25. Thomas of India

Play 25, THOMAS OF INDIA: FOOTNOTES


1 Then Jesus comes and sings “Peace be with you” and he shall not stay (see note)

2 This is the day that the Lord has made (see note)

3 Jesus comes again and sings “Peace be with you” and he shall not stay

4 The table is prepared and the sixth apostle should offer honeycomb and fish, saying

5 Here he breathes on them

6 Here he shall depart from them

7 Lines 279–80: Yet I wish neither friend nor foe / knew how sorrowful I was

8 Here he goes to the [other] disciples

9 So did they steal your clothes from you

10 No one [else] could bring you to that understanding

11 Here ends Thomas of India


Play 25, THOMAS OF INDIA: EXPLANATORY NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: Chester: The Chester Mystery Cycle, ed. Lumiansky and Mills (1974); CT: The Canterbury Tales, ed. Benson (1987); DSL: Dictionary of the Scots Language; Elliott: The Apocryphal New Testament, ed. Elliott; EP: The Towneley plays, ed. England and Pollard (1897); MED: Middle English Dictionary; MS: Huntington MS HM 1 (“the Towneley manuscript”); N-Town: The N-Town Plays, ed. Sugano (2007); OED: Oxford English Dictionary; REED: Records of Early English Drama; SC: The Towneley Plays, eds. Stevens and Cawley (1994); s.d.: stage direction; Whiting: Whiting, Proverbs, Sentences, and Proverbial Phrases; York: The York Corpus Christi Plays, ed. Davidson (2011).

This play is problematic in several respects, from its awkward and anachronistic inclusion of the apostle Paul — a figure that enters the biblical narrative only later, initially as the Christian-persecuting Saul, and here a notably misogynistic presence (see note to line 97 below) — to its famously altered title, featured as the frontispiece to the manuscript facsimile. The original title of Resurreccio domini — the same as that of play 23 — has been crudely crossed out, and Thomas Indie, the title given in the explicit, written below. It is possible that the original title was taken from the exemplar itself, and altered simply to differentiate this play from the earlier Resurrection play. The latter, original title is arguably better suited to the extant play; only the second part focuses on Thomas and his doubts concerning the resurrection of Jesus, and does not allude to the apostle’s legendary evangelization of India. That second part (lines 65–648, all in 8-line stanzas) forms a relatively coherent play in itself (likely intended as a stand-alone play — see note to line 272 below), largely based on Luke 24:36–49 and John 20:19–29, to which has been added a prologue (in 6-line stanzas rhymed aabccb) involving Mary Magdalene, Peter, and Paul, which focuses on news of the resurrection in relation to the supposed unreliability of women’s witness (for further discussion, see Epp, “Doubting Thomas”).


2 I bryng to amende. That is, I bring news, or a message, to cheer you up; see MED bringen (v.), sense 4b. Much like another Mary, the mother of Jesus, whose immediate response to the startling, miraculous news brought to her by the angel Gabriel was, in the Towneley version of the Annunciation, “I trow bodword that thou me bryng” (7.c.146), Mary Magdalene effectively serves here as the willing vessel for God’s word, which is disbelieved even by men of faith.

24 Tryst it stedfast and cowth. That is, trust what I tell you as being a stable, known truth.

30 Ther is no trust in womans saw. The misogynist views attributed here to Paul are commonplace in medieval antifeminist writing, which frequently cites Paul’s canonical letters (such as 1 Timothy 2) as an authority. This particular line echoes one by Adam in York 6.149–50.

38 Till an appyll she is lyke. The comparison of woman to a fair but rotten apple is proverbial, and provides an implicit link to Eve.

56–58 I dar lay . . . . That we shall here anothere. That is, I dare pledge my life that, before we go to bed, we shall hear another preposterous story from Mary Magdalene.

60 Or this thrid day be away. As SC note, the attempted emendation in the MS to this apparently defective line (Or this [be the] thrid day) makes little sense in context, this being the third day already (SC p. 617n60); this edition follows their own suggested emendation, making the line refer to the approaching end of the third day.

65 Waloway my lefe deres. That is, alas, my beloved friends. Peter’s line is likely the beginning of the original play, written in 8-line stanzas. He addresses all the gathered disciples of Jesus, rather than just Paul and Mary Magdalene, who apparently vanishes from the text at this point. Mary Magdalene is mentioned in this stanza (line 69) and again at line 412 as a credible witness to the resurrection (in sharp contrast to the added prologue), but only in the third person; she does not speak.

77–78 When I my lord Jesu forsoke / For drede of womans myght. As he more fully narrates in lines 83–88, the first of Peter’s predicted three denials (see John 13:38) occurs when he is asked by a female servant whether he is one of the disciples (John 18:15–18), as he goes to warm himself by a fire.

79–80 A rightwys dome I will me loke / That I tyne not that semely sight. That is, I will hope for a righteous judgment in order that I never lose that fair sight — namely, Jesus, who will of course be in heaven, where Peter still hopes to be, despite his denial.

82 abastir. SC’s emendation from the evidently nonsensical MS reading a barstir (see Textual Note and SC p. 620n82) accords with MED, which suggests this as a comparative form of abaishen (v.), sense 1d (citing this line), meaning “more upset” or more abashed.

85–86 And for a woman . . . spake to me of frastir. That is, a woman who stood there spoke to me in order to test me. As noted by SC (p. 620n86) these lines were inadvertently left out of the Surtees edition of the plays, and subsequently from EP, and hence were not available to the compilers of the MED or OED. The otherwise unattested form frastir is evidently a derivative of a verb that otherwise appears in the MS as frast, meaning “to test, to try, or to ask” (see MED fraisten (v.), sense 1); and in 3.265, 4.53, 6.145, 17.313, and 27.154.

97 Paul (speech heading). As noted in the headnote, Paul’s presence in this play is highly anachronistic. However, here as at line 313 and 473 (similarly part of what was likely the original pageant), his name appears to have been substituted for that of John (who commonly speaks immediately after Peter) or for a more generic “Apostle 2” (where Peter would be Apostle 1); the next named speaker is Apostle 3, followed by Apostle 4, and so forth. Unlike Peter at lines 74–88 and 305, Paul is identified only by speech rubrics and never in the dialogue, even in the prologue (except arguably by the misogyny of his arguments there).

104, s.d. Tunc venit Jesus et cantat pax vobis et non tardabit. Jesus enters and sings the words ascribed to him in John 20:19 (which is also what a bishop would sing at mass, rather than the usual Dominus vobiscum — “the Lord be with you”), then immediately exits — an action repeated after line 120 (see Dutka, Music in the English Mystery Plays, p. 73). In SC as in prior editions, the subsequent line in the MS is treated as part of the stage direction, although it is clearly assigned to the Third Apostle (see the following note). The stage direction as translated in SC thus reads: “Then Jesus comes and sings: ‘Peace be with you, and it shall not be long; this is the day that the Lord has made’” (p. 621n104+SD).

After 104 Hec est dies quam fecit dominus. This extrametrical Latin line (see previous note), translated in line 105, is from Psalm 117/118:24, and was sung as part of the Easter liturgy; it is possibly intended to be sung here.

107–10 The Holy Gost before us glad . . . . Red clethyng apon he had. The third Apostle mistakes Jesus for the Holy Spirit, who will light upon them at Pentecost (Acts 2; an event not represented in Towneley). The feast of Pentecost is associated with red vestments, but Jesus is frequently represented as wearing red clothing in his post-Resurrection appearances — red symbolizing his blood (but see also Isaiah 63:1–2, quoted at the ascension in Chester 20.121–24).

120, s.d. Iterum venit Jesus et cantat pax vobis et non tardabit. See note above to 104, s.d. Jesus reappears immediately prior to his first full speech at line 129, but that entrance is not marked with an additional stage direction.

121–22 Whoso commys in Goddys name / Ay blissid mot he be. These lines translate the second part of the Sanctus hymn of the Latin mass, Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini, based on Matthew 21:9 and Psalm 117/118:26; in Matthew 23:39, after his entry into Jerusalem, Jesus says, “For I say to you, you shall not see me henceforth till you say: ‘Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.’”

133–35 Grope and fele . . . . has goost none. See Luke 24:39. His body would appear bloody, even aside from his red garments (see note to lines 107–10 above): in the next stanza he refers specifically to his visible “woundes fyfe” (line 139) but also to his being “strenkyllid with blood so red” (line 154).

143 Of syn who will hym shryfe. That is, whoever will confess his sins.

145–48 For oon so swete a thyng . . . . To batell was I broght. That is, I went to battle for one sweet thing that I had created — the human soul.

187 Of a madyn withoutten steven. The word “steven” here means alteration or mutability, as doubtfully defined by the MED (stevene (n.2), sense 2d), in relation to the term’s use to refer to time: Mary is effectively outside time itself, not only as a perpetual virgin but also by virtue of her ascension into heaven according to Catholic doctrine, where she remains changeless.

200 My manhede eft to tast. That is, to prove that he is a living man.

205–08 That I ette is . . . . Fulfillyd that it be. See Luke 24:44.

233–40 The grace of the Holy Gost . . . . bonden be he. See John 20:22–23. Commentators regularly connect the divine breathing here with that of God giving life to Adam in Genesis 2:7 (the Greek texts share the same verb); the disciples will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, but here are symbolically reborn.

251 Of mysbelefe that we be noght. That is, in order that we should not disbelieve.

269–70 Jesu stode witnes betwene / That with hym dwelland was. That is, Jesus stood as witness (to his resurrection) among those who had lived with him.

272 Safe oonly Thomas. Thomas enters here (but remains apart from the others until after line 296), this line serving to tell the audience who he is. The story of Thomas’ doubts is found only in John 20:24–29; the York Weavers’ pageant (York 45) dramatizes the legend that, in a reversal of this story, Thomas was the sole (and hence disbelieved) witness to the Assumption of Mary — an event for which he was miraculously transported from India, where according to tradition he brought the gospel and was martyred (hence the name Thomas of India). As indicated by the reference to the peacock in his first line, Thomas is richly dressed, but vows by the end of the play to give his fine clothing — emblems of his wealth and pride (see lines 577, 585–86, and 601–02) — to the poor, allowing the biblical episode to serve as a stand-alone morality play.

319 And lyfyng man. That is, Jesus has shown himself to be alive.

321–22 Apartly / Fantom dyssavys thee. Obviously an illusion (or a ghost — see line 324) deceives you.

331–32 How a fysh swalod Jonas / Thre dayes therin he lay. The story of Jonah and the whale (Jonas 1–2) is treated in Matthew 12:39–40 as a sign of the resurrection of Jesus (see also lines 515–19).

343–44 Therfor am I full sore dredand / That who myght his boote be. That is, I am highly doubtful that anyone could save him (see MED dreden (v.), sense 6).

360 And I withoutten red. And I without any course of action — that is, bewildered (see MED red (n.1), sense 3a(d)).

384 What nede were els thertill. That is, why else would this — his becoming fully, physically human — be necessary?

416 Hir sorow of syn to safe. That is, to prevent her sorrow from becoming excessive and thus sinful.

425 Lefe. While this could mean “Dear,” the adjective would normally be followed by a politely affectionate term such as “brother” as it is at line 313. The lack of a subsequent noun suggests it works better as an imperative verb.

436 Whils that he lyfyd ay. That is, while he was still alive; see MED aye (adv.), sense 3.

440 His lyfe noght trow I may. That is, I cannot believe that he is alive.

441–42 Thyne hard hart thi saull will dwyrd / Thomas bot if thou blyn. That is, your hard heart will destroy your soul, Thomas, unless you cease (to speak this way). The MED entry for the verb dwirden (defined doubtfully as “?to confound, lead astray; ?destroy”; and unattested in the OED) is based on this single instance as glossed in EP (p. 400, also doubtfully); dwyrd might be formed from de- (OED, sense 1c, meaning “completely”) and werde (OED “harm or injure”) to signify “harm completely” — that is, to destroy.

449–52 That God . . . . that woundid wyght. I believe full well that God appeared to you as a ghost (that is, in spirit) but not that Jesus, that wounded creature, appeared bodily.

456 Longeus the knyght. See line 566 as well as 20.655 and note.

459–68 With Lucas . . . . cutt had beyn. Reference to the Emmaus episode (here a castle rather than a city or town as in the Towneley Pilgrims play — see note to 24.273) strongly contradicts the expression of doubt concerning the resurrection and Mary Magdalene’s witness in the added prologue (see also lines 497–502 and note below). The detail concerning Jesus breaking bread as cleanly as a knife could cut it also occurs in the poem Cleanness (lines 1105–08).

471–72 If ye me told sich seven / The more ye myght me teyn. That is, the more often you tell me such things, the more it will anger me.

497–502 The cors that dyed on tre . . . . was gone. This Apostle claims that he and others have already seen the empty tomb and so know that Jesus has risen, contrary to the prologue. In regard to the “sudary” (line 501), see the notes to 23.407 and 16.99–102.

535 Thyne absens gars thi saull be shent. That is, your absence at his appearance to the rest of us causes injury or confusion to your soul.

557–58 Noght bot I myght my fynger wyn / In sted as nayle stode. That is, unless I might reach (or touch) with my finger the place where the nail stood; see John 20:25.

565 no fres. The word “fres(e)” is only attested as part of such a phrase (see MED fres(e (n.1), sense b), used here to indicate that Thomas should fear no negative consequences in touching the wounds of Jesus.

577 Kest away my staf will I. In the lines that follow, Thomas will also cast away his fine clothing (see note to line 272, above).

606 clothes of pall. Jesus is wearing red clothing in this play (see note to lines 107–10 above), but the primary reference is to the scarlet robe of the passion (which is nonetheless not clearly represented in Towneley; see note to 19.313); the term can also refer to grave cloths.

641–48 Thomas for thou felys me . . . . heven be theym yare. See John 20:29.


Play 25, THOMAS OF INDIA: TEXTUAL NOTES



ABBREVIATIONS: EP: The Towneley Plays, ed. England and Pollard (EETS, 1897); Facs: The Towneley Cycle: A Facsimile of Huntington MS HM 1, ed. Cawley and Stevens; MED: Middle English Dictionary; MS: Huntington MS HM 1 (base text); SC: The Towneley Plays, ed. Stevens and Cawley (EETS, 1994); s.d.: stage direction; Surtees: The Towneley Mysteries, ed. Raine; York: The York Corpus Christi Plays, ed. Davidson (2011).

Title Thomas Indie. The hand for this added title (see headnote to this play in Explanatory Notes) is normally asserted to be later than that of the main scribe, but may be the same, albeit written more finely. The few distinguishing marks are apparent elsewhere in MS; for example, the same e, with a slight ornamental flourish on the center stroke, shows up in the first line of the Lazarus pageant (which lacks the “distinctive script” that characterizes the first two lines of plays 20–27 as well as play 8 — see Facs, pp. xiii–xiv, and the first note below).

Before 1 A later hand has faintly written Lyng in the right margin beside the decorated initial H. (See the first Textual Note to play 22 above.)

1–3 Hayll brether . . . . and knawe. MS: the first three lines are written in a formal variant of the main Anglicana hand.

14 hym grymly. So EP, SC. MS: hym s grymly.

24 Tryst it stedfast and cowth. MS: above this line in the top margin is a partial bar of music, the top portion having been cropped.

27 If. MS: the word is written in the left margin, the scribe having apparently started the line with the next word, we.

43 At the colke within. MS: in the right margin following this line is a scrawled word that looks like Grony h, above which are two other scrawled and partial capital letters.

53 Mary Magdalene (speech heading). MS: beside this in the margin is a black cross.

60 Or this thrid day be away. MS: Or this be þe thrid day, with be þe written in another hand above the line with a caret mark. See Explanatory Note.

75 When I for care and cold qwoke. MS: a metrical mark intended to separate lines 75 and 76 is misplaced before qwoke but repeated in the correct position.

82 abastir. So SC. EP: abarstir. MS: a barstir. See Explanatory Note.

85–86 And for a woman . . . of frastir. These lines are missing from Surtees and subsequently from EP. See Explanatory Note.

97 Paul (speech heading). See Explanatory Note.

112 Full myldly he did lythe. So EP, SC. MS: he did is written in a different hand above the cancelled word vs (“us”).

158 It. MS: I is written over y.

170 Forsoth that it is I. So EP. SC: Forsoth that is I. MS: for soth that is I.

215 cors. MS: the first half of this word is badly worn.

235, s.d. Hic respirat in eos. This marginal stage direction follows line 234 (that is, lines 233–34, written as one line in MS) both in EP and in SC, which is dramatically awkward.

389 he. MS: h is written over y.

429 thou. MS: this word is preceded by he with the h lightly cancelled.

466 sopere. So EP. SC: soper. MS: soper with a flourish indicating final e.

473 brothere. So EP. SC: brother. MS: brother with a flourish indicating final e.

521 Certys. MS: rt is rubbed and illegible.

624–27 Ilk man on . . . . dark as nyght. MS: in the right margin opposite these lines, parallel to the edge of the page, a later hand has written In my nam.

 
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25. Thomas of India

from: The Towneley Plays  2017

















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Mary Magdalene
Peter
Paul
Apostle 3
Apostle 4
Apostle 5
Jesus
Apostle 6
Apostle 7
Apostle 8
Apostle 9
Apostle 10
Thomas

Thomas Indie

Hayll, brether, and God be here.
I bryng to amende youre chere:
Trist ye it and knawe
He is rysen, the soth to say.
I met hym goyng bi the way;
He bad me tell it you.

Do way, woman, thou carpys wast.
It is som spirite or els som gast;
Othere was it noght.
We may trow on no kyns wyse
That ded man may to lyfe ryse.
This then is oure thoght.

It may be sothe for mans mede
The Jues maide hym grymly blede
Thrugh feete, handys, and syde;
With nayles on rode thay dyd hym hang,
Wherfor, woman, thou says wrang,
As myght I blys abide.

Do way youre threpyng! Ar ye wode?
I sagh hym that dyed on roode
And with hym spake with mowth.
Therfor you both, red I,
Putt away youre heresy;
Tryst it stedfast and cowth.

Do way, woman; let be thi fare
For shame and also syn;
If we make never sich care,
His lyfe may we not wyn.

And it is wretyn in oure law:
Ther is no trust in womans saw,
No trust faith to belefe,
For with thare quayntyse and thare gyle
Can thay laghe and wepe somwhile
And yit nothyng theym grefe.

In oure bookes thus fynde we wretyn —
All manere of men well it wyttyn —
Of women on this wyse:
Till an appyll she is lyke;
Withoutten faill ther is none slyke
In horde ther it lyse.

Bot if a man assay it wittely,
It is full roten inwardly,
At the colke within.
Wherfor in woman is no laghe,
For she is withoutten aghe,
As Crist me lowse of syn.

Therfor trast we not trystely,
Bot if we sagh it witterly
Then wold we trastly trow;
In womans saw affy we noght,
For thay ar fekill in word and thoght,
This make I myne avowe.

As be I lowsid of my care,
It is as trew as ye stand thare,
By hym that is my brothere.
I dar lay my heede to wed
Or that we go untill oure bed
That we shall here anothere.

If it be sothe that we here say,
Or this thrid day be away
The sothe then mon we se.
Bot it be sothe to trow
As ye mon here, els pray I you
For fals that ye hold me.

Waloway, my lefe deres.
There I stand in this sted,
Sich sorow my hart sheres
For rewth I can no red.
Sen that Mawdleyn witnes beres
That Jesus rose from ded,
Myn ees has letten salt teres
On erthe to se hym trede.

Bot alas that ever I woke
That carefull catyf nyght,
When I for care and cold qwoke
By a fyre burnyng full bright,
When I my Lord Jesu forsoke
For drede of womans myght.
A rightwys dome I will me loke,
That I tyne not that semely sight.

Bot ever alas, what was I wode.
Myght no man be abastir.
I saide if he nede bestode
To hym shuld none be trastir;
And for a woman that there stode
That spake to me of frastir,
I saide I knew not that good
Creature, my master.

Alas, that we fro thee fled,
That we ne had with thee gone.
When thou with Jues was sted,
With thee was dwelland none
Bot forsoke thee that us fed,
For we wold not be tayn;
We were as prysoners sore adred
With Jues for to be slayn.

Now Jesu, for thi lyfe swete
Who hath thus mastryd thee,
That in the breede that we eytt
Thiself gyffen wold be,
And sythen thrugh handys and feytt
Be nalyd on a tre?
Grauntt us grace that we may yit
Thi light in manhede se.

Tunc venit Jesus et cantat “pax vobis” et non tardabit. 1

Hec est dies quam fecit dominus: 2
This is the day that God maide;
All be we glad and blythe.
The Holy Gost before us glad
Full softly on his sithe.
Red clethyng apon he had
And blys to us can kith;
Softly on the erthe he trade,
Full myldly he did lythe.

This dede thrugh God is done
Thus in all oure sight.
Mighty God, true kyng in trone,
Whose Son in Marye light,
Sende us, Lord, thi blissid bone,
As thou art God of myght,
Sothly to se hym sone
And have of hym a sight.

Iterum venit Jesus et cantat “pax vobis” et non tardabit. 3

Whoso commys in Goddys name
Ay blissid mot he be;
Mightfull God shelde us fro shame
In thi moder name Marie.
Thise wykid Jues will us blame;
Thou grauntt us for to se
The self body and the same
The which that died on tre.

Peasse emangys you everichon.
It is I, drede you noght,
That was wonte with you to gone
And dere with ded you boght.
Grope and fele flesh and bone
And fourme of man well wroght;
Sich thyng has goost none.
Loke wheder ye knawe me oght.

My rysyng fro dede to lyfe
Shall no man agane moytt;
Behold my woundes fyfe
Thrugh handys, syde, and foytt.
To ded can luf me dryfe
And styrryd my hart roytt;
Of syn who will hym shryfe
Thyes woundys shal be his boytt.

For oon so swete a thyng
Myself so lefe had wroght,
Man sawll, my dere derlyng,
To batell was I broght.
For it thay can me dyng
To bryng out of my thoght;
On roode can thay me hyng,
Yit luf forgate I noght.

Luf makys me, as ye may se,
Strenkyllid with blood so red
Luf gars me have hart so fre
It opyns every sted.
Luf so fre so dampnyd me
It drofe me to the ded.
Luf rasid me thrug his pausté;
It is swetter then med.

Wytterly, man, to thee I cry:
Thou yeme my Fader fere.
Thyn awne sawll kepe cleynly
Whyls thou art wardan here;
Slo it not with thi body
Synnyng in synnes sere.
On me and it thou have mercy,
For I have boght it dere.

Mi dere freyndys, now may ye se
Forsoth that it is I
That dyed apon the roode tre
And sythen rose bodely.
That it allgatys sothfast be
Ye shall se hastely;
Of youre mett gif ye me
Sich as ye have redy.

Paratur mensa et offerat sextus apostolus favum mellis et piscem, dicendo, 4

Lord, lo, here a rostid fish
And a comb of hony
Laide full fare in a dish
And full honestly.
Here is none othere mett bot this
In all oure company,
Bot well is us that we have this
To thi lykyng only.

Mi dere Fader of heven
That maide me borne to be
Of a madyn withoutten steven
And sithen to die on tre,
From ded to lif at set stevyn,
Rasid me thrugh thi paustee
With the wordys that I shall neven,
This mette thou blis thrugh me:

In the Fader name and the Son
And the Holy Gast,
Thre persons to knaw and con
In oone godhede stedfast,
I gif this mett my benyson
Thrugh wordys of myghtys mast.
Now will I ette as I was won
My manhede eft to tast.

My dere freyndys, lay hand till,
Eyttys for charité.
I ette at my Fader will;
At my will ette now ye.
That I ette is to fulfill
That writen is of me
In Moyses law, for it is skyll
Fulfillyd that it be.

Myn ye noght that I you told
In certan tyme and sted,
When I gaf myself to wold
To you in fourme of bred,
That my body shuld be sold,
My bloode be spylt so red,
This cors gravyn ded and cold
The thrid day ryse fro ded?

Youre hartes was fulfillyd with drede
Whyls I have fro you bene,
The rysyng of my manhede
Unethes wold ye weyn.
Of trouth now may ye spede
Thorow stedfast wordys and cleyn.
Leyf freyndys, trow now the dede
That ye with ees have sene.

Ye have forthynkyng and shame
For youre dysseferance;
I forgif you the blame.
In me now have affyance.
The folk that ar with syn lame,
Preche theym to repentance.
Forgif syn in my name;
Enjoyne theym to penance.

The grace of the Holy Gost to wyn,
Resave here at me
The which shall never blyn.

Hic respirat in eos. 5

I gif you here pausté:
Whom in erth ye lowse of syn
In heven lowsyd shall be,
And whom in erthe ye bynd therin
In heven bonden be he.

Hic discedet ab eis. 6

Jesu Crist in Trynyté,
Jesu to cry and call
That borne was of a madyn fre,
Thou save us synfull all;
For us hanged apon a tre,
Drank asell and gall,
Thi servandys save fro vanyté
In wanhope that we not fall.

Brethere, be we stabyll of thoght,
Wanhope put we away
Of mysbelefe that we be noght;
For we may safly say
He that mankynde on rood boght
Fro dede rose the thryd day;
We se the woundys in hym was wroght,
All blody yit were thay.

He told us fyrst he shuld be tayn
And for mans syn shuld dy,
Be ded and beryd under a stayn
And after ryse up bodely;
Now is he quyk fro grafe gon
He cam and stode us by
And lete us se ilkon
The woundys of his body.

Deth that is so kene
Jesu overcomen has;
As he us told yit may we mene
Fro ded how he shuld pas.
Jesu stode witnes betwene
That with hym dwelland was;
All his dyscyples has hym sene,
Safe oonly Thomas.

If that I prowde as pacok go,
My hart is full of care;
If any sorow myght a man slo,
My hart in sonder it share.
Mi life wyrkys me all this wo;
Of blys I am full bare,
Yit wold I nawthere freynd ne fo
Wyst how wo me ware. 7

Jesu, my lyfe so good,
Ther none myght better be,
None wysere man then better food,
Nor none kyndere then he:
The Jues have nalyd his cors on rood,
Nalyd with nales thre,
And with a spere thay spylt his blood;
Great sorow it was to se.

To se the stremes of blood ryn,
Well more then doyll it was,
Sich great payn for mans syn,
Sich doyllfull ded he has.
I have lyfid withoutten wyn
Sen he to ded can pas,
For he was fare of cheke and chyn.
For doyll of ded, alas.

Hic pergit ad discipulos. 8

Myghty God for to dyscryfe,
That never dyed ne shall
Wo and wandreth from you dryfe
That ye not therin fall.
He thee save with woundys fyfe,
His Son Jesu to call,
That rose from deth to lyfe
And shewyd hym till us all.

Whannow, Peter, art thou mad?
On lyfe who was hym lyke?
For his deth I am not glad;
For sorow my hart will breke,
That with the Jues he was so stad
To ded they can hym wreke.
Thou hym forsoke, so was thou rad
When they to thee can speke.

Let be, leyf brothere Thomas,
And turne thi thoght belyfe,
For the thryd day Jesus rase
Fleshly fro ded to lyfe.
Till us all he cam apase
And shewyd his woundys fyfe
And lyfyng man, and etten hase
Hony takyn of a hyfe.

Let be, for shame. Apartly
Fantom dyssavys thee.
Ye sagh hym not bodely;
His gost it myght well be,
For to glad youre hartes sory
In youre adversyté.
He luffyd us well and faythfully,
Therfor sloes sorow me.

Thou wote, Thomas, and sothe it was,
And oft has thou hard say
How a fysh swalod Jonas:
Thre dayes therin he lay,
Yit gaf God hym myght to pas
Whyk man to wyn away;
Might not God that sich myght has
Rase his Son apon the thryd day?

Man, if thou can understand,
Cryst saide hisself, mynnys me,
That all lokyn was in his hande,
All oone was God and he,
The son wax marke, all men seand,
When he died on the tre.
Therfor am I full sore dredand
That who myght his boote be.

The Holy Gost in Marye light,
And in hir madynhede
Goddys Son she held, and dight
And cled hym in manhede;
For luf he wentt as he had hight
To fight withoutten drede;
When he had termynd that fight,
He skypt outt of his wede.

If he skypt outt of his clethyng
Yit thou grauntys his cors was ded;
It was his cors that maide shewyng
Unto you in his sted?
For to trow in youre carpyng
My hart is hevy as led;
His dede me bryngys in great mowrneyng,
And I withoutten red.

The gost went to hell apase
Whils the cors lay slayn,
And broght the sawles from Sathanas
For which he suffred payn.
The thryd day right he gase
Right unto the cors agayn;
Mighty God and man he rose
And therfor ar we fayn.

All sam to me ye flyte,
Youre resons fast ye shawe;
Bot tell me a skyll perfyte,
Any of you on raw:
When Cryst cam you to vysyte,
As ye tell me with saw,
A whyk man from spyryte,
Wherby couth ye hym knaw?

Thomas, unto thee anone
Herto answere I will:
Man has both flesh and bone,
Hu hyde and hore thertill;
Sich thyng has goost none.
Thomas, lo, here thi skyll:
Goddys Son toke of Mary flesh and bone;
What nede were els thertill?

Thou has answerd me full wele
And full skylfully,
Bot my hart is harde as stele
To trow in sich mastry.
Say, bad he any of you fele
The woundys of his body,
Flesh or bone or ilka dele,
To assay his body?

Yis, Thomas, he bad us se
And handill hym with hande
To loke wheder it were he,
Jesu, man lyfand
That dyed apon a tre.
Flesh and bone we fand;
His woundes had bene pyté
To towch that were bledand.

Waloway, ye can no good.
Youre resons ar defaced;
Ye ar as women, rad for blood
And lightly oft solaced.
It was a goost before you stod,
Lyke hym in blood betraced;
His cors that dyed on rood
Forever hath deth embraced.

Certys, Thomas, gretter care
Myght no synfull wight have
Then she had that wepyd so sare,
The Mawdleyn at his grave;
For sorow and doyll hir awne hare
Of hir hede she rent and rafe.
Jesu shewid hym till hir thare,
Hir sorow of syn to safe.

Lo, sich foly with you is,
Wysemen that shuld be,
That thus a womans witnes trowys
Better then that ye se.
In all youre skylles, more and les,
For mysfowndyng fayll ye;
Might I se Jesu, gost and flesh,
Gropyng shuld not gab me.

Lefe, Thomas, flyte no more
Bot trow and turne thi red,
Or els say us when and whore
Crist gabbyd in any sted,
For he saide us when thou was thore
When he hym gaf in bred
That he shuld salfe all oure sore
Quyk rysand fro ded.

He was full sothfast in his sawes,
That dar I hertly say,
And rightwys in all his lawes
Whils that he lyfyd ay,
Bot sen he shuld thole hard thrawes
On tre whils that he lay,
Dede has determyd his dayes;
His lyfe noght trow I may.

Thyne hard hart thi saull will dwyrd,
Thomas, bot if thou blyn.
He has ded conquerd
And weshen us all fro syn;
May nawder knyfe ne swerde
Hym eft to ded wyn.
Goddys myght in hym apperd
That nevermore shall blyn.

That God I trow full wele
Goostly to you light,
Bot bodely never a dele,
Jesu that woundid wyght.
My hart is harde as stele
To trow in sich a myght,
Bot if I that wounde myght fele
That hym gaf Longeus the knyght.

That wounde have we sene, Thomas,
And so has mo then we;
With Lucas and with Cleophas
He welke a day jurnee;
Thare hartes that for hym sory was
With prophecy comforted he.
To Emaus castell can thai pas
Ther hostyld thai all thre.

Jesu, Goddys Son of heven,
At sopere satt betweyn;
Ther bred he brake as even
As it cutt had beyn.
Nothyng that ye may neven
His rysyng gars me weyn;
If ye me told sich seven
The more ye myght me teyn.

Thomas, brothere, turne thi thoght
And trust that I say thee:
Jesu so dere has boght
Oure synnes apon a tree,
Which rysyng hath broght
Adam and his meneyee.
Lett be youre fayr; shew it noght
That he efte quyk shuld be.

That must thou nedelyngys trow
If thou thi saull will save,
For that we saw we dar avowe:
Jesu rose quyk from grave.
I have you saide and yit dos now
Thise wordes to wast ye have.
He shewid hym not to you;
For mysfoundyng ye rafe.

For we say that we have sene
Thou holdys us wars then wode.
Jesu lyfyng stod us betwene,
Oure Lord that with us yode.
I say ye wote never what ye mene.
A goost before you stode;
Ye wenyd that it had bene
The cors that died on roode.

The cors that dyed on tre
Was berid in a stone;
The thurgh beside fande we
And in that grave cors was none.
His sudary ther myght we se,
And he thens whik was gone.
Noght bot stolne is he,
With Jues that hym have slone.

Certys, Thomas, thou sais not right.
Thay wold hym not stele
For thay gart kepe hym day and nyght
With knyghtys that they held lele;
He rose has we have sene in sight
Fro all the Jues fele.
I lefe not bot if I myght
Myself with hym dele.

He told us tythyngys, Thomas,
Yit mynnys me,
That as Jonas thre dayes was
In a fysh in the see,
So shuld he be, and bene has
In erth by dayes thre,
Pas fro ded, ryse — and rase
As he saide, done has he.

Certys, that worde I harde hym say,
And so harde ye hym all,
Bot for nothyng trow I may
That it so shuld befall,
That he shuld ryse the thrid day
That dranke asell and gall.
Sen he was God and ded lay,
From ded who myght hym call?

The Fader that hym sent
Rasid hym that was ded.
He comforth us in mowrnyng lent
And counseld us in red:
He bad us trow with good intent
His rysyng in every sted.
Thyne absens gars thi saull be shent
And makys thee hevy as led.

Thou says soth: harde and hevy am I
To trow that ye me say.
Mi hardnes I trow skilfully,
For he told us thus ay
That his Fader was ever hym by
For all bot oon were thay.
That he rose bodely
For nothyng trow I may.

May thou not trow withoutten mo
Forsothe that it was he?
Thomas, wherto shuld we say so?
Then wenys thou fals we be.
I wote youre hartes was full wo
And fownd with vanyté.
If ye swere all and ye were mo
I trow it not or that I se.

Thomas, of errowre thou blyn
And till us turne thi mode.
Trow his rysyng by dayes threyn
Sen he died on the rode.
Noght bot I myght my fynger wyn
In sted as nayle stode,
And his syde my hande put in
Ther he shed his hart bloode.

Brethere, all be with you peasse.
Leaffe stryfe that now is here.
Thomas, of thyn errowre seasse,
Of sothe witnes thou bere.
Putt thi hande in my syde, no fres,
Ther Longeus put his spere.
Loke, my rysyng be no les;
Let no wanhope thee dere.

Mercy, Jesu, rew on me:
My hande is blody of thi blode!
Mercy, Jesu, for I se
Thi myght that I not understode.
Mercy, Jesu, I pray thee,
That for all synfull died on roode;
Mercy, Jesu, of mercy fre,
For thi goodnes that is so goode.

Kest away my staf will I
And with no wepyn gang;
Mercy will I call and cry,
Jesu that on roode hang.
Rew on me, kyng of mercy;
Let me not cry thus lang.
Mercy, for the velany
Thou tholyd on Jues with wrang.

Mi hat will I kest away,
My mantill sone onone;
Unto the poore help it may,
For richere knawe I none.
Mercy will I abyde and pray
To thee, Jesu, alone.
My synfull dede I rew ay;
To thee make I my mone.

Mercy, Jesu, Lorde swete,
For thi fyfe woundys so sore:
Thou suffred thrugh handys and feete,
Thi semely side a spere it share.
Mercy, Jesu, Lord, yit
For thi moder that thee bare.
Mercy for the teres thou grett
When thou rasid Lazare.

Mi gyrdill gay and purs of sylk
And cote, away thou shall.
Whils I am werere of swylke
The longere mercy may I call.
Jesu that soke the madyns mylk
Ware noght bot clothes of pall;
Thi close so can thai fro thee pyke, 9
On roode thay left thee small.

Mercy, Jesu, honoure of man;
Mercy, Jesu, mans socoure;
Mercy, Jesu, rew thi leman;
Mans saull thou boght full soure.
Mercy, Jesu, that may and can
Forgif syn and be socoure;
Mercy, Jesu, as thou us wan,
Forgif and gif thi man honoure.

None myght bryng thee in that wytt 10
For oght that thay myght say,
To trow that I myght flytt
Fro ded to lyfe to wyn away.
My saull and my cors have knytt
A knott that last shall ay;
Thus shall I rase well, thou wytt,
Ilk man on domesday.

Whoso hath not trowid right
To hell I shall theym lede,
Ther evermore is dark as nyght
And greatt paynes to drede.
Those that trow in my myght
And luf well almus dede,
Thai shall shyne as son bright
And heven have to thare mede.

That blys, Thomas, I thee hete
That is in heven cytee,
For I se thee sore grete;
Of thee I have pytee.
Thomas, for thi teres wete,
Thi syn forgiffen be;
Thus shall synfull thare synnes bete
That sore have grefyd me.

Thomas, for thou felys me
And my woundes bare,
Mi risyng is trowed in thee,
And so was it not are.
All that it trowes and not se,
And dos after my lare,
Ever blissid mot thay be
And heven be theym yare.

Explicit Thomas Indie. 11
 














(t-note)

brother; (t-note)
bring [news]; (see note)
Trust; know
truly



chatter uselessly
ghost

believe in no other way
dead


true; reward
grimly bleed; (t-note)

nails on rood (the cross)
On account of which; incorrectly
bliss

quarreling; mad
saw
mouth
advise

Trust; known; (see note); (t-note)

fuss

lamentation; (t-note)



words; (see note)
believe
their cunning; trickery
sometimes
nothing troubles them


know
of this manner
(see note)
such
[the] hoard; where

try it intelligently

core; (t-note)
law
reverence (awe)
delivers me of sin

trust; faithfully
clearly
truly believe
speech we have no faith
fickle
oath

delivered; (t-note)
true

head as pledge; (see note)
Before; to
hear

true
(see note); (t-note)
must




dear darlings; (see note)
Where; place
cuts
grief; know no counsel
Since; Magdalene


see him tread


unfortunate
trembled; (t-note)

(see note)

righteous judgment; (see note)
lose

mad
more upset; (see note); (t-note)
if he stood in need
more faithful
(see note); (t-note)
to test me



from
never
placed

nourished
caught
afraid
By

sweet; (see note); (t-note)

bread; eat
given
then
nailed; cross
yet
manhood

(see note)

(see note)

joyous
glided; (see note)
journey
clothing
bliss; show
trod
mildly; go; (t-note)

deed

throne

gift

soon


(see note)

(see note)
may
shield
mother
wicked




among
dread
accustomed; go

feel; (see note)
form; made
Such; ghost
whether


argue against
five
feet

heart’s core
shrive; (see note)
deliverance

(see note)
dear
Man’s soul
battle
strike
deflect my purpose

love


Sprinkled

opens

death; (t-note)
through his power
sweeter than honey wine

Truly
heed; strong
own soul; cleanly
While; guardian
Slay
Sinning in various sins




(t-note)

since then rose bodily
in all ways; truthful

food




roasted



food






alteration; (see note)

at the appointed time
power
utter


Father’s

learn to know

blessing
greatest might
accustomed
again to prove; (see note)

friends
Eat


(see note)

reasonable


Remember; what
place
into your possession
form; bread


body buried; (t-note)





Scarcely would you believe
truth; prosper

believe


repentance
estrangement

confidence

Preach

Impose penance on them

(see note)
Receive; from
cease

(t-note)

authority
deliver from sin
delivered

bound





noble maiden


vinegar
servants; from
despair

Brothers; stable
Despair
disbelief; (see note)
safely
[the] cross
From death



captured

dead and buried; stone
bodily
alive from [the] grave gone
stood
let; each one




remember

(see note)
dwelling
seen
Save only; (see note)

Although I go proud as a peacock
heart
slay
apart; cuts
inflicts








nailed his body on the cross




run
Much more than misery
Such
sorrowful death
lived; joy
Since he passed into death
cheek and chin




discern

misfortune; drive

wounds five


to




heart; break
beset
injure
afraid


Stop, dear
at once


came apace
showed
living; has eaten; (see note)
Honey; hive

Obviously; [fol. 114v]; (see note)
Illusion; deceives
saw; bodily
spirit
sad hearts
adversity

sorrow slays me

know; truth
heard
swallowed; (see note)

gave
[As] living man; escape
such



I remember
enclosed (locked)

sun became dark; seeing

doubtful; (see note)
savior

alighted
virginity
prepared
clad
love he came; promised

finished
escaped; clothing

clothing
body
made showing
place
believe; chatter
heart; lead
death; mourning
bewildered; (see note)

spirit; quickly

souls; Satan
pain
goes


glad

Together you argue against me
show
perfect reason
together
visit
speech
living; spirit
could; know

at once


Color to [his] skin and hair

reason

(see note)

[fol. 115r]

steel
believe in such mastery
feel; (t-note)

any such thing
examine


handle
whether
living

found
piteous
bleeding



afraid of
Yet often easily comforted

streaked
body



person
wept; sore

own hair
head; ripped and tore
showed himself to her there
save; (see note)

such folly

a woman’s words [you] believe

reasons
misjudgment fail

deceive

Cease; argue; (see note)
believe; change your judgment
where
deceived anywhere
there; (t-note)
gave himself in bread
heal
Alive rising from death

truthful; words
dare I heartily
righteous
While he still lived; (see note)
But since; suffer; times

Death
believe; (see note)

destroy; (see note)
cease
conquered death
washed
neither; sword
Deliver him again to death
appeared
cease

believe; (see note)

bodily
creature
steel

Unless; feel
gave; Longeus; (see note)


have more than
(see note)
walked; journey
Their; were sorry


lodged


supper; (t-note)
bread; broke
As [if]
mention
makes me believe
seven [times]; (see note)
annoy

(t-note)


cross

company
fuss; explain
again living

of necessity believe

dare swear
alive
yet do now
waste

misjudgment; rave

Because
worse than mad

went
know; mean
ghost
believed
body

(see note)
buried
gravestone; found

grave cloth
from there; alive
Nothing but stolen is he
By; slain



had him guarded
loyal
as we have seen
treacherous
believe
deal

tidings; [fol. 116r]
I remember


been
earth
rise; arisen


heard; (t-note)


happen

vinegar





[who] remained in mourning
advice

place
causes; injured; (see note)



believe

always

they were but one [person]
bodily


more [evidence]
Truly

you believe we are false
hearts
foolish
Even if; more


error; cease
to; mind
Believe; three

finger; put; (see note)
place

Where; heart’s blood

peace
Leave strife
error cease
true; bear
no doubt; (see note)
Where
falsehood
despair; harm

take pity
bloody







Cast; (see note)
weapon go


Take pity
long
villainy
endured from; wrong

cast
cloak; quickly

richer know


deed; regret always
lament

sweet


fair; pierced
yet

tears you cried
raised

bright belt; silk purse
coat
wearer of such things

sucked
Wore; scarlet; (see note)

few [clothes]


help
pity your beloved
soul; dearly

Forgive sin and be a comfort
won




believe; flee
To escape from death to life
soul; body; tied
always
know
Every; judgment day; (t-note)

believed
them lead

dread

deeds of mercy
shine; sun
as their reward

bliss; promise
city
weeping sorely
pity


their; beat
grieved

feel; (see note)

believed by (within) you
before

command

prepared for them


 

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