Art. 115, Contemplacioun de la passioun Jesu Crist

ART. 115, CONTEMPLACIOUN DE LA PASSIOUN JESU CRIST: EXPLANATORY NOTES


Abbreviations: AND: Anglo-Norman Dictionary; ANL: Anglo-Norman Literature: A Guide to Texts and Manuscripts (R. Dean and Boulton); BL: British Library (London); Bodl.: Bodleian Library (Oxford); CT: Chaucer, Canterbury Tales; CUL: Cambridge University Library (Cambridge); DOML: Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library; FDT: French Devotional Texts of the Middle Ages (Sinclair 1979); FDT-1French Devotional Texts of the Middle Ages, . . . First Supplement (Sinclair 1982); IMEV: The Index of Middle English Verse (Brown and Robbins); MED: Middle English Dictionary; MWME: A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050–1500 (Severs et al.); NIMEV: A New Index of Middle English Verse (Boffey and Edwards); NLS: National Library of Scotland (Edinburgh).

12–13 “Requerez e vous receverez.” Compare Matthew 21:22, Mark 11:24, John 16:24.

17 ‘Veilles e horez que vous ne entrez en temptacioun.’ Compare Matthew 26:41, Mark 14:38.

48 ‘Crucifiez le! Crucifiez le!’ Compare Luke 23:21, John 19:6.

58–59 ‘Dieu te salve, Roy des Gyus.’ Compare Matthew 27:29, Mark 15:18.

71–72 ‘Iesu Nazarenus, Rex Iudeorum.’ Compare John 19:19. The author quotes the Vulgate Latin.

85–86 ‘Dieux, Dieux, purquoi m’as tu guerpy?’ Compare Matthew 27:46, Mark 15:34.

93 ‘Tout est acomply.’ Compare John 19:30.

94–95 ‘In manus tuas, Domine, comendo spiritum meum.’ Compare Luke 23:46. The author quotes the Vulgate Latin.

99 ‘Verroiement le Fitz Dieu estoit cesti.’ Compare Matthew 27:54, Mark 15:39, Luke 23:47.

106–07 Josep de Arymathie e Nichodemus. The prose Gospel of Nicodemus appears earlier in MS Harley 2253, in the hand of Scribe A (art. 3).


ART. 115, CONTEMPLACIOUN DE LA PASSIOUN JESU CRIST: TEXTUAL NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: As: Aspin; : Böddeker; Br: Brook; BS: Bennett and Smithers; BZ: Brandl and Zippel; B13: Brown 1937; Dea: J. M. Dean; Do: Dove 1969; Fl: Flood; : Förster; Fu: Furnivall; HB: Hunt and Bliss; Kem: Kemble; Ken: Kennedy; Mi: Millett; Mo: Morris and Skeat; MS: MS Harley 2253; Mu1: H. J. R. Murray; Mu2: J. A. H. Murray; NB: Noomen and van den Boogard; Pa: Patterson; Rev: Revard 2005a; Ri: Ritson 1877; Ro: Robbins 1959; SP: Short and Pearcy; Si: Silverstein; St: Stemmler 1970; Tu: Turville-Petre 1989; Ul: Ulrich; W1: Wright 1839; W2: Wright 1841; W3: Wright 1842; WH: Wright and Halliwell.

4 ciel. So MS. HB: tiel.

6 qe. So MS. HB: que.

17 temptacioun. So MS. HB: temptatioun.

18 porreit. So MS. HB: porroit.

22 pointe. So MS (e abbreviated). HB: point.

34 court. So HB. MS: comt.
jugié. So MS. HB: jugé.
ciel. So MS. HB: tiel.

37 ycel. So MS. HB: ytel.

39 subjeccioun. So MS. HB: subjectioun.

42 icel. So MS. HB: icil.

50 A icele. So HB. MS: A icele A icele (words are repeated at the top of a new folio).
houre. So MS. HB: omitted.

51 Diable. So MS. HB: Deable.
nostre. So MS (ost abbreviated). HB: notre.

56 sanglante. So MS. HB: sanglant.

60 mauntel. So HB. MS: maunterel (er abbreviated).
de. So HB. MS: te.

69 quar. So MS (ua abbreviated). HB: qar.

74 nostre. So MS (ost abbreviated). HB: notre.

86 quar. So MS. HB: qar.

89 peynes. So MS. HB: poynes.
quar. So MS. HB: qar.

90 vostre. So MS (ost abbreviated). HB: votre.

94 Adonqe. So MS. HB: Adonque.

99 Verroiement. So MS. HB: Verreiement.

100 Gews. So MS. HB: Guws.

 
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Art. 115, Contemplacioun de la passioun Jesu Crist

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¶ Ici comence contemplacioun de la passioun Jesu Crist. E comence a comply pur
ce que a cel oure Judas Scarioth ly vendy.

¶ Quant vous dites comply, pensir devez mout ententivement coment Judas vendy
Nostre Seigneur pur xxx deners, e pur ce, a ciel oure, vous rendez coupable a Dieu
priveement en vostre cuer — e a prestre de bouche, si vous le poez avoir — de
quanque vous avez le jour mesfait encountre les comaundementz Dieu, e de ce qe
vous avetz en delit en vanités, e si vous eiez malement ou deshonestement parlé,
ou de vos yeux folement regardé, e de quanqe vous quidez le jour par nul de vos
synk sentz encountre la volenté de vostre Creatour avoir pecchié. Si en requerez
devoutement merci e pardoun, e certeyne esperaunce eyez que vous averez ce que
vous dreitement requerez en bounté, eynssi qe vous soiez verroiement repentant
e bien confés, quar ce dit Nostre Seigneur en le Ewangelye, “Requerez e vous
receverez.”

Dites donque, a cest COMPLY, einsi:

¶ “Douz Sire Jesu Crist, je te renk graces, qe a oure de comply estoiez trahy de
Judas Scarioth e vendy pur xxx deners. E aprés cest comply, tu dys a trois de tes
deciples, ‘Veilles e horez que vous ne entrez en temptacioun,’ e pus t’en alas tu un
poy de tes deciples a la mountaunce de tant come um porreit rochier une piere, e
e te cochas a la terre, e prias troiz foiz ton Piere que cele passioun, qu’adonque te fust     
en venant, passast outre de toy, si ce | pust estre. E donque apparust un aungle a
toi e te counforta, e tant come tu fus en t’oreysoun, tu suas d’angoyse goutes de
sang. E dementiers dormirent tes desciples, mes tu soul ne dormys pointe jesque
ataunt qe tu moruz en la croys. E pus dormys el sepulcre jesqe au jour de ta
resurexioun. E adonqe eveillas.”


¶ A MATINES, devez mout ententivement penser, eynsi e dire:

¶ “Je te renk graces, douz Seigneur Jesu Crist, qe fus a matin, par la tresoun Judas
ton desciple, pur nous pris. Aprés fus lyé, despoillé, batu, buffeté, escharny,
fausement acusé, de la orde salyve as Gyus soillé, de lur despitouse paroles ledengé,
de tous tes desciples gerpi, tot soul lessé, de toun apostre refusé pur Seigneur, e
toute cele nuyt vilement e crueument treité e defolé, dount je te mercy, tresdouz
Seigneur, de tout moun cuer.”

¶ A houre de PRIME, dites:

“Je te renk graces, douz Sire Jesu Crist, de ce qe a houre de prime fuz come lere
lyé e mené a la court devant Pylat, e a ly baillé pur estre a tort jugié. E a ciel houre,
reporta Judas arere les xxx deners qu’il avoit resçu pur sa tresoun faire, e tantost
se pendy meismes de deol par deseperaunce.


“A ycel houre, tresdouz Seignur, te acuserent les Gyus a Pylat de trois choses.
Primes te surmistrent eux fausement que tu avoyez deffendu que l’em ne donast
point truage au roy Cesar, en qui subjeccioun eux estoient. Puis te surmistrent
fausement que tu te fes roy pur tolyr a Cesar son regne terrien. Aprés ce, te
accuserent de ce qe tu dys e voirs fu, que tu fuz le Fitz Dieu.

“A icel houre, fus tu envoyé e presenté de par Pylat a Herodes. Si ne voleyes yleqe
mot soner, dont l’em te tynt a fol, e en escharnissement e moskerye te fist um vestir
de une vesture blaunche come fol. E tout ensi fus tu reenvoyé a Pylat.”


¶ A houre de TIERCE, dites:

“Je te renk graces, douz Seigneur Jesu Crist, de ce qe tu soffris si debonayrement
qe, a houre de tierce, les felouns Gyus crierent encountre toy si hydousement,
‘Crucifiez le! Crucifiez le!’ Adonque, fus tu mené hors taunt come eus treterent de
ta mort e countroverent la sentence de ta perdicioun.

“A icele | houre, maunda la femme Pilat a soun seigneur qu’il ne s’entremeist mes
de toy, e ce par l’entisement de Diable que voleit desturber nostre redempcioun,
pur laquiele tu deignas soffryr si dure passioun.

“A icel houre, lava Pilat ses mayns e ne se voloit plus entremettre de toy. E par ice
se quida il fere net e quites qu’il ne fust coupable de ta mort. A icele houre, fus tu
lyé al pyler tot nu, e tant batu de escourges qu’il n’y avoit lu en ton cors que ne fust
dolerousement sanglante.


“A cele houre, te vestirent d’un mauntel purpre, e plyerent une coroune d’espynes
e la mistrent sur ta teste, e en moskaunt te saluerent, e distrent, ‘Dieu te salve, Roy
des Gyus,’ e te ferirent en la teste, e escrachierent en ta face, e, en genullaunt, te
‘ahorerent.’ E pus te ousterent le mauntel de pourpre, e te vestirent tes autres dras,
e te chacerent vers le mount de Calvarye pur pendre e crucifier.

“A cele houre, te sywy ta douce mere ensemblement ové autres femes
anguissousement plorauntz pur toy, a quieles tu te tournas e prias qe eles ne
plorassent pas pur toi.

“Cestes peynes e mout plus souffris tu pur nous entre tierce e mydy.”

¶ A houre de MYDY, dites:

“Je te renk graces, douz Seigneur Jesu Crist, qe, a houre de midy, estendis ton
benet cors en la croys, e soffris tes mayns e tes piés de grosse clous si penousement
trespersier e atachier en cele croys, en laquele furent quatre manere de fuist: quar
le fuist qu’estoit dressié countremount fu de cedre, le traversein fu de palmer, e le
soverein de tous (en lequel fust escrit en Hebreu, Gryu, e Latyn, ‘Iesu Nazarenus,
Rex Iudeorum’) estoit d’olyve, e le fuist desouth (que porta e soustint tous les
autres) estoit de cyprés.

“A icel houre, requis tu nostre tres merciable Dieu ton Piere qu’il pardonast as
felouns Gyus ta mort tant cruele.

“A icel houre, departirent ils tes dras, mes la cote demora entiere, pur laquele eux
mistrent sort pur savoir a qui ele dust escheyer. A icel houre, te escrierent e
blasfemerent, te escharnisoient e te despisoient, les trespassauntz par le chemyn.

“A icel houre, promis tu al laroun paradys.

“A cele houre, baillas tu ta tres seintisme mere a seint Johan l’Ewangeliste a garder.
A cele houre, devynt le solail obscur e tenebrous, e jeske a haute nonne perdi sa
clareté.”

¶ A houre de NONNE, dites:

“Je te renk graces, douz Seignur Jesu Crist, qe, a houre de nonne, levas un grant
cry en la croys, la ou tu pendys, e dys en Hebreu, ‘Dieux, Dieux, purquoi m’as tu
guerpy?’ Ce ne dis tu pas | pur ce que tu fussez de Dieu ton Piere gerpy — quar ce
ne fet une a crere — mes pur ce que vis si poi des bien creauntz en toi, de tous ceux
pur qui redempcion e salu tu avoies souffert. E uncore, adonque, soffris taunt de
tormyntz e peynes, quar de tout le mound ne poeit um trover que en toi fermement
crust, a cel houre, for qe vostre beneitte mere e un soul laroun qe pendy pres de
toi. Par quoi, tu (qui es Fontaigne de Vie!), tu pleinsies adonque que tu ustes seif,
e les enfruntz Giws te tendirent eysyl medlé ov fyel, de quoi tu ne voleies beyvre.
A quel houre, tu dis, ‘Tout est acomply,’ quar donque fust fet e chevy quant que fust
affere devant ta preciouse mort. Adonqe, crias tu a haute vois, ‘In manus tuas,
Domine, comendo spiritum meum.’ Ensi rendis tu le espirit.



“A icel houre, fendirent les peres, e avynt grant terremeot. Monumentz
desclostrent, e en issirent plusours cors des seintz, la coverture del temple fendy
parmy. Pur queles merveilles e plusours autres, que adonqe avindrent, dit Centurio
e les justes que ov ly erent, ‘Verroiement le Fitz Dieu estoit cesti.’ Adonqe, vindrent
les Gews e rompirent les jaunbes dé deus larouns que pendirent pres de toi, d’une
part e d’autre. E lé vostres ne briserent il point car ils te troverent mort. A cel
houre, mes, un chivaler qe avoit a noun Longieus te vint ferir de une lance parmi
le costie, e tantost en issi sang e eawe pur nous rechater hors del poer del Deable
e laver nos almes de le ordure de pecchié.”


¶ A houre de VESPERS, dites:

“Je te renke graces, douz Sire Jesu Crist, qe soffris qe Josep de Arymathie e
Nichodemus (lesqueux ne consentirent pas a ta mort) venissent, a houre de
vespers, en le honour de toi pur oustier ton seintisme cors de la crois, lesqueux par
le congié de Pilat le pristrent jus de cele crois, e le cochierent a terre, e le oyndrent
de myrre, e le envoluperent en un drap delyé, e le mistrent en sepulcre veant ta
benette mere, que estoit mout dolente pur toy.” |
 
¶ Here begins the contemplation of the Passion of Jesus Christ. And it begins at
compline because at that hour Judas Iscariot sold him.

¶ When you say compline, you must meditate attentively on how Judas sold Our
Lord for thirty deniers, and for this, at that hour, you confess guilt to God privately
in your heart — and to a priest by mouth, if you are able to do this — for whatever
misdeeds you have done that day against the commandments of God, and for what
you have done for the delight of vain things, and if you might have spoken
wickedly or dishonestly, or with your eyes looked foolishly, and for whatever you
consider yourself to have sinned on that day by any of your five senses against the
will of your Creator. Thus you should ask devoutly for mercy and pardon, and have
firm hope that you will have what you rightly ask for in good will, as long as you be
truly repentant and well confessed, because this is what Our Lord says in the
Gospel, “Ask and you will receive.”

Speak then, at this COMPLINE, in this manner:

¶ “Sweet Lord Jesus Christ, I render thanks to you, who at the hour of compline
were betrayed by Judas Iscariot and sold for thirty deniers. And after this compline,
you said to three of your disciples, ‘Watch and pray lest you enter into temptation,’
and then you went a little way from your disciples as far as a man is able to throw
a stone, and laid yourself on the ground, and prayed three times to your Father
that this passion, whatever might happen to you, might pass from you, if this |
might be. And then appeared an angel to you and comforted you, and as long as
you were in prayer, you sweated in anguish drops of blood. And meanwhile your
disciples slept, but you alone did not sleep at all until the time that you died on the
cross. And then you slept in the sepulcher until the day of your resurrection. And
at that time you woke up.”

¶ At MATINS, you ought to meditate very attentively, and speak in this manner:

“I render thanks to you, sweet Lord Jesus Christ, who in the morning, by the
treason of your disciple Judas, for us were taken. Afterwards you were bound,
stripped, beaten, buffeted, mocked, falsely accused, dirtied with filthy saliva by the
Jews, insulted by their contemptuous words, abandoned by all your disciples, left
all alone, by your apostle denied as Lord, and all that night vilely and cruelly drawn
and defiled, for which I thank you, most sweet Lord, with all my heart.”

¶ At the hour of PRIME, say:

“I render thanks to you, sweet Lord Jesus Christ, because at the hour of prime you
were like a thief bound and led to the court before Pilate, and handed over to him
to be unjustly judged. And at that hour, Judas returned the thirty deniers that he
had received to commit his treason, and immediately hanged himself in grief
through despair.

“At that hour, most sweet Lord, the Jews accused you before Pilate of three things.
First they falsely accused you that you had forbidden anyone to give any tribute to
King Caesar, under whose authority they lived. Next they falsely accused you that
you made yourself king to take from Caesar his earthly realm. After this, they
accused you for what you said and what you were, that you were the Son of God.

“At that hour, you were sent and presented on Pilate’s behalf to Herod. Then you
did not wish to speak a word there, on account of which men held you to be a fool,
and with taunts and mockery made you dress in white clothes like a fool. And thus
were you sent back to Pilate.”

¶ At the hour of TIERCE, say:

“I render thanks to you, sweet Lord Jesus Christ, for what you suffered so
graciously when, at the hour of tierce, the wicked Jews cried out against you so
hideously, ‘Crucify him! Crucify him!’ And at that time, you were led outside even
as they discussed your death and devised the sentence of your destruction.

“At that | hour, Pilate’s wife sent word to her lord that he should no longer concern
himself with you, and this at the instigation of the Devil who wished to interfere
with our redemption, for which you deigned to suffer so hard a passion.

“At that hour, Pilate washed his hands and no longer wished to concern himself
with you. And by this he thought to make himself clean and free such that he would
not be guilty of your death. At that hour, you were tied to the pillar entirely naked,
and so beaten with whips that there was no place on your body that was not
grievously bleeding.

“At that hour, they dressed you with a purple cloak, and wove a crown of thorns and
placed it on your head, and mockingly saluted you, and said, ‘God save you, King of
the Jews,’ and struck you on the head, and spit in your face, and, kneeling,
‘worshiped’ you. And then they removed the purple cloak, and clothed you [in] your
other garments, and drove you toward Mount Calvary to be hanged and crucified.

“At that hour, your sweet mother followed you together with other women crying
in anguish for you, to whom you turned and asked that they not cry for you.


“These pains and many more you suffered for us between tierce and sext.”

¶ At the hour of SEXT, say:

“I render thanks to you, sweet Lord Jesus Christ, who, at the hour of sext, stretched
your blessed body on the cross, and permitted your hands and your feet to be
pierced so painfully with large nails and to be attached to that cross, in which there
were four kinds of wood: for the wood that was raised upwards was of cedar, the
traverse was of palm, and the highest part of all (on which was written in Hebrew,
Greek, and Latin, ‘Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews’) was of olive, and the wood
underneath (which carried and held up all the others) was of cyprus.

“At that hour, you asked our very merciful God your Father that he pardon the
wicked Jews for your death so cruel.

“At that hour, they divided up your garments, but the tunic remained whole, for
which they cast lots to know to whom it should fall. At that hour, the passersby on
the road defamed and blasphemed you, and mocked you and insulted you.

“At that hour, you promised paradise to the thief.

“At that hour, you entrusted your very holy mother to Saint John the Evangelist to
protect. At that hour, the sun became dark and clouded, and until high noon it lost
its brightness.”

¶ At the hour of NONE, say:

“I render thanks to you, sweet Lord Jesus Christ, who, at the hour of none, raised
a great cry on the cross, where you were hanging, and said in Hebrew, ‘God, God,
why have you forsaken me?’ You did not say this | because you had been forsaken
by God your Father — since this would not be something to believe — but because
you saw so few who believed truly in you, among all those for whose redemption
and health you had suffered. And still, at that time, you suffered so many torments
and pains, because in all the world no one could be found who believed strongly
in you, at that hour, except your blessed mother and a single thief who hung near
you. For which reason, you (who are the Fountain of Life!), you complained still
that you were thirsty, and the ravenous Jews offered you vinegar mixed with gall,
of which you did not wish to drink. At that hour, you said, ‘All is fulfilled,’ because
then was done and achieved whatever was to be done before your precious death.
At that time, you cried out in a raised voice, ‘Into your hands, Lord, I entrust my
spirit.’ Thus you gave up your soul.

“At that hour, the tombstones split, and a great earthquake occurred. Tombs were
unsealed, and out from them came many bodies of saints, the roof of the temple
bursting among them. For these marvels and many others, which occurred at that
time, said the centurion and the righteous ones with him, ‘Truly this one is the Son
of God.’ At that time, the Jews came and broke the legs of the two thieves who
hung near you, on one side and the other. And yours they did not break at all
because they found you dead. At that hour, however, a knight who had the name
Longinus happened to strike you with a lance in the side, and immediately issued
from it blood and water to redeem us from the power of the Devil and to cleanse
our souls of the filth of sin.”

¶ At the hour of VESPERS, say:

“I render thanks to you, sweet Lord Jesus Christ, who permitted that Joseph of
Arimathea and Nicodemus (those who did not consent to your death) came, at the
hour of vespers, in your honor to remove your holy body from the cross, who with
Pilate’s permission took it down from that cross, and placed it in the earth, and
anointed it with myrrh, and wrapped it in a fine cloth, and placed it in the
sepulcher in the sight of your blessed mother, who was very mournful for you.”
 


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