19. The Scourging

Play 19, THE SCOURGING: FOOTNOTES


1 Here begins the scourging

2 Peace at my bidding, you creatures under my command!

3 Lines 64–65: And if they (his miraculous deeds) were not dearly bought, / believe me no more

4 And he will lean the cross toward his mother

5 Here ends the scourging


Play 19, THE SCOURGING: EXPLANATORY NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: Chester: The Chester Mystery Cycle, ed. Lumiansky and Mills (1974); CT: The Canterbury Tales, ed. Benson (1987); DSL: Dictionary of the Scots Language; Elliott: The Apocryphal New Testament, ed. Elliott; EP: The Towneley plays, ed. England and Pollard (1897); MED: Middle English Dictionary; MS: Huntington MS HM 1 (“the Towneley manuscript”); N-Town: The N-Town Plays, ed. Sugano (2007); OED: Oxford English Dictionary; REED: Records of Early English Drama; SC: The Towneley Plays, eds. Stevens and Cawley (1994); s.d.: stage direction; Whiting: Whiting, Proverbs, Sentences, and Proverbial Phrases; York: The York Corpus Christi Plays, ed. Davidson (2011).

With its highly varied stanza forms, changes in diction, and more, the Scourging shows evidence of much editing and revision from a variety of sources. Nearly two-thirds of the play, including the trial before Pilate and the scourging itself, is written in 13-line stanzas, including the 'bob and wheel' stanza (but unusually in this case written in the MS as 13- line rather than 9-line stanzas) as well as some metrical variations. While the torturers repeat here many of the same charges against Jesus leveled in the previous two plays, they also describe miracles that are not represented in any extant English plays (including in lines 196–98 the wedding at Cana, the subject of a play at York that was never copied into the official Register). Much of the final portion of the play, largely in 10-line stanzas, is likely a later addition, evidently adapted from the York Shearmen’s play representing the Road to Calvary or from an earlier version of that play. This may well include a section that is missing from the York text due to a lost page; see the note to lines 352–471, below.

NOTES HERE
Before 1 John (the Apostle) [character]. At his first appearance in this play, at line 352, the MS speech rubrics designate this character as Johannes Apostolus (“John the Apostle”), although thereafter he is just called Johannes (“John”).

7 bradyng of batels. While the MED (breidinge (ger.), sense c) cites this phrase alone as meaning “delivering blows; ?assaulting” (stretching the meaning of “battle”), EP’s gloss of bradyng as “onset” (p. 398) is likely closer, given that the verb normally refers to sudden or rushing movement (see MED breiden (v.1)), here the charge into or rush of battle.

13 Os Malleatoris. Sister Nicholas Maltman convincingly argues that this is the correct reading for what in the MS reads As mali actoris — arguably translatable as “as evil doer,” but nonsensical given the use of the genitive case (“Pilate — Os Malleatoris”). The manuscript reading appears to be a corruption or mistranscription of the phrase Os Malleatoris, meaning “mouthpiece of the devil” (literally “mouth of the hammerer”); this phrase, which also informs line 14, was explicitly used by several scriptural commentators (the “clergy” of line 12) to designate Pilate.

14 as on both sydys the iren the hamer makith playn. That is, the hammer beats both sides of a piece of iron in order to flatten and mould it. As explained in the lines that follow, Pilate is an unjust judge who serves whichever side of a dispute will give him the greatest reward.

23–26 All fals endytars . . . . Ar welcom to me. These lines repeat almost verbatim 17.36–39 (see note), in the same position within another 13-line “bob and wheel” stanza, and are echoed again in 27.270–71.

28 Crist thay call hym. Although the torturers explicitly refer to him by name as Jesus (see lines 155, 246, 284), Pilate will later ask him his name (line 257), effectively asking him to lay claim to being the Christ, the Messiah.

46–47 it is most lefe / The shedyng of Cristen bloode and that all Jury knawes. Pilate’s assertion of a fondness for shedding Christian blood is of course anachronistic, but aligned here less with any historical persecution of Christians by the Romans than, through mention of “all Jewry,” with an anti-Semitic implication of blood libel — the idea that Jews shed Christian blood for ritual use.

54 From Syr Herode oure kyng. The trial before Herod, based on Luke 23:7–12, is dramatized in York and Chester and in the N-Town Passion, but not in Towneley; see also lines 120–23 and note. It is possible that this play, or the source of this portion of it, was once part of a Passion sequence quite different from the selection of plays collected here.

75 Do draw hym forward. As this and line 79 indicate, Jesus is being pulled by a rope held by Torturer 3 (see line 92); however, lines 89–91 (see note, below) suggest that the rope is at this point either around his neck or his waist, rather than binding his hands; see note to 18.1.

81 I shall spytt in his face. See Matthew 26:67–68 and Mark 14:65; see also 21.101.

89–91 With this band . . . . on his bak. Jesus’ hands are apparently not tied at the beginning of the play, although he is bound in some way by a rope; tying his hands behind his back, particularly at this point, may be intended to force Jesus to enter Pilate’s court backward — the opposite of courtly etiquette, in which one does not turn one’s back to the sovereign, even if it means walking backward. In the second part of Sir David Lindsay’s Satyre of The Thrie Estaitis, characters representing the three estates enter “gangand backwart, led be thair vyces” (lines 2322–23), but by choice, not by force.

109–10 Nather in dede . . . with no wrang. See Luke 23:4.

120–23 Herode . . . . to any syn. See Luke 23:15 and note to line 54 above.

141–47 Thou knowes . . . . in persons thre. See John 19:10–11 (which follows the scourging). Jesus’ lines here are the only ones he speaks to Pilate, unlike in John’s gospel.

148–56 Certys . . . . ye dam this day. For the freeing of Barabbas, see John 18:39–40 (also Matthew 27:15–26, Mark 15:6–15, and Luke 23:17–25).

157–58 looke . . . His cloysse ye spoyll hym fro. In Matthew 27:26–31, Jesus is scourged before he is stripped and mocked, and dressed again in his own clothing prior to the crucifixion. Here care is taken to keep his clothing undamaged prior to the scourging, in apparent reference to the legend of his seamless robe — the subject of the Towneley play of the Dice (see the headnote to play 21).

163 How iudicare comys in crede. The word iudicare, “to judge,” is from a line in the creed; to “teach the creed” is to teach a lesson, in this case with physical punishment (see 20.55, also 12.332 and note). However, the victim here is the very judge to whom the relevant line of the Nicene creed refers: et iterum venturus est cum gloria iudicare vivos et mortuos (“and he will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead”).

166 Have bynd to this pyllar. The pillar to which Jesus is bound for the scourging is frequently represented as freestanding and solitary — that is, a whipping post, rather than an architectural support. Stage properties listed in a 1490 Coventry record include “iiij Scorges and a piller” (four scourges and a pillar; REED: Coventry, p. 74; see also the note to 21.131).

171 flap. To flap is to strike a blow (also called a flap — see line 181) with something loose, such as a lash or scourge. See MED flappen (v.), sense a, which cites this line.

176 rub on the rust. To “rub off the rust” can be used metaphorically to refer to eliminating corruption through punishment (see MED rubben (v.), sense 3b, and rust (n.), sense d), yet Jesus embodies the opposite of moral or spiritual corruption; the line might also allude to Matthew 6:19–20 with its contrast between the treasures of heaven and those of earth, “where the rust, and moth consume.”

196–98 feste of Architreclyn . . . . water into wyn. That is, the wedding at Cana, site of Jesus’ first public miracle. Used here as a name, the Latin term architriclinus means “master of the feast” — see John 2:8–9.

202–08 The see . . . . hym obeyng tyll. The reference is to Jesus walking on the Sea of Galilee; see John 6:16–21 and Matthew 14:25–33 (and the note to 17.742).

209–21 A lepir cam . . . . lowfyd hym oft-sythe. These two miracles are related in succession in Matthew 8:2–13. However, it is not a centurion’s son as it is here (line 218) who is healed, but his servant (and possible lover; the Vulgate refers to him as his puer, that is, boy).

222–34 Sirs . . . . of all yll. The healing of blind Bartimaeus is told in Mark 10:46–52.

239–40 Oure Sabbot day in his wyrkyng / He lettys not to hele the seke. That is, he does not desist on the Sabbath — a day of rest — from working to heal the sick.

254 the Jues. Here Pilate differentiates between himself and “the Jews” who seek the death of Jesus, whereas he is most often treated implicitly or explicitly as one of them; compare line 6 of his opening speech (see also line 47 and note). Jesus and his followers, on the other hand, regularly (even insistently) and anachronistically refer to “the Jews” as other (see lines 357, 451, 456, and 460 of this same play).

257 Say, what is thy name. See line 28 and note.

265 He cals hym a kyng in every place. The second Counselor repeats the same charge as the first — see lines 133–39.

276 Hym that is youre lege lordyng. See John 19:15.

285–86 Or to Syr Cesar we trus / And make thy frenship cold. That is, or we will go to Sir Caesar and end our friendship with you. See John 19:12.

289–90 Both my handys in expres / Weshen sall be. Here Pilate washes his hands, as in Matthew 27:24.

293–95 We pray it fall endles . . . . With wrake. The claim of eternal responsibility for the death of Christ based on Matthew 27:25 — “His blood be upon us and upon our children” — has long been used to justify Christian anti- Semitism. Note the oppositional references to “thise Jues” by the (Jewish) women in lines 450–61.

313 here a crowne of thorne. This scene is based on Matthew 27:28–29 and Mark 15:17–18, but without explicit mention of the scarlet (or royal purple) robe that they mockingly put on Jesus in those accounts, a common feature in visual representations; however, having earlier stripped him of his garments (see line 158), the torturers may well put a robe on him here nonetheless.

339–51 This cros up . . . . thee this day. This final 13-line stanza preceding a series of 10-line stanzas from York (see headnote and below, passim) effectively summarizes the action that follows, though not originally part of the same play. The original play may have ended shortly after this stanza; see also the notes to lines 482–85 and 564–72.

352–71 Alas . . . fast therfor. The first two stanzas of John’s opening speech very closely parallel the first and third stanzas of the parallel speech in the York Road to Calvary play; see York 34.106–15 and 126–35. The last portion of a fourth stanza in York, along with much else, is lost due to a missing page; some of the missing dialogue may be preserved here, in lines 372–433 (which are followed by a series of 8-line stanzas). The non-biblical scene of John meeting the Marys prior to the crucifixion is not dramatized in any other English plays.

363 My moder and hir syster also. Mary Salome, mother to the disciples John and James, does not appear in this play, although she is named as a witness to the crucifixion in Mark 15:40 and Matthew 27:56, along with Mary Magdalene and Mary Jacobi (mother to Joseph and the other disciple named James) — the two other Marys here along with Mary, mother of Jesus. John 19:25 alone states that Mary, mother of Jesus, was present, along with Mary Magdalene and Mary Cleophas (see headnote to play 24, the Pilgrims), the latter thus being commonly identified with Mary Jacobi. As is explicit in N-Town 36.25–28, both Mary Jacobi/Cleophas and Mary Salome were traditionally identified as sisters to the mother of Jesus. Perhaps, as Davidson suggests in his edition of the York text (p. 468n127), “mi moder” here refers not to John’s biological mother but to the mother of Jesus, anachronistically prior to her being designated as John’s mother at the crucifixion (see 20.524), “hir syster” here being Mary Jacobi. In York itself, on the other hand, such a reading is unnecessary, given both the reference in York 34.127 to her “sisteres” (a term that in Towneley’s line 410 includes the non-related Mary Magdalene), and the designation in that text of those who accompany the mother of Jesus simply as II Maria and III Maria (as here, no names are mentioned in the dialogue), which allows the two to stand in for any and all other “sisters” in mourning, including Mary Salome.

385–86 How he with pyne shuld pas us fro, / And efte shuld com us to. See for example John 14:3, 18.

398 tell unto us two. That is, Mary Jacobi and Mary Magdalene, who have taken John aside to speak “prevaly” (line 392), in hopes of sparing Jesus’ mother grief.

406 And kepe hym as he shall be kend. That is, seek after or meet him on the road along which he is to be led or directed (MED kennen (v.1), sense 1c) by the soldiers.

416 he commes us even agayn. That is, ahead of us, from the opposite direction that we are walking. The scene of Jesus meeting his mother on the via crucis (way of the cross) is not biblical (although it takes its cue from the mention of mourning women in Luke 23:27), but was important to later medieval devotional practices and frequently represented in both art and literature.

443–44 On cros . . . on the thryd day. See Matthew 16:21 and 17:21–22.

466–81 Ye doghters of Jerusalem . . . . thay will not spare. See Luke 23:28–29. This speech ends a section written in 8-line stanzas, and clearly not from York; for the equivalent speech, see York 34.160–79.

482–85 Walk on . . . . thay can red. This quatrain shares a rhyme scheme with lines 564–67 (see note below) and may originally have belonged to that (final) stanza.

486–95 Say, wherto . . . . cam thou here. This stanza again closely parallels the York text (York 34.190–99).

489 Go home, thou casbald with that clowte. The MED defines casbalde (attested only here and in the parallel line in York 34.193) as “a term of reproach; ?baldhead” (MED casbald (n.1)). Mary Magdalene has evidently removed a veil (thus uncovering either her head or her neck and breast, hence the reproach) and, taking the place of the legendary Saint Veronica, has used it to wipe the face of Jesus. According to tradition, “this thyng” (line 492) miraculously imprinted with an image of his face — known as the vernicle (from “Veronica” which means “true image”) — became a famous relic, and is the subject of many artistic representations.

496–97 Let all this bargan be, / Syn all oure toyles ar before. Leave all this business — that is, conversing with the mourners — since our work lies ahead of us. This is the opening of an irregular 8-line stanza (or two separate quatrains) not in York.

504–63 That shall we . . . . before with cros. These six stanzas closely parallel York 34.230–49 and 34.260–99; the intervening stanza in York (34.250–59) is a speech by Simon, further explaining that he cannot stop to help.

524 hoyn. York 34.260 has the less obscure “wone” (“live, or stay”) in place of “hone” (“delay”).

564–72 Now, by Mahound . . . . the chace. This final portion of the play appears to be a 13-line stanza missing the initial quatrain — perhaps what are now lines 482–85 (see note above); this stanza may well have originally followed line 351, ending the original play. Note that this would also preserve the normal (but not absolute) 1-2-3 speaking order for the torturers, lines 339–51 being attributed to Torturer 1, and the stray quatrain to Torturer 2, and Torturer 3 being the speaker at lines 564–58.

567–68 furth hym lede / A trace. While trace commonly refers to a way or path taken, “to lead a trace” means to dance a measure (MED trace (n.1), sense 3a).


Play 19, THE SCOURGING: TEXTUAL NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: EP: The Towneley Plays, ed. England and Pollard (EETS, 1897); Facs: The Towneley Cycle: A Facsimile of Huntington MS HM 1, ed. Cawley and Stevens; MED: Middle English Dictionary; MS: Huntington MS HM 1 (base text); SC: The Towneley Plays, ed. Stevens and Cawley (EETS, 1994); s.d.: stage direction; Surtees: The Towneley Mysteries, ed. Raine; York: The York Corpus Christi Plays, ed. Davidson (2011).

Before 1 MS: after the title another hand has written õylde.

13 Os Malleatoris. MS: As mali actoris. See Explanatory Note.

44 Therfor . . . suffre. MS: for is written above the line in the hand of the main scribe, and the long s of suffre is written as an f.

87 No lak. MS has k and part of another letter between these words.

120–40 Herode truly as . . . . felow com nere. MS: to the left of these lines, in the top corner of the page, is a large ornamented capital D, partly boxed in with red lines, and unconnected to the extant text. This could have been intended as the first page of the Buffeting, which starts notably earlier in the manuscript (fol. 73v as opposed to fol. 80r) but with a decorated capital D.

145 thus with. MS: another word between these has been erased.

161 This. So EP, SC: Þis. MS: yis (y for þ).

180 thou. So EP, SC: þou. MS: you (y for þ).

236 Thre. EP: fower. SC, MS: iiij. As EP point out, this is an apparent error for iij — three separate actions being mentioned in the lines that follow, including defiling the Sabbath by healing the sick on that day (see lines 238–42).

242 thre. So EP. MS: iij.

260 thou skap. So EP, SC. MS: skap, preceded by an erasure (possibly of thou).

345–46 But for thy . . . thou salbe slone. MS: these lines have been written in a loose scrawl in a space left blank by the main scribe.

389 therfore. So EP. SC: therfor. MS: therfor with a flourish indicating final e.

455 Dyd never yll. MS: Dyd never none yll, with none crossed out in red and black dots above.

510 with lytyll. MS: another word between these has been erased.

512 that wold. MS: another word between these has been erased.

530 therfore. EP, SC: therfor. MS: therfor with a flourish indicating final e.

564 oure. MS: oure oure.

569 Com on thou. MS: Com thou on thou with the first thou crossed out in red.

 
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19. The Scourging

from: The Towneley Plays  2017
















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Pilate
Torturer 1
Torturer 2
Torturer 3
Counselor 1
Jesus
Counselor 2
John the Apostle
Mary (the mother of Jesus)
Mary Magdalene
Mary Jacobi
Simon

Incipit flagellacio. 1

Peasse at my bydyng, ye wyghtys in wold! 2
Looke none be so hardy to speke a word bot I
Or by Mahowne, most myghty maker on mold,
With this brande that I bere ye shall bytterly aby.
Say, wote ye not that I am Pylate, perles to behold,
Most doughty in dedys of dukys of the Jury?
In bradyng of batels I am the most bold;
Therfor my name to you will I dyscry,
No mys.
I am full of sotelty,
Falshed, gyll, and trechery;
Therfor am I namyd by clergy
Os Malleatoris.

For like as on both sydys the iren the hamer makith playn,
So do I that the law has here in my kepyng:
The right side to socoure, certys, I am full bayn,
If I may get therby a vantege or wynyng;
Then to the fals parte I turne me agayn,
For I se more vayll will to me be risyng.
Thus every man to drede me shal be full fayn,
And all faynt of thare fayth to me be obeyng,
Truly.
All fals endytars,
Quest-gangars, and jurars,
And thise outrydars
Ar welcom to me.

Bot this prophete that has prechyd and puplyshed so playn
Cristen law, Crist thay call hym in oure cuntré.
Bot oure prynces full prowdly this nyght have hym tayn;
Full tytt to be dampned he shall be hurlyd byfore me.
I shall fownde to be his freynd vtward, in certayn,
And shew hym fare cowntenance and wordys of vanyté,
Bot or this day at nyght on crosse shall he be slayn.
Thus agans hym in my hart I bere great enmyté
Full sore.
Ye men that use bakbytyngys,
And rasars of slanderyngys,
Ye ar my dere darlyngys,
And Mahowns forevermore.

For nothyng in this warld dos me more grefe
Then for to here of Crist and of his new lawes;
To trow that he is Godys son my hart wold all to-clefe,
Though he be never so trew both in dedys and in sawes.
Therfor shall he suffre mekill myschefe,
And all the dyscypyls that unto hym drawes;
For over all solace to me it is most lefe
The shedyng of Cristen bloode, and that all Jury knawes,
I say you.
My knyghtys full swythe
Thare strengthes will thay kyth,
And bryng hym belyfe.
Lo, where thay com now.

I have ron that I swett
From Syr Herode oure kyng
With this man that will not lett
Oure lawes to downe bryng.
He has done so mych forfett,
Of care may he syng;
Thrugh dom of Syr Pylate
He gettys an yll endyng
And sore.
The great warkys he has wroght
Shall serve hym of noght,
And bot thay be dere boght
Lefe me no more. 3

Bot make rowme in this rese,
I byd you, belyfe,
And of youre noys that ye sesse,
Both man and wyfe.
To Syr Pylate on dese
This man will we dryfe
His dede for to dres,
And refe hym his lyfe
This day.
Do draw hym forward.
Whi stand ye so bakward?
Com on, syr, hyderward
As fast as ye may.

Do pull hym arase.
Whyls we be gangyng
I shall spytt in his face,
Though it be fare shynyng.
Of us thre gettys thou no grace,
Thi dedys ar so noyng;
Bot more sorow thou hase,
Oure myrth is incresyng,
No lak,
Felows all in hast,
With this band that will last
Let us bynde fast
Both his handys on his bak.

I shall lede thee a dawnce
Unto Syr Pilate hall;
Thou betyd an yll chawnce
To com emangys us all.
Sir Pilate, with youre cheftance,
To you we cry and call
That ye make som ordynance
With this brodell thrall
By skyll.
This man that we led,
On crosse ye put to ded.
What, withoutten any red?
That is not my wyll.

Bot ye wysest of law
To me ye be tendand:
This man withoutten awe
Which ye led in a band,
Nather in dede ne in saw
Can I fynd with no wrang.
Wherfor ye shuld hym draw
Or bere falsly on hand
With ill?
Ye say he turnes oure pepyll;
Ye call hym fals and fekyll.
Warldys shame is on you mekyll
This man if ye spyll.

Of all thise causes ilkon
Which ye put on hym,
Herode, truly as stone,
Coud fynd with no kyns gyn
Nothyng herapon
That pent to any syn.
Why shuld I then so soyn
To ded here deme hym
Therfor?
This is my counsell:
I will not with hym mell;
Let hym go where he wyll
For now and evermore.

Sir, I say thee oone thyng
Without any mys:
He callys hisself a kyng
Ther he none is;
Thus he wold downe bryng
Oure lawes, iwys,
With his fals lesyng
And his quantys
This tyde.
Herk, felow, com nere.
Thou knowes I have powere
To excuse or to dampne here,
In bayll to abyde.

Sich powere has thou noght
To wyrk thi will thus with me,
Bot from my Fader that is broght,
Oonefold God in persons thre.
Certys, it is fallen well in my thoght
At this tyme, as well wote ye,
A thefe that any felony has wroght
To lett hym skap or go fre
Away;
Therfor ye lett hym pas.
Nay, nay, bot Barabas,
And Jesus in this case
To deth ye dam this day.

Syrs, looke ye take good hede
His cloysse ye spoyll hym fro;
Ye gar his body blede
And bett hym blak and bloo.
This man, as myght I spede,
That has wroght us this wo,
How iudicare comys in crede
Shall we teche or we go,
All soyne.
Have bynd to this pyllar.
Why standys thou so far?
To bett his body bar,
I haste withoutten hoyne.

Now fall I the fyrst
To flap on hys hyde.
My hartt wold all to-bryst
Bot I myght tyll hym glyde.
A swap fayn if I durst
Wold I lene thee this tyde.
War, lett me rub on the rust
That the bloode downe glyde
As swythe.
Have att!
Take thou that!
I shall lene thee a flap
My strengthe for to kythe.

Whereon servys thi prophecy,
Thou tell us in this case,
And all thi warkys of greatt mastry
Thou shewed in dyvers place?
Thyn apostels full radly
Ar run from thee arase;
Thou art here in oure baly
Withoutten any grace
Of skap.
Do rug hym!
Do dyng hym!
Nay, I myself shuld kyll hym
Bot for Syr Pilate.

Syrs, at the feste of Architreclyn
This prophete he was;
Ther turnyd he water into wyn.
That day he had sich grace
His apostels to hym can enclyn,
And other that ther was.
The see he past bot few yeres syn,
It lete hym walk theron apase
At wyll;
The elementys all bydeyn,
And wyndes that ar so keyn,
The firmamente, as I weyn,
Ar hym obeyng tyll.

A lepir cam full fast
To this man that here standys,
And prayed hym in all hast
Of bayll to lowse his bandys.
His travell was not wast
Though he cam from far landys;
This prophete tyll hym past
And helyd hym with his handys
Full blythe.
The son of Centuryon,
For whom his fader made greatt mone,
Of the palsy he helyd anone;
Thay lowfyd hym oft-sythe.

Sirs, as he cam from Jherico,
A blynde man satt by the way;
To hym walkand with many mo,
Cryand to hym thus can he say:
“Thou son of David, or thou go,
Of blyndnes hele thou me this day.”
Ther was he helyd of all his wo;
Sich wonders can he wyrk all way
At wyll.
He rasys men from deth to lyfe,
And castys out devyls from thame oft-sythe.
Seke men cam to hym full ryfe;
He helys thaym of all yll.

For all thise dedys of great lovyng,
Thre thyngys I have fond, certanly,
For which he is worthy to hyng:
Oone is oure kyng that he wold be;
Oure Sabbot day in his wyrkyng
He lettys not to hele the seke, truly;
He says oure temple he shall downe bryng
And in thre daies byg it in hy,
All hole agane.
Syr Pilate, as ye sytt,
Looke wysely in youre wytt.
Dam Jesu, or ye flytt,
On crosse to suffre his payne.

Thou man that suffurs all this yll,
Why wyll thou us no mercy cry?
Slake thy hart and thi greatt wyll
Whyls on thee we have mastry.
Of thy greatt warkes shew us som skyll.
Men call thee kyng, thou tell us why;
Wherfor the Jues seke thee to spyll
The cause I wold knowe wytterly,
Perdee.
Say what is thy name?
Thou lett for no shame.
Thay putt on thee greatt blame,
Els myght thou skap for me.

Syr Pilate, prynce peerles,
This is my red:
That he skap not harmeles,
Bot do hym to ded.
He cals hym a kyng in every place;
Thus wold he overled
Oure people in his trace,
And oure lawes downe tred
By skyll.
Syr, youre knyghtes of good lose
And the pepyll with oone voce
To hyng hym hy on a crosse
Thay cry and call you untyll.

Now, certys, this is a wonder thyng
That ye wold bryng to noght
Hym that is youre lege lordyng;
In faith this was far soght.
Bot say why make ye none obeyng
To hym that all has wroght.
Sir, he is oure chefe lordyng:
Syr Cesar, so worthyly wroght
On mold.
Pylate, do after us
And dam to deth Jesus,
Or to Syr Cesar we trus
And make thy frenship cold.

Now that I am sakles
Of this bloode shall ye see:
Both my handys in expres
Weshen sall be.
This bloode bees dere boght, I ges,
That ye spill so frelé.
We pray it fall endles
On us and oure meneye,
With wrake.
Now youre desyre fulfyll I shall:
Take hym emangs you all;
On crosse ye put that thrall,
His endyng ther to take.

Com on, tryp on thi tose
Without any fenyng.
Thou has made many glose
With thy fals talkyng.
We ar worthy greatte lose
That thus has broght a kyng
From Syr Pilate and othere fose
Thus into oure ryng
Withoutt any hoyne.
Sirs, a kyng he hym cals;
Therfor a crowne hym befals.
I swere by all myn elder sauls
I shall it ordan soyne.

Lo, here a crowne of thorne
To perch his brane within
Putt on his hede with skorne,
And gar thyrll the skyn.
Hayll, kyng, where was thou borne
Sich worship for to wyn?
We knele all thee beforne,
And thee to grefe will we not blyn,
That be thou bold.
Now by Mahownes bloode
Ther will no mete do me goode
To he be hanged on a roode
And his bones be cold.

Syrs, we may be fayn,
For I have fon a tree,
I tell you in certan
It is of greatt bewtee,
On the which he shall suffre payn,
Be feste with nales thre.
Ther shall nothyng hym gayn
Theron to he dede be,
I insure it.
Do bryng hym hence.
Take up oure gere and defence.
I wold spende all my spence
To se hym ones skelpt.

This cros up thou take,
And make thee redy bowne;
Withoutt gruchyng thou rake,
And bere it thrugh the towne.
Mary thi moder, I wote, will make
Great mowrnyng and mone,
But for thy fals dedys sake
Shortly thou salbe slone,
No nay.
The pepyll of Bedlem
And gentyls of Jerusalem,
All the comoners of this reme,
Shall wonder on thee this day.

Alas for my master moste of myght,
That yester-even with lanterne bright
Before Caiphas was broght.
Both Peter and I sagh that sight,
And sithen we fled away full wight
When Jues so wonderly wroght.
At morne thay toke to red,
And fals witnes furth soght,
And demyd hym to be dede
That to thaym trespaste noght.

Alas, for his modere and othere moo,
My moder and hir syster also,
Sat sam with syghyng sore.
Thay wote nothyng of all this wo;
Therfor to tell thaym will I go
Sen I may mend no more.
If he shuld dy thus tyte
And thay unwarned wore,
I were worthy to wyte;
I will go fast therfor.

God save you, systers all in fere.
Dere lady, if thi will were,
I must tell tythyngys playn.
Welcom, John, my cosyn dere.
How farys my son sen thou was here?
That wold I wyt full fayn.
A, dere lady, with youre leyff,
The trouth shuld no man layn,
Ne with Godys will thaym grefe.
Whi, John, is my son slayn?

Nay, lady, I saide not so;
Bot ye me myn he told us two
And thaym that with us wore
How he with pyne shuld pas us fro,
And efte shuld com us to
To amende oure syghyng sore.
It may not stand in stede
To sheynd youreself therfore.
Alas, this day for drede.
Good John, neven this no more.

Speke prevaly, I thee pray,
For I am ferde if we hir flay
That she will ryn and rafe.
The sothe behowys me nede to say:
He is damyd to dede this day;
Ther may no sorow hym safe.
Good John, tell unto us two
What thou of hir will crafe,
And we will gladly go
And help that thou it have.

Systers, youre mowrnyng may not amende,
And ye will ever or he take ende
Speke with my master free,
Then must ye ryse and with me weynd,
And kepe hym as he shall be kend
Withoutt yond same cyté.
If ye will nygh me nere,
Com fast, and felowe me.
A, help me, systers dere,
That I my son may see.

Lady, we wold weynd full fayn,
Hertely with all oure myght and mayn
Youre comforth to encrese.
Good John, go before and frayn.
Lo, where he commes us even agayn,
With all yond mekyll prese,
All youre mowrnyng in feyr
May not his sorow sese.
Alas, for my son dere
That me to moder chese.

Alas, dere son, for care
I se thi body blede.
Myself I will forfare
For thee in this great drede.
This cros on thi shulder bare,
To help thee in this nede
I will it bere with greatt hart-sare,
Wheder thay will thee lede.
This cros is large in lengthe
And also bustus withall;
If thou put to thi strengthe
To the erthe thou mon downe fall.

A, dere son, thou let me
Help thee in this case.

Et inclinabit crucem ad matrem suam. 4

Lo, moder, I tell it thee
To bere no myght thou hase.
I pray thee, dere son, it may so be:
To man thou gif thi grace;
On thiself thou have pyté
And kepe thee from thi foyse.

Forsothe, moder, this is no nay:
On cros I must dede dre,
And from deth ryse on the thryd day;
Thus prophecy says by me.
Mans saull that I luffyd ay
I shall redeme securly;
Into blis of heven for ay
I shall it bryng to me.

It is greatt sorow to any wyght
Jesus to se with Jues keyn,
How he in dyverse payns is dight;
For sorow I water both myn eeyn.
This Lord that is of myght
Dyd never yll truly;
Thise Jues thay do not right
If thay deme hym to dy.

Alas, what shall we say?
Jesus that is so leyfe
To deth thise Jues this day
Thay lede with paynes full grefe.
He was full true I say,
Though thay dam hym as thefe;
Mankynde he lufed allway.
For sorow my hart will clefe.

Ye doghters of Jerusalem,
I byd you wepe nothyng for me,
Bot for youreself and youre barn-teme.
Behald, I tell you securlé,
Sore paynes ar ordand for this reme
In dayes herafter for to be;
Youre myrth to bayll it shall downe streme
In every place of this cyté.

Childer, certys, thay shall blys
Women baren that never child bare,
And pappes that never gaf sowke, iwys;
Thus shall thare hartys for sorow be sare.
The montayns hy and thise greatt hyllys
Thay shall byd fall apon them thare,
For my bloode that sakles is
To shede and spyll thay will not spare.

Walk on and lefe thi vayn carpyng;
It shall not save thee fro thy dede,
Wheder thise women cry or syng
For any red that thay can red.

Say, wherto abyde we here abowte
Thise qwenes with scremyng and with showte?
May no man thare wordys stere?
Go home, thou casbald with that clowte,
Or by that lord I leyfe and lowte
Thou shall by it full dere.
This thyng shall venyance call
On you holly in fere.
Go, hy thee hens withall
Or yll hayll cam thou here.

Let all this bargan be,
Syn all oure toyles ar before;
This tratoure and this tre
I wold full fayn were thore.
It nedys not hym to harll;
This cros dos hym greatt dere.
Bot yonder commys a carll
Shall help hym for to bere.

That shall we soyn se on assay.
Herk, good man, wheder art thou on away?
Thou walkes as thou were wrath.
Syrs, I have a greatt jornay
That must be done this same day
Or els it will me skathe.
Thou may with lytyll payn
Easse hym and thiself both.
Good syrs, that wold I fayn,
Bot for to tary I were full loth.

Nay, nay, thou shall full soyn be sped.
Lo, here a lad that must be led
For his yll dedys to dy,
And he is bressed and all for bled;
That makys us here thus stratly sted.
We pray thee sir, forthi,
That thou will take this tre,
Bere it to Calvery.
Good sirs, that may not be,
For full greatt hast have I.

No longere may I hoyn.
In fayth, thou shall not go so soyn
For noght that thou can say.
This dede must nedys be done
And this carll be dede or noyn,
And now is nere mydday.
And therfore help us at this nede
And make us here no more delay.
I pray you, do youre dede
And let me go my way,

And I shall com full soyn agane
To help this man with all my mayn
At youre awne wyll.
What, and wold thou trus with sich a trane?
Nay, fatur, thou shall be full fayn
This forward to fulfyll,
Or by the myght of Mahowne
Thou shall lyke it full yll.
Tytt, let dyng this dastard downe
Bot he lay hand thertyll.

Certys that were unwysely wroght,
To beytt me bot if I trespast oght
Aythere in worde or dede.
Apon thi bak it shall be broght;
Thou berys it, wheder thou will or noght.
Dewyll, whom shuld we drede?
And therfor take it here belyfe,
And bere it furth good spede.
It helpys not here to strife;
Bere it behoves me nede.

And therfor, syrs, as ye have sayde,
To help this man I am well payde,
As ye wold that it were.
A ha, now ar we right arayde.
Bot loke oure gere be redy grade
To wyrk when we com there.
I warand all redy
Oure toyles both moore and les,
And Syr Symon truly
Gose on before with cros.

Now by Mahowne, oure heven kyng,
I wold that we were in that stede
Where we myght hym on cros bryng.
Step on before and furth hym lede
A trace.
Com on, thou!
Put on, thou!
I com fast after you
And folowse on the chace.

Explicit flagellacio. 5
 
(t-note)






(see note)








bold
creator; on earth
sword; abide
peerless
valiant; Jewry
the rush of battle; (see note)
cry out loud
Without doubt
subtlety
Falsehood; guile

(see note); (t-note)

iron; (see note)

aid; ready
advantage or gain

profit
fear; glad
their faith

accusers; (see note)
Questmongers; jurors
tax collectors


proclaimed
(see note)
taken
Very quickly
attempt; outwardly


against; enmity

back-bitings
spreaders of slander



grief
hear
believe; break
words
great misfortune; (t-note)
disciples
most dear; (see note)
Jewry

quickly
demonstrate
at once


run so that I sweat
(see note)
cease

crime

judgment


works




room; crowd
at once
noise; cease

dais
drive
To prepare for his death
rob

(see note)

this way


quickly
While; going
(see note)
fair

annoying
has

(t-note)

(see note)



dance

Bad luck befell you
among
lords

ordinance
scoundrel slave


death
council



attending
fear
bound
Neither in deed nor in word; (see note)
wrong



people
deceitful
Worldly shame is much upon you
kill

reasons; each one

(see note); (t-note)
without any contrivance
concerning this
pertained
soon
death; judge


speak




wrongdoing

Whereas

certainly
lying
cunning


(see note)
damn
misery; remain


(t-note)


(see note)
you know
thief; done
escape




death; condemn

(see note)
clothes; strip
make
beat him black and blue
help; (t-note)

to judge; the law; (see note)
before
Very soon
Bind him; (see note)

beat
delay


strike; skin; (see note)
burst
Unless; go quickly to him
blow; gladly; dare
lend; time
(see note)

Immediately

(t-note)
lend; blow
show

serves; [fol. 80v]



promptly
quickly
custody

escape
tug
hit



feast; (see note)

wine
such
kneel

He crossed the sea just a few years ago; (see note)
a pace

together
keen
believe


leper; (see note)


misery; relieve; bondage
labor; useless

to him went
healed
joyfully

lament
healed soon
loved; often

Jericho; (see note)
blind
walking with many more
Crying

heal



raises; life
often
Sick; often
heals

deeds; praise
found; (t-note)
hang

(see note)
ceases

(re-)build; haste; (t-note)
whole


Condemn; before you depart


[fol. 81r]

Soften

reason

kill; (see note)
truly
By God
(see note)
hold back

escape; (t-note)


advice
escape unharmed
to death
(see note)
would; lead astray
path


renown
people; voice
hang
unto you

wondrous thing

liege lord; (see note)

obedience



earth

condemn
depart; (see note)
friendship; cold

innocent

in plain sight; (see note)
Washed
is dearly bought, I guess
freely
(see note)
company
vengeance
desire
among
slave


trip; toes
feigning
many a deceit

renown

foes

delay
himself
belongs
the souls of my ancestors
arrange soon

[fol. 81v]; (see note)
pierce; brain
scorn
make [it] pierce the skin

Such

grief; bring


nourishment
Until; cross


glad
found; cross

great beauty

fast; nails

until he be dead
guarantee

gear; weapons
wealth
once beaten

(see note)
ready
reluctance; proceed
bear; through

mourning and moan
(t-note)
shall be slain

people; Bethlehem

realm


(see note)
yesterday

saw
then; quickly
Jews
counsel
sought forth

against them

many others
(see note)
together
know

Since
quickly
were
blame


all together

plain tidings

fares; since
know; gladly
leave
conceal
Nor; grieve



remind me
them; were
suffering; from; (see note)
again

be of advantage
destroy; (t-note)

mention

privately
afraid; frighten her
run and rave
The truth must I of necessity say
condemned to death
save
(see note)
desire of her



[fol. 82v]
And if; before
noble
go
seek; taken; (see note)
Outside
come close to
follow



go; gladly
Heartily; strength
increase
inquire
(see note)
that large crowd
mourning together
cease

chose


bleed
destroy
dread


heart’s sorrow
Wherever; lead

bulky

shall fall down









give

foes

Truly; beyond doubt
suffer death; (see note)


soul; loved always
truly
ever


creature
cruel
maltreated
eyes

(t-note)
These



dear

grievous

condemn; thief
loved always
break

daughters; (see note)

brood of children
truly
ordered; realm

joy to sorrow; befall


Children; bless

breasts; gave suck, certainly
hearts; sore

there
innocent


chattering; (see note)
death

counsel

(see note)
whores
restrain
cloth; (see note)
believe in and obey
pay for it
vengeance
all of you together
hurry; hence
unluckily

business; (see note)

cross
gladly; there
drag
harm
churl
carry [the cross]

soon see by trying; (see note)
Listen; whither

journey

harm
little pain; [fol. 83v]; (t-note)

gladly; (t-note)
tarry

soon

wicked deeds
bruised; bleeding all over
sorely beset
therefore
cross
Bear

haste

delay; (see note)
soon


before noon
midday
(t-note)

deed


soon again
might
own
depart; such a treachery
impostor; glad
agreement


Quickly; strike; fool
Unless

unwisely done
beat; at all


whether
Devil; fear
at once
quickly
struggle
I must of necessity bear it


content

well set
gear; prepared

warrant; [fol. 84r]
toils



(see note); (t-note)
place

forth; (see note)
The way
(t-note)


follow; chase


 

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