73. La Pastourelle Granson

GRANSON, 73. «LA PASTOURELLE GRANSON»: EXPLANATORY NOTES

ABBREVIATIONS: A: Lausanne, Bibliothèque Cantonale et Universitaire, MS 350; B: Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, f. fr. 1727; C: Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, f. fr. 1131; D: Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, f. fr. 24440; E: Barcelona, Biblioteca de Catalunya, MS 8, Catalan, 1420–30; F: Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, f. fr. 2201; K: Lausanne, Bibliothèque Cantonale et Universitaire, IS 4254; N: Brussels, Bibliothèque royale Albert 1er, MS 10961–10970, c. 1465; P: Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Van Pelt Library, MS Codex 902 (formerly Fr. MS 15), 1395–1400; 100B: Les Cent Ballades; Basso: “L’envol et l’ancrage”; BD: Chaucer, The Book of the Duchess; Berguerand: Berguerand, Duel; Boulton: Song; Braddy: Braddy, Chaucer and Graunson; Carden: “Le Livre Messire Ode d’Oton de Grandson; CA: Gower, Confessio Amantis; DL: Guillaume de Machaut, Dit dou lyon; DLA: Guillaume de Machaut, Dit de l’alerion; FA: La fonteinne amoureuse; FC: Wimsatt, French Contemporaries; GW: Granson, Poésies, ed. Grenier-Winther; LGW: Chaucer, The Legend of Good Women; PA: Froissart, Paradis d’Amour; PF: Chaucer, The Parliament of Fowls; Piaget: Grandson, Vie et poésies, ed. Piaget; PL: Guillume de Machaut, Poésies Lyriques; Poirion: Poirion, Poète et prince; TC: Chaucer, Troilus and Criseyde; RR: Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun, Le Roman de la rose; VD: Guillaume de Machaut, Le livre dou voir dit.

On the lack of formal models for this poem, see the Introduction, pp. 26–27. Except for the brief narrative setting in the opening, the entire poem consists of the dialogue between the shepherd and shepherdess in alternating stanzas. Granson uses a 10-line stanza with the same rhyme scheme as in all but one of his 10-line ballades, but without refrain. Though Granson’s most popular work (judging from the number of surviving copies) and one of his most original, the poem has attracted little critical comment, even among those who have studied the fourteenth-century pastourelle, perhaps because it fits so poorly among the more conventional pastourelles of Granson’s time. The shepherdess in particular is worthy of attention, both for the right she claims to govern her own behavior and for the cleverness of her replies.

79 On doit d’onneur suyr la feste. For the variants, see the Textual Notes. The reading in manuscript P, which we have used as our base, “En doit don fuir la feste,” is defective both metrically and grammatically. The alternative reading in manuscripts A and F, “On doit honneur fuir la feste,” is better metrically, but it gives two subjects for doit, and whichever one chooses, the statement does not appear consistent with the point that the shepherdess is making. There is no satisfactory solution. For all but the subject (for which on is more consistent with the ses in the following line), we adopt the reading of the later manuscript C (which offers “Je doybz donneur suyr la feste”) because it suits the sense, though it may well represent a scribe’s attempt to resolve the difficulty.

91–100 Si Bel Acuel . . . veir et parler. Piaget (“Oton de Granson,” p. 405n1) cites Christine de Pisan’s Balade XXVI (Œuvres poétiques, 1:27) as an analogue to this stanza, though there the lady makes a much stronger commitment to the lover that she addresses. Another analogue can be found in Machaut’s Remède de Fortune, lines 4197–4218, though there too the lady is much more reassuring than in this case.

141–50 Je maintien d’Amours . . . porroit aidier. In this remarkable stanza, the shepherd proceeds dizzyingly from the school-masters who denounce braggarts of the shepherdess’s last speech to (1) the facts of their situation, which are his masters and teach a different lesson, to (2) the school of Loyalty, where the lessons are guided by self-interest (justifying his distrust), to (3) the school in which he wishes to study the “Book of Joy,” to (4) a reaffirmation of his wish to find joy only with his shepherdess.

151–60 Nul ne puet . . . appercevoir. The shepherdess is a bit elusive in her reply, but she seems to be saying that the shepherd would be happier if he didn’t look so closely into her behavior, or at least learned to look the other way. That certainly seems to be how he understands her in his reply in the next stanza.

171–90 Et puis que . . . trouveroit. The last two stanzas are not only inconclusive; they also seem to be disconnected from the stanzas that precede. One is tempted to speculate either that something has been lost or that the poet didn’t finish everything that he planned. Piaget compares the sentiment expressed here to the opening lines of 56 (“Oton de Granson,” p. 408).

GRANSON, 73. :«LA PASTOURELLE GRANSON»: TEXTUAL NOTES

Abbreviations: A: Lausanne, Bibliothèque Cantonale et Universitaire, MS 350; B: Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, fr. 1727; C: Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, fr. 1131; D: Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, fr. 24440; E: Barcelona, Biblioteca de Catalunya, MS 8, Catalan, 1420–30; F: Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, fr. 2201; G: London, Westminster Abbey Library, MS 21; H: Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, fr. 833, c. 1500; J: Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, fr. 1952; K: Lausanne, Bibliothèque Cantonale et Universitaire, IS 4254; L: Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Rothschild MS I.I.9; M: Carpentras, Bibliothèque Inguimbertine, MS fr. 390; N: Brussels, Bibliothèque royale Albert 1er, MS 10961–10970, c. 1465; O: Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek, MS 410, c. 1430; P: Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Van Pelt Library, MS Codex 902 (formerly Fr. MS 15), 1395–1400; Q: Berne, Burgerbibliothek da la Bourgeoisie, MS 473, 1400–40; R: Turin, Archivio di Stato, MS J. b. IX. 10; S: Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, fr. 24404; T: Besançon, Bibliothèque Municipale, MS 556, 1826; V: Carpentras, Bibliothèque Inguimbertine, MS 411; W: Brussels, Bibliothèque royale Albert 1er, MS IV 541, 1564–81; Y: Turin, Biblioteca Nazionale e Universitaria, MS L.II.12.

For each poem, we provide the following:

Other editions: The location of the poem in the editions of Grenier-Winther (GW) and Piaget.

Base MS: The manuscript from which our text is taken, using the sigla listed on this page.

Other copies: The other manuscripts in which the poem appears, with the line numbers for excerpts.

Selected variants: Most of the notes record the editors’ emendations. A small number (for instance, regarding the titles) record alternative readings when we did not emend the base text. We do not, however, provide a complete list of variants, for which one may consult Grenier-Winther’s edition. Each note consists of a line number, a lemma (the reading from our text), the manuscript source for the reading that we have chosen, selected readings from other manuscripts; and the reading from the base manuscript when it was rejected. If no manuscript source is listed following the lemma, the adopted reading is the editors’ conjecture.

Other comments on the text, as required.

GW20, Piaget p. 221.
Base MS A. Other copies: F, K.

Title La pastourelle granson. So A, C (in a later hand), D, F, M, K. H: La pastourelle de granson. P: Complainte de pastour et de pastourelle amoureuse.

5 ouy. So A, D, E, F, H, K, M. P: ainsi.

6 Au. So A, C, D, E, F, H, K, M. P: Du.

after 10 La Bergiere. Speaker markers: D (in margin), E H. A, C, K, P: lack.

18 En. So C, D, E, F, H, K, M. P: Et.

33 contenance. So A, C, D, E, F, H, K, M. P: ordenance.

70 souvant. So A, F, K. C, D, H: tousjours. M: tousdis. P: lacks.

79 On. So A, D, F, H, K, M. C: Je. P: En.

d’onneur. So C. D, H: a honneur. A, F, K, M: honneur. P: don.
suyr. So C. D, H, K: faire. A, F, M, P: fuir.

80 Et. So C, D, H, M. A, F, K, P: Ne.

84 l’esay. So A, C, D, F, H, K, M. P: le say.

104 Nulz. So A, C, D, E, F, H, K. P: Ceulz.

105 recevoir. So A, C, D, E, F, H, K, M. P: decevoir.

128 qui. So A, C, D, E, F, H, K, M. P: quil.

153 fait. So A, C, E, F, H, K, M. P: font.

159 qui. So A, C, E, F, H, K, M. P: quil.

172 veulent. So A, C, E, F, H, K, M. P: voulant.


 
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73. La Pastourelle Granson

Une jeune, gentil bergiere
Et un simple loyal bergier
Vy jadis sur une riviere
Entre les autres soulacier,
Tost apres ouy comencier
Au bergier demandes et plaintes,
De joye poy, de doulours maintes.
Car il disoit en sa clamour
Et en juroit et sains et saintes
Que trop le tourmentoit Amour.

LA BERGIERE
La bergiere, plaisant et belle,
Qui de tous biens savoit assez,
Lui respondoit: «Certes, fait elle,
De trop grant tort Amours blasmez.
Puisqu’a li vous estes donnez
Et mis tout en sa gouvernance,
Vostre cuer doit prendre plaisance
En tout ce qui est son vouloir
Et recevoir en souffissance
Le bien que vous povez avoir.»

LE BERGIER
«Belle, s’il vous plaisoit a dire,
Dist le bergier en complaignant,
Quelle chose me doit souffire
Et quelle ne m’est souffissant,
Le dieu dAmours prens a garant
Que voulentiers content seroye.
Mais Amours veult que doubteux soye
Quant a plusieurs voy desirer
Ce que tout seul avoir vouldroye
Et je ne l’ay pas a garder.»

LA BERGIERE
«Dont, dit celle, nul n’a puissance
De tollir a gens le penser.
Soit de monstrer leur contenance,
De rire ou de regarder,
De ce ne les puet nulz garder.
Mais qui en Loyauté se fie,
Je croy Amours ne s’en plaint mie.
Ainçois lui plaist que honneur face,
Soulas et bonne compaignie,
Pour acquerre bon non et grace.»

LE BERGIER
«Cuer gracieux, ne vous desplaise.
Ce dit le bergier doulereux.
Cuidiez vous que mon cuer soit aise
Quant de vous sui fort amoureux
Et j’en puis veir un ou deux
Ou cinq ou dix ou vingt ou trente,
Que chascun dez leur met s’entente
A moy vers vous desavancier?
Certes Amours veult que je sente
Ce qui me nuit et puet aidier.»

LE BERGIERE
«Et quant Amours n’y a pensee,
Intencion ne voulenté,
Pourquoy est elle donc blasmee
Se les nices font niceté?
Quant Honneur garde Loyaulté,
Ce dit la bien sachant pastoure,
Amours aroit vie trop dure
Se jeunesce ne se jouoit.
Autant vauldroit tort que droiture
Se nulz en bien ne se fioit.»

LE BERGIER
«Belle, voirs est ce que vous dites,
Que jeunesce se doit jouer,
Et de tous biens doit estre quittes
Cilz qui ne s’i ose fier.
Mais s’il vous plaisoit aviser
A qui se doit jouer jeunesce
Fors a Honneur et Gentillesce
Et la ou ses jus sont bien pris,
Car foleur, cuidier, et rudesse
Donnent souvant blasme pour pris.»

LA BERGIERE
«Dont vouldroy je bien apprendre,
Dist elle, et moy acointier
Par quel tour me doye deffendre
De celle gent acompaignier.
Se un fol me dit son cuidier,
J’ay ma response toute preste
Devant tous loyal et honneste.
Mais puisque nul ne parle riens,
On doit d’onneur suyr la feste
Et laissier a monstrer ses biens.»

LE BERGIER
«Ha, se respondre vous osoye
Selon ce que je sens et sçay,
Certes, belle, je vous diroye
Que Loyaulté en fait l’esay.
Car qui aime de fin cuer vray,
Il y faut monstrer sa maniere
Selon son cuer, forte ou legiere,
Et quant Amours regne bien fort,
Bel Acuel s’en tient si arriere
Que nul cuidier n’y prent confort.»

LA BERGIERE
«Si Bel Acuel ne venoit mie
Fors en un lieu tant seulement,
Ce dit la bergiere jolie,
Chascun verroit appartement
La ou amour de cuer entent,
Dont honneur porroit avoir blasme
Et encontre raison diffame.
Et se amour se doit celer,
Il convient donques une femme
A plus d’un veir et parler.

LE BERGIER
«Je ne dy mie le contraire,
Mais tel parler et tel voir
Ne doivent conforter ne plaire
Nulz de ceulz qui font leur povoir
De vostre grace recevoir.
Puis que vous savez leur courage
Par leur dit ou par leur message,
Se plus fort ne les estranges,
Ilz cuident bien que leur langage
Vous soit plaisant, dont ilz sont liez.»

LA BERGIERE
«Je fais souvent grant abstinence
De vivre ainsi que je me veil,
Mais dessoubz autruy gouvernance
Me faut departir mon acueil
Sans espargnier joye ne dueil.
Et puis que loyal sui trouvee
Et je seray loyal prouvee,
Cuide chascun ce qu’il vouldra.
Car ou que bonté soit celee,
Touzdis le bon la trouvera.»

LE BERGIER
«Belle, des bons n’avez vous doubte,
Car les bons dient bien et font,
Mais les nices ne voient goute
Quant ou cuidier sont bien parfont.
Par folie le bien deffont
Et prennent sur eulz voz samblances,
Vos regars, et vos contenances,
Et tout ce qui leur puet valoir,
Et apres en font leurs vantances
Et si n’en dient rien de voir.»

LA BERGIERE
«Ilz peuent prendre par folie
En eulz mes regars et mes yeux,
Mais riens que je face ne dye
A mon propos n’est pas pour eulz.
Soient dolens, soient joyeux,
Il ne m’en chault, je n’en ay cure.
Franche sui, loyal, nette, et pure.
Je met les mesdisans au pis.
Les venteurs ont leur droiture,
Car les maistres en sont honnis.»

LE BERGIER
«Je maintien d’Amours la parole,
Mais les fais sont maistres de moy.
Quant Loyaulté tendra escole,
Chascun estudie pour soy.
J’ay grant desir en bonne foy
De lire ou Livre de Joye,
Et plus volentiers le saroye
Par cuer pour mes mauls allegier.
Mais se par vous ne le luisoie,
Autre ne m’en porroit aidier.»

LA BERGIERE
«Nul ne puet en ce livre lire
Si n’est souffrant et pacient.
Amours le fait de grace escripre
Invisible pour mainte gent
Qui y regardent tout leur temps
Et si n’y congnoistront ja lettre.
Car qui a lire se veult mettre,
Il n’y doit pas si cler veoir
Que vueille tout ce qui puet estre
Encontre lui appercevoir.»

LE BERGIER
«Comme puet cuer loyal ce faire
Quant Amour gouverne ses sens,
Voir son mal et puis se taire
Et faindre qu’il soit bien contens?
Certes, selon ce que je sens,
Comme la mort la souffreroye
Malgre mien, quant mieulx ne porroye.
Mais la ou sens l’amour fauldroit,
De celui cuer je jugeroye
Que sans douleur le soufferroit.»

LA BERGIERE
«Et puis que c’est dont la maniere
Que servant veulent chalongier,
Amour se doit tenir si fiere
Que tousdis soient en dangier
De requerir et de prier
Pitié, mercy, misericorde.
Quant Amours les tient en sa corde,
Faire son gré en puet et doit,
Car ce grace ne si accorde,
Sur lui n’ont chalenge ne droit.»

LE BERGIER
«Chalengier ne sçay ne porroye.
Crier mercy est mon mestier.
Mais se trop fort ne vous amoye,
Mieulz saroye mon cuer aisier
Sans lui grever ne ennuier
Par rage ne par jalousie,
Par doubtance ne par envie.
Et qui tel chalonge querroit
La ou amour est refroidie,
Ja un tout seul n’en trouveroit.»
 
73. Granson’s Pastourelle

A young, well-mannered shepherdess
And a simple, loyal shepherd
I once saw on a riverbank
Amusing themselves among the others.
Soon afterwards I heard the shepherd
Begin to make demands and complaints
With little joy, with many sorrows.
For in his outcry he proclaimed
And swore by the male and female saints
That Love tormented him too greatly.

THE SHEPHERDESS
The shepherdess, charming and fair,
Who knew enough of every good,
Answered him: “Surely,” she said,
“You blame Love very wrongly.
Since you have been given to him
And placed entirely under his rule,
Your heart ought to take pleasure
In everything that is his wish,
And receive with satisfaction
Whatever good that you can have.”

THE SHEPHERD
“Fair one, if it pleased you to say,”
The shepherd said complainingly,
“What thing ought to satisfy me
And what is not sufficient,
I take the God of Love as warrant
That I would willingly be content.
But Love wishes me to be fearful
When I see that many desire
That which I would like to have for myself
And that I do not fully possess.”

THE SHEPHERDESS
“Well,” she said, “No one has the power
To prevent people from thinking.
Whether just to show their face
Or to laugh or to look,
No one can keep them from doing so.
But whoever trusts in Loyalty,
I believe that Love does not complain.
Rather is he pleased that one acts honorably,
Entertains, and keeps good company
In order to acquire a good name and earn grace.”

THE SHEPHERD
“Gracious heart, may it not displease you,”
The sorrowful shepherd said.
“Do you believe that my heart is at ease
When I am so deeply in love with you
And I can see one or two
Or five or ten or twenty or thirty,
And that each of them is trying his hardest
To get ahead of me in your regard?
Surely Love wishes me to feel
That which hurts me, and can help.”

THE SHEPHERDESS
“And when Love gives no thought to it
And has neither the intention nor the will,
Why is it then blamed
If fools act foolishly?
When Honor protects Loyalty,”
The wise shepherdess said,
“Love would have too hard a life
If youth did not amuse itself.
Wrong would be worth as much as right
If no one ever trusted in good.”

THE SHEPHERD
“Fair one, what you say is true,
That youth ought to amuse itself,
And that he who does not dare to trust
Must be excluded from all good./nobr>
But if you please, advise me
With whom youth ought to seek amusement
Except with Honor and Courtesy
And there where its games are well conducted.
For folly, presumption, and ignorance
Often give blame as the prize.”

THE SHEPHERDESS
“Then I would like very much to learn,”
She said, “and to get to know
By what means I should prevent myself
From keeping company with these people.
If a fool tells me his thoughts,
I have my response all ready
In front of all who are loyal and honest.
But since no one says anything,
One ought to frequent the party honorably
And allow one’s virtues to be shown.”

THE SHEPHERD
“Oh, if I dared to reply to you
According to what I feel and know,
Truly, fair one, I would say to you
That Loyalty conducts a test.
For whoever loves with a true noble heart,
It is necessary to show one’s manner
According to one’s heart, whether heavy or light,
And when Love reigns very strongly,
Fair Welcome holds itself so far back
That no presumption takes comfort there.”

THE SHEPHERDESS
“If Fair Welcome didn’t come at all
Except in one place exclusively,”
The pretty shepherdess said,
“Everyone would see openly
Where the heart’s love was tending,
For which honor could have blame
And, contrary to reason, slander.
And if love is supposed to be hidden,
Then it is necessary for a woman
To see and speak to more than one.”

THE SHEPHERDnobr>
“I don’t say the opposite at all,
But such speech and such sight
Should neither comfort nor please
Any of those who do their best
To obtain your grace.
Since you know their innermost heart
From their speech or their messages,
If you don’t more strongly hold them off,
They truly believe that their words
Are pleasing to you, for which they’re happy.”

THE SPHERDESS
“I often strongly abstain
From living just as I wish.
But under the governance of another
I am obliged to share my welcome
Without sparing joy or grief.
And since I am found to be loyal
And loyal will I be proven to be,
Let everyone think what he wishes,
For wherever goodness is hidden,
The good one will always find it out.”

THE SHEPHERD
“Fair one, have no fear of the good,
For the good say and do what is right,
But the foolish don’t see at all
When they are deep in presumption.
Out of folly they undo what is good,
And they believe intended for them,
Your appearance, your looks, and your expression,
And everything that can be of worth to them,
And afterwards they boast about them,
Though they don’t say anything that’s true.”

THE SPHERDESS
“Out of folly, they can take
My looks and my eyes as their own,
But nothing that I do or say
Is meant for them in my intent.
Whether they are mournful or joyful,
It doesn’t matter, I don’t care.
I am free, loyal, clean, and pure.
I defy the slanderers.
Braggarts get what they deserve,
For the masters are ashamed of them.”

THE SHEPHERD
“I uphold the word of Love,
But the facts are my masters.
When Loyalty holds school,
Everyone studies for himself.
I greatly desire, in good faith,
To read from the Book of Joy,
And more willingly would I know it by heart
In order to relieve my pain,
But if I didn’t read it because of you,
No one else would be able to help me.”

THE SPHERDESS
“No one can read from this book
If he isn’t resigned and patient.
Love in his goodness has it written
Invisibly for many people
Who look at it all the time
And never recognize a single letter.
For whoever sets himself to read,
He should not see so clearly there
That he might want to perceive
Everything that can be before him.”

THE SHEPHERD
“How can a loyal heart do this
When Love governs his feeling —
To see his pain and then be silent
And pretend that he is content?
Truly, based on what I feel,
I would suffer it like death
Despite myself, when I could do no better.
But there where sense is lacking love,
Of that heart I would judge
That it could bear it without sorrow.”

THE SPHERDESS
“And since it is then the fashion
That servants wish to challenge him,
Love must conduct himself so proudly
That they are constantly compelled
To beseech and to pray
For pity, mercy, and compassion.
When Love holds them on his leash,
He can and should do as he wishes,
For if he doesn’t grant them grace,
They have no right or claim against him.”

THE SHEPHERD
“I neither could nor know how to make a claim.
My need is to cry for mercy.
But if I didn’t love you so much,
I would know better how to ease my heart
Without irritating or angering him
With anger and with jealousy,
With fearfulness and with envy.
And whoever pursued such a claim,
There where love has cooled off,
He wouldn’t ever obtain a single one.”
 
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