   
   
   
   
promise
   
right there
   
(stringed instruments)
escorted
   
prepared
Tables on trestles were all set
hold off
did
paired
   
at window seats
   
banquet
Largess (give generously)
Enjoy
   
   
pleases
made
immediately
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
The End
Go To The Jeaste of Sir Gawain

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