The Vision of Tundale

THE VISION OF TUNDALE: FOOTNOTE


1 That it (i.e., fealty) be yielded by their right hands

THE VISION OF TUNDALE: EXPLANATORY NOTES

Abbreviations: see Textual Notes.

11 In Yrlond byfyll. Marcus, the author of the original Latin version, was an Irish monk. Ireland is an appropriate location because of its tradition of mythological "otherworlds" and because many visions of the Christian afterlife are associated with Ireland from at least the time of the Ecclesiastical History (731) of Bede, who narrated "The Vision of Furseus" under the year 633.

16 in tho story. The reference to a source, which recurs throughout the poem, is appropriate in that the story ultimately comes from Marcus' Latin prose Tractatus, though the immediate source of this version of the poem is not certain. In any case, the reference to a source is a common way of establishing "authority" in both religious and secular literature. N.b., the A scribe frequently writes tho for the definite article "the" as well as the demonstrative pronoun "those"; e.g., lines 489, 507, etc.

23-28 full of trychery . . . And ever slouthe. The poet lists the seven "deadly sins": pride, anger, envy, lust (lechery), gluttony, greed (covetousness), and sloth. These are the seven root sins, the dispositions, sinful in themselves, which underlie all other sins. St. Gregory the Great (c. 540-604) referred to them as "capital sins" because they lead to others. They were often used as a means for the examination of conscience, especially before auricular confession, which revived in the twelfth century. They are the basis of the structure of Dante's Purgatorio and Gower's Confessio Amantis, are crucial to Chaucer's Parson's Tale, and Piers Plowman B.5, and are frequently cited in penitential literature. See Morton W. Bloomfield, The Seven Deadly Sins: An Introduction to the History of a Religious Concept, with Special Reference to Medieval English Literature (East Lansing: Michigan State College Press, 1952). Line 23, however, in the original Latin version lists an eighth deadly sin "treachery," which the early Irish Church added to the tradi-tional seven.

29 warkus of mercy wold he worch. Besides avoiding sin, it was required, or at least strongly counseled, that the Christian perform works of mercy. According to Church tradition, there are seven spiritual and seven corporal works of mercy. The spiritual works are to instruct the ignorant, counsel the doubtful, admonish sinners, bear wrongs patiently, forgive offenses willingly, comfort the afflicted, and pray for the living and the dead; the corporal works are to feed the hungry, give drink to the thirsty, clothe the naked, harbor the harborless, visit the sick, ransom the captive, and bury the dead. The corporal works are loosely based on scriptual passages: the first six on Matthew 25:31-46, the seventh on Tobias 1:17-19. The spiritual works seem simply to be generally drawn from scriptural ideas. However, both groups of works of mercy are listed and explained in many highly popular fourteenth-century manuals of religious instruction, such as the Speculum Vitae, the Speculum Christiani, and the Prick of Conscience. They also appear often in graphic form in the fourteenth century.

31 charyté. The Christian's primary duty is charity, the love which is central to the Christian message. Of the three theological virtues (faith, hope, and charity), it is called the greatest by St. Paul (1 Corinthians 13:13) because it will last into eternity. The importance of charity has many other scriptural bases, such as Luke 10:25-27; 2 Corinthians 9; Galatians 6:6-10. The goal of charity is pure love of God for His own sake, but that love is manifested in works of mercy.

38 boghthe. A common medieval usage for "redeem" based on the etymological meaning of "redemption": "to buy back" (redemptare).

40-44 Tundale's soul separates from his body. This is the most common mode in vision literature. It differs from narratives like Sir Owain and the Divine Comedy, in which the visionary enters the next world body and soul.

45 Purgatory. The narrator promises that Tundale will see both Purgatory and Hell, though most of what he sees seems infernal except for the suggestion that early release is sometimes possible and the fact that Tundale himself is undergoing a kind of purgation.

53 leyn. Usury, the taking of any interest on loans at all, was formally forbidden by the Fourth Lateran Council (1215), though it had long been condemned by the early Church. It is punished in Dante's Inferno 17, is prominent in Sir Owain, stanzas 96-103, and was a frequent subject in medieval art. The word leyn, thus, may simply mean "to lend," though the MED lists one meaning of the verb lenden as "to allow (a longer time) for repayment of a loan."

76 malycoly. Melancholy is "one of the four humors, black bile" (MED). When out of balance with the other humors (yellow bile, phlegm, and blood), black bile was thought to cause melancholy, sadness, and ill will. The MED also defines it as "anger, rage, hatred" and "sorrow, gloom, anxiety."

103 bellus yronge. In addition to tolling the hours of the day, especially the canonical hours of prayer, church bells were rung to call Christians to worship, to recognize other significant events, and especially to note the death of a parishioner.

104 "Placebo" and "Dyrge." Placebo is the first word of the first antiphon for Vespers in the Office of the Dead (Officium defunctorum). Dirige is the first word of Matins in the same liturgy. The Office of the Dead included psalms and short prayers appropriate to the canonical hours of Vespers, Matins, and Lauds, along with a recitation of the seven Penitential Psalms (6, 31, 37, 50, 101, 129, and 142 in the Vulgate) and a litany. The Office was recited at the time of death and, usually, on commemorative dates after the death, e.g., a month, a year, etc. For a more complete explanation of the canonical hours, see The Gast of Gy, explanatory note to lines 202-05.

108 veyne corale. The "vena cephalica" or "median vein" (MED). The median vein runs through the arm and into other veins which eventually join with the jugular vein. Thus, the warmth on the left side of Tundale's body suggests that the venous system is still functional.

113 none. MED lists this word as "the canonical hour of nones; thus three o'clock p.m." and "midday, the period about 12:00 noon." Both uses existed, though I prefer the latter for symmetry with line 112.

118 gost departyd. Although Tundale's soul has left his body, he has some "bodily" form since he suffers some physical punishments during his journey.

123 wend to a byn. Compare C line 181: He wend to have be. See also C line 200, which repeats the phrase. A often uses a as an abbreviated form of hav or han (e.g., lines 124 and 137); and byn as a participial form of the verb to be in lines 142 and 189. The idiom is repeated in line 142.

127 mydylerde. Besides "the earth," the word could refer to "worldly things as opposed to divine or spiritual" (MED). It is implied in phrases like "for all the world."

133 The poem is divided by A into an introductory section, ten passus, seven gaudia, and the reversio anime (change or turning of the spirit or heart.) The beginning of the first passus is actually marked in the margin at line 135: j passus, but, because it makes more sense, I have moved it to follow line 132, as G does. A passus, etymologically a pace or step, is "a section, division, or canto of a story or poem" (OED). Passus are usually more regular in length than in The Vision of Tundale. Since the passus in this poem correspond with moving on to another segment of Hell, it may be that A, the only scribe to use these divisions, had in mind passus in a different etymological sense: suffering.

134-36 a full loddly rowte . . . as wyld wolfus thei cam rampyng. These are clearly infernal demons, denizens of Hell. The vision at this point is of Hell, though the effect on Tundale is educational and purgatorial.

159 fowlest stynk. The poet repeatedly emphasizes the stench. Hell is a place of pain not just by fire (and ice) but through all of the senses.

199-218 Wher his now . . . withowton mercy. Using a variant of the ubi sunt trope ("where are . . ."), the fiends taunt Tundale with the transience of worldly riches that have no use after death. They refer to the fact that Tundale has not received the sacrament of Penance (lines 215-16) and therefore deserves Hell for his sins. They are literally correct, though Tundale is in fact being given a second chance. Finally, they assert that suffrages, in this case masses and prayers for the dead, will do him no good. Suffrages also included other works such as fasting and almsgiving on behalf of the dead. The efficacy of suffrages was an important part of the doctrine of Purgatory, as in The Gast of Gy, Sir Owain, and many works of fiction and theological instruction especially from the twelfth century. Aquinas' view was especially prominent, based on his notion on the doctrine of the Com-munion of Saints - the essential unity of the saved, the living, and the suffering souls in Purgatory.

226 emer. Guardian. Travellers to the next world characteristically have guides, providing the possibility for didactic dialogue. The guides included St. Michael (The Apocalypse of St. Paul, fourth century), St. Nicholas (The Monk of Eynsham, late twelfth century), St. John (The Vision of Thurkill, early thirteenth century), but from The Vision of Drythelm (Bede, Ecclesiastical History, 731) and The Vision of Wetti, early ninth century, the guide was usually a "guardian angel," an angel especially assigned for the protection of an individual. Although the idea of a "guardian angel" was never defined as dogma by the Church, it has a venerable history. It was variously based on Matthew 10:10 and the apocryphal Book of Tobias, but taken seriously by St. Jerome, St. John Chrysostom, Aquinas, and Duns Scotus.

237 bryght. A common adjective for angels in works such as The Vision of Drythelm, The Gast of Gy, and many others.

276 Latin Note: After line 276, A has, boxed in red: Uniquique secundum opus suum, etc. ("For thyself renderest to a man according to his work" - Psalm 61:13 in the Vulgate). The verse is paraphrased in the poem at lines 275-76.

302 Latin Note: After line 302, A has, boxed in red: Cadent a latere tuo mille et decem millia a dextris tuis, ad te autem non appropinquabit ("Though a thousand fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right hand, naught shall come nigh to thee" - Psalm 90:7 in the Vulgate). The verse is paraphrased in the poem at lines 303-07.

325 cubytus. "A measure of length (orig. the distance from the elbow to the top of the middle finger); usually, eighteen inches" (MED).

337 seyd. MED gives seyd as a form of set(ten), but does not cite this passage. Perhaps the word is a form of seien (MED v. 14), meaning "commanded," "prescribed," or, as my gloss suggests, "determined." "Set" makes the best sense, however.

355-56 But of this peyn . . . yett thu hast deservyd hit. The angel assures Tundale that he will not experience this particular torment, though later he does suffer physically, an experience shared by Furseus in his vision (seventh century) but by few other visionaries. The travelers ordinarily suffer emotionally or psychologically like Sir Owain.

364 pyche. Pitch, that is "wood tar, especially as a means of torture in hell" (MED). The OED expands: "A tenacious resinous substance, hard when cold, becoming a thick viscid semi-liquid when heated."

brymston. "The mineral sulphur," perhaps more pertinently "burning sulphur" (MED).

407-10 he saw a bryge . . . won fotte in brede. The narrow bridge between two mountains recalls bridges over Hell in The Apocalypse of St. Paul (late fourth century), The Vision of Sinniulf by St. Gregory of Tours (538-93), Sir Owain, and other poems about the next world. It is a common "test" motif, perhaps dating to antiquity. In The Apocalypse of St. Paul and its thirteenth-century early Middle English version, "The Vision of St. Paul," the bridge crosses all of Hell. In Sir Owain it leads to the "terrestrial paradise." Tundale's narrow bridge is only one foot wide and 1,000 steps long. It is perilous, for he sees souls falling off it into the fire below and only the holy palmer (pilgrim) is seen to traverse it safely.

453 serewyse. The word can mean "in a diverse way, variously" (MED), but in context the adverbial use of sere seems more probable: "physically apart; asunder," or "individually, separately" (MED).

469 baelys. Specifically "a bundle of sticks used in flogging" (MED).

478 Akyron. Acheron. In Homer and elsewhere in Greek antiquity, Acheron was the main river of the underworld. In Latin and Hellenistic poetry, Acheron came to be the underworld itself (OCD). The appearance of Acheron as a demonic character calls to mind the beasts, like Geryon (Inferno 16-17), that Dante puts in his Hell.

490 Latin Note: After line 490, A has, boxed in red: Absorbebit flumen et non mirabitur et habebit fiduciam, quod influat Jordanus in os eius. Amen. ("Behold, he will drink up a river, and not wonder: and he trusteth that the Jordan may run into his mouth" - Job 40:18 in the Vulgate). A corresponding idea is expressed in lines 491-94, in which Satan replaces the behemoth of Job.

508 Forcusno . . . Conallus. Forcusno and Conallus appear in Marcus' original Latin version as Fergusius and Conallus. Only A mentions them, suggesting that he was the only scribe with access to Marcus' original as opposed to the slightly shortened versions of Helinand and St. Vincent of Beauvais (M, p. 61). Fergusius and Conallus are the Latinized names of Fergus mac Roich and Conall Cearnach, prominent pagan characters in the Irish Ulster Cycle and cohorts of the famous Cúchulain. For Fergus, see The Tain, from the Irish epic Táin Bó Cuailnge, trans. Thomas Kinsella (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), and for Conall, see the particularly amusing Fled Bricrenn, "Bricriu's Feast," translated in The Celtic Heroic Age: Literary Sources for Ancient Celtic Europe and Early Ireland and Wales, ed. John T. Koch in collaboration with John Carey, third ed. (Andover, MA: Celtic Studies Publications, 2000), pp. 76-105.

568 A wondur long, narow brygge. The Vision of Tundale uniquely includes a second bridge, this one over a lake full of souls. It is even narrower, a hand's breadth, than the first bridge, and crossing it is a man, who stole from the Church, bearing a burden of grain. This is the bridge over which Tundale must lead the "wild cow." It is curious that the man and Tundale are going in opposite directions, thus causing a traffic jam (lines 665 ff.) from which Tundale is saved only by the angel's intercession, thus allowing him to stop leading the cow (lines 683-88). The description is long and amusing, even comic.

588 After this line R explains that the man has stolen the grain from his neighbor's field.

603-04 But sum haght more peyn and sum lase / All aftur that her synnus his. Although robbers have been mentioned before, this is the first specific reference in the poem to degrees of punishment related to the severity of the sin, a traditional early Christian concept clearly manifested in Dante, but rare as a literary trope before the fourteenth century.

610 Sacrileggi. A sacrilege is any sin against religion, but more strictly was applied to abuse of a sacred person (clergy), place (church), or thing (e.g., liturgical vessels.) It could manifest itself in striking a priest or unchastity by the priest himself, in the violation of a holy place or use of a holy place for secular purposes. Thus, it could range from theft from or desecration of a church to the action of a priest administering the sacraments while in a state of sin.

612 seyntwary. "A holy or sacred place; a place dedicated to God." More specifically, it could mean, besides the church itself, "a churchyard; a burial ground, a cemetery" or "land owned by or under the jurisdiction of the church" (MED). In ecclesiastical usage it often designated the part of a church, set off from the rest, where the priest actually said Mass and the sacred vessels were kept.

620 teythe. Tithes, one-tenth of income due the Church for its own support and for charity. Tithing is mentioned in various contexts in the Hebrew Scriptures as early as Genesis 14:20 and 28:22, but it was not common in the early Christian Church. It was first enjoined by the Council of Macon (585). At first it was one-tenth of profit from land, but was extended to any kind of earned income (bequests were generally exempt). Tithes were at first paid to the bishop, but by the twelfth century were generally paid directly to the parish priest. Failure to pay tithes was a serious offense and could result in charges being brought in an ecclesiastical court with the possibility of excommunication.

706 wyldernys. "Wild, uninhabited, or uncultivated territory; trackless, desolate land . . . a desert" or, by extension, "a state of ruin or desolation, the condition of devastation" (MED).

735-38 In these lines, which are in none of the other MSS, A provides the fiends with a remarkable catalogue of farm implements as instruments of torture.

784 Preston. In C, P, R: Pystryne; in B: Pistroun. The Latin has Fistrinus. I know of no one who has identified this figure under any of these spellings.

814 Latin Note: After line 814, A has, boxed in red: Misericordia plena est terra, etc. ("The earth is full of his kindness" - Psalm 32:5 in the Vulgate). The verse is a response to Tundale's questioning of God's mercy in lines 811-14.

836-46 the sowle som peyn schalt have . . . To the blysse withowtten ende. The angel describes some kind of purgatorial experience, since he is referring to souls which will pass from pain to salvation, even though such souls do not seem to have a separate, distinct location.

888 snowt. "A human nose . . . used derisively" because the primary meaning was "The snout of a swine, boar, rhinoceros, dog, dragon, etc." (MED).

909-54 The invasion of the bodies of the damned by biting adders is mentioned in The Apocalypse of St. Paul (late fourth century) and in many later visions. The presentation in this poem is particularly gruesome and specially applied to corrupt clergy (lines 960-62).

967 ordyr. A religious order, as of monks or friars, bound to some rule of life such as that of St. Augustine or St. Benedict.

971-72 for the same thow hast bene, / This schalt thu thole. Once again Tundale must suffer physically. This is odd in context since the punishment has been assigned to corrupt clergy and particularly lines 945-46 seem to associate Tundale with this group. It is possible that here, and in a few places later, the scribe has pre-served an oddity in Marcus whereby there is some confusion, intentional or not, of the vicious, worldly Tundale with the monk-author.

1002 dongyll. This is a very unusual word. In the MED it is spelled "dingle," with no examples or cross-references, and defined as "a deep dell or hollow." The OED says a bit more under "dingle": "A single example meaning 'deep hollow, abyss' is known in the 13th century; otherwise the word appears to be only dialectal in use till the 17th century." The only example given is from Sawles Warde (1240). The OED defines the probably related word "gill" as "A deep rocky cleft or ravine, usually wooded and forming the course of a stream," the earliest example being from The Destruccion of Troy (1400). Regardless of the paucity of exam-ples, the meanings in the MED and OED seem to fit the context in the poem.

1018 Latin Note: After line 1018, A has, boxed in red: lata est via que ducit ad mortem ("for wide is the gate and broad the way that leadeth to destruction" - Matthew 7:13). The verse is paraphrased in lines 1017-18.

1042 Vlkane. Vulcan, the "ancient Roman god of destructive, devouring fire," who was "highly admired, secretly feared" (OCD). From Greek antiquity, his counterpart, Hephaestos, was a blacksmith. This conflation of the Greek and Roman gods fits the hellish context perfectly.

1223 Thee tharre not thynke. "No thought must come to you." The construction is apparently an unusual dative of agency, analogous to "me thinks," in which the subject is acted upon, and is thus in an oblique case.

1296 more and lesse. A common medieval line-filling formula here meaning "completely."

1305-60 An extended description of Satan, who simultaneously punishes and is punished. The idea of Satan was developed in the early Church out of a long tradition in antiquity and a variety of comments in Hebrew Scripture (e.g., Isaias 14:12-15). Literally, Satan means "the accuser." He is the author of all evil. The notion of the fall of Satan was developed in the early Church from texts such as Apocalypse 12:4-11 and Jude 1:6, but more elaborately in the apocryphal Book of Enoch. The fall of Satan and the other rebellious angels was taken seriously by Church Fathers and Doctors including Augustine and especially Aquinas, who asserted (ST 1.qu.63a6) that Satan's sin must have been pride, wanting to be "as God." In this poem, as in the tradition of vision literature including Dante, Satan is in the deepest pit of Hell suffering the greatest torments.

1342 sponne. "A unit of length variously reckoned as corresponding to the distance from the tip of the thumb to the top of the middle or the little finger when the hand is fully extended . . . a hand's breadth" (MED).

1363 gloand folus. I.e., "fiery imps." See MED fol n 2: "an impious person, a sinner, a rascal."

1411-12 the furst creature / That God made. The Middle English suggests that God created Satan before all other creatures, which is consistent with the sequence of creation in all of the drama cycles. In Cursor Mundi's account of creation we are told that humankind was created to fill the gap left by Satan and the other fallen angels. Compare Gower, Confessio Amantis 8.21-34. (See Russell A. Peck's discussion in Confessio Amantis, vol. 1 [Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 2000], p. 226.) Augustine discusses the point in his Enchiridion on Faith, Hope and Charity, ch. 29, "The Restored Part of Humanity Shall, In Accordance with the Promises of God, Succeed to the Place Which The Rebellious Angels Lost." See also Augustine, De civitate Dei, Book 22, ch. 1. Marcus says: Hic est Lucifer, principium creaturarum Dei ("Here is Lucifer, the principal of God's creatures"), and may simply be suggesting the eminence of Lucifer before his fall, though principium probably means "first."

1436 Latin Note: After line 1436, A has, boxed in red: Potentes tormenta paciuntur ("The mighty shall be mightily tormented" - Wisdom 6:7). The sense of the verse is developed in lines 1437-44.

1495-1502 Tundale and the angel have entered the "terrestrial Paradise," the Garden of Eden. Most in the Middle Ages believed that the Garden of Eden had a physical location and many searched for it. Augustine and Aquinas saw it both as the literal place where Adam and Eve lived and fell and, figuratively, as a place of spiritual rest and beauty. It was sometimes considered a stage in the movement from Purgatory to Paradise. For some it was considered a beautiful and tranquil place where the saved, or those who had completed purgation, waited until the Day of Judgment, Doomsday, for admission to Heaven. By the time of The Vision of Tundale, the general view was that it was a transitional abode, as in The Gast of Gy, and that the saved went to Heaven after purgation, if necessary, was completed. Indeed, suggestions by Pope John XXII that it was a holding place until Judgment Day were considered potentially heretical. A place of sweet-smelling air, flowers, gems, and song, the prime literary example is in Dante's Purgatorio 27-32.

1504-28 The Vision of Tundale has a kind of vestibule to the terrestrial Paradise in which there is a mild form of punishment for those who, though shriven of their sins and saved, did not perform works of mercy during their lives. It is interesting that although their pain is temporary and not great, they are punished not for violation of a commandment or the commission of a deadly sin, but for failure to perform a "counsel of perfection."

1535-46 The sweet air, the flowers, the light, and the birdsong are all staples of poems which include a terrestrial paradise. Lacking at this point are the catalogues of birds, gems, and flowers that are usually incorporated, even in secular romances. Some skeletal catalogues appear later in the poem at lines 1907-14 and 2099-104.

1551 welle. The well, a place of refreshment, even a "fountain of youth," has waters flowing from it. Contrary to expectation, it is not the source of the four rivers of Eden (Genesis 2:11-14). It is more reminiscent of the River Lethe, the river of forgetfulness (a kind of renewal) in Dante, Purgatorio 28.25-33.

1561-68 The souls have undergone some kind of purgation and merit salvation, but they must wait until God admits them to Heaven. A does not make it clear when that will be.

1584 lewde mon. A "lewed man" was "a member of the laity, layman, non-cleric" (MED).

1591 Cantaber. Conchobar, Conor O'Brien, the king of Thurmond. Conchobar was a friend of King Cormake. In 1138, however, Cormake was killed by Conchobar's brother, Cormake's father-in-law. For the whole story, see M, pp. 31-36.

1592 Donatus. Donough McCarthy, king of Munster from 1127, was the brother of Cormake.

1600 Caym. Cain, who killed his brother Abel (Genesis 4), was a symbol of murderous wrath and envy.

1607-10 The angel is careful to explain that the kings repented before death. This is necessary to justify their placement in the earthly Paradise, but it also reinforces the point that repentance always remains available even to great sinners.

1620 In the description of the moral rehabilitation of Donatus, A mentions that Donatus gave money to have prayers said for him. This is an example of a suffrage, an especially important part of Dominican teaching from the late twelfth century, but very prominent as an idea in this secularized version of a Benedictine Latin tract.

1635 carbunkyll ston. Carbuncle, which, according to the OED, was said to shine in the dark. See line 2103.

1654 Kyng Cormake. Cormac MacCarthy, king of Munster (1124), dethroned by Turlough O'Connor in 1127. He was murdered in 1138 in his own home, reportedly by some kind of treachery, the eighth of the Irish deadly sins. See explanatory note to lines 23-28. See also G (pp. 316-17), who thinks that the Teampuill Chormaic, which Cormac built, may be the model for the magnificant structure in which Tundale finds him. Cormac was generous to the Irish Benedictine foundation at Regensburg where Marcus, the author of the Latin original, lived. On the relevant Irish history, see M, pp. 31-36.

1667 deykenus. Deacons, members of minor orders; by the time of the composition of the Middle English poem the deaconate was generally a stage in the progress towards major orders (the priesthood) rather than a permanent office.

1673 chalys. A chalice is a vessel, usually of gold or silver, used to hold the water and wine that will become the body and blood of Christ at the Consecration of the Mass. Chalices were often highly ornamented with precious stones.

1674 sensowrys. Censers, the receptacles, often made of precious metals, in which incense was burned in many Church liturgies.

1706-48 Cormake, although saved, must still suffer because of the gravity of his sins. Much about this passage is odd. It is unusual that anyone who has entered the terrestrial Paradise must still suffer pain. Also, when Tundale asks how long Cormake will suffer, the angel gives the strangely specific answer of three hours a day rather than an ultimate duration before the end of suffering. Cormake's position is awkward in that he lived at a time, during the reforms of the early twelfth century, when marriage laws from the Roman Church were being imposed on the Irish. He was reputed to have ordered a murder that would have been mortally sinful under either disposition, and this is duly noted, but his punishments seem to be primarily for lechery.

1724 hayre. A hairshirt. "A shirt made of haircloth, worn next to the skin by ascetics and penitents" (OED). "A penitential garment woven from the hair of mountain goats or camels" (MED). The practice was usually monastic and was often discouraged by the Church as an egoistic excess, though when Thomas à Becket died he was found to be wearing one.

1736 Besyde Seynt Patrycke. This refers to a church, not the saint. G (p. 317) identifies it as probably the metropolitan church of Cashel.

1759 ff. There follows a traditional description of the singing of hymns and carols in the joy of the terrestrial Paradise. Interestingly, in The Vision of Tundale it is spe-cifically the abode of souls who have lived righteously in marriage, souls who have performed works of mercy, and good rulers (lines 1785-96).

1798-1802 This passage paraphrases Christ's invitation to the virtuous to enter Heaven (Matthew 25:24). It also suggests that the souls will be in the terrestrial Paradise until Doomsday, the day of the Last Judgment, when the world ends.

1838 erward. "At or during some earlier time in the past, on a former occasion, formerly, previously" (MED).

1897 grys. "A gray fur; probably from the back of the Russian gray squirrel in winter; also a piece of fur made from such skins" (MED).

1900 besantes. "A golden coin of Byzantium; any of several similar coins minted in Western Europe" or "a bezant used as an ornament" (MED).

1909 Orgons. Probably a large church organ, which might have had as many as 400 pipes, rather than the portable organ or any wind instrument. See Henry Holland Carter, A Dictionary of Middle English Musical Terms, pp. 337-41.

symbals. "A set, or one of a set, of two concave plates of brass or bronze, which emit a clashing, metallic sound when struck together" (Carter, p. 110). OED lists the possibility of "castanets" or a "chime," but the clanging sound of cymbals seems more appropriate to the exuberant circumstances.

tympanys. "A general name for the drum" (Carter, p. 532). OED additionally suggests "any kind of stringed instrument," but gives only one example. The more common meaning seems to fit the boisterous joy of the context.

1910 harpus. A true harp had "eight to eighteen strings of twisted hair, gut, or wire," but the term also was used loosely as the equivalent of other stringed instruments like the "lyre, lute, cithers, etc." (Carter, p. 185).

1912 trebull and meyne and burdown. The trebull (usually called a hautein) is the highest part in a three-part vocal or instrumental composition, with meyne and burdoun as the middle and lower parts (Carter, pp. 200, 278, 510).

1931 frerus, monkys, nonnus, and channonus. A is more specific than the other MSS. Friars were members of mendicant orders (Dominicans, Carmelites, Franciscans, Augustinians), who lived a communal life at "convents" but spent most of their time begging and preaching (and, especially in the case of the Dominicans, studying). Monks lived in cloister, separated from the world, and followed a "rule" such as that of St. Augustine or St. Benedict. Canons were members of religious orders (canons regular) or served communally in a cathedral or major church (canons secular); many groups of canons established endowed communities (chantries) devoted to suffrages in the form of masses and prayers for the dead.

2006 flowre delyce. Fleur-de-lis. Although it is a "flowering plant of the genus Iris," in this context of elegant embellishment it seems more likely "a representation on a coin, a spoon, etc." (MED).

2057 seyrwyse. Here, as opposed to line 453, the phrase seems to have its more usual meaning of "in a diverse way, variously" (MED).

2074 chantryse. Chapels at which canons prayed for the dead; they usually were endowed by benefactors seeking suffrages. They could be free-standing or associated with a neighboring church. They became increasingly popular in the thirteenth century both as a locus of suffrages and as a means of benefaction.

2076 feffud. This verb, from the feudal vocabulary of enfiefment, meant "to put (a person, a religious foundation) in possession of a feudal estate held in heritable tenure" and "to endow, furnish with anything by way of a gift" (MED). Thus, the souls here have given generously to the Church. See also line 2217, where the verb is used of St. Malachy's endowment and support of churches and colleges in addition to his charity to the poor.

2099-2104 A catalogue of gems characteristic of descriptions of the terrestrial Paradise and of otherworldly descriptions in romance. There is some scriptural basis in Apocalypse 21:19-20.

2100 cresolyte. Chrysolite. "A name formerly given to several different gems of a green color, such as zircon, tourmaline, topaz, and amatite" (OED). The catalogue of gems has some apparent overlapping and vagueness.

2102 Iacyntus. "A reddish orange variety of zircon" (OED). "A precious stone of blue (rarely of red) color" (MED). The experts seem baffled by the medieval terminology of precious stones.

smaragdynes. These are generally accepted to be emeralds. Either there was another green precious stone or the narrator in his enthusiasm is repeating himself. The whole catalogue is a bit helter-skelter, suggesting that A simply wanted to accumulate the names of many gems - or was as baffled as the modern experts.

2103 Emastyce. Bloodstones. "A name applied to certain precious stones spotted or streaked with red, supposed in former times to have the power of staunching bleeding," or "The modern heliotrope, a green variety of jasper or quartz, with small spots of red jasper looking like drops of blood" (OED). Again the narrator is either being exuberant or has some clearer characterization of gems in mind.

charbokall. "A carbuncle, a precious stone said to glow in the dark" (MED). "In the Middle Ages and later, besides being a name for the ruby . . . applied to a mythological gem said to emit light in the dark" (OED).

2117-20 Ne hart . . . for all Hysse. An allusion to 1 Corinthians 2:9 (itself a paraphrase of Isaias 64:4): "That eye hath not seen, nor ear heard: neither hath it entered into the heart of man, what things God hath prepared for them that love him."

2122 The nine orders, or choirs, of angels were first enumerated by the man variously known as Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite or the Pseudo-Denys (late fifth cen-tury) as: angels, archangels, virtues, powers, principalities, dominions, thrones, cherubim, and seraphim. The idea is based on Psalms 96:7; 102:20; 148:2, 5 in the Vulgate; and especially on Daniel 7:9-10 and Matthew 18:10. The orthodoxy of the view is attested by St. Gregory the Great (c. 540-604) in his Dialogues and by Aquinas, ST 1.qu.108a6. Although angels are frequently cited in Scripture as messengers of God, the role of the nine orders is primarily to stand before the throne of God singing His praises.

2125 Prevey wordys. The phrase "Goddes privitee" was common to denote the knowledge possessed by God, angels, and the saved, which it was not proper for human beings to know.

2128 opon thyn eyrus and here. Compare Jesus' oft-repeated phrase in the Gospels, "He that hath ears to hear, let him hear" (Matthew 11:15, 13:9, 13:43; Mark 4:9, 4:23, 7:16; Luke 8:8, 14:35). A variation of the phrase is also repeated many times in the Apocalypse of St. John.

2176 Renodan. St. Ruadan (d. 584), abbot of Lothra. It is unclear what the special connection between Tundale and St. Ruadan could have been, especially in view of the chronological disparity. St. Ruadan was one of the "Twelve Apostles of Erin," who came to study with St. Finian in his School of Clonard, Meath, founded about 520.

2193 Seynt Patryk. St. Patrick (c. 389-461), the patron saint of Ireland, has pride of place in this series of prelates. He is believed to have been a Roman Britain taken as a captive to Ireland. He returned later to Ireland to convert the people to Christianity and to organize the Irish Church. Although a historical figure, he has myths, even magical qualities, associated with him; e.g., that he banished all snakes from Ireland and that he could release seven souls from Hell each Saturday.

2204 Celestyen. St. Cellach or Celsus, abbot of Armagh (1105), and later archbishop of Armagh until his death in 1129.

2207 Malachye. St. Malachy, Malachias O'Moore (b. 1094; archbishop of Armagh, 1132-1138). He was ordained by St. Cellach ("Celestyen") in 1119 and was confessor to Cormac MacCarthy ("Cormake"), king of Munster. Malachy, feeling that he had done what he could in the reformation of the Irish Church, resigned from the archbishopric of Armagh in 1138 and returned to Connor where he had been bishop earlier (1124-32). In troubled times he was welcomed by King Cormac, who was killed the same year Malachy resigned Armagh. On his second trip to Rome (1148), he fell sick while visiting his great friend St. Bernard of Clairvaux, founder of the Cistercian reform of the Benedictines, and he is said to have died in St. Bernard's arms. These connections tempt one to find a Cistercian influence on the poem, but no specific Cistercian imprint is apparent. St. Malachy prophesied the number of popes (112) to come before Doomsday. St. Bernard wrote his Life.

2209 Pwope Celestyen. Pope Celestine II was elected in 1143 and died in 1144 after a short reign of six months. His name here must be in error, since Malachy was consecrated archbishop of Armagh in 1132 during the reign of Innocent II (1130-1143). The Latin versions have Pope Innocent, but all English MSS that include this line (A, C, R) make the same error, perhaps influenced by the "Celestyen" in line 2204.

2213 colagys. Presumably colleges of canons whose primary purpose was to pray for the dead, though colleges composed of canons, who were priests, often attached themselves to nearby churches and assisted in the clerical work.

2217 See explanatory note to line 2076.

2222 Crystyne. Bishop of Clogher (1126-39) and older brother of St. Malachy. The Latin designation of his diocese, Lugdoniensis, accounts for Lyon in A and causes M to identify his see as Louth rather than Clogher.

2227 Malachynus. Latinate form of Malachy.

2230 Neomon. Nehemiah O'Morietach, bishop of Cloyne and Ross (1140-49). Sometimes he is erroneously identified as St. Neeman of Cluny, perhaps because of the Latin version of Cloyne - Cluanensis.

2232 Clemy. This is the bishopric assigned to Neomon by A; C has Ylye; P has Ely; R has Clunny. These seem to be various attempts to render the Latin "Cluanensis." See explanatory note to line 2230.

2235-38 Many scholars believe the empty seat to be reserved for St. Bernard of Clairvaux.

2381 Hyheg. Richard Heeg, who transcribed A and various other fifteenth-century MSS. According to M (p. 64), Heeg seems to have seen himself as more than simply a scriptor, or scribe, and therefore felt freer to modify his copy-text. His apparent use of a copy of Marcus, however, suggests a concern for authenticity.

THE VISION OF TUNDALE: TEXTUAL NOTES

I have based my text on National Library of Scotland Advocates' MS 19.3.1 (A), the longest extant version. In the nineteenth century, A was purchased by the poet Robert Southey and given to Sir Walter Scott. The only edition of A, besides a diplomatic edition by W. B. D. D. Turnbull (1843), is Eileen Gardiner's doctoral dissertation (G). G lists variants from British Library MS Cotton Caligula A. ii (C), which has been edited with variants from all other MSS by Rodney Mearns (M), Bodleian Library MS Ashmole 1491 (B), Tokyo, Takamiya MS 32 (olim Penrose 10, olim Penrose 6, olim Delamere) (P), and British Library MS Royal 17. B. xliii (R), which has been edited by Albrecht Wagner with variants from A, B, C. I have made as few changes as possible to A consistent with making sense of the narrative. I have accepted and noted some alterations by G and a few of my own based on B, C, P, R. I have ignored G's changes that seem simply to tidy up the poem, because some rough passages in A contain a specificity that is an attractive characteristic of this MS. I have silently expanded abbreviations and corrected obvious scribal errors such as "whet" for "when" (line 388), "bub" for "but" (837), and emended the scribal practice of occasionally hearing g and k interchangeably as in "styng" for "stynk" (333) and "lonke" for "longe" (1744). In the notes, as in the text, I have replaced obsolete Middle English graphemes with modern equivalents. Fuller manuscript and bibliographical detail precedes the text of the poem. 5 ben awhyle. A: ben wyll awhyle. I have omitted wyll as unusually clumsy and grammatically unnecessary.

10 clanse. A: clanso; C: clense; I have accepted G: clanse as doing least harm to A. Several times A has a mistaken o at the end of a word; subsequently I have corrected these without comment.

14 yere. A: here; G, following C, P: yere.

19 is. A frequently has is for his and vice-versa. I have retained this usage since it does not cause confusion.

24 pride. A: pde with i superscript.

37 tyne. A: tyme; G, following C, P: tyne.

59 for his best. G, following C: as hym lest, is plausible, but I have retained A.

70 deray. A: aray; G, following C: deray.

78 at tho. G, following C, P: to.

108 corale. A: quale; G, following C, P, R: corale. See explanatory note.

110 flytte. A: had; G, following C, P, R: flytte.

123 payne. A: pyne; G, following C, P, R: payne. MED lists pyne as a possible variant, but payne preserves the rhyme with line 124.

126 nether. A: not ther; G, following B: nether.

layned. A: laft; G, following B, C, P, R: layned.

129-30 But he sawe mony a hydwys payne / Or he come to the body agayne. A lacks these two lines, which are important to the sense. G has soundly reconstructed them from B, C, P, R. It is likely that A simply skipped two lines of his exemplar.

133 The poem is divided into ten "passus," seven "gaudia," and the "reversio animae." They are marked in the margins of A. Because it makes more sense, I have begun Passus I here, as does G, rather than at line 135, where it is marked (i passus) in the margin of A. I, like G, have taken a similar liberty with Passus V, which is marked in A opposite line 433, Passus VI, which is marked in A opposite line 553, and Gaudium II, which is marked in A opposite line 1577.

155 fete. A: face. G, C, B, and P read fete.

167 word. A, G: word; B, C, R: worlde. Word is a common variant of world (MED).

176 creidon. A: crendon; B, R: cried; C: cryde; but G: creidon is a possible variant that changes A least.

191 stryft. A: strft is canceled before stryft.

204 harneys. A: hornys; G, following B, P: harneys.

215 thought. A: thoyght; G, following B, C, P, R: thoughtes. I prefer thought, preserving the singular and assuming a scribal error in one grapheme.

215-16 That wykkyd thought that was in thi brest, / Woldyst thu never schowe it to no preste. G, following B, C, P, R, places these lines after line 210. I have left them in their A position.

252 uggly. A: ungdly; G, following C, P, R: uggly. Perhaps A intended ungodly.

269 thei. A: he; C: they.

323 the. A: that; G, following B, C, R: the.

327 brad. A: brdd; C: brode; P, B: brade.

333 stynk. A: styng; C: stynke.

339 dyd. A: dud.

than. Omitted in A. C: thn.

340 pan. A: pon; C: panne.

341 ronnen. A: ronnon; C: ranne.

fyr and yron bothe. A: that yron into the fyr bothe; G, following B, P: fyr and yron bothe.

342 As hit wer wax throw a clothe. I have retained A, though G, following C, P is more felicitous: As molton wax dothe throwe a clothe.

347 dight. A: ordent has some support from C: ordeyned, but G, following B, P, R: dight makes slightly better sense and much better meter.

348 or. A: and; G, following B, C, P, R: or.

yslayn. A: bothe yslayn; G, following B, C, P, R: slayne. To include A: and and bothe yslayn would make it necessary to have killed both parents. The reading in B, C, P, R makes it a matter of killing one parent. Surely, one is enough to de-serve terrible torment.

353 schall. A: schell; C: shall.

357 forth. Omitted in A. C: forth.

363-64 That was bothe darke and wan / And stank of pyche and brymston. These lines are reversed in A but marked by the scribe b, a for correction.

376 snowe. C: snawe, which better suits the rhyme.

382 This. A: Then This, with Then marked for expunction.

389-90 The angell ay before con pas, / And Tundale aftur that sore aferd was. These lines are clumsy, but no obvious reconstruction from other manuscripts seems appre-ciably better without wholesale rewriting.

495 this payne. A: he; G, following C, R: this payne clarifies the line significantly.

529 hys. Omitted in A. G, following C, P, R: hys.

563 Her ynee wer brode and brandon bryght. A: Therin wer brondus and brandon bright; G, following C, P, R: Her ynee wer brode and brandon bright makes a substantial improvement in this line and makes line 564 more effective.

565 waytud. A: waxoud; G, following C, P, R: waytud is a more plausible action at this point in the narrative.

566 pray. A: pay; C: pray.

577 sowles. A: sowlows; G, following C, P, R: sowles.

614 dystruccioun. A: dystruccoun; G, following P, R: dystruccioun.

615 turmentyd. A: turment; G, following C, P, R: turmentyd.

626 she. A: yee. C: she; R: ho.

645 Maygrey is chekys. A: Maygrey in is chekys. I have omitted in since it is not ordinarily included in the proverb, though the person of the pronoun was variable.

647 payne. A: pyne; G, following C, P, R: payne. As in line 123, pyne is possible, but destroys the rhyme with the next line.

687 And seyd. A omits seyd.

699 The angell seyd. A: and that; G, following C, P, R: the angell seyd. Lines 699 and 700 are transposed in A. Accepting The angell seyd restores order to a confusing passage.

727-28 The angelle . . . be noght aferd. These lines are omitted in A. Some connection is needed. I have accepted G's use of B, P, R for line 727 and G's composite from B, C, P, R for line 728.

740 hoke. A: hokeus; G, following B, P: hoke. A destroys the rhyme and does not need -us to form a plural here.

743 had he. G, following B, C, P, R: Tundal had, but A frequently used the pronoun where other MSS use the proper name.

770 bryght. A: bryt; G, following B, C, P, R: bryght. This is probably a simple omission by A, but I have emended it because it would destroy the rhyme with line 769.

799 That full. A: that fowle; G, following B, C, P, R: that full. A was probably distracted by the appearance of fowle later in the line.

799, 801 vermyn. A: venym; G, following B, C, P, R: vermyn. Venym is a possible word, but vermyn better fits this narrative and the tradition of vision literature.

808 cawdoron of drede. A: cawdoron of drede; G, following B, C, P, R: schadowe of dede. The latter makes for an interesting allusion to Vulgate Psalm 22:4, but A makes sense as it is.

814 tokenyng. A: thyng, an eyeslip's repetition from the previous line. C: tokenyne.

816 desseyves. A: dothe save; G, following R: desseyves. Clearly, deception rather than salvation is required in the line, as suggested also by C, P: begyles.

860 then. A: the.

873 lad hym. A: had hym; C: ledde hym; P: him ladde.

903-04 Then wax . . . and muche woo. The manuscripts differ substantially. A makes as much sense as any other if we apply lines 905-06 to line 904 only and not to line 903.

910 vermyn. A: venym; G, following B, C, P, R: vermyn. See note to lines 799, 801.

916 nygh fylled. A: fell neght to; C: nygh filled.

933-34 Her taylys . . . the oddes. A: Her naylus wer bothe gret and longe / All kene hokys wer ther hond. G's reconstruction from B, C, P, R fits the descriptive and narrative situation better - and preserves the rhyme.

963-64 For monkus . . . Holy Kyrke. B, C, P, R all provide metrically smoother lines with better rhyme, but the specificity of A in line 963 and the inclusion of women in line 964 makes me prefer to leave A intact. Line 963 is missing in C.

969 Thei. A: Iuwes; G, following B, C, R: thei. The sentence needs a subject.

971 the. As a reminder of my procedure, A: thei is probably an error for the of the sort I do not ordinarily mention.

973 thus. A: this; C: thus, which the rhyme requires.

1002 dongyll. A: dongyll is unattested, but since A also uses it at lines 1029, 1031, I believe it is the word intended. See explanatory note.

1020 longe. A: narow; G, following C, P, R: longe. Some change is necessary to avoid the awkward repetition from line 1019.

1035 The. A: thys; G, following B, C, R: the. The noun is plural.

1062 as hem liked best. A: at that best kast; G, following R: as hem liked best not only preserves the rhyme but agrees in sense with B, C, P.

1079 dre. A: dyre, with y canceled.

1085 Yet thei. A: This peyn; G, following B, C, R: Yet thei avoids the repetition of peyn in A.

1094 odur smythus. A: non boldly; G, following C, R: oder smythus. A does not make sense without great contortions. C, R fit the context perfectly.

1097 ynoghe. A: ynoght.

1114 After line 1114, I have omitted two lines from A: For why that same company / Foloyddyn the in foly. These lines virtually duplicate lines 1115-16.

1148 grevyd. A: gvyd, with e written superscript.

1188 they con falle. A: they dy con falle, with dy canceled.

1192 Have turned. A: Had ben; emended by G, following C, P, R: Have turned.

1195 clomsyd. A: closyd; G, following C, P: clomsyd. This appears to be a simple omission of m, but I mention it because R also has closyd.

1198 toryve. A: toryvy; G, following C, P, R: toryve. A appears to have been distracted by "stryve" in line 1197 and spoiled the rhyme.

1234 Too Satanas. A: too sanat satanas, with sanat canceled.

1259 on her krocus. A: on her he krocus, with he canceled.

1262 The. A: thei; C: the.

1270 than fast. A: than a fast, with a canceled.

1288 world. A: wold, with r superscript.

1297 Satanas. A: satans, with a superscript.

1356 hit had he. A: his tayle was; G, following R: hit had he. The tayle in A in this line as well as in lines 1355 and 1357 suggests some confusion. G, R provide a significant improvement without changing meaning or rhythm.

1363 gloand. I have retained A: gloand; G, following R: tatred; P: taterede; C: hyt were tatered.

1376 hondes. The d is obscured.

1392 ande. A: armus; G: ande (meaning "breath"), based on R: ende, P: ?nde, and C: breth, seems to make the best of a difficult situation. Certainly it is hard to see armus as suitable in A's own context.

1393 the sowlys. A: the sowk sowlys, with sowk canceled.

1407 angyll. A: anglyll; C: angell.

1420 Adames. A: admes, with a superscript.

1430 That. A: And; G, following C, P, R: That.

1447 fayne. A: faynd; C: fayne.

1457 sumtyme. A: hor tyme; G, following C, P, R: sum tyme. The A scibe may have had his eye on "hom" in line 1456.

1464 Cheffe. A: Thyffe; G, following P, R: Cheffe. Some word indicating leadership or authority is necessary.

1487 have. A: hve; C: have.

1534 After line 1534, A omits two beautiful lines that appear in C, R and are accepted by G: Sone they feld a swete ayre / And [C: They] fond a feld was wonder fayre.

1545 That. Omitted in A.

1570 soo clere. A: soo here clere, with here canceled.

1600 and. A: and; G, following C, R: dyde make the line clearer, but I have left A since it is intelligible and the pejorative adjective is with Caym.

1613 a vow. A: aw vow, with w canceled.

1628 Therfor marcy behovus hom have. A: Therfor behovus hom to have marcy. This line is a real oddity. I have replaced it with C.

1640 ther. A: ther; G, following C: gud mon. A can stand if one assumes that anyone who had reached that place was welcome. C, however, does make the situation clearer.

1643 wonys. A: wowys; C: wones.

1654 Cormake. A: Cornale; G, following C, R: Cormake. A makes the same error at line 1663, thereby suggesting that he genuinely mistook the name.

1690 lege. A: lyke; G, following R: lege.

1698 oft. A: of; R: ofte; C: ofn.

1699 And sum wer. A: and wer; G, following R: and sum wer. The sum is necessary to distinguish between the "pilgrims" and the "religious."

1706 sufforyd. A: had sufforyd. I have omitted had. A seems to have moved from indirect discourse to a quotation. Omitting had makes the whole a quotation.

1724 hayre. A: yron; G, following C, R: hayre.

1731 brent. A is missing a verb. I have supplied brent from R.

1738 hayre. A: peyn; G, following C, R: hayre. Perhaps A did not know what a "hairshirt" was?

1744 longe. A: lonke.

1750 thore. A: throre; C: thore.

1861 schyre. A: cleer; G, following C, R: schyre. I have accepted the change to avoid the repetition with line 1859.

1868 world. A: wold, with r superscript.

1899 whylk. A: walle does not make sense in this description. G, following R: whylk, or C: whych does.

1901-02 And all . . . eyne myght see. A: And with all odur ryches hit was overwent / That noo eyne myght see ne hart myght thynke. These lines are simply so ugly that I have substituted R, though I have retained A's second myght in line 1902.

1907 On. A: And; C: On. instrumentus. A: instrumenstus; C: instrumentes.

1923 So much myrthe as thei made within. This line is repeated in A.

1955-56 But this . . . of that syght. These lines are reversed in A.

1980 swete. A omits, but G, following C, R, accepts.

1995 hyng. A: thing; I have accepted G's emendation to hyng, which improves intelligibility greatly.

2034 flowres. A: fruyt; G, following C, R: flowres. The change must be accepted because tradition encourages and the context demands "flowers."

2053 They. A: He; G, following R: They.

2054 He had hem. A: hym he had; C: he had hem. The plural is needed.

2089 A makes sense but might be clearer without wer feyr.

2102 I have left the greatly imperfect rhyme. C and R have variants of lines 2099-2102 which provide a rhyme at line 2102, but require drastic changes in the names and order of the gems.

2132 turne. A: tne, with ur superscript.

2136 angelles. A: angell; C: angelles.

2142 Renne. A: And renne destroys the syntax.

2147 angelles. A: angell; G, following C, R: angelles.

2148 dwelles. A: dwell; G, following C, R: dwelles.

2157 world. A: wold, with r superscript.

2168 syde. A includes an ill-formed letter between d and e, which may simply be an error.

2181 And seyd. G, following C, R: And seyd. A omits seyd, and a verb is needed.

2189 thes. A: this; G, following C, R: thes.

2200 namly. A: ma namly, with ma canceled.

2220 hym noght. A: hym noght; G, following C, P, R: but lytelle. I have retained A, though the alternative makes more sense and better translates the Latin original.

2223 Lyons. A: Lyon; G, following C, R: Lyons.

2224 possessyons. A: possessyon; G, following C, R: possessyons. I have accepted the changes on the grounds that the plural is better in line 2224 and the name of the diocese in line 2223 is in some doubt. See explanatory note to line 2222.

2276 holely. A: helely; G, following C, R: holely.

2284 body. A: bog body, with bog canceled.

2304 Thy marcé. G, following C, R: have on me marce, but the nature of the outcry seems to allow the omission of the verb.

2360 He repreved hem as Goddus lawe wold. A: How thei schuld be withdon as Goddes wyll wold. I have rejected this line for its sheer ugliness and substituted C.

2381-83 Explicit Tundale . . . coopy was. These lines, the indication of the conclusion of the poem, are indented in A.
 
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The Vision of Tundale





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Jesu Cryst, lord of myghttus most,
Fader and Son and Holy Gost,
Grant hem alle Thi blessyng
That lystenyght me to my endyng.
Yf ye that her ben awhyle dwell,
Seche a sampull Y wyll yow telle,
That he that woll hit undurstand,
In hart he schall be full dredand
For hys synnus, yf he woll drede
And clanse hym her of his mysdede.
In Yrlond byfyll sumtyme this case
Sethyn God dyeyd and from deythe arase.
Aftyr that tyme, as ye may here,
A thowsand and a hondryt yere
And nyn wyntur and fourty,
As it hys wretyn in tho story,
I woll yow tell what befell than
In Yrlond of a rych man;
Tundale was is right name.
He was a man of wykud fame.
He was ryche ynow of ryches,
But he was poore of all gudnesse.
He was ay full of trychery,
Of pride, of yre, and of envy.
Lechery was all his play,
And gloteny he loved ay.
He was full of covetyse
And ever slouthe in Goddus servyse.
Nou warkus of mercy wold he worch;
He lovyd never God, ne Holy Chyrch.
With hym was never no charyté;
He was a mon withowton pyté.
He loved well jogelars and lyers.
He mayntyniod ay mysdoers.
He lovyd ay contakt and stryve.
Ther was non holdyn wors on lyf.
Yett nold not God is sowle tyne,
For He hit boghthe from Hell pyne,
For His mersy passud all thynge.
But Tundale had an hard warnyng,
For as he in his transyng lay,
His sowle was in a dredeful way.
Ther hit saw mony an howge payn,
Ar hit come to the body agayn.
In Purgatory and in Helle
As he saw, he cowthe well telle.
But how he had a hard fytt,
Yf ye woll here, ye may whytt.
Tundale had frendys full mony,
But he was full of trichery.
Of his maners mony had dred,
For he was lythur in word and dede.
Throw ocur wold he sylver leyn;
For nyne schyllyng he wold have ten.
For frystyng wold he ocur take,
And nothyng leyn for Goddus sake.
When he sold his marchandyse,
He sold ay derur than ryghtfull prise.
He wold gyve dayes for his best,
But he sold the derur for the fryst.
Tundale, he went upon a day
To a mon to ascon his pay
For thre horsus that he had sold,
For the whych the penys wer untold.
That mon hym prayd of respite
Unto a day the deyt to quytte
And proferud hym sykurnes by othe.
Anon he grucchud and waxyt wrothe
For he had not evon tho pay,
But thratte hym fast and made gret deray.
But Tundale was bothe quynte and whys;
He sette the horsus to full hye prise
For he had no pay in honde.
To hym the mon in scripture hym bonde.
The mon spake to hym curtesly
And broghtte hym owt of is malycoly.
He sobort his hart that was so greyt
And made Tundale dwell at tho meytt.
And when he was seytt and servyd well,
A greytt evyl he began to fele.
At the fyrst mossel soo syttand
He myght not well lefte up his hond.
He cryed lowde and changyt chere,
As he had felud dethe nere.
To the weyf of the howse than callud he,
"Leve dame," he seyd, "for charyté
Loke me my sparthe wher that he stande,
That Y broghtt with me in my hande,
And helpe me now hethon awey,
For Y hope to dye this same day.
So harde with evyll am Y tane
That strenthe in me fell Y nane.
For now my hart so febull Y fele,
Y am but dede, Y wot full wele.
A Jesu Cryst, Y aske Thee mercy,
For can I now non odur remedy."
Ryght as he schuld ryse of that stede,
Anon in the flore he fell don dedde.
Tho that wer his frendys by sybbe
Herd of that cause that hym bytydde.
Thei comyn to hym with hart sore
And saw Tundale lygge dedde in the flore.
For hym wer the bellus yronge
And "Placebo" and "Dyrge" sone ysonge.
All his cloths wer of hym tane.
He lay cold dedde as any stan,
But of the lyft syde of Tundale
Was sumwat warme the veyne corale,
Wherfor sum hyld hym not all dedde;
Forwhy thei flytte hym not fro that sted.
But styll as a dedde mon ther he lay
From mydday of that Wenusday
Tyl the Setturday aftur the none;
By than wyst Tundale what he had done,
Then he lay dedde, as ye han hard,
But herus now how is sowle fard.
Wen Tundale fell don sodenly,
The gost departyd sone from the body.
As sone as the body was dedde,
Tho sowle was sone in a darke sted.
Full wrechudly hit stod allone;
Hit weput sore and made gret mone.
He wend to a byn dampnyd ay to payne
And never a com to tho body agayne
For the synnus that the body dyd,
That myght nether be layned nor hydde.
He had lever then al mydylerde
Ha ben agayne, so was he ferd
But he sawe mony a hydwys payne
Or he come to the body agayne,
But sum had more and sum had lasse,
As tho story beyrthe wyttnesse.


I Passus

As the gost stod in gret dowte,
He saw comyng a full loddly rowte
Of fowle fendys ay grennyng,
And as wyld wolfus thei cam rampyng.
He wold a flown from that syght,
But he wyst never whydur he myght.
Thes fowle fendys cam to hym ther.
The sowle for ferd made drury chyr,
And that was full lytull wondor;
He went to a byn ryvon asondur.
Thei wer so loghtly on to loke,
Hym thoghtte the eyrthe undur hym schoke,
Her bodys wer bothe black and fowle;
Full gryssly con thei on hym gowle.
Her ynee wer brode and brannyng as fyr;
All thei wer full off angur and yre.
Her mowthus wer wyde; thei gapud fast.
The fyre owt of her mowthus thei cast.
Thei wer full of fyr within.
Her lyppus honget byneythe her chyne.
Her tethe wer long, tho throtus wyde,
Her tongus honged owt full syde.
On fete and hondus thei had gret nayles,
And grette hornes and atteryng taylys.
Her naylys wer kene as grondon styll;
Scharpur thyng myght no mon fyll.
Of hem cam the fowlest stynk
That any erthyly mon myght thynk.
With her naylys in that plas
Ychon cracched other in the face.
Thei faghtton ycheon with odur and stryvon,
And ychon odur all toryvon.
Hit was a wondur grysely syght
To see how thei weryn all ydyght.
In tho word was no mon alive
That cowthe so grysely a syghth dyscryve.
Full grymly thei on hym staryd,
And all atonus thei cryd and rored
And seyd, "Gow abowte we yond wykyd gost
That hathe ey don owre cownsel most
And syng we hym a song of deyd,
For he hathe wroght aftur owre red."
Thei umlapud the soule abowte
And creidon and mad an hugy schowt
And seyd, "Thu synfull wrecchyd wyght,
In Hell a styd is for thee dyght,
For thu art now owre owne fere.
Thu art deythus doghttur dere.
And soo to fyr withowttyn ende
And to darknes art thu frend,
And to all lyght art thu foo;
Therfor, with us schalt thu goo.
This his thi felyschyp, thu caytyff,
That thu chase to thee in thi lyffe;
Therfor, with us schald thu wende
To dwell in Hell withowton ende.
Thu hast ybyn bothe fals and fykyll,
And thu hast seyd fals sclandur mykyll;
Thu lovedyst stryft nyght and day,
And thu and we lovyd ay.
Thu hast ylovyd myche lechery,
And myche thu hast usud voutry,
Pryde, envy, and covetys,
Gloteny with all odur vys.
Why wolddust not thu leyve thi trichery
Whyle thu levedust and was myghty?
Wher his now all thi vanyté,
Thi ryches, and thi grette mayné?
Wher is thi pompe and thi pryde?
Thi wyckydnes may thu not hyde.
Wer is thi streynthe and thi myght
And thi harneys soo gayly dyght?
Wher is thi gold and thi tresour?
Wher is thi catell and thi stor,
That thu wendyst schuld never thee fayll,
And now may all hit not thee avayle?
Thu lovyst neyver God, nor Holy Chyrch,
Noo warkys of mercy woldyst worch.
All the gud that in tho erthe is,
Nor all the matens ne all the masse
Myght not help thee from the peyn of Hell
For eyvermore therin to dwell.
That wykkyd thought that was in thi brest,
Woldyst thu never schowe it to no preste.
Wreche, thu thar not calle nor crye.
Thu wendust with us withowton mercy."
Ther the gost stod. Hit was darke as nyght
But sone he saw a sterre full bryght.
Tundale fast that sterre beheld.
Full wyll comfortud he hym feld.
Throw tho vertu of his creatur
He hopeyd to geyte sum socur.
That was the angell to beton is bale
The whych was emer of Tundale.
The angell sone with Tundale mett,
And full mekely he hym grette.
He spake to hym with myldde chere:
"Tundale," he seyd, "wat dost thu here?"
When Tundale herd hym his name call
And saw hym bryght schynyng withall,
He was fayn and began to crie
And seyd, "Swete fader, mercy!
These fowle fendys for my mysdede
To tho fyr of Hell thei wold me lede."
Then onsweryd tho angell bryght
And seyd to the drefull wyght,
"Fader and lord thu callust me now.
Why woldyst thu not er to me bow?
Y was thi yemer evon and moron,
Seython thu was of thi modur boron.
Thu woldyst neyver to me take tent,
Nor to non of myn thu woldest not sent."
Tundale seyd, and sykyd sore:
"Lord, Y saw thee never before,
Nor never myght Y here thee lowde nor styll,
Therfor, wyst Y not of thi wyll."
The angell that was of gret might
Chasyd won that was a fowle wyght.
Of all that fowle company
Ther semed non soo uggly.
"Tundale," he seyd, "this is he
That thu dyddest know and not me.
Aftur hym thu hast alwey wroght
But in me trystys thu ryght noght.
But Goddus mercy schall thee save,
Allthaff thu servydyst non to have.
Bot Y woll welle that thu wytte,
Thee behovyt fyrst an hard fyght."
Than was Tundale full glad.
But he was aftur full hard bystad,
For he saw peynus greyt and strong.
And sum of hem was he among.
Well he cowthe tell yche a peyn
When he come to the body ageyn.
Tundale therowt the angell hym drowgh,
For hym thoght he had drede ynow.
When that thei saw, tho fendys felle,
That he schuld not goo with hem to Hell,
Thei began to rore and crye
And sclanderyd then God allmyghty
And seyd, "Thu art not tru justyce.
Thu art fals and unryghtwysse.
Thu seydust Thu schuldust reward sone
Ylke mon aftur that he hathe done.
Tundale is owrus with skyll and ryght,
For he hathe sarvyd hus day and nyght,
Full wykydly has he levyd longe.
Yf we leyf hym, Thu dost hus wronge."
Thei rorud and crydon, so wer thei woo
That Tundale schuld wend hem froo.
Ychon faght and with odur dyd stryve
And with her naylys her chekus dyd ryve.
So fowle a stynke, as thei cast than,
Feld never before yrthely man.
Then seyd the angell to hym at the last,
"Tundale, com forthe and folow me fast."
Then seyd he and sykud full sore,
"Lord, than seyst thu never me more.
Yf Y goo behind thee, then am Y schent,
Thes fendys from thee wold me hent
And leyd me with hom to Hell peyn,
Then getust thu me never ageyn."
Then seyd the angell, "Have no drede.
Thei mey no wyse from me thee lede.
As mony, as thee thynkuth, semyth here,
Yet ar ther mo with naylys full nere.
Whylus that God is with us bathe,
Thei may never do hus skathe,
But thu may rede to fende thee with,
In the profecy of Davyd,
That ther schall fall of thi lyft syde
A thowsand fendys in short tyde
And of thi ryght syde semand
Schall fall also ten thowsand.
And non of hem schall com to thee,
Bot with thi eyn thu schalt hom see.
Thu schalt ysee, or we too twyne,
What peynus fallyth for dyverse synne."


II Passus

When the angell had told his tale,
Throw an entré he lad Tundale,
That was darke; they had no lyght,
But only of the angell bryght.
Thei saw a depe dale full marke,
Of that Tundale was full yrke.
When he hit saw, he uggod sore.
A delfull dwellyng saw he thore.
That depe dale fast he beheld.
A fowle stenke therof he feld.
Alle the grond, that ther was semand,
Was full of glowyng colis brennand.
Over the colys yron lay,
Red glowand hit semud ay.
Fowr cubytus thyk hit was,
Tho heyte of the fuyr dyd throw pas.
That yron was bothe large and brad.
For full strong payn was hit mad.
The heyte of the yron was more
Then all the fuyr that was thore.
That fyr was ever ylyche brannyng
And ever mor stronglyke stynkyng.
Of that fyr com more stynk
Then any erthely mon myght thynk.
And that was peyn to hym more
Then all that he saw or he com thore.
Apon that yron, as hit was seyd,
Fendus with the sowlus wer layd.
And in that stynke dyd thei brenne than
And wer molton as wax in a pan.
Thei ronnen throw fyr and yron bothe,
As hit wer wax throw a clothe
Thei weron gederud and molton agayn;
And fro thes therin to new payn.
Then seyd the angell to Tundale.
"Her may thu see mykyll bale.
For every mon is dight this payn
That fadur or modur has yslayn,
Or any odur throw cursyd red,
Or ben asentyd to any monus ded.
Of this geyte thei never reles,
For this peyn schall never ses.
In odur peyn yet schall thei be
Then this that thow may herre see.
But of this peyn schall thu not fele,
And yett thu hast deservyd hit full welle."


III Passus

Thei passyd forth from that peyn
And comyn to a greyt montteyn
That was bothe gret and hye.
Theron he hard a delfoll crye.
Alle that ton syde was semand
Full of smoke and fyr brennand;
That was bothe darke and wan
And stank of pyche and brymston.
On that todur syde, myght he know,
Gret was the forst and snow,
And therwith gret wyndus blast,
And odur stormus that folowyn fast.
He saw ther mony fendys felle
And herd hom loghtly rorre and yelle.
Thei hadon forkys and tongus in hand
And gret brochys of yron glowand
With hom thei drowyn and putton ful sore
The wrecchyd sowlys that ther wore.
Owt of that fyr thei conne hom drawe
And putton hom into the cold snowe,
And seython into the fyr agayne
Thei putton hom into odur peyne.
Her peyn was turnod mony folde,
Now in hotte, now in cold.
Then seyd the angell, that was soo bryght,
"This peyn is for thefus dyght
And for hom that robry makus
Or agayn mennus wyll her guddus takus
Or throw falsehed any mon bygylys
Or wynnyght mennus gude with wykyd wylys."
When thei hadon seyn that wykyd turment,
Furdurmore yette thei went.


IV Passus

The angell ay before con pas,
And Tundale aftur that sore aferd was,
Thei hyldon ey forthe the way
Tyll thei come to anothur valay,
That was bothe dyppe and marke.
Of that syght was the sowle yrke.
In erthe myght non deppur be.
To the grond thei myght not see.
A swowyng of hem thei hard therin
And of cryyng a delfull dyn.
Owt of that pytte he feld comand
A fowle smoke that was stynkand
Bothe of pycche and of brynston,
And therin sowlys brent, mony won.
That peyn hym thoght well more semand
Then all the peynus that he byforyn fand.
That peyn passyd all odur peynus.
That pyt stod betwene two monteynus.
Over that pyt he saw a bryge
Fro tho ton to tho todur lygge,
That was of a thowsand steppus in leynthe to rede
And scarsly of won fotte in brede.
All quakyng that brygge ever was,
Ther myght no mon over hyt passe,
Leryd nor lewyd, maydon ne wyff,
But holy men of parfyt lyff.
Mony sowlys he saw don falle
Of that brygge that was so smalle.
He saw non that brygge myght passe,
But a prest that a palmer was.
A palme in his hond he had,
And in a slaveyn he was clad.
Ryght as he on erthe had gon,
He passyd over be hymselve alon.
Then seyd the sowle to that angell tho,
"Y was never er soo wo.
Wo is me; Y not hom to passe,
So sor adred never er Y wasse."
The angell seyd to Tundale ryght,
"Drede thee noght her of this syght.
This payn schalt thu schape full well,
But odur peyn schalt thu fell.
This peyn is ordeynyd full grevos
For prowd men and bostus."
The angell toke hym be the hond swythe
And lad hym over, than was he blythe.


V Passus

Yette went thei foryt bothe togeydur,
But tho sowle wyst never wydur,
Be a longe wey of greyt merknes,
As the story beryth wyttenes.
Thei passyd that and com to lyght,
But he saw then an hogy syght.
He saw a best that was more to knaw
Then all tho monteynus that thei saw,
And his ynee semyd yette more
And bradder then the valeyys wore.
In all his mowthe, that was so wyde,
Nyne thowsand armyd in myght ryde,
Betwene his toskys, that were so longe,
Too greyt gyandys he saw honge.
The hed of the ton hyng donward
And tho todur is hed stod upward.
In myddys his mowthe stodon on yche syde
Too pylers to hold hyt up wyde.
Tho pylers weron sette on serewyse.
In his mowthe wer thre partyse,
As thre gret yatys that opon stode.
Gret flamus of fyr owt of hym yode,
And therwith come also fowle a stynke,
As tong myght tell or hert thynke.
Thei hard ther a dylfull dyn
Of mony thowsand sowlys withyn.
Gowlyng and gretyng thei hard within among.
"Welaway" was ever her song.
Lowd thei hard hem crye and yell;
Hor sorow myght no tong tell.
Befor that bestys mowthe was sene
Mony thowsandus of fendys kene,
That hyed hem with myght and mayne
Tho wrecchyd sowlys to dryve to payne.
With brennyng baelys thei hem dong
And with hem droffe to peynus strong.
When Tundale had that best yseen
And tho wykyd gostys, that wer so kene,
Tundale spake full delfully,
When he hard that hydos crie,
And seyd than to that angell bryght,
"What bytokenyth this hydos syght?"
The angell onswerud hym anon.
"This best is callud Akyron,
And ther throw byhovyth thee to wend,
Yff we schull goo owre way to the end.
Non from this peyn may passe quyte,
But cleyne men of lyffe parfyte.
This hogy best, as Y thee kenne
His sette to swolo covetows men
That in erthe makyght hit prowd and towghe
And never wenon to have ynowghe,
But evur coveton more and more
And that hor sowlys forthynkon sore.
In tho profecy hit is wryton thus,
That a best schall swolewo the covetows.
So muche thurst hathe that best
That all the watur most and lest
That evur ran est or west
Myght not stanche the bestys thurst.
Therfor, this payne is redy ydyght,
Namely for yche a covetows wyght
That wenon never ynow to have,
Ne holden hom payd, nor vochensaffe
That God hom sent of His grace.
Therfor thei schen say, 'Alas! Alas!'
For ay the more that thei han free,
Tho more covetows a mon may hem see.
The gyandys, that thu syst with ee,
Hongyng betwene his toskus so hye,
Goddys law wold thei not knowe,
But thei wer trew in hor owne lawe.
Of whom tho namus wer callud thus:
That ton hyght Forcusno and that toder Conallus."
"Alas," quod that sowle, "suche peyn have thay,
Whedur thei schull never thennus away."
Quod the angell, "Thee falon no glee;
And in erthe seche hast thu ybe."
When he had seyd thus, ther thei yode,
And byfor the best bothe thei stode,
But that was agayn Tundaleis wylle.
The angell vaneschyd and he stod stylle.
No wondur was thaw he had drede.
The fowle fendys comyn gud spede,
Thei token hym and bowndyn hym fast,
Withynne that best thei connen hym cast.
Awhyle within he most dwell.
Ther was he beyton with fendys fell,
With kene lyonus that on hym gnowe
And dragonus that hym al todrowe.
With eddrys and snakus full of venym
He was all todrawyn yche lym.
Now he was in fyr brennand,
Now in yse fast fresand.
The terys of hys ynee two,
Thei brendon as fyr. Hym was full wo.
Strong stynke he feld of brymston.
He was in peynus mony won.
With his nalys in angur and stryfe
Hys owne chekus he con al toryfe.
Of yche synne that evur he dudde
He was upbraydud. Ther was non hudde.
In grett wanhope was he ay.
He went nevur to have passyd away.
But sone he come owt of that peyne.
He wyst not how. He was full fayne.
Ryght now was he in full grett dowt,
And anon aftur was he withowt.
He lay awhyly as he wer deed,
And sone aftur he stod up in that sted.
As he hym dressyd so syttande,
He saw the angell byforyn hym stand.
He had comfort than of that lyght,
When he saw thys angell bryght.
The angell twoched sone Tundale
And gaff hym strynthe. Than was he hale.
Then lovyd he God of His grace
With terys sore gretand in that place.
He thus passyd that turment,
But fordurmore bothe thei went.


VI Passus

Anodur wey thei to con take,
Tyll thei com to an hydous lake.
That lake mad an hydous dynne
Throw wawys of watur that weron withyne.
Tho wawys of that watur roos as hye
As any mon myght with is ee ysee.
Therin wer howgy bestys and fell
That hydously con crye and yell.
Her ynee wer brode and brandon bryght,
As brannyng lampus don on nyght.
On yche a syde thei waytud ay
To swolow sowlys that was ther pray.
Over that lake then saw thei lygge
A wondur long, narow brygge,
Too myle of leynthe that was semand
And scarsly of the bred of a hand,
Of scharpe pykys of yron and stell.
Hit was grevows for to fele.
Ther myght non passe by that brygge thare,
But yeff her feet wer hyrt sare.
The hydous bestys in that lake
Drew nerre the brygge her pray to take
Of sowles that fell of that brygge don.
To swolow hem thei wer ay bon.
Cryyng and yelling and gowling yfere,
Tho noyse was wonder dredfull to here.
These hydous bestus wer wondur grette;
The sowlys that fell wer her mette.
Tundale saw the bestys all
And fyr owt of her mowthe walle.
The fyr that he saw from hem faulland
Made the watur all hotte walland.
He saw won stond on the brygge
With a burden of corne on is rygge
Gretand with a dylfull crye
And pleynud his synne full pytuysly.
The pykys his fett pykud full sore.
He dredyd the bestys mykyll mor
That hym to slee wer ay bowne,
Yef that he had falle of the brygge don.
Tundale askyd the angell bryght,
"What meneghth that hydous syght?"
The angell onswerud thus agayn,
"For hym is ordeynyd this payn
That robbyght men of hor ryches
Or any gudys that herys is,
Lewd or leryd, or Holy Kyrke,
Or any wrong to hem woll wyrk.
But sum haght more peyn and sum lase
All aftur that her synnus his.
Sum reckys not wat thei deyre
And woll not a kyrke forbeyre.
Sum ar fekul and sum unleylle.
Sum woll robbe and sum wol stell
Thyng that to Holy Chyrche fallys;
Sacrileggi that men callys
Thei that done wronge or vylony
Within that sted of seyntwary,
Or within the sted of relegyon
Maketh any dystruccioun,
All schull thei here turmentyd be
In this peyn that thu may see.
And he that thu syst on the brygge stand,
With tho schevus so sore gretand,
Fro Holy Chyrch he hom stale,
For thei wer teythe told by tale.
Therfor, byes he hem full dere
That dede throw peyn that he haght here.
Over the brygge schalt thu wend nowe
And with thee lede a wyld cowe.
Loke thu lede her warly
And bewar she fall not by,
For wen thu art passyd thi peyn,
Thu delyvur hur me agayn.
Thee behovys to lede huyr over alle,
For that thu thi gossypus cow stale."
Than spake Tundale with drury chere,
"A mercy, Y aske my lord dere.
If all Y toke hur agaynus his wyll,
He had hur agayn, as hit was skyll."
"That was soght," quod that angell,
"For thu myghttust not from hym hur stell.
And for he had is cow agayn,
Thu schalt have the lesse payn.
Yche wyckyd dede, more or lesse,
Schall be ponnysched aftur the trespass,
But God allmyghty lykusse noght
Nowdur ell dede, nor evyll thoght."
As Tundale stod that was ylle lykand,
The wylde cow was broght to is hande.
Maygrey is chekys hym byhovyth nede
To take the cow and forthe here lede.
Hym thoght hit was to hym gret payne,
But he myght not be ther agayn.
He dud the angell commandment.
By the hornes the cow he hent.
He cheryschyd the cow all that he myght,
And to the brygge he leduth hor ryght.
When he on the brygge was,
The cow wold not forthur pas.
He saw the bestys in the lake
Draw nerre the brygge her pray to take.
That cow had ner fall over that tyde
And Tundale on that todur syde.
He was wonderly sor aferd than
Of gret myscheffe. Up than thei wan.
Thei passydon forthe, that thoght hym hard,
Tyll thei come to the mydwarde,
Odur wylye he abovyn, odur wyle the cow;
Bothe the hadon sorow ynow.
Then mette thei hym that bare the corne
Ther went thei bothe. Thei hadon ben lorne,
So narow then the brygge was
That nowdur myght for othur pas.
To hom bothe hit was grette peyn,
For nowdur myght ther turne ageyn.
Nor nowdur dorst for all myddylerd
Loke byhynd hym, so wer thei ferd.
The scharpe pykys that thei on yede
Made hor feet sore to blede,
So that hor blod ran don that tyde
Into that watur on eydur syde.
He prayd Tundale of mercy
That he wold lette hym passe by.
He seyd, "Certus Y ne may,
For Y may not passe for thee away."
Thei wepton sore. Gret dele ther was,
For nowdur myght lette odur pas.
As Tundale stod with the cow in honde,
He saw the angell byfor hym stond.
The angell broght hym from that wo
And bad hym, "Lette the cow goo."
And seyd, "Be of gud comford now,
For thu schalt no more lede the cow."
Tundale schewyd his fett, that thei wer sore,
And seyd, "Lord, Y may goo no more."
Then seyd the angell, that hym ladde,
"Thynke how sore thi feett bledde,
Therfor dredfull is thi way
And full grevous, soghth to say."
Then towchyd he the feet of Tundale,
And as tyd was he all hale.
Then seyd Tundale, "A blessyd be thu,
That I am delivered from peyn now."
The angell seyd, "Thow schalt sone ywytte,
A grett peyn abydus hus yette.
Fro that sted woll Y thee not save,
That is full and more woll have.
And thydur now behovyth thee.
Ageynes that may thu not bee."


VII Passus

Tundale went forght, as the boke says,
Throw wyldernys and darke ways.
He saw an hows hym agayn
Was more than any montayn.
As an ovon that hows was mad,
But the mowthe therof was wyd and brad.
Owt at the mowthe the fure brast,
And fowle stynkyng lye com owt fast.
The lye was bothe grett and thro
And start a thowsand fote therfro.
The sowlys withhowten that brene to noght,
That wykyd gostys thydur had broght.
When Tundale had sen that syght,
He spake to that angell bryght:
"Now goo we to a delfull stedde.
Yondur Y holde the yatys of dedde.
Who schall delyver me from that sore?
Y wene to be ther forevermore."
Then seyd the angell gud,
"Thu schalt be delyvyred from that styd."
"Gret myght he hathe of Goddus grace
That may delyver me from that plas."
The angelle sone hym answerd,
"Tundale," he seyd, "be noght aferd.
Withynne yonde hows byhovyth thee to wend,
But yonde lye schall thee not schend."
When Tundale com that hows nere
He saw mony a fowle bocchere,
Evyn in the mydward the fyre thei stond
And scharp tolys in her hond.
Summe hade syculus, knyvus, and saws,
Summe had twybyll, brodax, and nawgeres,
Cultorus, sythus, kene wytall,
Spytyll forkus the sowlys to fall.
Thei wer full lodly on to loke.
Summe had swerdys and summe hoke,
Summe gret axes in here hond
That semyd full scharpe bytond.
Of that syght had he gret wondur,
How thei smyton the sowlus insondur.
Summe stroke of the hed, somme the thyes,
Summe armus, summe leggus by the kneys,
Summe the bodyes in gobedys small,
Yette kevered the sowlys togedur all.
And ever thei smoton hem to gobbetus ageyn.
This thoght Tundale a full grette peyn.
Then seyd Tundale to the angell tho,
"Lord, delyver me from this woo.
Y beseche yow that Y mey passe this care,
For sweche a peyn saw Y never are,
And all odur turmentus that ben schyll,
I woll suffur at yowre wyll."
Then seyd the angell to Tundale thus,
"This peyn thee thenke full hydous,
But in this peyn byhovus thee to bee
And eke in more that schalt thu see."
Of that peyn he thoght more aw
Then of all tho peynus that ever he saw.
But sone theraftur he saw thare
A peyn that he thoght mare:
He saw an hydous hwond dwell
Withinne that hows that was full fell.
Of that hound grette drede he had.
Tundale was never so adrad.
Wen he had seyn that syght,
He bysoght of that angell bryght
That he wold lett hym away steyl,
That he com not in that fowle Hell.
But the angell wold not for nothyng
Grant hym hys askyng.
The wykyd gostys that wer within
Abowt hym com with gret dynne,
With hor tolys and with her geyre,
That he saw hom byfore beyre.
Among hom thei tokyn Tundale
And hewyd hym in gobettus smale.
He myght not dye for that peyn,
For he was sone hole ageyn.
The most maystur of that hows hyght
Preston; that was his name ryght.
He saw and hard wyle he was thare
Gowlyng and gretyng and mykyll care.
The lye that he saw withowtton passe
Wastyd all that theryn was.
Ther was full delfull noyse and crie
And hongur for glotenye,
That all the sowlys that therin wer
Myght not stanche the appetyt there.
Tundale saw theryn allsoo
Men and wemen that wer full woo,
That peynud wer in her prevytys
And all tognawyn bytwene hor kneys.
He saw within that dongeon
Mony men of relygeon
That full wer of fowle vermyn
Bothe withowttyn and withyn.
Strong vermyn on hem he saw,
And on every lym beton and gnaw.
Tundale knew summe ther full wyll
That worthy wer that peyn to fele.
But he com sone owt of that peyn.
He wyst never how. Than was he fayn.
Then stodde Tundale in a darke stede,
That was callyd the cawdoron of drede.
As he satte, his syght was dym:
He saw his angell byfor hym.
He seyd to the angyll, "Alas!
Wher his the word that wryton was
That Goddus mercy schuld passe all thyng?
Here see Y therof no tokenyng."
Then answeryd the angyll and seyd anon,
"That word desseyves mony a mon.
Allthauff God be full of myght and mercy,
Ryghtwessnes behowyth Hym to do therby.
But He forgevyth more wykkydnes,
Thenne He findeth ryghtwesnes.
Tho peynus that thu haddus wer but lyght.
Grettur thu schuldyst have tholud with ryght."
Tundale than began to knele
And thonked God He schappud so wele.
Then sayd the angell to Tundale,
"Wherto schuld any mon geff tale,
Yf God schuld ay forgeffe hym sone
All tho synnus that he had done
Withowttyn any peyn to fele?
Thenne nedyd a mon nevur to do wele.
But thei that ar wykyd and synfull kyd
And no penans in body dyd,
God takyth on hem no venjans,
Yf thei hadon any repentans.
Throw His mercy ar thei save.
But yette the sowle som peyn schalt have.
Oftontymes from mony a wyght
Guddus, that han to hom be dyght,
Fro hym God hom hathe ytake
And dothe here his peynus slake,
For insted of peyn is worldus catell,
Yf that a mon thonke God of all yll.
So schall ther sowlys have lasse peyn
Wen dethe to grond hathe hom slayn,
And the seyner from all peyn wende
To the blysse withowtten ende.
But in the world is non, Y wene,
Be he of synne nevur so clene,
Noght a chyld, for sothe to say,
That was boron and deed today
Have peyn and drede he schall ryght well,
Thaw he schull not hom sore fele.
To love more God he woll be fayn
That soo may schape suche payn,
As the mon that dampnyd is
To Hell for his wykkydnes.
He schall suche joy in Hevyn ysee
That more icy myght nevur bee.
That schall greve hym more the syght
Then all the peyn that in Hell is dyght,
When he may see that grette blysse
That he schall forever mysse.
But the prest that tho palmer was,
That thu saw ovur the brygge pas,
He saw all the peynus stronge,
But non of hem was he among,
For he lovede God almyghty ay
And servyd Hym well to his pay.
Goddes joy may he not mysse,
For he hathe a trone of blysse."
When the angyll had thys told
To make Tundale the more bold,
The angell lad hym yett furdurmare,
Tundale folowyd with myckyll care


Passus VIII

A wondur hydous best thei saw,
Of whom Tundale had grett aw.
That best was bothe felle and kene
And more than he had evur ysene.
Two grett wyngys that wer blacke
Stod on eydur syde on his backe.
Two fett with naylys of yron and stell
He had, that weron full scharpe to fell.
He had a long nekke and a smalle,
But the hed was grett withall.
The eyn wer brode in his hed
And all wer brannand as fyr red.
His mowthe was wyd and syde-lyppud;
Hys snowt was with yron typpud
Fyr, that myght nevur slakyd bee,
Owt of is mowthe com gret plentee.
That best sat evyn in mydward
A lake, that was froson full hard.
That lake was full of gret yse.
Ther had sowlys full gret angwysse.
That best was bothe fell and gredy
And swollod tho sowlys that wer redy,
And when the sowlys wer theryn,
Ther wer thei peynod for her syn.
In strong fyr ther brand thei ay,
Too thei wer ner wastud away,
And than ycast fro that peyn
Tyll thei wer covert agayn.
Then wax thei blacke and bloo
For sorow and care and muche woo.
As wemen doght bothe meke and mylde,
When thei ben in berying of chylde,
Thei playnod hem and seydon, "Alas!"
Harde wer hor peynus for hor trespas.
For strong bytyng thei had withyn
With wood edderys and odur vermyn
That was withynne hem gnawyng ay,
As thei among snakys lay.
When thei her tymys myght know and see,
Thei made hem sorow then gaynyd no glee.
Thei made suche dylle sothe to telle,
That noyse of hem nygh fylled Hell.
So dylfull a noyse was never hard
Of men and wemen, so thei fard.
But her tyme behovys hem to kepe,
When the edders schulld owt of hem crepe,
Noght only throw prevy place,
But throw ylke a lym maketh her trace.
Throw hed and feyt, backe and syde,
Throw armus and leggys thei con glyde.
Throw wombe and brest thei wer crepand
And throw ylk a joynt that thei fand.
Thei crepud owt all attonus.
Thei sparud neydur flesse nor bwonus.
Tho eddres wer full gret and longe
With hedys of yron that wer full stronge.
Thei had mowthys of fyr glowand
And glowand tongus owt schetand.
Her taylys wer full of smale broddys
As wether hokys wer the oddes.
Whan the vermyn wold have owt crepon
At the holys that thei made opon,
Thei myght not wyn owt hor taylys,
Soo fast hyldon the crokyd naylys.
Thei turnyd her hedys in agayne thar
Throw ylke a joynt thei madon full bare.
Thei fretud hom within and hem gnew,
And all her bowell they owt drew.
Thei smyton her hedds owt and yn;
Her taylys thei myght not owt wyn.
When tho hokys thay hom ageyns tyt,
Thei turnedyn ageyn and toke ther bytt.
Fro hed to fotte ay was gnawyng,
Scrattyng, fretyng, fleyng, and styngyng.
To Hevon the noyse myght have ben harde,
So hydously thei crydon and sowle fared.
The sowlys thei crydon for grett angwis
And pleyndon gretly ther folys.
Thei wer not lyveryt of hor payn,
For hit was newed ay agayn.
Tundale seyd to the angyll bryght,
"Lord, this is a dredfull syght.
Me thynkyght this peyn well more
Then all tho peyn that Y saw before."
Then onsweryd the angell ageyn
And seyd, "Tundale, this peyn
Ys ordeynyd for men of relygyon
That kepud not well hor professyon;
For monkus, channons, prestus, and clerkus,
And for odur men and wemen of Holy Kyrke
That delytus hor bodys yn lechery
Or in any odur maner of foly,
And dothe not as ther ordyr wyll,
But ledus hor lyffe aftur ther wyll.
Thei schull have the same evermore
If thei amend hom not or thei goo before.
And for the same thow hast bene,
This schalt thu thole, that thu hast sene."
When the angyll had seyd thus,
The fendys, that wer full hydeous,
Within the best Tundale thei ladde,
And ther was he within full hard bestad.
Therin was he peynyd full long,
Brennyng in fyr that was full stronge.
Seththyn the best hym owt kest,
Then was he swollod as he wold brest.
All full of edders than he was,
And non of hem myght from odur passe.
But wen he shuld delyvered be,
Then he myght the angyll ysee
With mylde chere befor hym dyd stond.
He towched Tundale with hys hond
And delyvured hym of that bale.
Then seyd the angyll to Tundale,
"Com furdurmore and folow me,
For more peyn byhovyth thee to se."
Fordurmore thei went than,
But Tundale thoght hit no gam.
Thei come into a wey full derke.
Of that way was Tundale yrke,
For ther was no more lyght,
But that at come of the angyll bryght.
That way was strayt and longlastand
And worst of all that Tundale fand.
Afrontte unnethe thei myght passe
So narow of steppus don that was,
As thei had come from a hye hyll
Don into a deppe dongyll.
The more that Tundale folowyd ay,
The lengur hym thoght was that way.
Tundale feld a stynkyng ayre;
Then of his lyffe he was in speyr.
Then he sykud and wept full sore,
And seyd to the angyll thore,
"Lord, wydur schalt this way wend?
Me thenkyth this way hasse non ende."
Then onsward the angyll fre
And seyd, "Y wyll telle thee
How this way lythe and into what sted.
This is the way that lyght to the dedde."
Then seyd Tundale, "How may this be?
In boke we may wryton ysee
That the way that schall to the deythe lede
Ys bothe large and mykyll of brede.
Thys is now a narow way
That thu us ledust, and longe to asay."
Then seyd the angyll, "Wyll Y wate
That the boke spekys not of this gate,
But of the way of unclannes,
Of fleschely lust that dedly is.
Be that way men lyghtly wende
To the dethe withowttyn ende."


IX Passus

Then went thei forghthe and furdurmore
By that darke way that they in wore.
They come to a depe dongyll.
Of that syght lykyd hym full yll.
That dongyll full of smytheus stood,
And smythus abowtte hom yode
With grett homerus in hor hond
And gret tongus hoote glowand.
The smythus wer grymly on to loke.
Owt of hor mowthus com grett smoke.
These smythus wer full of sowlys within
That wepton and madyn grett dyn.
In grett fyres thei con hom cast
And sethen with homerus leydon on fast.
The master of that smythy was bold.
Vlkane was is name hold.
"Lo yond," quod the angyll, "with is gyn
Hathe made mony a mon do syn.
Wherfor with hym aftur thare dede,
Thei schull be peynod with hym in this stede."
Then asked Tundale, "Lord fre,
Schall Y among yond fendys be,
As odur that han servyd well,
So grett peynus for to fell?"
Then seyd the angyll sone,
"Tundale," he seyd, "thu hast so done
That thee behovyth to thole this turment."
And then to the smythy he went.
The turmentowrus com rennand
With furgons and with tongus glowand.
Betwene hom hent thei Tundale thar
And laddyn hym to muche care.
Tundale had thei with hom than
And leyt the angyll stond alan.
Into that smythy thei hym caste,
In myddys the fyr as hem liked best.
With gret balyws at hym thei blew,
As hit wer as yron ymulton new.
Tundale bygan to brenne yche lym,
But thowsandus thei brend with hym.
Sum of hom thei madyn nesche,
As is the watur that is fresche.
Sum wer molton as molton ledde,
Sum as yron glowyng redde.
Thei cast attonus full smartly
A thowsand sowlys full peteusly.
With yron homorus thei stode
And leyde on hem as thei wer wode.
A thowsand sowlys togedur thei dong
In a pott full wonderly long,
As men schull tempore yron and stell,
And that was a grysly peyn to fele.
That turment most thei long dre,
But yett myght thei not fully dye.
These turmentowrys wer fowle and blake.
Ylke onto odur in cownsell spake
What peynus thei myght the sowlys wyrke;
Of wykkyd labourus thei wer not yrke.
Yet thei dud hom more peyn.
Thei smyton hom all insondor ageyn.
Odur smythus wer ther that tyde
Of anothur smythy ther besyde.
Thei seyd, "Habbuth yowr wel her yowr pay.
Kest ye hom hydour, lett us asay."
Thai lepedon and roredyn and criedon fast
And bad tho sowlys to hom kast.
And so thei dedyn with greyt talent,
And odur smythus thei con hom hent
With hokys and tongus hootte glowand,
That thei hyldon in hor hand.
Hom thoght thei wer not smythyd ynoghe,
Up and don the develes hom droghe,
And in strong fyr thei brendon hom ay,
Tyll thei wer nye brand away.
But sone then aftur was Tundale
Delyvered owt of that greyt bale
Ageyns that grysly smythys wylle.
But all tho todur sowlys lafton stylle.
When Tundale com owt of that payn,
He was sone kevered ageyn.
Sone the angyllys voys he hard.
The angyll asked hym how he fard.
"Tundale," he seyd, "now may thu see
Werof thi synnus servyd thee.
Thee behowyt to have a gret angwys
For thi delytes and thi folys.
These that thu art delyvered froo,
Wer ordeynyd the peyn for to doo,
For with that same company
Foluyddyn thee yn thi foly."
Tundale stod and cowthe noght say,
For his wytte was ner away.
Then seyd the angyll as he stood,
"Looke thu be of comford gud.
Yf all that thu have had tene
In sum peyn that thu hast sene,
Grettur peynus yett schalt thu see
Heraftur that abydus thee.
Fro hem schalt thu schap full well,
But thee byhovyth sum to fell.
Thu schalt see or we wende
Sowlys in peyn withowttyn ende.
Hor mysdedys hom dampnyd has;
Therfor her song is ay 'Alas.'
But odur that soghton Goddys mercy
Passon that peyn well sycurly."
When the angyll had this sayd,
His hond upon Tundale he layd.
Then was he hoole and feld no soor;
Yett went they furthe furdurmore.


X Passus

As the angyll and he went in company,
Ther com a cold all sodenly.
Suche a cold Tundale feld
That his lymes myght hym not weld.
He was ner froson to dedde.
Strong darkenes was in that stedde.
Then was Tundale full ferd,
For more peyn never he hade.
For drede of peyn full sore he qwoke.
Hym thoght his hedde all toschoke.
All his peyn byforyn, hym thoght,
So muche as that grevyd hym noght.
Then he spake to tho angyll sone
And seyd, "Lord, what have Y done?
Y am so combret fott and hond
That Y may not upryght stond."
Then the angyll hym not onsweryd.
Then wept Tundale and was ferd.
He myght not steron lythe nor lym.
The angyll went away from hym.
When he myght not the angyll see,
Dele he made that was pyté.
He went forthe ay furdurmare.
To Helle the way lay evyn thare.
A deelfull criye he hard sone
Of sowlys that wer in peyn don,
That dampnyd wer in peyn endles
For hor synne and hor wykkydnes.
He hard a strong noyse of thondur;
To here that dyn hit was grett wondur.
Noo hart myght thenke, nor no tong telle
How hydous was the noyse of Helle.
Then was that sowle in grett dowtte.
He lokyd in every syde abowtte.
Ever whan come that hydous dyn,
He lokyd to have be takyn in.
Butt he saw hym besyde
A deppe putt muckyll and wyde.
Owt of that pyt he saw comand
A grett flam of fyr all stynkand.
Suche a stynke com of that hole
That he myght not long hit thole;
Owt of that dyke ther ros evon
A pylar that ner raght to Hevon.
All brannand that pylar was
With lye abowtte as a compas.
He saw fendys and sowlys flye
On that pylar bothe low and hye.
Thei flow ay up and don fast,
As sparkelys of fyr thoro wyndus blast.
And when the sowlys wer brent to askus all,
In myddys the dyke they con falle.
They keverdyn that and wer broyght agayn;
On this wyse was ever newyd hor payn.
Tundale had lever than all myddelerd
Have turned ageyn, soo was he ferd.
But ageyn myght he not goo,
Ne styr hys lymus to nor froo.
As he was clomsyd, styll he stod.
He was so ferd he was ney wod.
With hymselffe he began to stryve
And his owne chekys all toryve.
He grevdde, he gowlyd, hym was full woo;
For he myght not ageyn goo.
"Alas," he seyd, "what is tho best red?
For now Y wot, Y am but dedde."
Tho wykyd gostus, as thei flow
Abowt the peler in that low,
Thei hardon that gowlyng and that crye;
Thei come to hym full hastyly.
Brennand hokys with hom thei broght;
To turment sowlys wer thei wroght.
Thei gretton hym, that sowle that meyné,
"Kaytyfe, wealand myght thu bee.
Thu metust well with us at home;
Tell us now fro wennus thu come.
For thi wykkydnes and thi foly
In fyr to brenne art thu worthy,
For thu come in noo peyn yet to fele.
Here in Hell fyr we woll the kele,
For now with us schalt thu wende
And dwell in Hell withowtyn ende.
Of owre maneres we schull thee kenne.
Withowt kelyng schalt thu brenne,
Evermore to brenne in fyr reed,
For thu schalt never passe this steed.
Thee tharre not thynke, on no wysse,
Too be delyvered of this angwysse
In darknes schalt thu ever bee,
For lyghtnes schalt thu never see,
Trust thu not helpe to have,
For noo mercy schall thee save.
Wrechyd gost, we schull thee lede
To Hell gatys for thi mysdede,
For in thi lyffe thu bare thee ylle
And wroghttust all ageyn Goddus wyll.
Wherfor we wyll thee with us bere
Too Satanas owre mastere,
That lythe depe in tho pytt of Helle,
And with hym schalt thu ther dwelle.
He gaffe thee full evyll reyd,
That broght thee heddur to this steyd.
Ovur late to com woll hym falle
To delyver thee from us alle.
But now sykyr may thu bee
That thu schalt nevur more hym see."
The wykkyd gostus togedyr spake
And seyd, "This sowle wolle we take.
To Satanas cast we hym, that grymly groonus.
He schalle hym swolow all attoonus."
They brawneschedyn hym and manast fast
To Sathanas that sowle to cast.
Ther he lay depe in Helle pytte.
Thydour they saydon thei wold hym flytte.
A hydous noyse the fendys made.
Hor eyn wer brannand and brade;
As brennand lampus glowand they ware.
Full grymly con they on hym stare.
Hor teyt wer blacke, scharpe, and long.
With tuskus both grett and strong,
Her bodyus wer lyke dragonys;
Hor tayles wer lyke schorpyonys.
They had naylys on her krocus,
That wer lyke ankyr hokys
As they wer made all of stele;
The poyntus wer full scharpe to fele.
They had wyngus long and brade;
As backe wyngus wer thei made.
Whedur they wold, low or hye,
With hor wyngus myght they flye.
They grennyd on hym and bleryd here yye.
That wondur hit was that he dyd not dye.
Then com the angyll that hym ladde;
Tho fendys than fast away fledde.
"Tundale," he seyd, "thu wer full radde.
Now may thu make joy and be glad.
Thow was the sone of peyn full ryght,
And now thu art the sone of lyght.
For now forward sycur thu bee;
Goddus marcy schall helpe thee.
God hathe thee grantyd, thu mayst be feyn,
That thu schalt fele noo more payn,
But Y woll well that thu wette
Moo peynus schalt thu see yette.
Com foryt with me smertly;
Y schall thee schew thi most enmy
To monkynd that ever was,
That tysus al men to trespas."
A lytull furdurmore they yode,
And sone at Hell gatus thei stode.
Ther Tundale saw a greyt pytte,
That all this world myght not hit dytte.
"Com hydour," quod the angyll bryght.
"Thu schalt here see an hydous syght.
Stond ner this pytte, and loke adon.
Thu schalt see her an hydous demon.
That pytte is ay darke as nyght
And ever schall be withowttyn lyght.
Bothe fendys and sowlys, that therin is,
Thu schalt see bothe more and lesse.
And Satanas, that lythe bound in Helle grond,
Thu schalt hym see in a lytull stond.
But they schall soo ywrekyd bee
That non of hem schall see thee."
Tundale than to the pytte wentt
Throw the angyll commandmentte.
He lokyd don with grett aw.
Sathanas at the grond he saw.
So ugly was that loghtly wyght
Nevur ar was seyn so hydous a syght.
And so orybly he fard,
And such dull he saw ther and hard,
That yeffe a mon had varely
An hundryd hedys on won body
And as mony mowthus withall,
As to yche hed schuld falle,
And yche a mowthe above the chyn
Had an hundryd tongys within,
And ylke a tong cowthe all the wytte
That all men have that lyvythe yette,
All wer not ynow to tell
The peyn that he saw in the pytte of Hell.
But Tundale toke full gud kepe
On Satanas, that lay soo depe,
And avysede hym of that syght
On what maner he myght dyscrivyn hit aryght.
He cowthe not wetton, he was so grym,
In what maner he myght dyscryvyn hym.
Hym thoght he was as grett to know
As any best that ever he saw.
His body was bothe brood and thykke,
And as blakke as ever was pykke.
So blakk was non, as hym semyd than.
Hym thoght he had the schappe of a mon.
He was bothe grett and strong
And of an hundryt cubytes long.
Twenty cubytes was he brad,
And ten of thyknes was he mad.
And when he gaput, or when he gonus,
A thowsand sowlys he swoluwys attonus.
Byfor and behynd hym was kende
On his body a thowsand hande.
And on ylke a honde was ther seyn
Twenty fyngrys with nayles keyn,
And ylke a fyngur semud than
The leynthe of an hundryt sponne
And ten sponne abowt of thyknes;
Ylke a fyngur was no les.
Hys nayles semyd of yron strong.
Full scharpe they wer and full long,
Lengur than evur was spere of werre,
That armyd men wer wont to berre.
Mony teght he had that was so wondur.
With hom he gnew sowlys insondur.
He had a muche long snowt,
That was ful large and brod abowt.
And hys mowthe was full wyde
With hongyng lyppus on eyther syde.
Hys tayle was greyt and of gret lenthe,
And in hit had he full gret strynthe.
With scharpe hokys that in is tayle stykythe
The sowlys therwith sore he prekydthe.
Apon a gredyron full hot glowand
That fowle fende was ay lyggand.
Brennand colys lay ay undur,
But they wer dym, and that was wondur,
Many fendys as gloand folus,
With balys blowyng ay at tho colys.
So many a sowle abowt hym flow,
In myddys the fyr and in the low,
That Tundale had full gret farly
How the world myght bryng forthe so many.
Satanas, that is soo grym,
Lay ther bondon yche a lym.
With yron cheynus gret and strong
On that gredyron that was so long.
As Tundale thoght, the cheynus was
Lappud abowt with walland bras
And the sowlys that he hent
With hys hondes wer all torent.
He thrast hom insondur, as men dos
Grapbys, thrastyng owt the wos.
When he had grond hom alle
Into the fyr he lette hom falle.
And yeyt they kevered all ageyn,
And ever putte to new peyn.
Tundale hard and saw allsoo
How Satanas gronod for woo,
Forwhy that he was bond so fast.
At ylke a sykyng he con owt cast
A thowsand sowlys; from hym they flow
Owt at his mowthe into the low.
They wer sone scateryd wyde
Abowt hym ther on ylke a syde.
But that peyn was not ynow.
When he ageyn his ande drow,
Alle the sowlys he cast owt,
That wer yscateryd rond abowt,
He swalowyd hom ageyn ychon
With smoke of pycche and of brymston.
The sowlys that passyd owt of hys hond
Fellon into the fyr and brand.
When thei ageyn keveryd wor,
With his tayle he smot hom sore.
Thus peynyd he tho sowlys and dud hom woo
And hymselfe was peynyd allsoo.
The more peyn that he thare wroght
To tho sowlys that thydur were broght,
The more peyn his owne was,
And fro that peyn may he not passe.
The angyll seyd to Tundale,
"Here may thu see muche bale.
Satanas," he seyd, "this ugly wyght
That semyth soo muche unto thy syght,
He was the furst creature
That God made aftur His fygure.
Fro Hevon throw pryd he fell adon
Hydour into this depe donjon.
Here ys he bounde, as thu may see,
And schall tyll Domusday bee.
For yeffe they faylyd, that hym schuld hold,
Heyvon and erthe trobull he wold.
Of tho that thu mayst see with hym,
Sum they ar of Adames kyn
And odur angells, as Y thee telle,
That owt of Hevon with hym felle.
Ther ys neydur sowle ne fend,
But they ar dampnyd withowttyn ende.
And mony mo hydur schulle come
Or that hyt bee the Day of Dome,
That forsakyth Goddus law
And Hys warkys wyll not know,
Bothe lewyd men and clarkys,
That lovyth synne and cursyd warkys.
Thesse sowlys, that thu hast here yseyn,
In all the peynus they have beyn.
Now ar they cast on this manere
To Satanas to thole peyne here.
And whosoo is broght to thys kare
Schall dwelle therin forevermare.
Men that ar of muche myght,
That don to pore men wrong and unryght,
And woll algate fulfylle hor wyll,
Whedur hyt be gud or ylle,
And streyn the pore, that ar lesse,
Thei aron prynces of wykydnes.
In strong turment schull thei bee
With fendys, that have of hom posté."
Tundale seyd to the angyll sone,
"Syr, Goddus wylle behovys to be don,
But o thyng wolld Y fayne lere.
Why gevyth not God suche power
Too all they that aron hold gud men,
That throw ryght wollyn odur ken,
As He dothe wykkyd men tylle
That evermore wykkydnes wyll fullefyll?"
The angyll seyd that, "Sumtyme lettus
The wykkydnes of suggettus
That wolle not be reulyd welle,
Therfor gret peynus behovus hom to fele,
And for sumtyme God wolle noght
That the gud men of this world wer broght
To over muche worldys guddus havyng,
Lest here tyme of gudnes thei wold lesyng.
Thes fowle kaytyf, for all his myght,
His not callyd prynse of ryght,
But hys men mey hym calle
Cheffe of markenes and pryncypalle
All theys peynus that thu hast sene,
To reckyn hom all bedene,
That ordeynyd ben for monnus mysse,
Ar but lytyll to the regard of thys."
"Sartus," quod Tundale, "ye say well.
Y have more dred now as Y fele,
Of this syght and more awe
Then of all the peyn that evur Y sawe.
Therfore, Y pray yow that ye me lede
Fro this syght and fro thys drede.
Sum felows have Y here ysee
That sumtyme with me prevey have bee.
Now is hor wonnyng here full depe;
Y cleyn forsake hor felyschepe.
And to that had Y ben worthy
Ner that Jesu on me had mercy;
To that same peyn schuld Y have goo
And dwellyd therin forevur and oo."
This worde the angyll hard, that ther stood,
And spake to hym with myld mod,
"A blessyd sowle Y may thee calle,
For thu art passyd thy peynus all.
And all the syghttus that thee have deyred,
Therof now thar thee never be aferd.
Thu hast now seyn in sorow and stryffe
Men that wer of wykyd lyffe.
And now schalt thu see that blysse
That God hathe holy choson for Hys,
And therfor glad may thu be.
Cum now forthe and folow me."


Primum Gaudium

Tundale dyd hys commandment
And with the angyll forthe he went.
Sone wax hit bryght as the day,
And the darkenes was sone away,
And the drede that Tundale hadde
Was awey; than was he glad.
Sone he thonkyd God of Hys grace
And folowyd forthe the angylls trace.
By that they hadon gon a lytull stonde.
They saw a walle was feyr and rounde.
Full hye hit was, as Tundale thoght;
But sone within the angyll hym broght.
Men and wemen saw he thare
That semud full of sorow and care,
For they had bothe hongur and thurst
And grett travell withowttyn rest.
Gret cold they hadon alsoo,
That dudde hom sorow and made hom woo.
Hem wantedyn clothys and foode;
As dowmpe bestys, nakyd they yode.
Her penanse was hard to see,
But lyght they had grett plenté.
"Thys folke," quod the angyll, "aryn all save,
But penance yett behovys hom to have.
All leved they well in honesté,
Yette grevyd they God in sum parté.
Honestely and well wold they leve,
But ovur lytull gud wold they geve,
Nowdur to clothe nor to fede
The powre men that had gret nede.
Therfor wolle God sumtyme that they had peyn,
Thoro wykyd stormus of wynd and reyn,
And throw greyt hongur and thurst
But aftur He woll that they com to rest."
The angyll wold noo more say,
But went forght fast upon his way,
And Tundale folowd aftur fast.
They come to a gate at the last.
That gate was openyd hom ageyn,
And in they went. Tundale was fayn.
A feld was ther of feyr flowrys
And hewyd aftur all kyn colowrys.
Of how com a swete smylle,
Swettur than any tong may telle.
That plase was soo clere and soo bryght
Tundale was joyfull of that syght;
Full clerly ther schon the sonne
That well was hym that ther myght wonne.
Mony feyr treus in that place stood
With all kynnus fruyt that was gud.
That Tundale hard ther ay amonge
Full swet noyse of fowlys song.
Full mekyl folke ther was seen
That of all kynne syn wer mad clene
And delyvered owt of all kyn peyn.
They wer joyfull and full feyn.
In myddys that plase was a welle,
The feyryst that any mon might of telle.
From that ran mony stremus sere
Of watur, that was both feyre and clere.
Tundale thoght ther joy ynooghe.
He spake to the angyll and looghe.
"Lord," he seyd, "here is greyt solace.
Leyt us never wynde from this place."
The angyll seyd, "Hit beys not soo.
Furdurmore behovus hus to goo.
The sowlys that thu syst here within
Han ben in peyn for hor syn,
But they ar clansyd throw Goddus grace
And dwellon here now in this place.
But yett hennus may they noghyt
To the blysse of Hevon to be broght.
Thawye they ben clansyn of all ylle,
Here mot thei abydon Goddus wylle.
The well that thu hast seyn here,
With the watur that spryngus soo clere,
Ys callyd be scylle the well of lyfe.
The name of that welle is full ryfe.
Whosoo drynkyth of hit ryght weyll,
Hongur schall he never yfeyll.
Ne thrust schall he neyvermare,
But lykyng have withowttyn care.
Yeffe he wer old, withowttyn peyn
Hyt wold make hym yong ageyn."


II Gaudium

Yett fordurmore the angyll yede,
And Tundale folowyd with gud spede.
Sone then aftur, as they went,
He beheld and toke gud tent
Tyll a plas wer they schuld passe,
Wer mony a lewde mon wasse.
Tundale hade seyn sum of hom are
And knew full weyll what thei ware.
Among hom too kynggus saw hee,
That wer sumtyme of greyt posté.
Tho whyle they lewyd on bon and blod,
Bothe they wer men of truthe full gudd.
The ton of hom Cantaber hyght;
That todur was callyd Donatus ryght.
Then Tundale spake to the angyll free,
"Lord," he seyd, "what may thys bee?
These too kynggus, that Y see here,
They wer men of greyt powere.
They wer bothe stowt and kene.
In hom was lytull mercy aseen.
Aydur of hem hatyd odur,
As cursyd Caym and his brodur.
Sertus, syr, me thenkyth ferly,
How they myght be so worthyly
To come to thys joyfull stedde.
Me thynkyght they wer worthy to be dedde."
The angyll thoght hyt gret nede
To bryng hym owt of that drede
And seyd, "Thu schald wytte why
That God of hom hathe marcy.
Byfor hor deythe ther fylle suche schanse
That they had verey repentanse.
For Cantaber, when he felle seke,
To God con he hys hart meke.
He made a vow with delfull cry
To yeld hymselfe to God allmyghtty
And all hys lyffe in penans to bee
When he wore hole and had posté.
Donatus was in a preson strong;
Beefor hys dethe ther was he long.
All hys guddus gaffe he away
To pore men for hym to pray.
In grett pevertté was he withstadde,
And in preson hys lyffe he ladde.
Yeffe all they wer kynggys of myghtt,
Yette they dyodon in povertté dyghtt.
Therfor God wold not hom forsake,
But to Hys blysse He wold hom take.
Of all hor synnus they con hom scryve,
Therfor marcy behovus hom have."
Full mekyll joy saw Tundale thare,
But yett went they bothe furdurmare.
They saw an halle was rychely dyght;
Tundale saw never so feyr a syght.
The wallys semyd gold of that hows
Full well ysett with stonus full precyous.
The rofe semyd of carbunkyll ston.
Dorrus nor wyndows was ther non,
But mony entrys and thei wer wyde,
That stodon ay opon on every syde,
For all tho that wold in passe
Was non lattyd that ther was.
Hyt semyd as bryght, bothe far and ner,
As evur was sonne that schon here,
Large and round were the wonys.
The flore was paved with precyous stonus.
The halle was withowtton post.
Hyt semyd an hows of gret cost.
Hyt schon within and withowtte.
Tundale lokyd over all abowtte.
He saw a seyt ryche aparalyt,
Of red gold fynly ennamelyd
Clothus of gold and sylke gret plenté
Saw he ysprad apon that seytté.
He saw sytte on that seytt
Kyng Cormake, that was full greytt.
Hys clothyng was of ryche hew.
Tundale full well that kyng knew.
Meche pepull to hym soghtt,
And ryche gefftus they hym broghtt.
Befor hym stodde they full gladde,
And muche joy of hym thei made.
Tundale stood ner and toke gud kepe,
And byheld that grett worchepe
Tho men to Kyng Cormake thus dydde,
That sumtyme was hys lord kydde.
For he was sumtyme with hym of meyné,
Therfore farly of that syght had hee.
Prestus and deykenus come ther mony;
Befor hym a greyt company
All revescyd, as they schuld syng Mas
With ryche clothus of holynes.
That halle was seytte, within and withowtte,
With greytt rychesse all abowtte,
With cowpus and chalys rychely dyghtt,
With sensowrys of selver and gold bryghtt,
With basseynus of gold fayr and seemly,
And with tabyllys peyntyd rychely.
Tundale thoght, yeffe he had no mare
But that joy, thatt he saw thare,
He had of joy greytt plentté,
So greyt murthe and joy ther saw hee.
They knelyd befor that kyng alle,
Tho folke that comyn into the halle,
And seyd, "Weyll is thee on yche a syde,
And weyll thee mott evur betyde.
For tho warkys of thi hondys free
We have now presented here to thee."
Then spake Tundale to the angyll bryght,
For he was amerveld of that syght,
And seyd, "Of all tho that Y here see,
Non hym servyd in lege posté,
Therfor grett farly have Y here
That they hym worscheppe on this manere."
Then answerd the angyll curtesly
And seyd to hym, "Well wott Y
That of all tho that thu may see
Was nevur non of hys meyné,
But sum wer pore pylgrimus kyd
Too whom oft hys charyté he dyd,
And sum wer men of Holy Chyrche,
To hold hom was he nevur yrke.
Therfor wold God, full of myght,
That hyt be yold throw hor hondus ryght."1
"Syr," quod Tundale, "haght he no turment
Sothen that he owt of the world went?"
Then answerd the angyll ageyn
And seyd, "He sufforyd mony a peyn,
And in more turment schall he bee.
Thu schalt abyde and the sothe ysee."
Anon the hows wax darke as nyght,
That before was clere and bryght.
And all the men that therin wer,
They laft hor servyse and dyd no more.
The kyng turnyd then from hys seyt.
He grevde, he gowlyd, hys dull was gret.
Tundale folowyd aftur sone
To wytte wat schuld be with hym ydone.
He saw mony men sytte kneland,
With hor hondys up to God prayand,
And seyd, "Gud lord, and Thi wyll hit bee,
Have mercy on hym and pyté."
Then saw he hym in gret bareyt
And in a fyr to the navylle yseytt
And above from the navyll upward
Clothed with an hayre scharpe and hard.
"This peyn," quod the angyll, "behovyth hym to have
Yche a day onus, as God vochesave,
Forwhy he kept hym not clene
Fro that tyme that he weddyd had bene,
And also he breke hys othe
That he had made to wedlocke bothe.
Yche day by ryght he brent schall bee,
Sette unto the navyll, as thu myght see,
And forwhy that he commandyd to sloo
An erle that he hatyd as his foo,
That was slayn for hatered
Besyde Seynt Patrycke in that sted.
Therfor he tholuth, as thu wottus wele,
This hayre that is full hard to fele,
That grevys hym wher the knottus lyes
And dothe hym full grett angwys.
Of all odur peyn is he qwytte
Save of these too, as thu mayst wytte."
Then seyd Tundale anon ryght thus,
"How longe schall he suffor thys?"
The angyll seyd, "Ilke a day owrys three
This grett peyn sufferyn schall hee,
And the space of won and twenty owrys
He schall have joy and gret honowrys."
And with that the angyll went furdurmore
Too odur blyssys that was thore.


III Gaudium

Sone they saw thro syght of yye
A wall that was wondur hye,
All of bryght sylver all to see,
But hit had no yatys nor entré.
Within that wall they wer sone togedur,
But he west not how they com thydur.
Ther they fwond a full delyttabull place
That was fulle of murthe and solace.
Tundale lokyd abowtte hym thanne
And saw mony a mon and woman
Synggand ay so muryly
And makand joy and melody.
Ther they honowryd God allweldand
And pleydon and song to not cessand,
"Blysse be to God of myghttus most,
Fadur and Son and Holy Gost."
Hor clothus wer precyows and new,
As whytte as snow that ever dyd snew.
They wer joyfull and blythe ynogh
And song and made myrthe and logh.
They lovyd God in Trynité,
Nott cessand of that solemnyté,
And ay as they wer syngand
Her vocys was ever acordant,
As melodyes of musyk clere,
That full delectabull was to here.
Ther was gret swetnes and lykyng
And joy and murthe withowttyn sesynge,
Honesté, beawtté, and clennes,
And helthe withowttyn sekenes.
They weron all off wylle free
In parfyte love and charyté.
The swette savour that ther was
All the swetnes of eyrthe dud it passe.
"This joy," quod the angyll bryght,
"Hathe God ordeynyd for weddyd men ryght
That levon in cleyne maryage
And keputhe hor bodys from owttrage,
And for hom that hor guddys gevyn
Too the pore that in myscheff levyn,
And for hom that techon dylygenly
Hor sogettus to lovyn God allmyghty
And chastyn hom aftur hor myght
When they don wrong and lyffe not right,
And for hom that Holy Chyrche honowrys
And mayntenyth hom and sockors.
For thoo that don wylle schall at gret Dom here
The voys of God that woll say, 'Com neer
My Fadur, blessyd chyldyr free,
And receyve My kyndam with Mee
Ordeynyd and dyght for man
Seythyn the tyme that the word began.'"
Tundale prayd with gud wylle
The angell that he myght dwell stylle.
The angell gaff hym noo onswer,
For he wold not doo hys prayer.


IV Gaudium

Furdurmore yett then went thay,
Withowttyn travayll or peyn, her way,
And ylkon, as they went abowte,
Come to Tundale and to hym dyd lowtte
And haylsyd hym and callyd hym ryght
By hys name, as he hyght.
They made gret joy at is metyng,
For they wer fayn of his commyng
And thonkyd God allmyghtty,
That hym delyvered thoro Hys mercy,
And seydon. "Honour and lovyng myght bee
To the Lord of blys and pyté,
That wold not the deythe of synfull men,
But that they turne and leve ageyn;
And throw Is mercy wold ordeyn
Too delyver this sowle from Helle peyn
And wold bryng hym thus gracyously
Among this holy company."


V Gaudium

The angell and Tundale yett furdur went,
And Tundale lokyd and toke gud tent.
They saw a walle, as they schuld passe,
Well herre than that todur wasse;
That wall semyd to Tundale syghtt
As hyt wer all of gold bryght,
That was schynand and more clere
Than ever was gold in this world here.
Tundale thoght more joy of that walle
To behold, that bryght metalle,
Then hym thoght of the solemnyté
And of the joy that he had see.
Within that wall come they sone,
As they hadon erward done.
Tundale beheld that place thare.
So fayr a plas saw he never are,
Ne he, ne noo eyrthely mon,
As that was, that he saw anon.
Therin saw he, as hym thoght
Mony a trone all of gold wroght
And of precyous stonus seer,
That wer sette ther on dyverse manere.
With ryche clothus wer they kevered ychon,
So ryche was ther, eyr never see he non.
Holy men and wemen bothe
Saten in hom, clad in ryche clothe.
He saw abowt hom in that tyde
Fayr honourmentys on yche a syde.
All that he saw wer full bryghtt.
Tundale saw never suche a syght.
Ne noo hert myght thynke of eyrthely man
Soo fayr a syghtte, as saw he than.
Tho greytt bryghtnes of Goddus face
Schon among hom in that place.
That bryghtnes schon more cleer
Then ever schon any sonne here.
Allwey hit was fayr and schyre
And semyd as hyt had ben gold wyr.
Crownus on hor heddus they had ychon
Of gold with mony a prescyous ston,
Of grett vertu and dyvers colowrys.
They semyd all kyngys and emperowrys.
Soo feyr crownus, as ther was seen,
In this world weron kyng ne qwene.
Lectornes he saw befor hem stande
Of gold, and bokys on hem lyggande,
And all the lettornes that he saw thare
Wer made of gold, bothe lasse and mare.
They song all ther with myld chere,
"Aleluya" with vocys soo clere.
Hym thoght they song so swete and clene
Hyt passyd all the joyes that he had seen,
And soo mykyll joy had he of that
That all odur joyes he forgatte.
"These men," quod the angell bryght.
"Ar holy men that God loyvyd ryght,
That for Goddus love wer buxum
In eyrthe to thole martyrdum,
And that waschyd hor stolys in the blod
Of the lombe wyt myld mod,
And had laft the world all holely
For to sarve God allmyghty
And to kepe hor boddys ay fre
Fro lechery to chastyté.
And they lovyd soburnes ay
And wold not lye, but sothe to say.
Therfor they ar to God full dere,
As hys darlyngys that bee thus here."
Among all that joy and solas
Tundale lokyd and saw a plas
Full of pavelons schynand;
Soo fayr wer never non seyn in land.
They wer keveryd with purpull and grys,
That wer full ryche and grett of pryse,
The whylk was oversette and dyght
With besantes of gold and selver bryght,
And all odur thyngus of beawté
That hart myght thynke or eyne myght see.
The cordys therof wer bryght and new.
They wer of sylke and of rych hew.
They wer all with sylver twynud
And freyt with gold, that bryght scheynod.
On tho cordys wer instrumentus seer
Of musykys that hadon swette sond and clere,
Orgons, symbals, and tympanys,
And harpus that ronge all at onys;
They geve a full delectabull sond,
Bothe trebull and meyne and burdown,
And odur instrumentus full mony
That madon a full swette melody.
All maner of musyk was ther hard thanne.
Soo muche in eyrthe hard never no manne,
Not by an hundrythe thowsand part,
As this was to any monnus regarde.
Within the ryche pavelons, whyte schynande,
Ay mekyll folke wer syngande
Full swetly with a mery stevon,
With all maner of musyk accordant eyvon.
So muche myrthe as thei made within,
No wordlyche wytte may ymagyn.
Tundale thoght that all the blys
That evur he had seyn was not to thys.
Then spake the angyll with myld chere
Unto that sowle on thys manere.
"These folke," he seyd, "that murthe makyth thus,
They wer gud relygyous,
As frerus, monkys, nonnus, and channonus,
That welle heldon hor proffessyonnus.
The wyche to God wer beysy ay,
Too serve hym bothe nyght and dey,
Bothe blythelyche and with gud wyll
Hys commandementys to fullfylle,
And lovyd ay God in hor lyfe here
And to Hym ever obeydyand were,
And putte hom with clene conscyons
Undur the rewle of obeedyons,
And to chast lyfe hom toke
And all hor fleschely wyll forsoke.
Thei hyldon sylens withowtton jangelyng
And best lovyd God over all thyng."
"Syr," seyd Tundale, "Y pray thee
Lett hus goo nerre, that Y may see
The swete semland and feyr chere
Of the mury songus so schyll and clere."
Then seyd the angell so feyr and bright,
"Hereof thu schalt have a syght
Of hem, as thu hast mee besoghtte,
Butt entré to hom getust thu noght.
The syghtt," he seyd, "of the Trinyté
Schall not be schewyd unto thee.
But this Y wolle thee schewe, that Y have hight.
Thu schalt be unknowyn of that syght.
For all they in worlde here,
That have bee borne and children were,
That throw Godus grace have ben gud in levyng,
Ar now ordeynyd suche lykyng
That here they schulle dwell ever for sothe
With all halows and with angells bothe;
That in hor lyffe ay chast have bene
And levyd wylle, as vergynes clene,
Thei schall ever thus joyfull bee,
For they seen ever God in Hys see."


VI Gaudium

They went then forthe and fordurmore
By a fayr way that they in wore.
Full greyt plenté then saw thay
Of men and wemmen by that way
That semyd all as angells bryght;
Soo feyr they semyd to hor syght.
Ther was soo swete savour and smyll,
That noo hart myght thenke, ne tong telle,
And swete voyse and melody
Was among that company
That made Tundale forgette clene
All odur joyes that he had seyn.
For all maner instrumentys seer
Of musyk that wer swete and clere
Gaffe ther sown and wer ryngand
Withhowttyn towchyng of monnus hand.
And the vocys of spyrytus thare
Passyd all joyes that ther ware
And made joy and wer gladde
And non of hom travell hadde
Hor lyppus wer not mevand,
Ne made no contynanse with hand.
The instrumentys rong ther full schryll,
And noo travaylle was don thertyll.
All maner of sownd was therin,
That hart myght thynke or ymagyn.
Fro tho fyrmament above hor hedde
Com mony bryght beymus into that sted,
Fro the wyche hyng chynus of dyvers fold
Schynand full bryght of fyn gold.
They hongyd full thycke on ylke a party
And annamelyd wondur rychely.
All wer they joynyd and fastenyd ryght
In yardys of selver full gayly dyght,
That hongud up full hye in the eyre.
Ther was noo eyrthely lyght never soo feyre.
Among them hong greyt plenté
Of ryche jowellys and of greyt beawtté,
Fyollys and cowpus of greytt prysse,
Symbals of sylver and flowre delyce
With bellys of gold that mery rong,
And angellys flewyn ay among
With whyngus of gold schynand bryght.
Noo eyrthely mon saw ever seche syght
As the angels that flewyn in the eyre
Among the beymus that wer soo feyre.
Ther was suche joy melody and ryngyng,
And suche murthe and such syngyng
And suche a syghtt of rychesse,
That all this world might hit not gesse,
Nor all the wyttus that ever wer sey
Cowthe hyt never halfe dyscry.
Tundale ever grett delyte had
Of that myrthe and joye that was soo glad,
That he wold never have gon away,
But ther have ydwellyd forever and ay.
Then spake the angell with myld mod
Unto Tundale ther he stode.
"Cum now," he seyd, "hedur to mee."
Anon he come and saw a tree,
That wonderly mykyll was and hye.
Suche on saw he never with yye.
Grett and hye that tre was,
And brod and round all of compas,
Chargytt on yche a syde full evon
With all kyn frytte that mon myght nemon,
That full delycyous was to fele,
With all kyn flowres that savoryd wele,
Of dyverse kynd and seer hew:
Sum wyte, sum reede, sum yolow, sum blew.
And all maner erbys of vartu
And of every spyce of valew,
That feyr was and swette smylland,
Growyd ther and wer floryschand.
Mony fowlys of dyverse colowrys
Seyt among tho fruyt and the flowrys
On the branchus syngant so meryly
And madon dyverse melody,
Ylkeon of hom on hys best manere.
That song was joyfull for to here.
Tundale lystenyd fast and logh
And thoght that was joy ynoghe.
He saw undur that ylke tree,
Wonand in cellys, gret plenté
Of men and wemen schynand bryght
As gold, with all ryches dyght.
They loved God with gret talent
Of the gyftus that He had hem sent.
Ychon had on hys hed a crowne
Off gold that was of semyly faschyon,
All sett abowtte on seyrwyse
With precyous stonus of full gret prise,
And septurus in ther hand they had.
With gold they wer full rychely clad,
With bryght clothus of ryche hew,
As they wer kyngys crownyd new.
So rychely as they wer dyght
Was never eyrthely mon of myght.
Than spake the angell as swythe
To Tundale, that was bothe glad and blythe,
And seyd, "Thys tree, that thu myght see,
To all Holy Chyrche may lykkynyd bee.
And tho folke, that thu seyste here dwelle
Undur tho tree in her scelle,
Tho ar men that throw devocyon
Made howssus of relygyon
And susteynyd well Goddus servyse
And fowndyd chyrchys and chantryse
And mayntened the state of clargy
And feffud Holy Chyrche rychely,
Bothe in londys and in rentys,
With feyr and worchepfull honowrmentys
As they that the world forsoke
And to clene relygyon hom toke;
Therfor they ar, as thu myght see,
All reynyng in won fraternyté
And ay schull have rest and pes.
And joy and blys that never schall ses."


VII Gaudium

Noo lengur ther they stoode,
But furdurmore yett thei yood.
They saw anodur feyr wall stand
Of greyt heyght, full bryght schynand.
Passe that todur wer feyr ther they had ben,
But non so feyr as that was seen.
Tundale beehyld hyt and abadde
And avysud hym wharof hyt was made.
Hee saw this wall, as hym thoght,
All of precyous stonus wroght.
Hit semyd that the stonus brand,
So wer they of red-gold schynand.
The stonus wer full whyte and clere;
What stonus they wor ye schall here:
Crystall that was white and clere,
Berell, cresolyte, and saphere,
Emeraudus, dyamondus that men desyres,
Iacyntus, smaragdynes, and rubyes,
Emastyce and charbokull allsoo,
Omacles and tapaces and odur moo.
Strong stonus of dyverse hew,
Suche saw he never, ne knew.
Thcn spake the angell so feyr and free,
"Tundale," he seyd, "cum up and see."
They clombon bothe up on that wall
And lokyd don and seyyn over all.
The greyt joy that they saw thare
Semyd a thowsand fold mare
Then all the joy that they had seyn
Ther, as they befour had beyn.
For noo wytte myght tell of monnus mowthe,
Passe he all the wytte of the world cowthe,
Ne hart myght thynke, ne eyr yhere,
Ne ee see wer hee never soo clere,
The joy that ther was and the blysse,
That God had ordeynyd for all Hysse.
They saw ther, as the story doghthe tell,
The nyne ordyrs of angell.
They schon as bryght as the sonne,
And holy spyrytus among hom wonne.
Prevey wordys they hard than,
That fallyth to be schewyd to no man.
Then seyd the angell on this manere,
"Tundale, opon thyn eyrus and here,
And that thu herust, thu not foryete,
For in thi mynd loke thu hyt sett:
God, that ys withowttyn ende,
Wolle turne to thee and be thi frend.
Now see that here ys joy and blys,
That they that here aron schull never mysse."
Over that yett sew they moore
Among the angelles that ther wore.
They seen the Holy Trynyté,
God syttyng in Hys majesté.
They beheld fast His swette face,
That schon so bryght over all that place.
All the angells that ther were
Renne to behold Hys face so clere,
For the bryghtnes and the bewté,
That they in Hys face myght see,
Was seyvon sythus bryghttur to syght
Then ever schon sonne, that was soo lyght;
The whyche syght is foode to angelles
And lyffe to spyrytus that ther dwelles.
In the styd wher they stode,
They saw all, bothe evyll and gud,
All the joy and the peyn beneythen
That they had beforon yseyyene.
They saw allsoo all the world brad
And all the creaturys that God had mad.
Ther saw they the ordur, here as wee wonne,
In a bryght bem of the sonne.
Ther may nothyng in this world bee
Soo sotyll, nor so prevé,
But that he may see a party
That hathe seyn God allmyghtty.
Tho eene that have seen Hym
Mow never be made blynd nor dym.
Bot they had suche power and myght,
Ther they stodon on the walle bryght,
That they myght see at a syght clere
All thyng that was bothe far and nere.
Alle that was behynd hom at that tyde,
Byfor hom and on ylke a syde,
All at onus, in that bryght place
Was schewyd ther befor her face.
Of thyngys that Tundale had knowyng thare
Hyt was myster to have noo mare.
He knew wat thyng that he wold
Withowttyn any boke to be told.
As Tundale stod, he saw com thanne
Won that hyght Renodan
That made joy and glad chere
And grett hym on fayr manere
And toke hym in hys armus lovely
And schewyd hym love and curtesy.
And seyd as they stod togedur,
"Son, blessyd be thi comyng hydur.
Fro this tyme forward thu may have lykyng
In the world to have gud endyng.
Y was sumtyme thy patron free
Too whom thu schulldust boxum bee.
Thu art holdyn, as thu wost welle,
Too me namly on kneus to knele."
And when he had seyd thes wordys thare,
Hee lafft hys speche and spake noo mare.
Tundale loked with blythe chere
On ylke a syde, bothe farre and nere.
He saw Seynt Patryk of Yrland
Commyng in a bryght tyre schynand
And mony a byschop nobely dyghtt,
Then had he grett joy of that syght.
They wer full of joy and lykyng
Withowttyn dele or any sykyng.
Among that blessydfull company
He saw ther fowre byschopus namly
That he knew be syght of semland,
Whan he was in tho world dwelland.
They wer gud men and lyved with ryght,
And won of hom Celestyen hyght,
That was archebyschop of Armake
And muche gud dedde for Goddus sake.
And anodur hyght Malachye,
That come aftur hym full gracyouslye,
That Pwope Celestyen of hys grace
Mad archebyschop of that place.
In hys lyfe he gaffe with hart glad
Too pore men all that he had.
He mad colagys and chyrchys mony,
That nomburd wer to fowre and fowrty,
Namely for men of relygyon
Too sarve God with devocyon.
He feffyd hem and ynoogh hem gaffe
All that was nedfull hom to hafe,
Save that aght to hymselfe only,
Hee laft hym noght to lyve by.
The thrydde of hom that he knew than
Hyght Crystyne, that was an holy man,
That was sumtyme byschop of Lyons
And lord of mony possessyons,
But hee was ay meke in hert,
Symplyst of wyll and povert.
He was Malachynus owne brodur;
Aydur of hom loved well oodur.
The fowrte of hom, that he ther knew,
Hyght Neomon, that was full trew
And ryghtwyse whyle he levyd bodyly,
That sumtyme was byschop of Clemy
And passud all the todur thre
Of wytte and wysdam in his degré.
Tundale saw besyde hom stand
A sege, that was full bryght schynand,
But hyt was voyde wen he saw hyt,
For he saw non therin sytte.
He beheld fast that sege soo bryght
And askyd for whom hyt was ydyght.
Then spak Malachye and seyd
"Thys sege is ordeynud and purveyd
For won of owre bredur dere,
Wen he commthe schall sytton here,
The whyche is yette in the world levand.
Ay tyll he com hyt schall voyde stand."
Tundale had delyte greytt
Of the syghtt of that fayr seytt,
And as he stod joyfull and blythe
Then com the angell to hym full swythe
And spake to hym with blythe chere,
"Tundale," he seyd, "how lykuth thee here?
Thu hast mony a feyre syght seyn.
In dyverse places ther thu hast beyn."
"That have Y lord," he seyd, "and loogh,
Y have seyn joy ynoogh.
Dere lord, Y pray thee of thy grace
Leyt me not owt of thys place.
For Y wold never owt of this place wende,
But dwell here withowttyn ende."
"Thu spekyst," quod the angell, "all in veyn.
Thu schalt turne to the body ageyn.
That thu hast seyyn, hold in thy thoght;
And thatt thu hast hard, foryete hyt noght."
When he had seyd on thys manere,
Then wept Tundale and made sory chere
And seyd, "Lord, what have Y done
That Y schall turne ageyn so sone
To my body full of wrechydnes
And leyve all this joy, that here is?"
The angell onswerd on thys manere
And seyd that, "Ther may non dwelle here,
But holy vyrgyns that have bene
Chast and kept hor bodys clene,
And for the love of God allmyghty
Have forsake the world all holely,
And to God ar gevyn fro all ylle
With all her thoghttus and all her wyll.
But suche a thoghtte and wyll was no in thee
When thu wast in thi nowne posté.
To God wold thu not the bowe,
Ne my conseyle wold thu not know.
To dwelle here art thu not worthy.
But turne agayn to thy body,
And of fylthe make thee clene,
And fro syn henforward thu thee absteyne.
My helpe thu schalt have and my consell,
So that thu schalt not of Hevyn fayll."
When the angell had seyd thys,
Tundale turnyd from all that blysse.


Reversio Anime

As hys sowle wox all hevy
And feld hyt chargyd with hys body,
He oponyd hys eene then and saw
And hys lymes to hym con draw.
And or he spake anythyng,
He lyfte up a greyt sykyng.
They that hym saw and stodon by
Wer astoneyd and had farly.
And tho that lovyd hym wer full fayn
That he was turnyd to the lyfe ageyn.
He dressyd hym up all sykande
And weptt and made hevy semlande
And seyde thus with a grette crye,
"Lord Jesu Cryst, Thy marcé!
Worse than Y am," quod he than,
"Was never noo boron of woman.
But now wylys that Y have space,
Y wolle amend with help and grace
Off God, that for us tholyd pyne;
Y hoope He wolle not my sowle tyne."
He spake to hymselfe and seyd, "Kaytyff,
Why hast thu levyd so wykd lyff?
Hy have ben," he seyd, "a wyckyd man."
Full sore hym tenyd at hymselfe than.
He bethoght hym of all the tyme,
Of the greyt syghttus that he had syen.
Therfor hyt semyd be hys contynance
That for hys synne he had repentance.
All had they ferly that by hym stode
That he soo well had turnyd hys mood,
For that he was sumtyme soo fell,
As ye before have hard me tell,
Won of hom, that stod hym next,
Askyd hym yf he wold have a preste,
For to schryve hym of all the foly
And to hosull hym with Goddus body.
Then answerd he ageyn.
"Yee," he seyd, "Y wold full feyn
That the prest come to me
To here my schryft in prevyté
And to howsull me; then wer Y saffe.
Y pray yow do me a prest to haffe,
And Goddus body that Y may take,
For all my synnus Y woll forsake."
The prest come sone, for he was soght,
And Goddus body with hym he broght.
When Tundale was schrevon and made redy,
He receyvyd the ost full mekely.
Then spake Tundale with hert free,
"Lord," he seyd, "lovyd mot Thu bee,
For Thy marcy and Thi gudnes
Passus all mennys wykkydnes.
Passe hyt be muche and grevus soore,
Thy grace and Thi mercy is meche more."
Mony a mon and also wemen
Wer geydoryd abowt hym then.
He told hom wer he had yben,
And wat he hard had and seyn;
And wat he had feld was in his thoght,
He held in mynde and forgeet hit noght;
And he warnyd ylke a man that peyn wold drede
Too amend hom here, or that they yeede.
He cownseld hom to bee holy
And bad hom leyve hor greyt foly
And turne hom to God allmyghtty,
Servyng Hym evermore devowtly.
He prechyd the wordys of God thare,
That never was prechyd among hem are,
And hom that synfull wer he told
He repreved hem as Goddus lawe wold;
And comfordud gud men, that wer clene,
Throw the joy that he had seyn.
And whyles he levyd synnus he fledde
And all hys lyffe in holynes ledde.
He made to the world noo countynance,
But he levyd ever in peynanse.
He gaffe all hys gud away
Too pore men for hym to pray.
Noo worldys gud more wold he have,
But levyd as long as God vochedsave.
And at the last wen he schuld hennus pas,
When that Goddus swete wylle was,
The sowle departyt from the body
And yoode to God allmyghty,
In Hevon evermore to dwell.
Ther more joy is than tong may tell.
Too that joy He hus bring
That made Hevyn, eyrthe and all thyng.
Ylkon of yow that have hard mee
Seythe "Amen" for charytee.

Explicit Tundale, quod Hyheg.
Be it trwe, or be it fals,
Hyt is as the coopy was.
greatest power
Father; Ghost
them
listen till my conclusion
a while abide; (t-note)
example

heart; greatly fearful
sins; fear
cleanse him here; misdeeds; (t-note)
Ireland; occurred once upon a time; (see note)
After; died; death arose

hundred years; (t-note)
nine winters
is written in the; (see note)
happened then

his proper; (t-note)
wicked reputation
enough

always; treachery; (see note)
anger; (t-note)

gluttony; always
covetousness (avarice)
slothful; God's service
No works; work (perform); (see note)
loved; nor Holy Church
charity; (see note)
man without pity (compassion)
deceivers (entertainers); liars
abetted always miscreants
always dissension; strife
considered
would not; his soul harm; (t-note)
it bought (redeemed); Hell's pain; (see note)
mercy surpassed
severe; (see note)
trance (unconsciousness)

many a huge pain
Before it came
(see note)
could
severe fit
will hear; understand
friends very many
treachery
behavior many had dread
evil
usury; silver lend; (see note)
nine shillings
delaying would; usury
give [to the poor]
merchandise
always dearer; proper price
allow days for his own benefit; (t-note)
dearer; delay

man; demand
three horses
pence (money); unpaid
requested a delay
For a certain time; debt; repay
offered him security; oath
At once he grumbled and became angry
exactly the payment
threatened him vigorously; great uproar; (t-note)
clever; wise
set the horses at a very high price
Because; payment in hand
The man gave him his bond in writing
man spoke; courteously
And brought him out of his anger; (see note)
calmed; heart; great
invited; stay to dinner; (t-note)
seated and served
A great illness he began to feel
first morsel while sitting
could; lift; hand
cried loud; changed expression
As if; felt death near
wife; house; called
Dear lady; for charity
Find; battle ax wherever it is
I brought
hence away
I expect to die
severely; illness; taken
strength; feel I none
heart; feeble; I feel
I am surely dead, I know full well

know I; other
Just as he was about to rise from that place
Instantly on; floor; down dead
Those who were; friends; kinship
Heard; experience; befell him
They came; heart sad
lying dead
bells rung; (see note)
sung; (see note)
clothes; taken
stone
left
somewhat; median vein; (see note); (t-note)
believed him not fully dead
Therefore; moved; place; (t-note)

midday; Wednesday
Until; Saturday; noon; (see note)
then knew
have heard
hear; his soul fared
When; down suddenly
spirit parted immediately; (see note)

The soul; dark place
wretchedly; it stood alone
It wept sorely; lamented greatly
thought [himself] to have been damned forever; (see note); (t-note)
to come; the
sins
neither; concealed; hidden; (t-note)
rather; than all the world; (see note)
To have been [alive] again; frightened
saw many a hideous pain; (t-note)
Before; again
some [souls]; less
the; bears witness




spirit stood; great confusion; (see note); (t-note)
terrifying rabble; (see note)
foul fiends ever baring their teeth
wolves; leaping
would have fled
knew; whither
These foul fiends came
soul; fear; woeful countenance
little wonder
thought [himself] to have been ripped open
They were; horrible to look at
He thought; earth; shook
Their
terribly began they; howl
eyes; wide; burning; fire
they; anger; ire (wrath)
mouths; wide; gaped open
fire out; mouths

lips hung beneath their chins
Their teeth; the throats
Their tongues hung out at great length
feet; hands; great nails; (t-note)
great horns; poisonous tails
Their nails; sharp; ground steel
Sharper; man feel
From them came; (see note)
earthly man
their nails; place
each one scratched
They fought each; other; brawled
each other; tore to pieces
It; wondrously gruesome
they were; shaped
the world; man; (t-note)
could so gruesome a sight describe
most fiercely; stared
at once; cried; roared
Let us go to yonder wicked spirit
Who has always done our counsel most
death
done according to our advice
surrounded; about
cried; made; great shout; (t-note)
You; wretched creature
place; prepared
companion
death's daughter dear
without
friend
foe

is your fellowship; caitiff (wretch)
chose; life
shall; go

been; false; fickle
said; slander great
loved strife; (t-note)
loved always
much
much; committed adultery
covetousness (greed)
Gluttony; other vice
would; leave; treachery
lived; mighty
Where is; vanity; (see note)
great power


Where; strength
armor; fancily fashioned; (t-note)
treasure
property; possessions
thought; fail
avail
loved
No works; would work (perform)
good; the earth
matins; masses
pain

wicked; breast; (t-note)
Would; make known; priest
Wretch; there did not call
traveled

soon; star; full bright
intently; star
Very well comforted; felt
Through the power; creator
hoped; get some comfort
remedy his misery
guardian [angel]; (see note)
soon; met
graciously; greeted
gentle manner
what do
heard
shining
glad
Sweet father
misdeeds
the fire; would; lead
answered the; (see note)
frightened creature
call
earlier
I; guardian evening and morning
Since; mother born
would; pay attention
none of mine; assent (be guided)
sighed sorely

hear you loud or quiet
knew I; will
power
Chased one; foul creature

seemed; ugly; (t-note)

did know
Following him; always worked
trusted you not at all
God's
Although; deserve
want greatly; understand
must do

later severely afflicted
pains great
them
could report; each pain
again
out of there; drew
it seemed to him; dread enough
When they; the fiends cruel; (t-note)
them
roar
slandered
true
unjust
said; should; straightaway
Each man according to; (see note)
ours; reason
served us
lived
lose; us
roared and cried; grieved
go; from
Each fought; other did struggle
their nails; cheeks; tear
foul a smell; gave off
Felt; earthly

closely
sighed very sadly
will see
doomed
These; will; snatch
lead; them; pain
get
dread
may no way; lead
many; it seems to you, appear
are; more; near
While; both
us harm
consult to defend yourself
prophecy; David; (see note)
on; left
time
appearing

them
eyes; them
see, before we two part
pains befall; various





Through; entry; led


deep dale very dark
troubled
shuddered violently
doleful; there
deep; intently
foul stench; sensed
ground; visible
coals burning
coals; iron; (t-note)
glowing it seemed always
Four cubits thick it; (see note)
The heat; fire; go beyond
broad; (t-note)
made
heat; iron
fire; there
always alike burning
more strongly
(t-note)


Than; before he came there
Upon; set (determined); (see note)
Fiends; souls
burn; (t-note)
melted; cauldron; (t-note)
ran through fire; (t-note)
As if it; through; (t-note)
re-formed (gathered); melted
from

great woe
assigned; (t-note)
father; mother; slain; (t-note)
other; advice
acquiesced; man's death
get; release
cease
other pain; (t-note)
Than; here
feel; (see note)
Unless




(t-note)
great mountain
large; high
heard; doleful
that one side; seeming [to be]
burning
dim; (t-note)
pitch; brimstone; (see note)
that other side
frost
winds
other storms; follow immediately
many evil fiends
heard them angrily roar
had forks; tongs
skewers; glowing
With which; pulled; pushed
were
began them drag
pushed them; (t-note)
afterwards
put them; other pain
Their; turned (alternated) many times


thieves designed; (t-note)
robbery commits
against men's will their goods take
falsehood; beguiles
win men's goods; wiles
seen
Further on still




always; ahead proceeded; (t-note)
because of; afraid
held always forward
valley
deep; dark
troubled
deeper
bottom
groaning; them they heard
doleful din
pit; sensed coming
stinking
pitch; brimstone
souls burned, many a one
seeming
pains; before found

pit stood between; mountains
bridge; (see note)
From the one to the other lie
steps; count
scarcely; one foot; breadth
quaking (shaking); bridge

Learned; unlearned, maiden; wife
Except; perfect life
down
Off

priest; pilgrim
palm; hand
pilgrim's cloak
Just


before
I do not know [how] to pass over them (i.e., the steps)
sorely fearful; was

here
escape
other pain; feel
ordained; grievous
boasters
by the hand firmly
led; happy




Still; forth
knew; whither
By; way; darkness
bears witness

huge (fearsome)
beast; larger (lit., more to know)

eyes seemed; larger
broader than; valleys were

armed [men]
tusks
Two great giants; hung
head of the one hung downward
the other his head
the middle; stood; each
Two pillars
apart; (see note)
three parts
gates; open stood
flames; went

tongue; heart
heard; doleful din

Howling; lamentation; heard
their
Loud they heard
Their

cruel
hastened; might and main
Those
rods; beat; (see note)
drove
beast
spirits; cruel
sorrowfully
heard; hideous

means; hideous
answered
beast; Acheron; (see note)
must (it is fitting for); go

entirely
pure; life perfect
huge beast; teach
Is; swallow covetous
came to be; hard
believed; enough
always coveted
their souls repent
prophecy; written
swallow; (see note)
great thirst
waters
east
stanch
prepared; (t-note)

thought; enough
felt satisfied with
What
must say
always; have to themselves

giants; see with [your] eyes
tusks so high
acknowledge
to their own
the names
That one is named; that other; (see note)

Whither; thence
You feel
For; such; been
went
before
against
vanished
though
good speed (quickly)
bound; tightly
beast; began to cast him
must
beaten by; cruel
savage lions; gnawed
dragons; pulled apart
adders; snakes; venom
torn to pieces each limb
burning
ice; intensely freezing
tears; eyes; (t-note)
burned
sensed of brimstone
pains many a one
nails
cheeks; began to tear to bits
each; did
reproached; none hidden
despair; always
thought

knew; glad
perplexity
outside
a while as [if] he were dead
place
raised up; sitting
in front of


touched
gave; strength; well

tears; moaning
torment
further on




those two took
hideous
noise
waves
rose as high
his eyes see
huge; cruel
did cry
eyes; burned; (t-note)
burning lamps do
waited; (t-note)
swallow; (t-note)
lie
narrow bridge; (see note)
Two miles; length; seeming
breadth
spikes; steel
grievous

Without their; hurt sorely

nearer; their prey
off; down; (t-note)
always ready
growling together


their food

welled
falling
boiling
one
grain; his back; (see note)
Moaning; doleful
bewailed; piteously
spikes; feet pricked
dreaded; much more
ready
If; off

means

ordained
robbed; their
goods; theirs
Unlearned; learned; Church
work (do)
have; less; (see note)
All according to their sins
care not what; injure
refrain from destroying a church
fickle; unfaithful
rob; steal
belongs
Sacrilege; call; (see note)
villainy
place of sanctuary; (see note)
place of religion
destruction; (t-note)
tormented; (t-note)

see
sheaves; moaning
them stole
tithes counted up; (see note)
pays; dearly
deed; has here
travel
lead; cow
Be careful to lead; warily
(t-note)
when

You must (it behooves you); her
friend's; stole
dreary mood

Even though; against
as it turned out
so
keep away



punished; according to
likes not
Neither ill deed
ill liking

Despite everything; must; (t-note)

(t-note)

did
grabbed
took good care of
her

further go

their prey
nearly; [at] that time
that other
afraid
went
passed
middle
Some times; other times
They both; enough
bore; grain
Where; lost

neither


dared; the world
afraid
spikes; went
their; bleed
[at] that time
either


Certainly

wept; distress
neither; other pass




comfort; (t-note)

showed

led


truth to say
touched
quickly; healed


know; (t-note)
waits for us
place

to there now [it] behooves you [to go]
Against




forth
wilderness; (see note)
house in front of him

Like; oven
wide; broad
fire burst
fire
dangerous
reached
outside; burn to nothing
thither


sorrowful place
behold; gates of death

know (expect)

place


(t-note)

yonder house [it] behooves you to go
fire; destroy

butcher

tools; their hands
sickles; knives; (see note)
pickaxes; broad axes; augers
Coulters (plowshares), scythes, sharp withall
Pitchforks
loathsome
swords; hooks; (t-note)
their hands
honed
(t-note)
smote; apart
off; thighs
arms; legs; knees
chunks (gobbets)
recovered





before
will be



[it] behooves you
also
awe


more
hound


afraid

besought; (t-note)
sneak




noise
tools; equipment
bear
took
hewed

whole
great master; was named
(see note)
heard while
Howling; lamentation; great grief
fire
Destroyed

hunger

satisfy


private parts
gnawed; their thighs

Many
vermin; (t-note)


bite



knew; glad
place
cauldron of dread; (t-note)





sign; (see note); (t-note)

misleads; (t-note)
Although
Justice requires
forgives
righteousness

suffered
kneel
created

Why; give heed
forgive


needed
known
penance
vengeance
repentance

(see note)

Goods; assigned

pains lessen
possessions (are taken)
thank; ill

When
sooner

I believe

Not even
born; died

Though
eager
escape



comfort
grieve
established; (t-note)

miss
pilgrim




reward

throne


(t-note)






awe
cruel

wings
either
feet
feel
slender

eyes

wide-lipped
nose; tipped; (see note)
extinguished


frozen
ice
anguish
cruel; greedy
swallowed

pained

Till; wasted
cast
recovered
grew; blue; (t-note)


bearing
complained (bewailed)

(see note)
wild adders; (t-note)

snakes
times

dole
nearly; (t-note)
heard
fared
their; [they are] obliged
adders; creep
private
each limb
feet
began to glide
creeping
found
crept; at once
neither flesh; bones

heads
glowing
sticking
picks; (t-note)
shepherds' crooks; points

holes; open

held; crooked


chewed; gnawed
bowel
stuck; heads
get out
back pulled


Scratching, eating, flaying
Heaven; heard
fared
anguish
lamented; sins (follies)
delivered
renewed







kept; their vows
monks, canons, priests; clerks; (t-note)

delight

order requires; (see note)
lead their lives
(t-note)

(see note); (t-note)
suffer
(t-note)


beset


Afterwards; cast
swollen; burst






harm




game (pleasure)

troubled


straight; longlasting
found
Forward scarcely they might not pass
steps down

deep valley; (see note); (t-note)


sensed; air
despair
sighed
at that time

has
courteous

lies
leads



great of breadth; (see note)

assay; (t-note)
Well I know

impurity

By





forth

valley

forges
blacksmiths; went
hammers
tongs
forges; terrifying; (t-note)

forges

proceeded to throw them
then; hammers laid on
forge
Vulcan; (see note)
his devising

death
tortured; place



feel


suffer
forge
tormenters; running
pokers; tongs
seized


alone
forge
(t-note)
bellows
melted


flaccid



at once
piteously

laid on; crazy
beat

temper

undergo; (t-note)

tormenters
counsel
work
tired
(t-note)

blacksmiths
forge
You have had; enjoyment
Cast; assay
leapt


blacksmiths proceeded to seize them; (t-note)
glowing hot tongs
held in their hands
beaten enough; (t-note)
pulled

nearly


gruesome blacksmith's
the other; left

recovered



In what way
deserve

from
(t-note)

Followed
could



suffering


waits for
escape
you are obliged to feel some


Their; them damned


Pass; safely


whole; felt








control




quaked
shook

grieved; (t-note)


numbed



stir joint; limb


Dole










anxiety




deep pit great
pit; coming


endure
ditch
pillar; nearly reached

fire; circumference



sparks; through wind's
ashes
(t-note)
recovered

rather
back; (t-note)


enfeebled; (t-note)
nearly mad

(t-note)


advice


pillar; fire
heard; yowling



greeted; group
Wretch; surrounded
meet
whence



cool


customs; teach
cooling

place
must; way; (see note)










(t-note)
lies

advice
hither
Too late

certain



groans

threatened; menaced hard


thrust

Their eyes; burning; broad
lamps

Their teeth


scorpions
crooks; (t-note)
anchor hooks
steel
(t-note)

bat's wings


snarled; stuck out their eyes


(t-note)
frightened

son
son
safe

glad

know

forth; quickly
greatest enemy

entices
went


fill up; (t-note)







(see note)
(t-note)
while
compelled





loathsome; (see note)
before
horribly
dole; heard
if; truly


belong


each; knew; learning

enough

paid close attention

considered
describe
tell

horrible


pitch

shape

cubits


gapes; opens his mouth wide
at once
seen


sharp
finger seemed
span; (see note)




war

teeth
gnawed
nose


hanging lips

(t-note)

pricked
gridiron
lying
coals

fiery imps; (see note); (t-note)
bellows

flame
wonder


bound
chains


Surrounded; boiling brass
seized
torn to pieces; (t-note)

Grapes, pressing; juice


recovered


groaned
Because


flame
scattered


breath; (t-note)
(t-note)





recovered were







(t-note)



first; (see note)
likeness

dungeon

Doomsday (Judgment Day)

trouble

(t-note)





Judgment Day

works
clerks
(t-note)



endure
grief
(see note)


always

distress
are

over them power

must
like to learn; (t-note)


through good others will learn


allows
subjects
ruled

(t-note)


lose
This foul wretch


Chief; darkness; principal; (t-note)

together
man's sin
with regard to
Surely






close
dwelling


Unless

always




suffered; (t-note)











(see note)

grew






fair; (see note)





travail


They lacked
dumb; went




lived






rain



forth



glad; (t-note)
field; fair; (see note)
hued; kind of colors
smell




live
trees
types of
(t-note)
birds'
many folk
kind of sin


(see note)

streams various

enough
laughed

depart
It may not be so
us
see; (see note)



hence

Though
await

(t-note)
by reason
well-known


thirst
pleasure






went


paid attention

ordinary man; (see note)
before

two kings
power
lived in bone and blood

The one of them; was called; (see note)
The other; (see note)




staunch; brave
them
Each; hated the other
(see note); (t-note)
Certainly; a wonder





(see note)

chance
true repentance

he was able to make his heart receptive
(t-note)


healthy; power
prison

goods gave
(see note)
poverty; placed

Even though
died; set


confess
mercy; (t-note)


decorated


stones; precious
roof; carbuncle; (see note)
Doors
entries


prevented; (t-note)


rooms; (t-note)

column



seat richly adorned
finely decorated

spread; seat

(see note); (t-note)



gifts


paid attention


known
company
wonder
Priests; deacons; (see note)

vested; Mass



cups; chalices; (see note)
censers; silver; (see note)
basins
tables











amazed

as a vassal; (t-note)
wonder




company
known
(t-note)
(t-note)
support; unwilling


had
Since

(see note); (t-note)


grew




wailed; dole (sorrow)

know
kneeling
praying


distress
navel

hairshirt; (see note); (t-note)

once; grants
Because; pure

broke; oath

(t-note)

because; to be killed
earl

place; (see note)
suffers; understand
hairshirt; (t-note)



two

(t-note)
hours




there; (t-note)




eye





found; delightful

(see note)

Singing
making
all-ruling
played; ceasing



snowed
happy
laughed

ceasing; celebration
always
voices; harmonious



ceasing
beauty; purity
sickness


savor



pure
keep; outrage

distress
teach
subjects
chastise


succors
well; Judgment
(see note)
children
kingdom











travail

bow
greeted






bliss and pity (compassion)
does not want
Unless; live
His










higher






celebration


before; (see note)

before
Neither he, nor any earthly man


throne
various

covered




ornaments








shining; (t-note)
wire


value; various colors


(t-note)
Lecterns
books; lying
lecterns









ready
suffer martyrdom
washed their robes
lamb




sobriety
truth




pavilions
seen
(see note)

which; covered; decorated; (t-note)
coins; (see note)
(t-note)

binding cords

entwined
fretted; shone
instruments various; (t-note)
music; sound
Organs, cymbals; drums
harps; once

treble; mean; bass; (see note)






pavilions
many folk
sound
harmonious
(t-note)
worldly






(see note)
vows
busy

happily


obedient
conscience
obedience


kept silence; chattering


nearer

resonant



them


promised; (t-note)
ignorant



pleasure

saints

virgins

seat










smell





diverse
(t-note)
sound

spirits


travail
lips; moving
gesture
clearly




beams
chains; (t-note)

each part
decorated

rods
air


jewels
Bowls; cups; price
Chimes (Cymbals); fleur-de-lis; (see note)


wings



joyous



wits
describe









a one


Laden
kinds of fruit; name

(t-note)
various

herbs (plants); power
value
smelling

birds



Each one

attentively; laughed


Living; cells

arrayed
desire; (t-note)
For the gifts; (t-note)


in various ways; (see note)

scepters



arrayed

earnestly
pleased



cells

houses

founded; chantries; (see note)
clergy
endowed; (see note)

valuable ornaments



reigning; one

cease





went


Passing that other; (t-note)

hesitated
considered; how






crystal; (see note)
Beryl, chrysolite; sapphire; (see note)
Emeralds, diamonds
Zircons, emeralds; rubies; (see note); (t-note)
Bloodstones; carbuncle; (see note)
Onyx; topaz











Surpass
ear; (see note)
eye



(see note)

lived
Secret; (see note)


open; ears; hear; (see note)
what you hear; forget


(t-note)



(t-note)





Ran; (t-note)
beauty

seven times

(t-note)
(t-note)


beneath
seen


in which we live
beam
(t-note)
subtle; secret
part


May





(t-note)



needful



One; (see note)

greeted


(t-note)

comfort


courteous
bound
knees to kneel
(t-note)

happy

(see note)
attire
dressed


sadness; sighing

bishops; (t-note)
appearance


(see note)
Armagh

(see note)

Pope; (see note)

gave

colleges; (see note)
numbered


donated; enough; gave; (see note)
have
Except what was necessary to himself only
(t-note)

(see note)
(t-note)
(t-note)

poor
(see note)


(see note)
just
(see note)


(see note)
seat
void (empty)

seat
prepared

seat; ordained; prepared
brothers

living



happy
quickly








go

in vain


what











(t-note)
delivered


your own power



(t-note)










grew; heavy
burdened
eyes


raised; sighing

astonished; wonder


lifted
heavy appearance

mercy; (t-note)


while

suffered pain
harm
Wretch

I
accused


countenance

wonder

cruel

One

shrive; sin (folly)
give the Eucharist



confession; privacy
safe





shriven
[Communion] host







gathered

heard



before; died (went)







reproved; (t-note)









permitted



went







Here ends; says Heeg; (see note); (t-note)
true
copy