23. The Resurrection

Play 23, THE RESURRECTION: FOOTNOTES


1 The resurrection of the Lord

2 Lines 11–12: Whoever does not quickly want that [which I want], may his bones be hung very high

3 Then the centurion will come riding like a knight

4 Lines 107–09: You should not mention such new matters unless you can show us real proof

5 Lines 156–57: We need not mention this business anymore, / neither evening nor morning

6 Unless his disciples steal his body from us

7 Lines 192–93: Nor shall anyone take him away from here / by any means

8 Then the angels shall sing “Christ is risen” and afterwards Jesus shall say

9 Lines 256–58: The cruel Jews stretched out my limbs / because I could not reach / the bore-hole

10 And before you were torn away from me

11 Lines 439–40: It was for my guilt that he was taken away, / and not at all his own

12 Lines 451–52: Ho! Thief! I think that we are forever destroyed

13 Lines 503–04: I believe that we shall not part friends / before we finish

14 But tell us something just between us (confidentially)

15 Lines 517–18: Our keeping watch, lord, without doubt, / is [or has been] worthless

16 Lines 551–52: It behooves those knights to take back their declarations / that he is missing

17 Here ends the resurrection of the Lord


Play 23, THE RESURRECTION: EXPLANATORY NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: Chester: The Chester Mystery Cycle, ed. Lumiansky and Mills (1974); CT: The Canterbury Tales, ed. Benson (1987); DSL: Dictionary of the Scots Language; Elliott: The Apocryphal New Testament, ed. Elliott; EP: The Towneley plays, ed. England and Pollard (1897); MED: Middle English Dictionary; MS: Huntington MS HM 1 (“the Towneley manuscript”); N-Town: The N-Town Plays, ed. Sugano (2007); OED: Oxford English Dictionary; REED: Records of Early English Drama; SC: The Towneley Plays, eds. Stevens and Cawley (1994); s.d.: stage direction; Whiting: Whiting, Proverbs, Sentences, and Proverbial Phrases; York: The York Corpus Christi Plays, ed. Davidson (2011).

The resurrection of Jesus is a central event for Christianity, and was the subject of some of the earliest Christian drama, developing out of the Easter liturgy with its quem queritis — “whom do you seek?” — trope. Early dramatizations of the Visitatio sephulchri (the visit to the tomb), like the biblical text, focus on the empty tomb. The moment of resurrection was not witnessed, and is not described in any of the gospels; however, that miraculous moment itself has long been an important subject for representation. The visual tradition is divided, particularly in the later Middle Ages: Christus patiens (Christ suffering) displays his wounds and recalls his suffering, much as in lyrical appeals from the cross, whereas Christus triumphans (Christ triumphant) carries a banner aloft as he steps out of the open tomb, often onto a comatose soldier. The first tradition is clearly evident in Jesus’ monologue (lines 230–350, which contains some verbal parallels to the Chester Resurrection pageant — see note below to line 229, s.d.), while the other likely informed performance traditions even where the action is unclear from the text. Like the Harrowing of Hell, the Towneley Resurrection is very closely related to, but different from, its counterpart in York. Again it may preserve some lines that were ultimately edited out of York, all in the same 6-line rime couée stanza that forms the basis of both plays, but its numerous omissions, alterations, and additions from varied sources ultimately make it a very different play.


1 Peasse, I warne you, woldys in wytt. Pilate’s opening monologue (lines 1–36), beginning with this typical initial attention-getting call for peace, has no counterpart in York. The phrase “woldys in wytt,” while plausibly emended by SC to “woldys inwytt” (“wield conscience”), may be translated as “act reasonably” or “keep your wits about you.”

15–16 At Calvarie . . . at morne. While Pilate is present for the crucifixion at Calvary in most plays, the accusation and judgment takes place at his hall, early in the morning a day prior to the current events; in lines 64 and 68, the Centurion more properly refers to the events of “that day,” now past.

35 The devill to hell shall harry hys goost. Pilate is condemning those who would follow the teachings of Jesus, but his wording here recalls the harrowing or despoiling of hell and the devil by the “goost” or spirit of Christ.

41 We left hym ther for man most wyse. This line, midway through an atypical 8-line stanza here, is equivalent to the first line of a regular 6-line stanza in York (38.31) and begins a section that is largely but not entirely parallel to York; the central portion of the Centurion’s speech describing sights and events associated with the crucifixion, for example, while written in the typical 6-line stanza, has no counterpart in the extant York text (see note to lines 51–68 below). While the last line of this stanza (line 44) refers casually and obliquely to the execution of offenders, the overall characterization of Caiaphas in this play is far milder than in others in Towneley. See headnote to play 18, the Buffeting.

44, s.d. Tunc veniet centurio velut miles equitans. The extant York text contains no equivalent stage direction and makes no reference in the dialogue (as in line 75 here) to the centurion’s being on horseback.

51–68 Heven it shoke . . . . slayn that day. See Matthew 27:51–54. These lines, constituting three regular 6-line stanzas, have no parallel in York; the miraculous and portentous events described here, and again in lines 113–24, are not mentioned in the Towneley Crucifixion play, nor in York 36.

59–62 And so I saide . . . . Son of God Jesu. See Matthew 27:54. This scene is not represented in the Towneley Crucifixion, although it is in York 36.313–25.

118–24 The son for wo . . . . both greatt and small. These lines closely parallel not just the York text (38.91–97) but also the Centurion’s speech in the Middle English Gospel of Nicodemus (Hulme, Middle-English Harrowing of Hell, pp. 66 and 68, lines 703–10), which also influenced the York Harrowing play.

138 the vayll rofe in the kyrke. See Matthew 27:51.

142–47 Harlot . . . . hold styll thy clattur. This stanza, for which there is no parallel in York, is followed by what in York constitute the final four lines of a regular 6-line stanza (see 38.115–20). The two missing York lines are attributed to Annas — an attribution that would make sense for the first lines of this particular stanza as well, given that the exclamatory initial epithet seems to disrupt rather than continue Pilate’s speech. The subsequent reference by Caiaphas to “the wenyande” or the unlucky waning moon (line 146; see note to 2.227–29) is typical both of York and of Towneley (although spelled consistently as “wenyand[e]” here and “wanyand” in York).

171 The latter dede is more to drede. That is, the resurrection is more to be feared than the crucifixion and portents described by the Centurion.

213 We shall hym kepe till youre renowne. We shall guard him, to your reknown; York 38.182 has “oure rennowne.” The soldiers immediately go to the tomb of Jesus and then, in lines absent from the York version, take up their places around it — one to each side. As usual, Soldier 1 is in charge (although unsure as to where each soldier should go, line 218), and presumably takes position at the head of the tomb.

220 And I shall fownde his feete to flytt. And I shall go to his feet. When Soldier 3 attempts to take his position at the foot of the tomb, he is stopped by Soldier 4 (line 221) and presumably remains on the side.

227 Have here my hand. Soldier 4 raises his hand in a traditional gesture of oath-taking, just prior to action that effectively violates that oath — the resurrection and departure of Jesus, who likely steps out of a coffin-style tomb, as in most visual representations, and onto one of the soldiers, perhaps the boastful Soldier 4. The soldiers are generally represented as if sleeping at the moment of resurrection, as implied in line 478); Matthew 28:4 states that they are struck dumb with terror and thus appear as dead. Yet while they do not witness the resurrection (see line 472 and note), they do apparently hear the angelic music (see line 539, and the note below to 229, s.d.).

229 This cors I dar warand. That is, in context, I guarantee that this body will remain where it is, securely guarded, or, I dare to guard and protect this body against all who might try to take it (including fiery dragons, line 225). See MED waranten (v.), sense 2.

229, s.d. Tunc cantabunt angeli Christus resurgens et postea dicet Jesus. The traditional Easter antiphon Christus resurgens (Christ is risen) is sung by a single angel in York (38.186, s.d.; only one angel has a speaking role in that version, following Matthew 28), but by two angels in Chester’s Resurrection pageant (as in Luke 24:4 and John 20:12). In Matthew’s account, it is the angel that removes the stone from the tomb (Matthew 28:2); here, the two angels should remove the 'stone' covering from the (conventionally rectangular, coffin-shaped) tomb as they sing (music that the soldiers later recall hearing; see lines 537–40), and Jesus rises out of it. The lengthy monologue by Jesus that follows, partly in the regular 6-line stanza and partly in a 7-line stanza, has no parallel in York; however, as SC point out (p. 605n230–350), much of the section in 7-line stanzas has close parallels to an extant medieval lyric — a speech from the cross known as “Thou Sinful Man that by Me Goes” (see line 248; the lyric as found in Arundel MS 285 is printed in Brown’s Religious Lyrics of the XVth Century, pp. 151–56). In addition, the first and last stanzas here (lines 230–35, 339–50), including a cancelled stanza (see note to line 345–50 below), contain verbal parallels to the equivalent speech in the Chester Resurrection pageant (Chester 18.154–77).

231 Wightly wake and slepe thou noght. See Ephesians 5:14. The metaphor of spiritual sleep is literalized here by the soldiers around the tomb.

240–41 Thou fyle thee noght oft forthy, / Now art thou cleyn. Therefore do not defile yourself again, now that you are clean (of sin, through Jesus’ sacrifice).

264 Two thefys hang thai me betwene. See Matthew 27:38 (and other gospel accounts). In Towneley, alone of the varied Middle English dramatizations, Jesus is not actually represented as crucified between two thieves. See headnote to play 20, the Crucifixion.

305–07 As thou thiself . . . . Luf me agane. The allusion is to Luke 10:27, but effectively combines the commandments both to love God and to love one’s neighbor as one’s self into a single demand.

311–24 If thou thy lyfe in syn . . . . Aske none he wold. These lines assert the power of God’s mercy and grace against sin, and specifically the sin of despair — a refusal to recognize the possibility of divine forgiveness — as exemplified by Judas. See notes to 22.334–36 and 27.107–13, and the admonishments against wanhope or despair in the Conspiracy play (17.531) and in Thomas of India (25.248, 251, and 568).

325 Lo how I hold myn armes on brede. This line betrays its origin as a lyrical complaint from the cross; however, an actor playing Jesus could replicate the gesture in performance. On gestic writing, see Epp, “Visible Words.”

345–50 That ilk veray brede . . . . shall he never. This stanza has been crossed out in red, like the cancelled stanza in the play of John the Baptist, but not bracketed or framed in black (see 15.193–200 and note). Here the cancellation makes more sense as a reaction to doctrinal concerns, given the explicit reference to transubstantiation “in wordys fyfe” — that is, hoc est enim corpus meum (“for this is my body”), the formula used at the consecration of the Eucharist, derived from Matthew 26:26 and Luke 22:19 (both of which lack the word enim). The rest of the stanza refers in part to John 6:51. The three Marys enter, likely through the crowd, immediately following this stanza. Jesus withdraws at the same, appearing to Mary Magdalene only at line 580 (as a gardener; see note below), while the two angels sit on the tomb (see line 391; John 20:12).

351 Alas, to dy with doyll am I dyght. That is, misery is killing me.

353–54 I drope, I dare, for seyng of sight / That I can se. That is, she continues to cower and tremble with fear at the sight that she has seen, of Jesus dying on the cross.

364 woundys wete. This phrase, used again at line 442, refers to bloody, but not necessarily fresh wounds; see MED wet (adj.), sense 6d).

393–94 Certys the sothe is not to hyde / The gravestone is put besyde. That is, the truth is clearly evident; the gravestone has been laid aside. However, the three Marys do not yet realize the significance — the truth — of what they see, neither of the stone nor of the angels just mentioned; York 38.229–30 more simply states “Sistirs, sertis, it is noght to hide: / The hevy stone is putte beside.”

400 whome have ye soght. This line translates the quem quaeritis trope that gave rise to dramatic embellishment of the Easter liturgy.

407 The sudary here se ye may. As in the Lazarus play (see 16.99–102 and note), “sudary” here likely refers to the cloth wound around Jesus’ head rather than to a larger winding-cloth. John 20:7 refers to a head-cloth being left behind along with other linen cloths in the empty tomb, but Jesus is conventionally shown as wearing the winding-cloth draped over him at the resurrection.

442 woundys wete. See line 364 and note above.

460 The fals tratur that here was lentt. That is, the false traitor that was buried here — “to lend” means to abide or dwell in a place; see MED lenden (v.), sense 3.

469–70 Wytt Sir Pilate of this enfray, / We mon be slone. If Sir Pilate finds out about this affray, we must be slain.

472 I sagh myself when that he yede. Soldier 2 here claims to have seen the event that according to lines 449–52 he knew nothing about; he is clearly lying, as Soldier 1 immediately affirms (lines 473–74).

527 Sir, ther was none that durst do bot small. That is, no one dared to do even the slightest thing.

545 I pray you, Cayphas, ye us wys / Of this enfray. That is, please advise us as to what to do about this affray.

579 The blyssyng of Mahowne be with you nyght and day. Pilate’s final line here is, unusually, yoked to a 7- rather than 6-line stanza that otherwise does not relate to him in any way; neither the line nor the scene with Mary Magdalene that follows has any counterpart in the extant York version of the episode, which ends with a three-stanza speech by Pilate asserting that “Thus schall the sothe be bought and solde, / And treasoune schall for trewthe be tolde” (York 38.450–51). However, see the note to lines 642–59 below.

580 garthynere. See John 20:15. In artistic representations of the scene Jesus is usually depicted wearing a large gardener’s hat, as is likely the case here.

594–95 Unto myn endyng day / The better shuld I be. That is, until my death I would be better off (if I could bear his body with me).

604–05 A he was to me . . . / No longer dwell I may. While there is no special punctuation in the MS, Mary clearly breaks off the first of these lines in a relatively naturalistic manner, unusual for the period; the rhetorical figure is known as aposiopesis or praecisio.

607 Rabony. See John 20:16; the Aramaic title Rabboni is related to the Hebrew rabbi and means “master” or “teacher.”

613 neghe thou not me. The often-quoted Latin phrase from John 20:17 is noli me tangere — that is, “do not touch me” (although the original Greek would better translate as “stop clinging to me”).

619–20 To peasse now ar thay boght / That prysond were in pyne. These lines allude to the harrowing of hell; see play 22.

630–32 And say that I shall be . . . . in Galylé. See Mark 14:28.

635–36 Fro thay here that message / Thay will be all mery. That is, they will all be merry from the moment that they hear that message. Jesus withdraws either during or immediately following these lines, the rest of Mary Magdalene’s speech being addressed to the audience.

642–59 Mi blys . . . . youre mys. The three final stanzas of the play are in the regular 6-line stanzas borrowed from York, and may well derive from the original play; the extant York pageant that dramatizes the appearance to Mary Magdalene (in 8-line stanzas) ends with a speech by Jesus that is similar in content to his final speech in this play (lines 623–32). The final word here, “mys,” typically alliterated with “amende,” can in this context refer to wrongs and misdeeds (that is, what is amiss) or to any sort of loss or disadvantage (what is missing) and so serves as a general blessing directed at the audience.


Play 23, THE RESURRECTION: TEXTUAL NOTES



ABBREVIATIONS: EP: The Towneley Plays, ed. England and Pollard (EETS, 1897); Facs: The Towneley Cycle: A Facsimile of Huntington MS HM 1, ed. Cawley and Stevens; MED: Middle English Dictionary; MS: Huntington MS HM 1 (base text); SC: The Towneley Plays, ed. Stevens and Cawley (EETS, 1994); s.d.: stage direction; Surtees: The Towneley Mysteries, ed. Raine; York: The York Corpus Christi Plays, ed. Davidson (2011).

1–2 Peasse I warne . . . els go sytt. MS: the first two lines are written in a formal variant of the main Anglicana hand.

4 mekill. So EP, SC. MS is missing most of this word, the line having been written in the cropped margin; the final word of the line is written below the rest.

72 What. MS: tha is crossed out before this word.

80 you. MS: uncancelled g before this word, likely anticipating the following word (grace).

154 as now he redys. So SC, following York 38.123. MS: as now redys.

186 thre. So EP. MS: iij.

190 shall ordan if. MS: shall if. SC emend to shall ordayne if, following York 38.159 (a spelling not otherwise found in Towneley; see for example line 184).

204 For if thei do. MS: For if ther do; compare York 38.173: For and thei do.

228 thre. So EP, MS: iij.

292 fyve. So EP, MS: v.

294 seven. SC: vii. MS: ix. Emendation is necessary for rhyme, and supported by at least one lyrical source (see SC, p. 606n294) although the total number of wounds given in different texts varies wildly.

345–50 That ilk veray . . . . shall he never. MS: this stanza has been crossed out in red; see Explanatory Note.

449 Is he. So SC, following York 38.291. MS: he is.

453 Soldier 3 (speech heading). MS: the speech heading gives the M in Miles an extra minim but no i (as is the case for the speech heading at line 483).

485 say. So SC, following York 38.326. MS: assay.

517 wakyng. So SC, following York 38.358. MS: walkyng.

563 Ten thowsand. So EP. MS: X ml.

569 Ten thowsand pounds. So EP. MS: X ml li.

637 This Lord was slayn, alas forthy. MS: in the upper right hand corner above this line a later hand has written al and the beginnings of a third letter, likely a.

 
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23. The Resurrection

from: The Towneley Plays  2017


















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Resurreccio domini. 1

Peasse, I warne you, woldys in wytt,
And standys on syde or els go sytt,
For here ar men that go not yitt
And lordys of mekill myght;
We thynk to abyde and not to flytt,
I tell you, every wyght.

Spare youre spech, ye brodels bold,
And sesse youre cry till I have told
What that my worship wold
Here in thise wonys.
Whoso that wyghtly nold,
Full hy bese hanged his bonys. 2

Wote ye not that I am Pilate
That satt apon the justyce late
At Calvarie, where I was att
This day at morne?
I am he, that great state
That lad has all to-torne.

Now sen that lothly losell is thus ded
I have great joy in my manhede;
Therfor wold I in ilk sted
It were tayn hede
If any felowse felow his red
Or more his law wold lede.

For and I knew it, cruelly
His lyfe bees lost and that shortly,
That he were better hyng ful hy
On galow tre.
Therfor ye prelatys shuld aspy
If any sich be.

As I am man of myghtys most,
If ther be any that blow sich bost
With tormentys keyn bese he indost
Forevermore;
The devill to hell shall harry hys goost.
Bot I say nomore.

Sir, ye thar nothyng be dredand,
For Centurio, I understand,
Youre knyght, is left abydand
Right ther behynde;
We left hym ther for man most wyse,
If any rybaldys wold oght ryse,
To sesse theym to the next assyse
And then for to make ende.

Tunc veniet centurio velut miles equitans. 3

A, blyssyd Lord Adonay,
What may this mervell sygnyfy
That here was shewyd so openly
Unto oure sight,
When the rightwys man can dy
That Jesus hight?

Heven it shoke abone,
Of shynyng blan both son and moyne,
And dede men also rose up sone
Outt of thare grafe,
And stones in wall anone
In sonder brast and clafe.

Ther was seen many a full sodan sight;
Oure prynces forsothe dyd nothyng right,
And so I saide to theym on hight,
As it is trew,
That he was most of myght,
The Son of God, Jesu.

Fowlys in the ayer and fish in floode
That day changid thare mode
When that he was rent on rode,
That Lord veray;
Full well thay understode
That he was slayn that day.

Therfor, right as I meyn,
To theym fast will I ryde
To wyt withoutten weyn
What they will say this tyde
Of this enfray;
I will no longer abyde
Bot fast ride on my way.

God save you, syrs, on every syde,
Worship and welth in warld so wyde.
Centurio, welcom this tyde,
Oure comly knyght.
God graunt you grace, well for to gyde,
And rewll you right.

Centurio, welcom, draw nerehand,
Tell us som tythyngys here emang,
For ye have gone thrughoutt oure land;
Ye know ilk dele.
Sir, I drede me ye have done wrang
And wonder yll.

Wonder yll? I pray thee why?
Declare that to this company.
So shall I, sir, full securly
With all my mayn:
The rightwys man, I meyn hym by
That ye have slayn.

Centurio, sese of sich saw!
Ye ar a greatt man of oure law,
And if we shuld any wytnes draw
To us excuse,
To mayntene us evermore ye aw,
And noght refuse.

To mayntene trowth is well worthy.
I saide when I sagh hym dy
That it was Godys Son almyghty
That hang thore;
So say I yit, and abydys therby
Forevermore.

Yee, sir, sich resons may ye rew!
Thou shuld not neven sich notes new,
Bot thou couth any tokyns trew
Untill us tell. 4
Sich wonderfull case never ere ye knew
As then befell.

We pray thee, tell us of what thyng?
Of elymentys, both old and ying,
In thare manere maide greatt mowrnyng
In ilka stede;
Thay knew by contenaunce that thare kyng
Was done to dede.

The son for wo it waxed all wan,
The moyn and starnes of shynyng blan,
And erth it tremlyd as a man
Began to speke;
The stone that never was styrryd or than
In sonder brast and breke,

And dede men rose up bodely, both greatt and small.
Centurio, bewar withall!
Ye wote the clerkys the clyppys it call,
Sich sodan sight,
That son and moyne a seson shall
Lak of thare light.

Sir, and if that dede men ryse up bodely,
That may be done thrugh socery.
Therfor nothyng we sett therby
That be thou bast.
Sir, that I saw truly,
That shall I evermore trast.

Not for that ilk warke that ye dyd wyrke,
Not oonly for the son wex myrke,
Bot how the vayll rofe in the kyrke
Fayn wyt I wold.
A, sich tayles full sone wold make us yrke
If thay were told.

Harlot, wherto commys thou us emang
With sich lesyngys us to fang?
Weynd furth, hy myght thou hang,
Vyle fatur.
Weynd furth in the wenyande,
And hold styll thy clattur.

Sirs, sen ye set not by my saw,
Haves now good day.
God lene you grace to knaw
The sothe allway.

Withdraw thee fast, sen thou thee dredys,
For we shall well mayntene oure dedys.
Sich wonderfull resons as now he redys
Were never beforne.
To neven this note nomore us nedys,
Nawder even nor morne, 5

Bot for to be war of more were
That afterward myght do us dere.
Therfor, sir, whils ye ar here
Us all emang,
Avyse you of thise sawes sere
How thay will stand.

For Jesus saide full openly
Unto the men that yode hym by
A thyng that grevys all Jury,
And right so may:
That he shuld ryse up bodely
Within the thryde day.

If it be so, as myght I spede,
The latter dede is more to drede
Then was the fyrst, if we take hede
And tend therto.
Avyse you, sir, for it is nede,
The best to do.

Sir, nevertheles if he saide so,
He hase no myght to ryse and go,
Bot his dyscypyls steyll his cors us fro 6
And bere away;
That were till us and othere mo
A fowll enfray.

Then wold the pepyll say everilkon
That he were rysen hymself alon;
Therfor ordan to kepe that stone
With knyghtys heynd
To thise thre dayes be commen and gone
And broght till ende.

Now certys, sir, full well ye say,
And for this ilk poynt to purvay
I shall ordan, if that I may,
He shall not ryse,
Nor none shall wyn hym thens away
Of no kyns wyse. 7

Sir knyghtys that ar of dedys dughty
And chosen for chefe of chevalry,
As I may me in you affy,
By day and nyght
Ye go and kepe Jesu body
With all youre myght.

And for thyng that be may,
Kepe hym well unto the thryd day
That no tratur steyll his cors you fray
Out of that sted;
For if thei do, truly I say,
Ye shall be dede.

Yis, Sir Pilate, in certan
We shall hym kepe with all oure mayn;
Ther shall no tratur with no trayn
Steyll hym us fro.
Sir knyghtys, take gere that best may gayn
And let us go.

Yis, certys, we ar all redy bowne;
We shall hym kepe till youre renowne.
On every syde lett us sytt downe,
We all in fere,
And I shall fownde to crak his crowne
Whoso commys here.

Who shuld be where? Fayn wold I wytt.
Even on this syde wyll I sytt.
And I shall fownde his feete to flytt.
Wé, ther, shrew! Ther.
Now, by Mahowne, fayn wold I wytt
Who durst com here.

This cors with treson for to take,
For if it were the burnand drake,
Of me styfly he gatt a strake;
Have here my hand.
To thise thre dayes be past,
This cors I dar warand.

Tunc cantabunt angeli “Christus resurgens” et postea dicet Jesus: 8

Erthly man that I have wroght,
Wightly wake, and slepe thou noght.
With bytter bayll I have thee boght
To make thee fre;
Into this dongeon depe I soght,
And all for luf of thee.

Behold how dere I wold thee by.
My woundys ar weytt and all blody;
The synfull man full dere boght I,
With tray and teyn.
Thou fyle thee noght eft forthy,
Now art thou cleyn.

Clene have I mayde thee, synfull man;
With wo and wandreth I thee wan.
From harte and syde the blood out ran,
Sich was my pyne.
Thou must me luf that thus gaf than
My lyfe for thyne.

Thou synfull man that by me gase,
Tytt unto me thou turne thi face;
Behold my body in ilka place
How it was dight,
All to-rent,
And all to-shentt,
Man, for thi plight.

With cordes enewe and ropys toghe,
The Jues fell my lymmes outdrogh,
For that I was not mete enoghe
Unto the bore; 9
With hard stowndys
Thise depe woundys
Tholyd I thefore.

A crowne of thorne that is so kene
Thay set apon my hede for tene;
Two thefys hang thai me betwene
All for dyspyte.
This payn ilk dele
Thou shall wyt wele
May I thee wyte.

Behald my shankes and my knees,
Myn armes and my thees,
Behold me well, looke what thou sees
Bot sorow and pyne.
Thus was I spylt,
Man, for thi gylt
And not for myne.

And yit more understand thou shall:
In stede of drynk thay gaf me gall;
Asell thay menged it withall,
The Jues fell;
The payn I have,
Tholyd I to save
Mans saull from hell.

Behold my body, how Jues it dang
With knottys of whyppys and scorges strang,
As stremes of well the bloode out sprang
On every syde;
Knottes where thay hyt,
Well may thou wytt,
Maide woundys wyde.

And therfor thou shall understand,
In body, hede, feete, and hand
Four hundreth woundys and fyve thowsand
Here may thou se,
And therto seven,
Were delt full even
For luf of thee.

Behold on me noght els is lefte,
And or that thou were fro me refte, 10
All thise paynes wold I thole efte
And for thee dy.
Here may thou se
That I luf thee,
Man, faythfully.

Sen I for luf, man, boght thee dere,
As thou thiself the sothe sees here,
I pray thee hartely with good chere
Luf me agane,
That it lyked me
That I for thee
Tholyd all this payn.

If thou thy lyfe in syn have led,
Mercy to ask be not adred;
The leste drope I for thee bled
Myght clens thee soyn,
All the syn
The warld within
If thou had done.

I was well wrother with Judas
For that he wold not ask me no grace
Then I was for his trespas
That he me sold.
I was redy
To shew mercy;
Aske none he wold.

Lo, how I hold myn armes on brede
Thee to save ay redy mayde.
That I great luf ay to thee had
Well may thou knaw;
Som luf agane
I wold full fayn
Thou wold me shew.

Bot luf, noght els, aske I of thee,
And that thou fownde fast syn to fle;
Pyne thee to lyf in charyté
Both nyght and day,
Then in my blys
That never shall mys
Thou shall dwell ay.

For I am veray prynce of peasse,
And synnes seyr I may releasse,
And whoso will of synnes seasse
And mercy cry,
I grauntt theym here a measse
In brede, myn awne body.

That ilk veray brede of lyfe
Becommys my fleshe in wordys fyfe;
Whoso it resaves in syn or stryfe
Bese dede forever,
And whoso it takys in rightwys lyfe
Dy shall he never.

Alas, to dy with doyll am I dyght!
In warld was never a wofuller wight.
I drope, I dare, for seyng of sight
That I can se;
My Lord that mekill was of myght
Is ded fro me.

Alas, that I shuld se hys pyne
Or that I shuld his lyfe tyne,
For to ich sore he was medecyne
And boytte of all,
Help and hold to everilk hyne
To hym wold call.

Alas, how stand I on my feete
When I thynk on his woundys wete?
Jesus that was on luf so swete
And never dyd yll
Is dede and grafen under the grete,
Withoutten skyll.

Withoutten skyll thise Jues ilkon
That lufly Lord thay have hym slone,
And trespas dyd he never none,
In no kyn sted.
To whom shall we now make oure mone?
Oure Lord is ded.

Sen he is ded, my systers dere,
Weynd we will with full good chere
With oure anoyntmentys fare and clere
That we have broght
For to anoyntt his woundys sere
That Jues hym wroght.

Go we then, my systers fre,
For sore me longis his cors to see.
Bot I wote never how best may be;
Help have we none,
And which shall of us systers thre
Remefe the stone?

That do we not bot we were mo,
For it is hogh and hevy also.
Systers, we thar no farther go
Ne make mowrnyng.
I se two syt where we weynd to
In whyte clothyng.

Certys, the sothe is not to hyde;
The gravestone is put besyde.
Certys, for thyng that may betyde,
Now will we weynde
To late the luf and with hym byde
That was oure freynde.

Ye mowrnyng women in youre thoght,
Here in this place whome have ye soght?
Jesu that unto ded was broght,
Oure Lord so fre.
Certys, women, here is he noght.
Com nere and se.

He is not here, the sothe to say,
The place is voyde therin he lay;
The sudary here se ye may
Was on hym layde.
He is rysen and gone his way
As he you sayde.

Even as he saide so, done has he:
He is rysen thrugh his pausté;
He shal be fon in Galalé
In fleshe and fell.
To his dyscypyls now weynd ye
And thus thaym tell.

My systers fre, sen it is so
That he is resyn the deth thus fro
As saide till us thise angels two,
Oure lord and leche,
As ye have hard, where that ye go
Loke that ye preche.

As we have hard, so shall we say.
Maré, oure syster, have good day.
Now veray God, as he well may,
Man most of myght,
He wysh you, systers, well in youre way
And rewle you right.

Alas, what shall now worth on me?
My catyf hart wyll breke in thre
When that I thynk on that ilk bodye
How it was spylt;
Thrugh feete and handys nalyd was he
Withoutten gylt.

Withoutten gylt then was he tayn;
That lufly lord thay have hym slayn,
And tryspas dyd he never nane,
Ne yit no mys.
It was my gylt he was fortayn,
And nothyng his. 11

How myght I, bot I lufyd that swete
That for me suffred woundys wete
Sythen to be grafen under the grete,
Sich kyndnes kythe?
Ther is nothyng till that we mete
May make me blythe.

Outt, alas, what shall I say?
Where is the cors that here in lay?
What alys thee, man? Is he away
That we shuld tent?
Ryse up and se!
                           Harrow! Thefe! For ay
I cownte us shent. 12

What devyll alys you two
Sich nose and cry thus for to may?
For he is gone.
                           Alas, wha?
He that here lay.
Harrow, devill! Howswa
Gat he away?

What, is he thus-gatys from us went,
The fals tratur that here was lentt
That we truly to tent
Had undertane?
Certanly, I tell us shent
Holly ilkane.

Alas, what shall I do this day
Sen this tratur is won away?
And safely, syrs, I dar well say
He rose alon.
Wytt Sir Pilate of this enfray,
We mon be slone.

Wote ye well he rose in dede?
I sagh myself when that he yede.
When that he styrryd out of the stede,
None couth it ken.
Alas, hard hap was on my hede
Emang all men.

Ye, bot wyt Syr Pilate of this dede,
That we were slepand when he yede,
We mon forfett withoutten drede
All that we have.
We must make lees, for that is nede
Oureself to save.

That red I well, so myght I go.
And I assent therto also.
A thowsand shall I say and mo,
Well armed ilkon,
Com and toke his cors us fro,
Had us nere slone.

Nay, certys, I hold ther none so good
As say the sothe right as it stude,
How that he rose with mayn and mode
And went his way;
To Sir Pilate, if he be wode,
Thus dar I say.

Why, and dar thou to Sir Pilate go
With thise tythyngys and tell hym so?
So red I that we do also;
We dy bot oones.
Now he that wroght us all this wo,
Wo worth his bones!

Go we sam, sir knyghtys heynd,
Sen we shall to Sir Pilate weynd.
I trow that we shall parte no freynd
Or that we pas. 13
Now and I shall tell ilka word till ende,
Right as it was.

Sir Pilate, prynce withoutten peyr,
Sir Cayphas and Anna both in fere,
And all the lordys aboute you there
To neven by name,
Mahowne you save on sydys sere
Fro syn and shame.

Ye ar welcom, oure knyghtys so keyn;
A mekill myrth now may we meyn.
Bot tell us som talkyng us betwene 14
How ye have wroght.
Oure wakyng, lord, withoutten wene
Is worth to noght. 15

To noght? Alas, seasse of sich saw.
The prophete Jesu that ye well knaw
Is rysen, and went fro us on raw
With mayn and myght.
Therfor the devill thee all to-draw,
Vyle recrayd knyght.

What, combred cowardys I you call.
Lett ye hym pas fro you all?
Sir, ther was none that durst do bot small
When that he yede.
We were so ferde we can downe fall
And qwoke for drede.

We were so rad, everilkon,
When that he put besyde the stone,
We quoke for ferd and durst styr none,
And sore we were abast.
Whi, bot rose he bi hymself alone?
Ye, lord, that be ye trast.

We hard never, on evyn ne morne,
Nor yit oure faders us beforne,
Sich melody, mydday ne morne,
As was maide thore.
Alas, then ar oure lawes forlorne
Forevermore.

A, devill, what shall now worth of this?
This warld farys with quantys.
I pray you, Cayphas, ye us wys
Of this enfray.
Sir, and I couth oght by my clergys,
Fayn wold I say.

To say the best, forsothe, I shall;
It shalbe profett for us all:
Yond knyghtys behovys thare wordys agane-call
How he is myst. 16
We wold not for thyng that myght befall
That no man wyst.

And therfor of youre curtessie
Gyf theym a rewarde forthy.
Of this counsell well paide am I;
It shalbe thus.
Sir knyghtys that ar of dedys doghty,
Take tent till us.

Herkyns now how ye shall say
Whereso ye go by nyght or day:
Ten thowsand men of good aray
Cam you untill
And thefyshly toke his cors you fray
Agans youre will.

Loke ye say thus in every land,
And therto, on this covande,
Ten thowsand pounds have in youre hande
To youre rewarde,
And my frenship, I understande,
Shall not be sparde.

Bot loke ye say as we have kende.
Yis, sir, as Mahowne me mende,
In ilk contree whereso we lende
By nyght or day,
Whereso we go, whereso we weynd,
Thus shall we say.

The blyssyng of Mahowne be with you nyght and day.
Say me, garthynere, I thee pray,
If thou bare oght my Lord away.
Tell me the sothe, say me not nay,
Where that he lyys,
And I shall remeve hym if I may
On any kyn wyse.

Woman, why wepys thou? Be styll.
Whome sekys thou? Say me thy wyll
And nyk me not with nay.
For my Lord I lyke full yll
The stede thou bare his body tyll
Tell me, I thee pray,
And I shall if I may
His body bere with me;
Unto myn endyng day
The better shuld I be.

Woman, woman, turne thi thoght.
Wyt thou well I hyd hym noght
Then bare hym nawre with me.
Go seke, loke if thou fynde hym oght.
In fayth, I have hym soght,
Bot nawre he will fond be.
Why, what was he to thee,
In sothfastnes to say?
A, he was to me —
No longer dwell I may.
Mary, thou sekys thy God, and that am I.

Rabony, my Lord so dere!
Now am I hole that thou art here.
Suffer me to negh thee nere
And kys thi feete;
Myght I do so, so well me were,
For thou art swete.

Nay, Mary, neghe thou not me,
For to my Fader, tell I thee,
Yit stevynd I noght.
Tell my brethere I shall be
Before theym all in Trynyté
Whose will that I have wroght.
To peasse now ar thay boght
That prysond were in pyne,
Wherfor thou thank in thoght
God, thi Lord and myne.

Mary, thou shall weynde me fro:
Myn erand shall thou grathly go;
In no fowndyng thou fall.
To my dyscypyls say thou so,
That wilsom ar and lappyd in wo,
That I thaym socoure shall.
By name Peter thou call,
And say that I shall be
Before hym and theym all
Myself in Galylé.

Lord, I shall make my vyage
To tell theym hastely;
Fro thay here that message
Thay will be all mery.
This Lord was slayn, alas forthy,
Falsly spylt, no man wyst why,
Whore he dyd mys;
Bot with hym spake I bodely
Forthi commen is my blys

Mi blys is commen, my care is gone,
That lufly have I mett alone;
I am as blyth in bloode and bone
As ever was wight.
Now is he resyn that ere was slone,
Mi hart is light.

I am as light as leyfe on tre
For joyfull sight that I can se,
For well I wote that it was he,
My Lord Jesu.
He that betrayde that fre,
Sore may he rew.

To Galylé now will I fare
And his dyscyples cach from care.
I wote that thay will mowrne no mare;
Commyn is thare blys.
That worthi childe that Mary bare,
He amende youre mys.

Explicit resurreccio domini. 17
 

















act reasonably; (see note); (t-note)
aside

much; (t-note)
flee
person

speech; scoundrels
cease

this place
would not


Know
lately
(see note)

dignitary [who]
torn apart

since; loathly scoundrel

every place
taken heed [that]
fellows follow his advice


if

hung on high

prelates; seek out
such

most might
such
cruel; punished

ghost; (see note)


you need nothing dread

waiting

(see note)
rascals
seize; until; court session


(see note)





righteous; die
was named

shook above; (see note)
ceased; sun and moon
dead; soon
their graves
at once
Burst asunder; split

sudden
truly
those of high degree; (see note)
true



Birds in the air
mood
torn on the cross
verily



intend

know without a doubt
at this time; (t-note)
disturbance
remain






guide; (t-note)
rule

close by
news; among

every deal
wrong
ill



surely
might
righteous; refer to him
slain

cease; speech

witness

ought



saw

there



regret

Unless; could

before



elements; young

Everywhere
appearance
death

sun; became dull; (see note)
ceased
trembled

before then
Asunder

dead; bodily

know; eclipse
Such a sudden sight
season
Lack of their light

[fol. 102v]
sorcery

frightened

trust

same deed
became dark
veil tore; church; (see note)
Gladly I would know
such tales; disgusted


Scoundrel; among; (see note)
such lies; attack
Go; high
traitor
waning moon
chatter

since you disregard what I say

lend
truth

since; dread
deeds
advises; (t-note)


Neither

wary; danger
harm

among
Advise; various words



went
grieves; Jewry

bodily



deed; (see note)

pay attention
necessary


[fol. 103r]


bear [him]
many others
foul disturbance

every single one
alone
guard
fine
Until; (t-note)



very point to arrange
(t-note)




valiant deeds
chief of chivalry
have faith

guard


anything

traitor steal his body from you
place
(t-note)
dead


strength
trick

gear; help


ready
(see note)

all together
hasten


Gladly would I know

hasten; (see note)
curse

dares

corpse
burning dragon
From; a blow
(see note)
Until; (t-note)
guarantee; (see note)

(see note)


Quickly; (see note)
pain
free
dungeon deep
love

buy
wet

grief; harm
defile yourself again therefore; (see note)
clean


misery; distress; won
heart and side
Such; suffering
love; gave


goes
Quickly
this place
treated
torn
destroyed


enough; tough



fierce attacks

Suffered

sharp
affliction
thieves; (see note)

each deal
know well
teach

legs
thighs

suffering

guilt




Vinegar; mixed
cruel

Suffered
soul

beat
scourges cruel
from a well


know



head
(t-note)
see
(t-note)
dealt
love



suffer again


love


Since
truth; (see note)
heartily
Love
pleased



(see note)
afraid
least drop
cleanse you quickly

world


more angry
would


ready



out wide; (see note)
ready made
always
know

gladly


But love nothing else
hasten quickly; flee
Suffer

bliss

always

true
manifold
cease

portion
bread

each true; (see note); (t-note)
five
receives
Are dead forever
righteous
Die

misery; put; (see note)
more woeful creature
cower; tremble; (see note)

much


suffering
lose
each sore
remedy
support every servant [that]



wet; (see note)
love
did ill
buried; ground
reason

each one
lovely; slain

Nowhere
lament


Since
Go
ointments fair

diverse
gave

[fol. 105r]
corpse
know


Remove

more
huge; heavy
need
Nor
go


(see note)
aside
whatever may happen

seek the loved one



(see note)



near

truly
empty
grave cloth; (see note)





power
found in Galilee
flesh and body
disciples
them


risen from death

healer
heard
preach


Mary
true

guide
rule

become of me
wretched heart
same body
destroyed
nailed
guilt

taken
lovely
trespass; none
Nor yet no misdeed
taken away


loved
(see note)
Then; buried; ground
Make such kindness known

happy


body
ails; (t-note)
watch over

Forever
count; ruined

devil; ails; (t-note)
make

who

How
Got

has he thus gone
(see note)
watch over
undertaken
ruined
Wholly each one


Since; traitor has gotten

alone
disturbance; (see note)
must be slain

death
saw; went; (see note)
place
could it know
bad luck
Among


sleeping
forfeit

lies; necessary


advise

(t-note)
each one
corpse from us
slain


stood
fervently

mad
dare


tidings
advise




together; valiant


Before
each


peer
company

mention
various



much joy; convey


without a doubt; (t-note)


cease

us together
strength
pull apart
cowardly

miserable

(see note)

afraid
trembled

afraid, each and every one; [fol. 106v]
aside
dared stir not
frightened

assured

heard; evening or morning

Such melody, midday nor morning
made there
destroyed


become
uses trickery
guide; (see note)
disturbance
if I knew; learning
Gladly


profit

missing

knows

courtesy

pleased

valiant
Pay attention to us

Listen

attire; (t-note)
Came to you
thievishly; body from you
Against


covenant
(t-note)


spared

commanded

each; arrive

journey


(see note)
gardener; [fol. 107r]; (see note)
carried
truth
lies
remove
In some manner



deny
Because of my Lord I am very sad
place; bore



(see note)




nowhere
at all

nowhere; found

truth
(see note)



Master; (see note)
whole
approach
kiss



(see note)

ascended
brothers


(see note)
imprisoned; punishment



from
quickly
temptation

bewildered; wrapped in woe


(see note)

Galilee

voyage

(see note)

therefore; (t-note)
Falsely
Where
bodily


(see note)
lovely one
joyous
any creature
risen; before; slain
heart

leaf on tree

know

noble one
regret


catch
mourn no more
their bliss

lack


 

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