Robert of Cisyle

ROBERT OF CISYLE: NOTES

I have used the following abbreviations in these textual and explanatory notes: FH: French and Hale, Mid­dle English Metrical Romances; H: Horstmann, Samm­lung ae Legenden; N: R. Nuck, Roberd of Cisyle; OED: Oxford English Dictionary; S: Simons, “A Byzantine Identity for Robert of Cisyle”; V: Vernon Manuscript. H and N “modernize” the text with variants from frag­mentary manuscripts. V, however, is the most coherent witness; Simeon follows V closely. Therefore, I have based my text on V with some modifications from H, N, and FH. V has Robert as the name of the hero. Other MSS have Roberd; N rhymes with ferd (line 282).

1 Formulas such as princes proude and proude in pres are common in the poem.

2 I have printed you for V ou. I have, however, retained most dialectal spellings which are easily identifiable and unlikely to cause confusion: e.g., heo, heore, weore, beo, for he, their, were, be; uch for ech(e); mon, mony for man, many.

3 Cisyle: Sicily. The history of Sicily has been turbulent, in part because of its proximity to opportunists from Italy, North Africa, and Spain. It was a perennial site of conflict for the pope and the Holy Roman Empire. I have not been able to find any historical basis for the brotherhood of Robert, Urban, and Valemounde. There is no evidence for an Emperor Valemounde. Pope Urban IV (1261-64) was deeply involved in Sicilian affairs and there was Saracen involvement in Sicily from the ninth century. However, the familial configuration seems wholly fictional.

13 nas: n for an initial consonant was a standard form of negation.

15 Hopkins, “Roberd of Cisyle,” pp. 194–95, notes that the poem views Robert in iso­lation; Robert’s personal spiritual growth is the focus of the poem, and he per­forms no knightly deeds, nor is he seen as king.

21 S, pp. 106–07, speculates Valemounde could be a Greek narrator’s attempt to pronounce “Bohemund,” “a restless and warlike adventurer,” and notes his legacy as an enemy of Byzantium and a campaigner against Saracens in Sicily.

29 Seynt Jones Niht: Saint John's Night (June 24, the feast of St. John the Baptist).

31 evensong: vespers, “usually celebrated shortly before sunset” (OED). The Magni­ficat (line 35) is a regular part of vespers.

35 See note to lines 40-41.

40-41 These lines are from the Magnificat, Mary’s revelation of her divine pregnancy to her sister Elizabeth. The whole passage, now a prayer, is found in Luke 1:46–55: “He hath put down the mighty from their seat, and hath exalted the humble” (Luke 1:52). V: exultavit should be exaltavit.

60 It is impossible to say what the “book” is, or if there was one. See Hornstein, “King Robert of Sicily,” p. 13, for a discussion of manuscript variations. FH, p. 935, assume the reference is to a written source; Olsen, “Oral Tradition,” p. 77, argues “the phrase is a ‘tag’ line whose only purpose is to provide the poet with a rhyming word and therefore indicates oral transmission.”

62, 63 gan: "began to" or "did," a common auxiliary of incipient or preterit aspect.

66 S notes that Orthodox theology regards the liturgy as a space out of time, through which angels may come to participate in the service; Sicily’s Norman rulers ac­cepted some Greek liturgical practices, as well as other Byzantine customs, de­spite their devotion to the Latin church (p. 108).

75 sexteyn: A sexton is "a church official having the care of the fabric [building of a church] and its contents" (OED).

79 V: ffelenye. V also doubles initial f at line 247 (ffool) and line 249 (ffoxes). I have singled the f's since the usual doubling as a form of capitalization does not apply.

117 ryght. Not in V, H, or FH. Emendation based on Harley 525 MS for the purposes of meter.

142 For more on the religious origins of Robert’s fool status, see Baker (“Deposuit potentes,” pp. 36–37), and S (pp. 109–10).

154-55 Medieval fools were sometimes shaved, as were monastics and penitents, to mark their special status. Diseases, like madness, were perceived as divine punishment for sin; some medieval medical texts recommended shaving a madman’s head as part of treatment. See Harper, Insanity, Individuals, and Society.

157 The ape also represents madmen, sinners, penitents, and the sin of pride. See Hop­kins, “Roberd of Cisyle,” p. 188, and Hornstein, “King Robert of Sicily,” p. 19.

166 An assayer could be either a server (waiter) or a taster, for safety's sake (OED).

195 FH emend V he to him, but, following H, N, I do not see the necessity.

232 Holy Thursday, the day commemorating Jesus' Last Supper with the apostles.

255 V: Al whit atyr was; FH, following H: Al was whit, atyr.

281 V: com, but there is merit in FH: con. FH, following V, have Robert as the last word in the line and the rhyme word in line 282 is fert (afraid).

315–16 King Nebuchadnezzar and General Holofernes appear in the apocryphal Book of Judith, when the king sends the general to put down the Jewish defense of Jerusalem from Bethulia. Judith entices and beheads Holofernes; after he has blasphemously called the king a god (line 316), Holofernes’ fall (line 323) is thus apt. See “The Story of Judith,” in Heroic Women from the Old Testament in Middle English Verse, ed. Russell A. Peck (Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1991), and Penelope Doob, Nebuchadnezzar’s Children: Conventions of Madness in Middle English Literature (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1974). For analysis of the Nebu­chadnezzar episode, see Hopkins, “Roberd of Cisyle,” pp. 189–92.

325 Nebuchadnezzar’s fifteen years in the desert living on roots, grass, and poor food (lines 327–28) derives particularly from Daniel 4:22. For a detailed discussion of that passage in Middle English literature, see Russell A. Peck, “John Gower and the Book of Daniel,” in John Gower: Recent Readings, ed. R. F. Yeager (Kalamazoo, MI: Medi­eval Institute Publications, 1989), pp. 159–87. Peck does not mention Robert of Cisyle.

342 As. V: And, followed by FH. H's emendation.

344 FH states “the construction is faulty, the sense clear” in lines 341–44, and N reads “As in” at line 343 (p. 935); Olsen argues FH and N presuppose a writ­ten source, and the erratic grammar suggests oral transmission (“Oral Tradition,” pp. 73–74).

352 On. Trinity and Harley 1701 read: Lord on, followed by H and FH. The anaphora is compelling but not necessary.

358 endure. V: dure, followed by H and FH.

388 "withoute lesyng." H leaves out quotation marks.





















 
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Robert of Cisyle





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Princes proude that beth in pres,
I wol you telle thing, not lees!
In Cisyle was a noble kyng,
Fair and strong and sumdel yyng.
He hedde a brother in grete Roome,
Pope of alle Cristendome;
Another he hedde in Alemayne,
An Emperour, that Sarazins wroughte payne.
The kyng was hote kyng Robert,
Never man ne wiste him fert;
He was kyng of gret honour
For that he was conquerour;
In al the world nas his peer,
Kyng ne prince, fer no neer.
And, for he was of chivalrie flour,
His brother was mad Emperour,
His other brother Godes vikere,
Pope of Rome, as I seide ere.
The pope was hote pope Urban,
He was good to God and man;
The Emperour was hote Valemounde,
A strengur weorreour nas non founde
After his brother of Cisyle,
Of whom that I schal telle a while.
The kyng thoughte, he hedde no peer
In al the worlde, fer no neer;
And in his thought he hedde pryde,
For he was nounpeer in uch a syde.
At midsomer, a Seynt Jones Niht,
The kyng to churche com ful riht,
Forto heeren his evensong.
Hym thoughte, he dwelled ther ful long:
He thoughte more in worldes honour,
Than in Crist, ur saveour.
In "Magnificat" he herde a vers,
He made a clerk hit him rehers
In langage of his owne tonge,
In Latyn he nuste, that heo songe.
The vers was this, I telle the:
Deposuit potentes de sede,
Et exaltavit humiles.
This was the vers, withouten les.
The clerk seide anone riht;
"Sire, such is Godes miht,
That he may make heyghe lowe
And lowe heighe in luytel throwe.
God may do, withoute lyghe,
His wil in twynklyng of an eighe."
The kyng seide with herte unstable:
"Al your song is fals and fable!
What mon hath such pouwer,
Me to bringe lowe in daunger?
I am flour of chivalrye,
Myn enemys I may distruye;
No mon lyveth in no londe,
That me may withstonde.
Then is this a song of nouht!"
This errour he hedde in thought.
And in his thouht a sleep him tok
In his pulput, as seith the bok.
Whon that evensong was al don,
A kyng ilyk him out gan gon,
And alle men with hym gan wende,
Kyng Robert lafte out of mynde.
The newe kyng was, as I you telle,
Godes angel, his pruide to felle.
The angel in halle joye made,
And alle men of hym weore glade.
The kyng wakede, that lay in churche,
His men he thouhte wo to worche,
For he was laft ther alon,
And derk niht him fel uppon.
He gan crie after his men,
Ther nas non, that spak agen.
But the sexteyn atten eende
Of the churche to him gan wende,
And seide: "What dost thou nouthe her,
Thou false thef, thou losenger?
Thou art her with felenye,
Holy churche to robbye."
He seide: "Foule gadelyng,
I am no thef, I am a kyng!
Opene the churche dore anon,
That I mowe to mi paleis gon!"
The sexteyn thouhte anon with than,
That he was sum wood man,
And wolde the chirche dilyveret were
Of hym, for he hedde fere;
And openede the chirchedore in haste.
The kyng bygon to renne out faste,
As a mon that was wood.
At his paleys gate he stood,
And heet the porter gadelyng
And bad hym come in highing,
Anon the gates up to do.
The porter seide: "Ho clepeth so?"
He onswerde anon tho:
"Thou schalt witen, ar I go:
Thi kyng I am; thou schalt knowe.
In prison thou schalt ligge lowe
And ben anhonged and todrawe
As a traytur bi the lawe.
Thou schalt wel witen, I am kyng,
Open the gates, gadelyng!"
The porter seide: "So mot I the,
The kyng is mid his meyne;
Wel I wot, withoute doute,
The kyng nis not now withoute."
The porter com into halle,
Bifore the newe kyng aknes gan falle
And seide: "Ther is atte gate
A nyce fool icome late.
He seith he is lord and kyng
And clept me foule gadelyng.
Lord, what wol ye that I do?
Leten hym in or leten him go?"
The angel seide ryght in haste:
"Do him come in swithe faste!
For my fol I wole him make,
Forte he the name of kyng forsake."
The porter com to the gate,
And him he called, in to late.
He smot the porter, whon he com in,
That blod barst out of mouth and chyn.
The porter yeld him his travayle,
Him smot ageyn, withouten fayle,
That neose and mouth barst a blood;
Thenne he semed almost wod.
The porter and his men in haste,
Kyng Robert in a podel caste;
Unsemely heo maden his bodi than,
That he nas lyk non other man,
And brouht him bifore the newe kyng;
And seide: "Lord, this gadelyng
Me hath smyte withoute decert;
He seith, he is ur kyng apert.
This harlot oughte for his sawe
Ben ihonged and todrawe;
For he seith non other word,
Bote that he is bothe kyng and lord."
The angel seide to kyng Robert:
"Thou art a fol, that art nought fert
Mi men to don such vilenye;
Thi gult thou most nede abuye.
What art thou?" seide the angel.
Qwath Robert: "Thou shalt wite wel,
That I am kyng and kyng wol be,
With wronge thou hast my dignité.
The Pope of Roome is my brother
And the emperour myn other;
Heo wol me wreke, for soth to telle,
I wot, heo nulle not longe dwelle."
"Thow art my fol," seide the angel,
"Thou schal be schoren everichdel,
Lych a fool, a fool to be,
Wher is now thi dignité?
Thi counseyler schal ben an ape,
And o clothyng you worth ischape.
I schal him clothen as thi brother,
Of o clothyng - hit is non other;
He schal beo thin owne feere,
Sum wit of him thou miht lere.
Houndes, how so hit bifalle,
Schulen eten with the in halle;
Thou schalt eten on the ground;
Thin assayour schal ben an hound,
To assaye thi mete bifore the;
Wher is now thi dignité?"
He heet a barbur hym bifore,
That as a fool he schulde be schore,
Al around lich a frere
An hondebrede bove either ere,
And on his croune made a crois.
He gan crie and make nois.
He swor, thei schulde alle abuye,
That hym dude such vileynye,
And evere he seide he was lord,
And uche mon scorned him for that word,
And uche mon seide he was wod,
That proved wel, he couthe no good.
For he wende in none wyse,
That God Almihti couthe devyse,
Him to bringe to lower stat:
With o drauht he was chekmat!
With houndes everi niht he lay,
And ofte he criyede weylaway,
That he evere was ibore,
For he was a mon forlore.
Ther nas in court grom ne page,
That of the kyng ne made rage;
For no mon ne mihte him knowe,
He was defygured in a throwe.
So lowe er that was never kyng;
Allas, her was a deolful thing,
That he scholde for his pryde
Such hap among his men betyde!
Hunger and thurst he hedde grete,
For he ne moste no mete ete,
But houndes eeten of his disch,
Whether hit weore flesch or fisch.
He was to dethe neigh ibrouht
For hunger, ar he miht eten ouht
With houndes that beth in halle.
How might him hardore bifalle?
And whon hit nolde non other be,
He eet with houndes gret plenté.
The angel was kyng, him thoughte long;
In his tyme was never wrong,
Tricherie, ne falshede, ne no gyle
Idon in the lond of Cisyle.
Alle goode ther was gret plenté:
Among men, love and charité;
In his tyme was never strif
Bitwene mon and his wyf;
Uche mon lovede wel other:
Beter love nas nevere of brother.
Thenne was that a joyful thing
In londe to have such a kyng.
Kyng he was threo yeer and more.
Robert yeode as mon forlore.
Seythe hit fel uppon a day
A luytel bifore the moneth of May,
Sire Valemound, the emperour,
Sende lettres of gret honour
To his brother, of Cisyle kyng,
And bad him come withouten lettyng,
That heo mihten beo bothe isome
With heore brother, Pope of Rome.
Hym thoughte long heo weore atwinne;
He bad him lette for no wynne,
That he neore of good aray
In Roome an Holy Thoresday.
The angel welcomede the messagers
And gaf hem clothes riche of Pers,
Furred al with ermyne;
In Cristendom is non so fyne;
And al was chouched mid perré,
Better was non in Cristianté.
Such cloth, and hit weore to dihte,
Al Cristendom hit make ne mihte;
Of that wondrede al that lond,
Hou that cloth was wrought with hond;
Wher such cloth was to selle,
Ne ho hit maade, couthe no mon telle.
The messagers wenten with the kyng
To grete Rome withoute lettyng.
The fool Robert also went,
Clothed in lodly garnement,
With foxes tayles mony aboute:
Men miht him knowen in the route.
The angel was clothed al in whit;
Nas never seyghe such samyt;
And al was chouched myd perles riche,
Never mon seigh none hem liche.
Al whit atyr was and steede,
The steede was feir, ther he yede;
So feir a steede, as he on rod,
Nas never mon that ever bistrod.
The angel com to Roome sone,
Real, as fel a kyng to done;
So real kyng com never in Rome,
Alle men wondrede whethen he come.
His men weore realliche diht;
Heore richesse con seye no wiht
Of clothes, gurdeles, and other thing,
Everiche sqyyer thoughte a kyng.
And alle ride of riche aray
Bote Kyng Robert, as I you say.
Alle men on him gon pyke,
For he rod al other unlyke.
An ape rod of his clothing,
In tokne that he was underlyng.
The pope and the emperour also
And other lordes mony mo
Welcomede the angel as for kyng,
And made joye of his comyng.
Theose threo bretheren made cumfort;
The angel was brother mad bi sort;
Wel was the pope and emperour
That hedden a brother of such honour.
Forth con sturte Kyng Robert
As fool and mon that nas not fert,
And criyede with ful egre speche
To his bretheren to don him wreche
Of him that hath with queynte gyle
His coroune and lond of Cisyle.
The pope ne the emperour nouther,
The fol ne kneugh not for heor brother.
Tho was he more fol iholde,
More then er a thousend folde;
To cleyme such a bretherhede:
Hit was holde a foles dede.
Kyng Robert bigon to maken care,
Muche more then he dude are,
Whon his bretheren nolde him knowe:
"Allas," quath he, "nou am I lowe."
For he hopede, bi eny thing,
His bretheren wolde ha mad him kyng;
And whon his hope was al ago,
He seide "allas" and "weilawo."
He seide "allas" that he was bore,
For he was a mon forlore;
He seide "allas" that he was mad,
For of his lyf he was al sad.
"Allas, allas," was al his song:
His heer he tar, his hondes wrong,
And evere he seide, "Allas, Allas."
And thenne he thoughte on his trespas.
He thoughte on Nabugodonosore,
A noble kyng, was him bifore.
In al the world nas his peer,
Forte acounte, fer ne neer.
With him was Sire Olyferne,
Prince of knihtes stout and steorne.
Olyferne swor evermor
Bi god Nabugodonosor,
And seide ther nas no god in londe
But Nabugodonosor, ich understonde.
Therfore Nabugodonosor was glad,
That he the name of god had,
And lovede Olofern the more;
And seythe hit greved hem bothe sore.
Olofern dyyede in dolour,
He was slaye in hard schour.
Nabugodonosor lyvede in desert;
Dorst he noughwher ben apert;
Fyftene yer he livede thare
With rootes, gras, and evel fare.
And al of mos his clothing was:
Al com that bi Godes gras:
He criyede merci with delful chere,
God him restored, as he was ere.
"Nou am I in such caas,
And wel worse then he was.
Whon God gaf me such honour,
That I was clepet conquerour,
In everi lond of Cristendome
Of me men speke wel ilome;
And seiden, noughwher was my peer
In al the world, fer no neer.
For that name I hedde pride,
As angels that gonne from joye glyde,
And in twynklyng of an eighe
God binom heore maystrie.
So hath he myn, for my gult,
Now am I wel lowe ipult,
And that is right that I so be.
Lord, on Thi fool Thow have pité.
I hedde an errour in myn herte,
And that errour doth me smerte.
Lord, I leeved not on The.
On Thi fol Thou have pité.
Holy Writ I hedde in dispyt,
For that is reved my delyt,
For that is riht a fool I be,
Lord, on Thi fool Thou have pité.
Lord I am Thi creature,
This wo is riht that I endure,
And wel more, yif hit may be.
Lord, on Thi fool Thou have pité.
Lord, I have igult The sore.
Merci, Lord, I nul no more;
Evere Thi fol, Lord, wol I be.
Lord, on Thi fol Thou have pité.
Blisful Marie, to the I crie,
As thou art ful of cortesye,
Preye thi Sone, that dyed for me,
On me, His fol, thow have pité.
Blisful Marie, ful of graas,
To the I knowe my trespas;
Prey thi Sone, for love of the
On me, His fool, thow have pité."
He seide no more "Allas, Allas!"
But thonked Crist of His gras,
And thus he gon himself stille
And thonked Crist mid good wille.
Then pope, emperour, and kyng
Fyve wikes made heore dwellyng.
Whon fyve wykes weore agon,
To heore owne lond heo wolden anon,
Bothe emperour and the kyng;
Ther was a feir departyng.
The angel com to Cisyle,
He and his men, in a while.
Whon he com into halle,
The fool anon he bad forth calle.
He seide: "Fool, art thow kyng?"
"Nay, sire," quath he, "withoute lesyng."
"What artou?" seide the angel.
"Sire, a fol, that wot I wel,
And more then fol, yif hit may be;
Kep I non other dignité."
The angel into chaumbre went,
And after the fol anon he sent.
He bad his men out of chaumbre gon,
Ther lafte no mo but he alon
And the fol that stod him bi.
To him he seide: "Thou hast merci!
Thenk, thou weore lowe ipult,
And al was for thin owne gult.
A fool thou weore to Hevene kyng,
Therfore thou art an underlyng.
God hath forgiven thi mysdede,
Evere herafter thou him drede!
I am an angel of renoun,
Isent to kepe thi regioun;
More joye me schal falle
In hevene among my feren alle
In an houre of a day
Then in eorthe, I the say,
In an hundred thousend yeer,
Theigh al the world, fer and neer,
Weore myn at my lykyng.
I am an angel, thou art kyng!"
He went in twynklyng of an eye;
No more of him ther nas seye.
Kyng Robert com into halle,
His men he bad anon forth calle,
And alle weore at his wille,
As to heore lord, as hit was skille.
He lovede God and holi churche,
And evere he thoughte wel to worche.
He regned after two yer and more
And lovede God and his lore.
The angel gaf him in warnyng
Of the tyme of his diying.
Whon tyme com to dyye son,
He let write hit riht anon,
Hou God myd His muchel miht
Made him lowe, as hit was riht.
This storie he sende everidel
To his bretheren, under his seel.
And the tyme, whon he schulde dye
That tyme he diyede as he gon seye.
Al this is writen withouten lyye,
At Roome to ben in memorie
At Seint Petres chirche, I knowe.
And thus is Godes miht isowe,
That heighe beoth lowe, theigh hit ben ille,
And lowe heighe, at Godes wille.
Crist, that for us gon dye,
In His kyneriche let us ben heighe,
Evermore to ben above,
Ther is joye, cumfort and love. Amen.
proud; in company; (see note)
lies; (see note)
Sicily; (see note)
somewhat young
had
Christendom
had; Germany
pain [upon] Saracens
named
No one ever knew him to be afraid


was not his equal; (see note)
far or near
flower of chivalry; (see note)
made
vicar
before


(see note)
stronger warrior was not


had


arbiter (judge) on either side
on June 24 (see note)
church; directly
To hear; (see note)

cared more about
our savior
verse; (see note)
repeat

He did not know Latin

(see note)

lies
right away

high
in an instant
lie
eye
heart not steadfast (in virtue)
false
man; power
danger
flower of chivalry
destroy

withstand

had
took
royal pew; (see note)
When; done
looking like him went out; (see note)
went
was forgotten

pride; destroy; (see note)

were glad
waked who
woe (i.e., harm) to work
left there alone
dark
began to call
was none; back
sexton; at the back; (see note)
went
now here
thief; scoundrel
here; evil intent; (see note)
rob
said; rascal
thief
at once
might go to my palace
sexton; thereupon
mad
wanted the church rid
he had fear

began to run
man
palace
called
haste
to lift up
Who says
answered; then
know, before

lie
be hanged and pulled to pieces
traitor according to the law
know

might I thrive
with his company
know
is not; outside

on his knees

silly fool come recently

called; rascal

Let
(see note)
Have; very quickly
fool; will
Until

let
struck; when
burst
requited; pains
struck back
[So] that nose; burst with
insane

puddle
Unattractive they
was not like


Has hit me; desert
our; openly
vagabond; assertion
hanged and pulled to pieces

But

fool; afraid; (see note)
do; villainy
guilt; atone for

Said; know
will
have; worthiness

my
They; avenge; truth
know; they will not; delay
fool
shaved completely; (see note)
Like
your honor
advisor; (see note)
one (same) clothing; shall be dressed


be; companion
learn
Hounds; as it will happen
Shall eat

taster; (see note)
test; you
dignity
called
So that; shorn
like a friar
hand's width above each ear
crown (top of his head); cross
cry out; noise
pay for it
did; villainy

each man
each; mad
showed well; understood [nothing]
thought in no way
could
state
one move; checkmated

cried alas
born
man totally lost
was not; groom nor
ridicule
no man; recognize
changed in appearance; instant
before
here; mournful
(see note)
fortune; experience
had great
could not eat food

meat or fish
nearly brought
before; could; anything

How might (anything) harder befall him
when it might not be otherwise
great plenty
it seemed to him

Treachery; falsehood; guile
Done
goods; great plenty

strife
man; wife
Each



three years
went as man utterly lost
Later it happened upon a day
little

great

delay
they might be; together
their
it seemed to him; they; apart
spare; consideration
arrive in good array
on Holy Thursday; (see note)
messengers
gave; from Persia
Trimmed with ermine

decorated with gems
Christendom
if it had to be made
could not make it
wondered
How; made; hand

Who made it, could
messengers
delay

hideous garments
tails many
recognize; along the way
white
Was never seen such rich silk
decorated with pearls
man saw; like
white attire; horse; (see note)
horse; on which he went
rode
man; bestrode
soon
Royally; was fitting
Such a royal
from where
royally dressed
Their; gainsay; person
girdles (belts)
Every; seemed

Except
look
rode
rode in the same clothing
As a sign he was an underling

more


three brothers
made by necessity
Great
had
leapt; (see note)
afraid
fierce
brothers revenge him
On him who has with clever guile
crown; land
nor; neither
fool; knew; their
Therefore; fool considered
before; times
claim; brotherhood
considered; fool's deed
to grieve
did before
When; brothers did not
said
hoped, somehow
brothers; have
when; gone
alas; wellaway
born

made


hair; tore; wrung


Nebuchadnezzar
before him
was not his equal
According to the record, far nor near
Holofernes
bold; stern
swore; (see note)
By
was no
Except; I



later; grieved them; sorely
died; sorrow
slain; pain
lived; (see note)
Dared he nowhere be seen
there
roots, grass, and poor food
moss
by; grace
cried mercy; sorrowful countenance
before
Now; condition
much worse
When; gave
called

spoke; often
said, nowhere; equal (peer)
far nor near
Because of that name (reputation) I had pride
Like angels that from joy fell; (see note)
eye
took away their power; (see note)
guilt
brought down

pity
had
pain
believed
(see note)
held in contempt
taken away my delight



woe; (see note)
if it

offended You sorely
will not
will

Mary; you; cry
courtesy
Pray

grace
you; acknowledge
Pray


thanked; grace
be quiet
with

Five weeks made their abode
When five weeks had passed
their; wanted to go

fair


When

are you
said; lying; (see note)
are you
know
if it
desire

at once
bade; go
There were left no more
stood; by
forgiveness
Think; were brought down
guilt

underling
misdeed
dread

Sent to protect your region
befall
companions

earth, I tell you

Though
Were


seen

bade at once
were
their; as it was right
Holy Church
to do good

teaching
gave
dying
When; soon
had it written; immediately
with His great
just
every bit of it
brothers; seal
when; die
died
lies
be

disseminated
high; though it be

died
royal lineage; be elevated


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