Art. 97, Scriptum quod peregrini deferunt


Abbreviations: AND: Anglo-Norman Dictionary; ANL: Anglo-Norman Literature: A Guide to Texts and Manuscripts (R. Dean and Boulton); BL: British Library (London); Bodl.: Bodleian Library (Oxford); CT: Chaucer, Canterbury Tales; CUL: Cambridge University Library (Cambridge); DOML: Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library; FDT: French Devotional Texts of the Middle Ages (Sinclair 1979); FDT-1French Devotional Texts of the Middle Ages, . . . First Supplement (Sinclair 1982); IMEV: The Index of Middle English Verse (Brown and Robbins); MED: Middle English Dictionary; MWME: A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050–1500 (Severs et al.); NIMEV: A New Index of Middle English Verse (Boffey and Edwards); NLS: National Library of Scotland (Edinburgh).

14–18 The icon that bleeds, referred to here, is probably the famous one in Beirut, described in other Harley texts. See the explanatory notes to Pilgrimages in the Holy Land (art. 38), line 169, and to The Land of the Saracens (art. 95), lines 45–46.

25 Yldefonti. Saint Ildephonsus, Archbishop of Toledo (d. 667), author of De virginitate perpetua sanctae Mariae. A legend reports that the Virgin Mary appeared to him and presented him with artifacts of her son. Another legend associates him with the transport of the Arca Santa to Toledo (Janice Bennett, p. 31).

28–29 Ananye, Azarie, et Mysaelis. See Daniel 1:7.

30 de oliva. See John 12:12–13. The mention of the olive in addition to the palm may be the result of a confusion about Mount Olive.

32–33 On the biblical roast fish and honeycomb, see Luke 24:42.

37 Saints Eulogius, Lucretia, Eulalia, and Pelagius are all Spanish martyr saints: the priest Eulogius of Córdoba (d. 859); the two early female virgin martyrs Lucretia of western Spain (d. 306) and Eulalia of Merida (d. 304); and the boy martyr Pelagius [Pelayo] of Córdoba (ca. 912–926). The church still claims the tombs of Saint Eulogius and Pelagius, but not the others.

38 Saint Vincent of Saragossa, the patron saint of Lisbon, was martyred under the Emperor Diocletian around 304. His tomb is in Valencia.
Alberis. Alvaro of Córdoba (d. 861), who wrote the life of Saint Eulogius.
38–39 sancti Serani, episcopi, et sancti Iuliani, pontificis. Seranus and Julian are named as holy men in the legend of the Arca Santa’s removal from Jerusalem (Janice Bennett, p. 36). Although they are not reputed to have moved it from Toledo to Oviedo, their presence in the legend may explain the names found here. Or it may be that sancti Serani/Seraui is an error for Saint Severus of Barcelona, a bishop reportedly martyred under Diocletian around 304, and sancti Juliani refers to Saint Julian of Toledo (642–690), a bishop.

40 regis Costi. “King Costus.” This name is unexplained. The Church of the Holy Savior was founded by King Fruela I of Asturias in 761; he was assassinated in 768. He and his wife are interred there.

41 Saint Florentina (d. ca. 612) was the sister of three Iberian bishops (Leander, Isidore of Seville, and Fulgentius).


ABBREVIATIONS: As: Aspin; : Böddeker; Br: Brook; BS: Bennett and Smithers; BZ: Brandl and Zippel; B13: Brown 1937; Dea: J. M. Dean; Do: Dove 1969; Fl: Flood; : Förster; Fu: Furnivall; HB: Hunt and Bliss; Kem: Kemble; Ken: Kennedy; Mi: Millett; Mo: Morris and Skeat; MS: MS Harley 2253; Mu1: H. J. R. Murray; Mu2: J. A. H. Murray; NB: Noomen and van den Boogard; Pa: Patterson; Rev: Revard 2005a; Ri: Ritson 1877; Ro: Robbins 1959; SP: Short and Pearcy; Si: Silverstein; St: Stemmler 1970; Tu: Turville-Petre 1989; Ul: Ulrich; W1: Wright 1839; W2: Wright 1841; W3: Wright 1842; WH: Wright and Halliwell.

49 iniuncte. MS: inuncte.

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Art. 97, Scriptum quod peregrini deferunt












¶ Scriptum quod peregrini deferunt ab Ecclesia Sancti Salvatoris in Asturiis.

¶ Dilectissimi fratres in Christo, qui Deum in celis atque in terra omnia quecunque
vult posse non dubitatis, manifesta vobis relatione et firma veritate intimamus que,
vos audientes, ortamur ut fide vera et plena credatis: quod Deus omnipotens,
mirabili potencia et secreto suo consilio, archam de lignis inputribilibus ab
apostulorum dicipulis factam sive fabricatam, innumeris Dei magnalibus plenam.
Ab urbe Ierosolimitana transtulit in Affricam, ab Affrica in Cartaginem, a
Cartagine in Yspalym, ab Yspali in Tholetum, a Tholeto in Asturias ad Ecclesiam
Sancti Salvatoris, loco qui dicitur Ovetum. Que archa ibidem aperta exstuit. In qua,
aperientes plures invenerunt arcellas aureas, argenteas, et eboreas. Quas aperire
cum Dei timore ac reverencia presumentes viderunt oculis in eisdem subscripta
Dei, magnalia contineri appositis scriptis, per se quie predicta manifestissime

Invenerunt siquidem cristallinam ampullam cum cruore Domini fuso, videlicet,
de latere illius ymaginis quam quidem fideles ad similitudinem Christi fecerunt
quam perfidi Iudei, antiqua perfidia obstinati, ligno affixerunt, et lancea ut veri
vivi Christi latus percusserunt. Ex qua ad fidem passionis Christi astruendam
exiuit sanguis et aqua. De vera cruce Domini maximam partem; de sepulcro
Domini; partem spinee corone; de sindone Domini; de sudario Domini; de tunica
Domini; de pannis in quibus Dominus iacuit in presepio involutus; de pane quo
saciavit Dominus quinque milia hominum; de pane cene Domini; de manna qua
pluit Dominus filiis Israel; de terra montis Oliveti ubi Dominus ascensurus in
celum pedes tenuit; de terra ubi pedes tenuit quando Lazarum suscitavit; de
sepulcro ipsius Lazari; de lacte matris Domini; de capillis et vestimentis eius;
pallium quod dedit ipsa regina celi Yldefonti tunc archiepiscopo Tholotane
sedis; de pallio Elye; manus sancti Stephani prothomartiris; sandale dextrum beati
Petri apostoli; frons beati Iohannis Baptiste et de capillis eius; de ossibus
Innocencium et de articulis digitorum; de ossibus trium puerorum Ananye,
Azarie, et Mysaelis; de capillis cum quibus Maria Magdalena tersit pedes Domini;
de lapide cum quo signatum est sepulcrum Domini; de oliva quam Dominus
tenuit in festo ramis palmarum; de petra montis Synay supra quam Moyses
ieiunavit; de virga cum qua divisit Moyses Mare Rubrum filiis Israel; partem piscis
assi et favum mellis; multa preterea corpora sanctorum; ossa prophetarum; multa
etiam aliorum sanctorum, martirum, confessorum, et virginum. Diversa ibi
pignora in capsis aureis, argenteis, et eboreis, tenentur recondita, quorum
numerum sola Dei sciencia colligit. Extra ipsam archam habentur corpora
sanctorum martirum Eulogii et Lucricie et beate Eulalie; emeritensis sancti Pelagii,
martiris; sancti Vincencii, martiris, atque | Alberis; et sancti Serani, episcopi, et
sancti Iuliani, pontificis, qui predicam archam a Domino benedicam a Tholeto
Ovetum transtulit; et corpus regis Costi, qui Ecclesiam Sancti Salvatoris fundavit;
et corpus sancte Florentine, virginis. Crux etiam ibi monstratur opere angelico
fabricata spectabili modo; sporte apostolorum Petri et Andree; lignum cuiusdam
trabis deficientis ad edificium eiusdem ecclesie quod Deus mirabiliter augmentavit.
In ipsa autem, principali ecclesia habetur una de sex ydriis in quibus Dominus in
nupciis aquam convertit in vinum. Quisquis autem, divina inspiratione vocatus tam
preciosa ac gloriosa sanctorum insignia visitare meruerit, auctoritate Dei et
beatorum apostulorum Petri et Pauli et a Romana ecclesia. Ipsi ecclesie vel eidem
Ecclesie Sancti Salvatoris auctoritate Dei vel hac auctoritate concessa, sciat sibi ab
episcopo eiusdem sedis et a ministris eiusdem terciam partem iniuncte sibi
penitencie condonari sive dimitti, et se in confraternitatem eiusdem ecclesie recipi,
ita ut vir et femina faciat singulas missas celebrare singulis annis vite sue pro
defunctis confraribus Ovetenensis ecclesie. Et, in obitu suo, mittat pro se oblationem     
quam voluerit. Et tunc sui confratres debita pro eo persolvent officia, etc.

¶ A text that pilgrims bring from the Church of the Holy Savior in Asturias.

¶ Most beloved brothers in Christ, who do not doubt that God can accomplish
everything whatsoever he wishes in heaven and on earth, we confide in you with
a clear report and firm truth things with which we encourage you, as you listen, that
you believe with full and true faith: that all-powerful God, according to his marvelous
power and secret resolution, moved an ark made or crafted of incorruptible
wood by the disciples of the Apostles, filled with countless wondrous objects of God.
He moved it from the city of Jerusalem to Africa, from Africa to Carthage, from
Carthage to Seville, from Seville to Toledo, from Toledo to Asturias to the Church
of the Holy Savior, in a place that is called Oviedo. There the ark was opened. In
it, the people opening it found many little gold, silver, and ivory arks. Those who
with fear and reverence of God presumed to open these little arks saw with their
own eyes that in them were contained the wondrous objects of God, signed with
writings attached to them, which declared very clearly the aforementioned things.

Indeed, they found an ampule of crystal with the gore that poured forth from the
Lord, which is to say, from the side of that image which, in fact, the faithful made
in the likeness of Christ and which treacherous Jews, persevering in their ancient
treachery, affixed to wood, the side of which they struck with a lance as if it had
been that of the true living Christ. From this image came forth blood and water to
add to the faithful recreation of the Passion of Christ. They found a very great part
of the Lord’s true cross; [part] of the Lord’s tomb; part of the crown of thorns; of
the Lord’s muslin; of the Lord’s shroud; of the Lord’s tunic; of the swaddling
clothes in which the Lord lay wrapped in the manger; of the bread with which the
Lord satisfied five thousand people; of the bread of the Lord’s last supper; of the
manna that the Lord rained down for the sons of Israel; of earth from Mount Olive
where the Lord set his feet as he was about to ascend to heaven; of earth where he
set his feet when he brought back Lazarus; of the tomb of Lazarus himself; of the
milk of the Lord’s mother; of his hair and clothing; the mantle that the queen of
heaven herself gave to Ildephonsus then when he was archbishop of the see of
Toledo; of the mantle of Elijah; the hand of the first martyr Saint Stephen; the
right sandal of the blessed apostle Peter; the forehead of the blessed John the
Baptist and some of his hair; some of the bones and finger joints of the Innocents;
some of the bones of the three boys Ananias, Azarias, and Misael; some of the hair
with which Mary Magdalen washed the Lord’s feet; some of the stone with which the
Lord’s tomb was sealed; some of the olive that the Lord held on the festival with
palm branches; some of the rock of Mount Sinai upon which Moses fasted; some of
the rod with which Moses parted the Red Sea for the sons of Israel; part of the roast
fish and honeycomb; plus many bodies of saints; bones of prophets; many too of
other saints, martyrs, confessors, and virgins. Various tokens are hidden away there
in gold, silver, and ivory casks, the number of which only the wisdom of God grasps.
In addition to the ark itself, there are held there the bodies of the sainted martyrs
Eulogius and Lucretia and blessed Eulalia; of the early Saint Pelagius,
martyr; of saint Vincent, martyr, and | Alvaro; and of Saint Seranus, bishop, and
of Saint Julian, pontiff, who moved the aforesaid ark that had been blessed by the
Lord from Toledo to Oviedo; and the body of King Costus, who founded the
Church of the Holy Savior; and the body of Saint Florentina, virgin. Also on
display there is a cross handcrafted by the work of angels in remarkable fashion;
the baskets of the apostles Peter and Andrew; the wood of a certain beam that was
insufficient for the construction of the same church, which God miraculously
enlarged. What’s more, in the main church is kept one of the six jugs in which the
Lord converted water into wine at the wedding. Moreover, whoever is summoned by
divine inspiration to visit such precious and glorious trophies of the saints will gain
merit by the authority of God and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul and by the
Roman Church. By the authority of God, or by this authority granted to the Church
itself or to the Church of the Holy Savior, let him know that a third part of the
penance imposed on him is pardoned or remitted by the bishop of the same see and
by its ministers, and that he is received into the confraternity of the same church
in such a way that a man and a woman may have celebrated every single mass for
every single year of their life for the dead confreres of the church of Oviedo. And,
upon his decease, may the person have sent on his behalf an offering as he willed.
And then his confreres will perform offices for him as contracted, and so forth.

Go To Art. 98, Legenda de sancto Etfrido, presbitero de Leoministria, introduction
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