20. The Crucifixion

Play 20, THE CRUCIFIXION: FOOTNOTES


1 The pageant of the cross follows

2 What is written, I have written

3 Here ends the crucifixion of Christ


Play 20, THE CRUCIFIXION: EXPLANATORY NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: Chester: The Chester Mystery Cycle, ed. Lumiansky and Mills (1974); CT: The Canterbury Tales, ed. Benson (1987); DSL: Dictionary of the Scots Language; Elliott: The Apocryphal New Testament, ed. Elliott; EP: The Towneley plays, ed. England and Pollard (1897); MED: Middle English Dictionary; MS: Huntington MS HM 1 (“the Towneley manuscript”); N-Town: The N-Town Plays, ed. Sugano (2007); OED: Oxford English Dictionary; REED: Records of Early English Drama; SC: The Towneley Plays, eds. Stevens and Cawley (1994); s.d.: stage direction; Whiting: Whiting, Proverbs, Sentences, and Proverbial Phrases; York: The York Corpus Christi Plays, ed. Davidson (2011).

With its mix of styles and stanza forms, the Crucifixion appears to be a composite play, edited together from diverse original sources either for reading purposes or for independent performance, much like the Conspiracy (which likewise differs in its incipit and explicit) and the Scourging. The image of Christ crucified is of course central to late medieval devotional practices, and these have strongly influenced the current work; Jesus is left hanging on the cross for close to 500 lines — far longer than in York (where the Crucifixion and the Death and Burial are separate pageants) or Chester — while Jesus’ mother Mary and his disciple John utter traditional lyrical laments. However, the presence of the two thieves, crucified alongside Jesus according to all gospel accounts, goes unnoted, and the burial is referred to but not staged. The torturers gamble for the robe of Jesus, but differently than in the play of the Dice that follows.


23 Prynce of all Jury. As in some other plays (see for example 17.180), Pilate in these stanzas is represented not merely as complicit with the Jewish enemies of Jesus but also, ahistorically, as Jewish rather than Roman, although he also swears “by Mahownys bloode” in line 14.

29 All peasse. Much like Pilate before him (line 1 here, and both in the Conspiracy and in the Scourging), the Torturer enters with a call for peace, typical of opening speeches; this may once have been the opening line of a play written entirely in a 6-line stanza form (rhymed aabccb), to which Pilate’s speech and much else has been added. Regardless, it is likely that the torturers, along with Jesus carrying the cross, enter through the audience in order to get to Calvary (which they reach only at line 83), making this cry for peace an appropriate, even necessary means of getting attention and silencing the audience.

68 here oone to the othere syde. Torturer 2, like Torturer 1, has a cord or leather thong with which to fasten Jesus to the cross. While binding his wrists to the cross ostensibly makes the nails appear redundant (historically placed through the wrist, although traditionally represented as through the palms), this is necessary to help the actor remain in place particularly during the lifting of the cross.

86–88 Yee, for as modee . . . . had the rake. Yes, for as sad as he can look, he would have played another trick if he had had the opportunity. SC paraphrase these lines as meaning, “For, as arrogant as he looks, he would have played another trick [i.e. behaved quite differently], if he had been put on the rack” (p. 576n86–8), although “to have the rake” means “to have the opportunity” to do something (MED rake (n.3)). Interestingly, while the Torturers have been stressing his pride in previous lines (see lines 47, 54, and 69) “moody” in this context could also mean “distressed" or “sorrowful” (see MED modi (adj.), sense 2b), befitting the traditional “Man of Sorrows” image.

92 Ye must just in tornamente. The idea of Jesus as warrior or knight is central to various works, including The Dream of the Rood, one of the oldest poems in English, but the specific metaphor of the crucifixion as jousting at a tournament is also used in Passus 18 of Langland’s Piers Plowman.

100 sett. The seat is the cross, or more specifically the sedile, a small post or projection on the upright beam that allows Jesus, or rather the actor, to sit rather than hang, here metaphorically treated as the saddle (line 102) on his palfrey (see line 114 and note). The sedile (sometimes referred to as a cornu or horn) is mentioned in a number of different Latin sources, including works by Tertullian and Justin Martyr; the footrest more commonly pictured in medieval art was not likely a feature of Roman crucifixion, but is a practical necessity in theater.

103 For fallyng be thou bold. That is, do not fear falling; he will be securely fastened to the cross (see lines 116–17).

104 I hete thee well tho bydys a shaft. I promise you sincerely that you will suffer a lance. This continues the jousting metaphor and anticipates the spearing of his side by the “blind knight” Longeus (see lines 651–62).

105–06 Bot if thou sytt well, thou had better laft / The tales that thou has told. That is, unless you remain firmly seated, you would be better off having dispensed with those stories you told — specifically, of being king, a position he will (they assume) lose in losing this 'joust.'

114 And wyn apon youre palfray sone. And mount your horse without delay (see also line 201). A palfrey is not a war horse suitable for jousting, but a regular saddle-horse such as a lady might ride. In the York Crucifixion play, Jesus lays himself down on the cross (see York 35.75–76); here, given the lack of comment, he may be placed on the cross by the torturers, but without resistance — being “led as a sheep to the slaughter” (Isaiah 53:7).

119–99 Knyt thou a knott . . . . clynke it right. The stretching of Jesus’ limbs to reach pre-bored holes on the cross is commonplace in meditative traditions, and is dramatized in York, Chester, and N-Town as well. The right hand is traditionally fastened first (as explicitly noted in a stage direction in the Chester version; see Chester 16A.After 192). Having realized that the holes are too far apart, they pull one arm into place (line 125); Torturer 2 ties it there (lines 125–28), and Torturer 3 hammers in the nail (see lines 131–37). Torturer 2 then goes to hold down the knees (line 140) while the others pull the left hand to the bore-hole, but he quickly thereafter joins them at the second bore-hole to hold the nail in position (see lines 150–54). They then attempt to draw the legs down. Initially they all pull together (lines 162–68), but they ultimately take turns before managing to align his feet with the borehole, at which point Torturer 4 hammers in the nail (see lines 195–99). Finally they go raise the cross together. (SC p. 577n119–99 give a notably different summary of the action in these same lines; see also note to line 150 below.)

123–24 It wantys . . . Othere half span and more. That is, as everyone can see, his hand falls short of the bore-hole for the nail by at least half a span (a span being the widest distance between the tips of one’s thumb and little finger — roughly 9 inches or 23 cm).

144 That was well drawen, that that. That was well-pulled, that thing there. Torturer 4 goes on for four more lines about just how well-pulled it was, evidently taking the credit himself (and will later blame others for not pulling properly — see lines 170–72). Here Torturer 1 is giving orders, but apparently doing little more than that, while Torturer 2 is holding down Jesus’ knees (line 140[b]; see note to lines 119–99 above). In line 143, Torturer 3 tells someone else to pull, likely Torturer 4; he himself may be otherwise occupied, holding the already fastened arm in place, or perhaps sitting on that arm while pushing the other toward the bore-hole.

150 take the bore. That is, hold the nail to ensure that it goes into the prebored hole (see MED taken (v.), sense 1c; see also lines 195–96 and note. SC understand this phrase to refer to boring a hole at the “marke” (lines 146, 190; see SC p. 577–78n119–99, and p. 661 bore (n.2)), in accordance with the MED, which cites this line in support of its definition for taken as meaning “to build (sth.), construct, make” (sense 42a). However “marke” likewise refers to the bore-hole itself, as in York 35.109, where one of the torturers complains that the “marke amisse be bored.” The pulling and stretching of Jesus is necessary only if the holes are pre-bored, as in other accounts and dramatic representations.

159 Felowse, fest on fast youre hende. That is, fellows, grab hold tightly with your hands.

161 by this wedyr. That is, by heavens — a mild oath.

165 draw we ilka syn from syn. That is, pull his sinews apart, by tugging his legs toward the bore-hole.

167–69 Nay, felowse, this is no gam . . . . So mekill have I asspyed. Pulling together has clearly been unsuccessful, so they will make individual attempts. Torturer 4 goes on to state that their failure was due to someone seeking “ease” by jerking on the rope (lines 171–72), suggesting that when they pulled together they suddenly and simultaneously tumbled backward.

189 Pull therat with somkyn gyn. Torturer 1 is now taking his turn at pulling the rope. While “gin” here could simply mean “skill” or “strategem” — that is, Torturer 2 is telling him to pull on the rope in a different, more skillful way, since everyone else has been unsuccessful — it is also possible that some type of mechanical contrivance or tool is to be used here, such as piece of wood around which the cord is fastened to facilitate the pulling. See MED gin(ne (n.), sense 3.

195–96 Which of you can best dryfe, / And I shall take the bore. That is, whichever of you can best hammer, while I hold the nail in place at the bore-hole (see note to line 150 above). Torturer 4 offers to do this in the next line.

216–17 For hym that all this warld weldys, / Put fro thee with thi hande. That is, by the almighty creator — meaning Mahound (see line 181) rather than the one they are crucifying — push it with your hand. The cross is leaning to one side (line 215[b]) and in danger of falling over.

226 gape agans the son. That is, gape at the sun, referring to Jesus’ openeyed, open-mouthed (but silent) expression of pain after the cross is jarringly dropped into the mortise.

227 war thi crowne. Watch your crown — that is, the crown of thorns, which might well slip as the cross falls into place. The line gives an opportunity for Torturer 1 to push at the crown with a stick if necessary, and otherwise serves as mockery.

230 Shog hym well and let us lyfte. In order to ensure that the cross is securely placed in the mortise they will (following line 231) lift up the cross and let it fall once more. They will — extraordinarily — do this yet again, just for painful effect; see lines 305–10.

233–96 I pray you pepyll . . . . have thus spylt. The lament or reproach from the cross is a common lyrical subject in the later Middle Ages; this particular six stanza lament, along with the three stanza continuation at lines 503–35, may be adapted from such a lyric. Ultimately modeled on a verse from the biblical Lamentations of Jeremiah (1:12, “O all ye that pass by . . .”), the lament takes up themes that are central to affective piety, such as the specific pains that the sinless Jesus has suffered on account of human sin; the audience, as representative of all humankind, is deemed responsible even for the hammer blows that, in the context of this play, they have just witnessed. The couplet that follows Jesus’ lines was likely once part of a regular 6-line stanza, but clearly responds to a similar evocation of Luke 23:34; see lines 292–95 and note.

241–43 My mayn, my mode, my myght . . . . none bot care. That is, all my strength — physical and emotional — has been reduced to a sorrowful spectacle, and the only comfort is grief.

255–60 All creatoures . . . . his shuder bone. See Matthew 8:20, Luke 9:58.

274 Se thus thi wekydnes. This stanza like the next is irregular; a line appears to be missing just before or after this one (and rhymed with “wekydnes”).

281–85 Thus by I Adam blode . . . . for to wyn. Through his passion, Christ buys Adam’s blood — his sinful descendants — with his own, seeking no gain or profit for himself. A line appears to be missing just before or after line 281 (and rhymed with “blode”); see the note to line 274 above.

290 all byspytt me spytusly. See Matthew 27:30, and the Scourging 19.81.

292–95 Bot Fader . . . . Thay wote not what thay doyn. See Luke 23:34. The couplet that follows these lines, shared by two torturers, was likely once part of a regular stanza, but clearly serves as a response to what Jesus has just said; the lyrical lament from the cross here might well have replaced four lines of a regular 6-line stanza comprised of a similar paraphrase of the well-known verse from Luke.

305–06 Lyft us this tre . . . and let it into the mortase fall. See line 230 and note.

311–44 Alas the doyll . . . . thus fare. The lament of Mary below the cross is another popular lyric subject and, like that of Jesus earlier, appears to have been derived from an independent source, which likely included the continuation of the lament in lines 367–82 (and possibly also lines 453–60, attributed to John, and written in the same stanza form). Mary and the disciple John are regularly depicted together at the crucifixion based on John 19:25–27 (see the note to lines 520–24 below), which nonetheless mentions Mary Magdalene and Mary Cleophas as well (see note to 19.363). Although the exchange between Mary and John is likely derived from a different source from Mary’s lament, or planctus, Frank Napolitano (“Discursive Competition”) has shown how this planctus leads to a competitive exchange with John that is then resolved by Jesus, which indicates a deliberate dramaturgical principle behind the interwoven additions.

317–18 In warld, son, were never we / So wo as I in wede. That is, there was never, my son, a person (see MED wie, (n.), sense a) more woeful as I am. This variation of the alliterative phrase “wight in wede” (see note to 16.115) may indicate that Mary is wearing a garment akin to “widow’s weeds” (which could be white rather than black) to indicate mourning.

380 Whi will thou fare me fro. This line serves as a sort of refrain through her speech; see lines 411 and 417, also 446.

385–90 Me mynnys . . . . shuld it be. See for example Matthew 16:21, 17:22, 20:19. This stanza is very similar in form to the 13-line 'bob and wheel' stanza.

396–423 Mi sorow . . . . bayll will brest. These alternating 8- and 6-line stanzas could be configured as 14-line stanzas of the sort used in much of the Lazarus play (see note to 16.119), as is done in SC (p. 299, lines 396–423).

405–07 His robe is . . . . shapen with my sydys. The flesh of Jesus, shaped in Mary’s womb (“sydys”), is now torn like a garment, alluding to his seamless robe or “mantyll” (line 558) that will not be torn but gambled for later in the play; see lines 560–68 and note below). The seamless robe itself was often seen as a symbol of the mystical, indivisible body of Christ.

446 frely foode. See note to 7.d.85. Four lines from the original stanza may be missing just prior to this line, the stanza being otherwise the same in form as the two previous.

461–80 Alas dede . . . . lyf no more. These two stanzas constitute an apostrophe or address to death personified, ending in a prayer for death.

474 Sen I had childer none bot oone. That is, since I had no other children but this one. Two lines may be missing from this stanza, which otherwise resembles those immediately before and after.

481 Gabriell, that good / Some tyme thou can me grete. Mary addresses the (absent) angel Gabriel, referring to the Annunciation (Luke 1:26–38 and play 7c).

512 To lowse that bon was are. That is, to free those who previously were bound (in hell).

520–24 Woman . . . . thi moder mylde. See John 19:26–27. While the biblical passage does not actually name John, the identification of John with “the disciple that Jesus loved” in the gospel of John is traditional. Once Jesus names them mother and son in this way (addressing John only in line 524), they effectively vanish from the play. In the York version, Mary Cleophas explicitly asks that they lead Jesus’ mother away from the cross (see York 36.272); similar action would be appropriate here, given their silence at the death of Jesus and lack of involvement in the deposition from the cross.

536 Noght bot hold thi peasse. The regular 6-line stanza resumes here. While this stanza’s references to “drink” (see lines 537 and 539) respond to Jesus’ complaint of thirst in the preceding lines, those preceding lines may nonetheless be an interpolation, replacing a stanza that contained a similar complaint by Jesus.

539–40 Have here the draght . . . not swete. Jesus is offered a drink of vinegar from a sponge on a reed according to Matthew 27:48 and Mark 15:36 (vinegar and hyssop according to John 19:29). Prior to the crucifixion, according to Matthew 27:34 (see Mark 15:23, but also Psalm 69:21), he is offered wine or vinegar mixed with bitter gall to dull the pain, which he refuses; see the references to “asell” and “gall” in plays 23.277–78, 24.90, and 25.246, 526. The two offers of drink are frequently conflated.

549 That he shuld make us tempyl-les. That is, that he should destroy the temple; see Matthew 27:40.

560–68 How wold thou . . . . say not theragayn. See Matthew 27:35 and John 19:23–24. The gambling for the seamless robe of Jesus — a famous ecclesiastical relic in the Middle Ages (see note to 9.785) — is also the subject of the play of the Dice, which follows in the MS. Here Torturer 4 draws the long straw and thus claims his prize (to the chagrin of Torturer 1).

572 yond skraw. Pilate has attached a scroll to the cross above Jesus’ head; see John 19:19–20 and note to 596–97 below.

583 All is not worth a beyn. Proverbial. See Whiting B92.

589 Appolyn. Apocalypse 9:11 refers to Apollyon or Abaddon, “the destroyer,” as the angel of the abyss; in Hebrew scripture the name Abaddon is used to refer to hell. Here, his name is used as an oath.

591 I am the best Latyn wright. That is, I am the best at understanding Latin — the primary language of medieval instruction. Torturer 4 is effectively asserting that he is the most literate.

596–97 Jesu of Nazareyn / He is kyng of Jues. See John 19:19–20 and Luke 23:38, both of which also explain that the inscription is written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin (see lines 584–87). However, in Western tradition the sign is conventionally represented with only the letters INRI, the acronym of the Latin inscription, Iesus Nazarenus, Rex Iudaeorum. According to the Northern Passion, the three languages are evident in that one line: “Nazaret was Grew, Jhesu Ebrew, / Kyng of Jues was Latyn . . .” (Codex Ashmole, lines 1594–95).

611–13 Quod scriptum scripsi . . . . theragane. The Latin here is a misquotation of John 19:22: Quod scripsi scripsi (“What I have written, I have written”). Otherwise these lines closely resemble those in York 36.114–17.

624–28 If thou be Crist . . . . all trow in thee. See Mark 15:30–32.

636 Hely, hely, lamazabatany. This line, transliterated from Aramaic in Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34 (usually now as Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani), is translated in the rest of this speech. Like the unnamed onlookers in Matthew 27:47 and Mark 15:35, Torturer 2 responds by stating that he must be calling on Elias — that is, the prophet Elijah — to save him (line 640).

650 I betake my saull. Jesus’ last words on the cross are taken from Luke 23:46. The dialogue here makes no reference to the unnatural darkness, earthquakes, rending of the temple curtain, or resurrection of the dead mentioned in gospel accounts as occurring simultaneously with the death of Jesus (see for example Matthew 27:51–54 and Luke 23:44–45), as mentioned in the Resurrection play (23.51–56).

655 Gar me not do bot I wote what. Do not make me do anything other than what I know I do — that is, do not trick me. The response of Torturer 3 (“Not bot put up fast”) means “[do] nothing other than to shove your spear upward, quickly,” which the Torturer ‘helps’ or forces him to do (see lines 661–62). The story of the centurion whose spear pierces the side of Christ (the last of the Five Holy Wounds, the others being caused by the nails in his hands and feet) is based primarily on John 19:34–35 as elaborated in the apocryphal but highly popular Gospel of Nicodemus, which gives him the name Longeus (see Hulme, Middle-English Harrowing of Hell, p. 63, line 625) or Longinus (based on the Greek word for a lance — this particular lance or spear being famous both in the Grail legends and as a relic in Saint Peter’s, Rome). In the Middle English translation, he is blind, but the blood that runs down his spear miraculously restores his sight (line 658) and makes him a believer. His next and final speech, lines 657–64, is in a different stanza form (4 couplets), suggesting a possible interpolation.

675 bytter tornamente. The phrase suggests “bitter torment” while extending the metaphor of the tournament from the earlier part of the play; see the note to line 92 above and also 22.386.

714 wonden and well dight. The body of Jesus is to be carefully wrapped in a linen shroud (Mark 15:46) for burial.

716–18 Bere we hym . . . . many a yere. The lines imply burial not merely near but in a church (“kyrke”), possibly a reference to an Easter sepulchre (see Sheingorn, Easter Sepulchre in England), where the sacramental host and crucifix were kept from Good Friday until Easter Sunday.

720–24 He that dyed on Gud Fryday . . . . And rose on Pasche morne. This final stanza takes the audience out of the world of the play, and — with its past-tense reference to the ostensibly subsequent resurrection — implies stand-alone rather than sequential performance.


Play 20, THE CRUCIFIXION: TEXTUAL NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: EP: The Towneley Plays, ed. England and Pollard (EETS, 1897); Facs: The Towneley Cycle: A Facsimile of Huntington MS HM 1, ed. Cawley and Stevens; MED: Middle English Dictionary; MS: Huntington MS HM 1 (base text); SC: The Towneley Plays, ed. Stevens and Cawley (EETS, 1994); s.d.: stage direction; Surtees: The Towneley Mysteries, ed. Raine; York: The York Corpus Christi Plays, ed. Davidson (2011).

1–2 Peasse I byd . . . stone in wall. MS: the first two lines are written in a formal variant of the main Anglicana hand.

11 maide. MS: dr crossed out before this word.

20 yow. MS: another hand has written ow in darker ink over the original letter.

32 fals. MS: written above line in hand of main scribe.

45 Those prowde wordes shall I never forgyf. MS: a later hand has written send me in the left margin before this line, any prior letters being cropped with the edge of the page.

83 Now ar we at the monte of Calvarye. MS: the rule above this line, separating speeches by different characters, is roughly drawn in black rather than the usual red.

84 felows. So SC. MS: folows.

115 he is redy. So EP, SC. MS: he redy.

132 thar. MS: ther is crossed out before this word.

190 Torturer 3 (speech heading). MS: the speech heading (iijus tortor) is correctly placed in the middle of the line of text (given here as two separate lines) but not boxed off as is usual.

199 For to clynke. So EP, SC. MS: ffor clynke.

204 help this. So SC. MS, EP: help that this.

277 for my mys. So EP, SC. MS: for mys. Another possible reading would be for my syn.

320 luf-longyng. So SC. MS: lyf longyng.

358 syn. So EP, SC. MS: sy.

359 For theym to thole this payn. MS: below this line a later hand has copied For theym to thole payn.

374 plight. So SC. MS: pight.

396 sorow. MS: before this word socoure has been crossed out in red, with a row of black dots beneath.

430 fro. MS: the r is written over another letter.

456 sondere. So EP. SC: sonder. MS: sonder with a flourish indicating final e.

519 broght. So SC. MS: boght, likely anticipating the end of line 522.

532 unethes. So SC. MS: vnothes.

548 prophecyes. So SC. MS: prophes.

549 tempyl-les. So SC. MS: tempylles.

553–71 He lyes that . . . . art ful fayn. MS: in the right margin, parallel to the edge, a seventeenth-century hand has written Thomas Hargraues of Burnleye (see the first Textual Note to play 18 above), the top of most letters being cropped with the page.

594 And tell you what it is to say. MS: below this line in the bottom margin a later hand has written James blake bowrne by

630 God. So SC. EP: good. MS: good with the second o faintly crossed out.

669 that. So SC. EP, MS: tha.

 
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20. The Crucifixion

from: The Towneley Plays  2017















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Sequitur processus crucis. 1

Peasse I byd evereich wight!
Stand as styll as stone in wall
Whyls ye ar present in my sight,
That none of you clattere ne call;
For if ye do youre dede is dight,
I warne it you both greatt and small,
With this brand burnyshyd so bright;
Therfor in peasse loke ye be all.

What, peasse in the dwillys name!
Harlottys and dustardys all bedene,
On galus ye be maide full tame;
Thefys and mychers keyn,
Will ye not peasse when I bid you?
By Mahownys bloode, if ye me teyn,
I shall ordan sone for you
Paynes that never ere was seyn,
And that anone.
Be ye so bold, beggars, I warn you,
Full boldly shall I bett you.
To hell the dwill shall draw yow
Body, bak, and bone.

I am a lord that mekill is of myght;
Prynce of all Jury, Sir Pilate I hight,
Next kyng Herode grettyst of all.
Bowys to my byddyng both greatt and small
Or els ye be shentt;
Therfor stere youre tonges, I warn you all,
And unto us take tent.

All peasse, all peasse, emang you all,
And herkyns now what shall befall
Of this fals chuffer here,
That with his fals quantyse
Hase lett hymself as God wyse
Emangys us many a yere.

He cals hymself a prophett,
And says that he can bales bete
And make all thyngys amende,
Bot or oght lang, wytt we shall
Wheder he can bete his awne bale,
Or skapp out of oure hende.

Was not this a wonder thyng
That he durst call hymself a kyng,
And make so greatt a lee?
Bot by Mahowne, whils I may lyf
Those prowde wordes shall I never forgyf
Tyll he be hanged on he.

Hys pride, fy, we sett at noght.
Bot ich man now kest in his thoght
And looke that we noght wante,
For I shall fownde if that I may
By the order of knyghtede today
To cause his hart pante.

And so shall I, with all my myght,
Abate his pride this ylk nyght,
And rekyn hym a crede.
Lo, he letys he cowde none yll,
Bot he can ay when he wyll
Do a full fowll dede.

Yei, felows ye, as have I rest,
Emangys us all I red we kest
To bryng this thefe to dede.
Loke that we have that we shuld nate
For to hald this shrew strate.
That was a nobyll red.

Lo, here I have a bande
If nede be to bynd his hande;
This thowng I trow will last.
And here oone to the othere syde
That shall abate his pride,
Be it be drawen fast.

Lo, here a hamere and nales also
For to festen fast oure foo
To this tre full soyn.
Ye ar wise, withoutten drede,
That so can help youreself at nede
Of thyng that shuld be done.

Now dar I say hardely
He shall with all his mawmentry
No longere us betell.
Syn Pilate hase hym tyll us geyn,
Have done belyfe; let it be seyn
How we can with hym mell.

Now ar we at the monte of Calvarye.
Have done, felows, and let now se
How we can with hym lake.
Yee, for as modee as he can loke,
He wold have turnyd an othere croke
Myght he have had the rake.

In fayth, syr, sen ye callyd you a kyng,
You must prufe a worthy thyng
That falles unto the were:
Ye must just in tornamente.
Bot ye sytt fast els be ye shentt,
Els downe I shall you bere.

If thou be Godys son as thou tellys,
Thou can thee kepe; how shuld thou ellys?
Els were it mervell greatt.
And bot if thou can, we will not trow
That thou hase saide, bot make thee mow
When thou syttys in yond sett.

If thou be kyng, we shall thank adyll,
For we shall sett thee in thy sadyll;
For fallyng be thou bold.
I hete thee well tho bydys a shaft;
Bot if thou sytt well, thou had better laft
The tales that thou has told.

Stand nere, felows, and let se
How we can hors oure kyng so fre
By any craft.
Stand thou yonder on yond syde
And we shall se how he can ryde,
And how to weld a shaft.

Sir, commys heder and have done,
And wyn apon youre palfray sone
For he is redy bowne.
If ye be bond till hym, be not wrothe
For be ye secure; we were full lothe
On any wyse that ye fell downe.

Knyt thou a knott with all thi strenght
For to draw this arme on lengthe
Tyll it com to the bore.
Thou maddys, man, bi this light.
It wantys, tyll ich mans sight,
Othere half span and more.

Yit drawe owt this arme and fest it fast
With this rope that well will last,
And ilk man lay hand to.
Yee, and bynd thou fast that band;
We shall go to that othere hand
And loke what we can do.

Do dryfe a nayll ther thrughoutt,
And then thar us nothyng doutt
For it will not brest.
That shall I do as myght I thryfe,
For to clynke and for to dryfe
Therto I am full prest.

So lett it styk, for it is wele.
Thou says sothe, as have I cele,
Ther can no man it mende.
Hald downe his knees.
                                   That shall I do.
His norysh yede never better to.
Lay on all your hende.

Draw out hys lymmes — let se, have at!
That was well drawen, that that!
Fare fall hym that so puld
For to have getten it to the marke;
I trow lewde man ne clerk
Nothyng better shuld.

Hald it now fast thor,
And oone of you take the bore
And then may it not fayll.
That shall I do withoutten drede
As ever myght I well spede
Hym to mekyll bayll.

So that is well; it will not brest.
Bot let now se who dos the best
With any slegthe of hand.
Go we now unto the othere ende.
Felowse, fest on fast youre hende
And pull well at this band.

I red, felowse, by this wedyr,
That we draw all ons togedir
And loke how it wyll fare.
Let now se and lefe youre dyn.
And draw we ilka syn from syn
For nothyng let us spare.

Nay, felowse, this is no gam.
We will no longere draw all sam,
So mekill have I asspyed.
No, for as have I blys,
Som can twyk, whoso it is
Sekys easse on somkyn syde.

It is better, as I hope,
On by hisself to draw this rope,
And then may we se
Who it is that erewhile
All his felows can begyle
Of this companye.

Sen thou will, so have here for me
How draw I, as myght thou thé.
Thou drew right wele;
Have here for me half a foyte.
Wema, man, I trow thou doyte!
Thou flyt it never a dele.

Bot have for me here that I may.
Well drawen, son, bi this day.
Thou gose well to thi warke;
Yit efte whils thi hande is in.
Pull therat with somkyn gyn.
Yee, and bryng it to the marke.

Pull, pull!
               Have now.
                               Let se.
                                           Aha!
                                                   Yit a draght.
Therto with all my maght.
A ha, hold still thore.
So, felowse, looke now belyfe
Which of you can best dryfe,
And I shall take the bore.

Let me go therto, if I shall;
I hope that I be the best mershall
For to clynke it right.
Do rase hym up now when we may,
For I hope he and his palfray
Shall not twyn this nyght.

Com hedir, felowse, and have done,
And help this tre sone
To lyft with all youre sleght.
Yit let us wyrke a whyle,
And no man now othere begyle
To it be broght on heght.

Felowse, fest on all youre hende
For to rase this tre on ende,
And let se who is last.
I red we do as that he says;
Set we the tre in the mortase
And ther will it stand fast.

Up with the tymbre.
                                   A, it heldys!
For hym that all this warld weldys,
Put fro thee with thi hande.
Hald even emangys us all.
Yee, and let it into the mortase fall,
For then will it best stande.

Go we to it, and be we strong
And rase it, be it never so long,
Sen that it is fast bon.
Up with the tymbre, fast on ende.
A, felowse, fayr fall youre hende.
So, syr, gape agans the son.

A, felow, war thi crowne.
Trowes thou this tymbre will oght downe?
Yit help that it were fast.
Shog hym well, and let us lyfte.
Full shorte shal be his thryfte.
A, it standys up lyke a mast.

I pray you pepyll that passe me by,
That lede youre lyfe so lykandly,
Heyfe up youre hartys on hight.
Behold if ever ye sagh body
Buffet and bett thus blody,
Or yit thus dulfully dight;
In warld was never no wight
That suffred half so sare.
My mayn, my mode, my myght
Is noght bot sorow to sight,
And comforth none bot care.

My folk, what have I done to thee
That thou all thus shall tormente me?
Thy syn by I full sore.
What have I grevyd thee, answere me,
That thou thus nalys me to a tre,
And all for thyn erroure?
Where shall thou seke socoure?
This mys how shall thou amende
When that thou thy saveoure
Dryfes to this dyshonoure,
And nalys thrugh feete and hende?

All creatoures that kynde may kest,
Beestys, byrdys, all have thay rest
When thay ar wo-begon;
Bot Godys Son that shuld be best
Hase not whereapon his hede to rest
Bot on his shuder bone.
To whome now may I make my mone
When thay thus martyr me
And sakles will me slone
And beete me blode and bone
That my brethere shuld be?

What kyndnes shuld I kythe theym to?
Have I not done that I aght to do,
Maide thee to my lyknes?
And thou thus refys me rest and ro
And lettys thus lightly on me, lo!
Sich is thy catyfnes.
I have thee kyd kyndnes;
Unkyndly thou me quytys.
Se thus thi wekydnes;
Loke how thou me dyspytys.

Gyltles thus am I put to pyne,
Not for my mys, man, bot for thyne.
Thus am I rent on rode,
For I that tresoure wold not tyne
That I markyd and made for myne;
Thus by I Adam blode
That sonkyn was in syn
With none erthly good
Bot with my flesh and blode
That lothe was for to wyn.

My brethere that I com for to by
Has hanged me here thus hedusly,
And freyndys fynde I foyn;
Thus have thay dight me drerely
And all byspytt me spytusly,
As helples man in won.
Bot Fader that syttys in trone,
Forgyf thou them this gylt;
I pray to thee this boyn.
Thay wote not what thay doyn,
Nor whom thay have thus spylt.

Yis, what we do full well we knaw.
Yee, that shall he fynde within a thraw.

Now with a myschaunce tyll his cors!
Wenys he that we gyf any force
What dwill soever he ayll?
For he wold tary us all day
Of his dede to make delay,
I tell you sans fayll.

Lyft us this tre emanges us all.
Yee, and let it into the mortase fall,
And that shall gar hym brest.
Yee, and all to-ryfe hym lym from lym.
And it will breke ilk jonte in hym.
Let se now who dos best.

Alas, the doyll I dre!
I drowpe, I dare in drede.
Whi hyngys thou, son, so hee?
My bayll begynnes to brede.
All blemyshyd is thi ble;
I se thi body blede.
In warld, son, were never we
So wo as I in wede.

My foode that I have fed,
In luf-longyng thee led,
Full stratly art thou sted
Emanges thi foo-men fell.
Sich sorow for to se,
My dere barn, on thee,
Is more mowrnyng to me
Then any tong may tell.

Alas, thi holy hede
Hase not wheron to helde;
Thi face with blode is red
Was fare as floure in feylde.
How shuld I stand in sted
To se my barne thus blede?
Bett as blo as lede,
And has no lym to weylde:

Festynd both handys and feete
With nalys full unmete,
His woundes wrynyng wete.
Alas, my childe, for care,
For all rent is thi hyde.
I se on aythere syde
Teres of blode downe glide
Over all thi body bare.
Alas, that ever I shuld byde
And se my feyr thus fare.

Alas, for doyll, my lady dere.
All forchangid is thi chere
To se this prynce withoutten pere
Thus lappyd all in wo.
He was thi fode, thi faryst foine,
Thi luf, thi lake, thi lufsom son
That high on tre thus hyngys alone
With body blak and blo.
Alas,
To me and many mo
A good master he was.

Bot lady, sen it is his will
The prophecy to fulfyll
That mankynde in syn not spill,
For theym to thole this payn
And with his dede raunson to make,
As prophetys beforn of hym spake,
Forthi I red thi sorowe thou slake.
Thi wepyng may not gayn;
In sorowe
Oure boytt he byes full bayn,
Us all from bale to borowe.

Alas, thyn een as cristall clere
That shoyn as son in sight,
That lufly were in lyere,
Lost thay have thare light
And wax all faed in fere;
All dym then ar thay dight.
In payn has thou no pere
That is withoutten plight.

Swete son, say me thi thoght
What wonders has thou wroght
To be in payn thus broght,
Thi blissed blode to blende.
A, son, thynk on my wo.
Whi will thou fare me fro?
On mold is no man mo
That may my myrthes amende.

Comly lady, good and couth,
Fayn wold I comforth thee.
Me mynnys my master with mowth
Told unto his menyee
That he shuld thole full mekill payn
And dy apon a tre,
And to the lyfe ryse up agayn;
Apon the thryd day shuld it be
Full right.
Forthi, my lady swete,
Stynt a while of grete.
Oure bale then will he bete
As he befor has hight.

Mi sorow it is so sad
No solace may me safe.
Mowrnyng makys me mad;
None hope of help I hafe.
I am redles and rad
For ferd that I mon rafe;
Noght may make me glad
To I be in my grafe.

To deth my dere is dryffen.
His robe is all to-ryffen
That of me was hym gyffen,
And shapen with my sydys.
Thise Jues and he has stryffen
That all the bale he bydys.

Alas, my lam so mylde,
Whi will thou fare me fro?
Emang thise wulfes wylde
That wyrke on thee this wo,
For shame who may thee shelde?
For freyndys has thou fo.
Alas, my comly childe,
Whi will thou fare me fro?

Madyns, make youre mone,
And wepe ye wyfes everichon
With me, most wrich in wone,
The childe that borne was best.
My harte is styf as stone
That for no bayll will brest.

A, lady, well wote I
Thi hart is full of care
When thou thus openly
Sees thi childe thus fare.
Luf gars hym rathly —
Hymself will he not spare —
Us all fro baill to by,
Of blis that ar full bare
For syn.
My lefe lady, forthy
Of mowrnyng loke thou blyn.

“Alas” may ever be my sang
Whyls I may lyf in leyd.
Me thynk now that I lyf to lang
To se my barne thus blede.
Jues wyrke with hym all wrang;
Wherfor do thay this dede?
Lo, so hy thay have hym hang;
Thay let for no drede.
Whi so?
His fo-men is he emang;
No freynde he has bot fo.

My frely foode now farys me fro.
What shall worth on me?
Thou art warpyd all in wo
And spred here on a tre
Full hee.
I mowrne, and so may mo
That sees this payn on thee.

Dere lady, well were me
If that I myght comforth thee,
For the sorow that I see
Sherys myn harte in sondere
When that I se my master hang
With bytter paynes and strang;
Was never wight with wrang
Wroght so mekill wonder.

Alas, dede, thou dwellys to lang;
Whi art thou hid fro me?
Who kend thee to my childe to gang?
All blak thou makys his ble,
Now witterly thou wyrkys wrang.
The more I will wyte thee,
Bot if thou will my harte stang
That I myght with hym dee
And byde.
Sore syghyng is my sang,
For thyrlyd is his hyde.

A, dede, what has thou done?
With thee will I moytt sone,
Sen I had childer none bot oone,
Best under son or moyn;
Freyndys I had full foyn,
That gars me grete and grone
Full sore.
Good Lord, graunte me my boyn
And let me lyf no more.

Gabriell, that good,
Som tyme thou can me grete,
And then I understud
Thi wordys that were so swete,
Bot now thay meng my moode;
For grace thou can me hete
To bere, all of my blode,
A childe oure baill shuld bete
With right;
Now hyngys he here on rude.
Where is that thou me hight?

All that thou of blys
Hight me in that stede
From myrth is faren omys
And yit I trow thi red.
Thi councell now of this:
My lyfe how shall I lede
When fro me gone is
He that was my hede,
In hy?
My dede now comen it is;
My dere son, have mercy.

My moder mylde, thou chaunge thi chere.
Sease of thi sorow and sighyng sere;
It syttys unto my hart full sore.
The sorow is sharp I suffre here,
Bot doyll thou drees, my moder dere,
Me marters mekill more.
Thus will my Fader I fare
To lowse mankynde of bandys;
His Son will he not spare
To lowse that bon was are
Full fast in feyndys handys.

The fyrst cause, moder, of my commyng
Was for mankynde myscarying;
To salf thare sore I soght.
Therfor, moder, make none mowrnyng,
Sen mankynde thrugh my dyyng
May thus to blis be broght.
Woman, wepe thou right noght;
Take ther John unto thi chylde.
Mankynde must nedys be boght
And thou kest, cosyn, in thi thoght;
John, lo, ther thi moder mylde.

Blo and blody thus am I bett,
Swongen with swepys and all to-swett,
Mankynde, for thi mysdede.
For my luf, lust when wold thou lett
And thi harte sadly sett
Sen I thus for thee have blede?
Sich lyf, forsothe, I led
That unethes may I more;
This suffre I for thi nede
To marke thee, man, thi mede.
Now thryst I wonder sore.

Noght bot hold thi peasse.
Thou shall have drynke within a resse;
Myself shal be thy knave.
Have here the draght that I thee hete,
And I shall warand it is not swete
On all the good I have.

So, syr, say now all youre will,
For if ye couth have holden you styll
Ye had not had this brade.
Thou wold allgaytt be kyng of Jues,
Bot by this I trow thou rues
All that thou has sayde.

He has hym rused of great prophecyes
That he shuld make us tempyl-les
And gar it cleyn downe fall;
And yit he sayde he shuld it rase
As well as it was within thre dayes.
He lyes that wote we all;

And for his lyes in great dispyte
We will departe his clothyng tyte,
Bot he can more of arte.
Yee, as ever myght I thryfe,
Soyn will we this mantyll ryfe
And ich man take his parte.

How wold thou we share this clothe?
Nay, forsothe, that were I lothe,
Then were it allgate spylt.
Bot assent thou to my saw:
Lett us all cutt draw,
And then is none begylt.

How so befallys, now wyll I draw.
This is myn by comon law;
Say not theragayn.
Now sen it may no better be
Chevich thee with it for me;
Me thynk thou art ful fayn.

How, felowse, se ye not yond skraw?
It is writen yonder within a thraw
Now sen that we drew cut.
Ther is no man that is on lyfe
Bot it were Pilate, as myght I thrife,
That durst it ther have putt.

Go we fast and let us loke
What is wretyn on yond boke,
And what it may bemeyn.
A, the more I loke theron,
A, the more I thynke I fon.
All is not worth a beyn.

Yis, forsothe, me thynk I se
Theron writen langage thre:
Ebrew and Latyn
And Grew, me thynk, writen theron,
For it is hard for to expowne.
Thou red, by Appolyn.

Yee, as I am a trew knyght,
I am the best Latyn wright
Of this company.
I will go withoutten delay
And tell you what it is to say.
Behald, syrs, witterly:

Yonder is wretyn “Jesu of Nazareyn
He is kyng of Jues,” I weyn.
A, that is writen wrang.
He callys hym so, bot he is none.
Go we to Pilate and make oure mone;
Have done, and dwell not lang.

Pilate, yonder is a fals tabyll;
Theron is wryten noght bot fabyll.
Of Jues he is not kyng;
He callys hym so, bot he not is.
It is falsly writen, iwys;
This is a wrangwys thyng.

Boys, I say, what mell ye you?
As it is writen shall it be now,
I say certane:
Quod scriptum scripsi; 2
That same wrote I.
What gadlyng gruches theragane?

Sen that he is man of law,
He must nedys have his will.
I trow he had not writen that saw
Without som propre skyll.

Yee, let it hyng above his hede;
It shall not save hym fro the dede,
Noght that he can write.
Now ylla-hale was he borne.
Ma fay, I tell his lyfe is lorne.
He shal be slayn as tyte.

If thou be Crist, as men thee call,
Com downe emangys us all
And thole not thies myssaes.
Yee, and help thiself that we may se,
And we shall all trow in thee
Whatsoever thou says.

He cals hymself God of myght,
Bot I wold se hym be so wight
To do sich a dede.
He rasyd Lazare out of his delfe,
Bot he cannot help hymself
Now in his greatt nede.

Hely, hely, lamazabatany!
My God, my God, wherfor and why
Has thou forsakyn me?

How, here ye not as well as I
How he can now on Hely cry
Apon his wyse?
Yee, ther is none Hely in this countré
Shall delyver hym from this meneye
On no kyns wyse.

I warand you now at the last
That he shall soyn yelde the gast,
For brestyn is his gall.
Now is my passyon broght tyll ende.
Fader of heven, into thyn hende
I betake my saull.

Let one pryk hym with a spere,
And if that it do hym no dere
Then is his lyfe nere past.
This blynde knyght may best do that.
Gar me not do bot I wote what.
Not bot put up fast.

A, Lord what may this be?
Ere was I blynde, now may I se.
Godys Son, here me, Jesu:
For this trespas on me thou rew;
For Lord, othere men me gart
That I thee stroke unto the hart.
I se thou hyngys here on hy
And dyse to fulfyll the prophecy.

Go we hence and leyfe hym here,
For I shall be his borghe to yere
He felys no more payn,
For Hely ne for none othere man.
All the good that ever he wan
Gettys not his lyfe agayn.

Alas, alas and walaway
That ever shuld I abyde this day
To se my master dede,
Thus wykydly as he is shent
With so bytter tornamente
Thrugh fals Jues red.

Nychodeme, I wold we yede
To Syr Pilate, if we myght spede,
His body for to crave.
I will fownde with all my myght
For my servyce to aske that knyght
His body for to grave.

Joseph, I will weynde with thee,
For to do that is in me
For that body to pray.
For oure good will and oure travale
I hope that it mon us avayll
Hereafterward som day.

Syr Pylate, God thee save!
Graunte me that I crave,
If that it be thi will.
Welcom, Joseph, myght thou be.
Whatso thou askys, I graunte it thee,
So that it be skyll.

For my long servyce, I thee pray,
Graunte me the body, say me not nay,
Of Jesu dede on rud.
I graunte well, if he ded be,
Good leyfe shall thou have of me;
Do with hym what thou thynk gud.

Gramercy, syr, of youre good grace
That ye have graunte me in this place.
Go we oure way.
Nychodeme, com me furth with,
For I myself shall be the smyth,
The nales out for to dray.

Joseph, I am redy here,
To go with thee with full good chere
To help thee at my myght.
Pull furth the nales on aythere syde,
And I shall hald hym up this tyde.
A, Lord, so thou is dight.

Help now, felow, with all thi myght,
That he were wonden and well dight,
And lay hym on this bere.
Bere we hym furth unto the kyrke,
To the tombe that I gard wyrk
Sen full many a yere.

It shall be so, withoutten nay.
He that dyed on Gud Fryday,
And crownyd was with thorne,
Save you all that now here be,
That Lord that thus wold dee
And rose on Pasche morne.

Explicit crucifixio Christi. 3
 














Peace; every creature; (t-note)


chatter nor yell
death is ordained

sword


devil’s
Scoundrels and fools all together
gallows; made; (t-note)
robbers keen

annoy
ordain soon
before; seen
soon

beat
(t-note)
back

much
Jewry; I am named; (see note)

Bow
destroyed
restrain; tongues
pay attention

(see note)
listen; happen
false impostor
false cunning; (t-note)
regarded
Among


heal sorrows

before very long; know
own misery
escape; hands

wondrous
dare
lie

(t-note)
high

fie, we count for nothing
each; consider

attempt

heart; throb


Cease; very
recite
pretends; could do
whenever



advise; plan

what we need
securely
noble advice

band

cord; trust
(see note)



hammer; nails
fasten
cross; quickly
doubtless



certainly
idolatry
deceive
to us given
at once; seen
deal

Mount Calvary; (t-note)
see; (t-note)
play
proud; look; (see note)
trick
opportunity

yourself
prove
befits the defender
joust; tournament; (see note)
destroyed
bear


[do] otherwise

believe
grimace
that seat; (see note)

earn thanks
saddle
(see note)
promise; suffer a lance; (see note)
Unless; left; (see note)


see
put on horseback
manner
over there on that side

wield a lance

come here
mount; horse without delay; (see note)
ready
bound to; (t-note)

way

Tie; (see note)

bore-hole
are mad
each; (see note)
another half

fasten it securely

each




drive; there
need; doubt; (t-note)
break
thrive
fasten
ready

remain; well
truth; happiness



His nurse never went about it better
hands

limbs
(see note)
pulled

unlearned man nor clerk


there
go to the bore-hole; (see note)


I might hurry
much misery

break; [fol. 86r]

dexterity

hands; (see note)


advise; weather; (see note)
all at once together

stop; noise
each sinew; (see note)


game; (see note)
all the same
much; seen
blessing
pull with a jerk
Seeks


One

earlier
trick


Since
thrive

half a foot
think; dote
move it not at all



work
again while
some kind of contrivance; (see note)
(t-note)





tug
might
there
at once
drive; (see note)
bore-hole

[fol. 86v]
marshal
fasten; (t-note)

horse
part

skill
soon; (t-note)


deceive
Until

hold with; hands



mortise


timber
leans
governs; (see note)

evenly among





secure

let go; hands
at the sun; (see note)

beware; (see note)

secure
Shake; (see note)
luck


people; (see note)
pleasantly
Lift; high
saw
Buffeted; beaten
dolefully mistreated
world; creature
sore
strength; determination; (see note)
see
comfort



buy
grieved
nail
error
seek help
misdeed
savior
Drives
hands

nature; know; (see note)
Beasts; birds
beset with woe


shoulder
lament

innocent; slay

brothers

show
ought

rob; peace
disregard me this way
wickedness
shown
rewards
wickedness; (see note)
despise

Guiltless; punishment
misdeed; (t-note)
torn apart; cross
treasure; lose

buy; (see note)
sunken
no earthly
But
loath; gain

buy
hideously
friends; few
mistreated me cruelly
spit on; spitefully; (see note)
everywhere
throne; (see note)
guilt
favor
They know not; do
killed


a moment

body
Thinks; give
devil; ails him
delay

without fail

(see note)

break him
tear; limb
each joint
does

sorrow I suffer; (see note)
cower; tremble with fear
hangs; high
misery; broaden
complexion

a person; (see note)


child
(t-note)
securely; placed
wicked foes

babe
mournful
tongue

head
nothing on which to lean

flower; field
this place

Beaten as blue as lead
wield

Fasten
huge nails
wringing wet

torn; skin
either
Tears

remain
companion

sorrow
changed; countenance
peer
wrapped
child; offspring
delight; beloved son

black and blue






sin not perish; (t-note)
To suffer this pain for them; (t-note)
death ransom
spoke
Therefore; advise; cease


deliverance; buys full readily
misery; save

eyes
shone; sun
hue
their
become all faded
dim; made

sin; (t-note)




spoil

go from me; (see note)
earth; more


gentle; [fol. 88v]
Gladly
remember; [his] mouth; (see note)
company
suffer
die



Therefore
Cease; weeping
heal
promised

(see note); (t-note)
save
Mourning
have
perplexed; afraid
fear; rave

Until; grave

driven
torn apart; (see note)
given

fought
pain he suffers

lamb
go from me
wild wolves

shield
friends; few
fair


Maidens; lament
all wives
wretched anywhere


misery; break

know



Love compels him swiftly

from misery; buy; (t-note)
uncovered

dear; therefore
cease

song; [fol. 89r]
live among people
too long


Why

cease

foe
friend; few

child; (see note)
become of
wrapped

high
mourn; more





Tears (shears); asunder; (t-note)

cruel
creature; wrong


death; too long; (see note)

commanded; go
black; complexion
certainly
blame
Unless; pierce
die
remain
sighing; song
pierced


converse soon
(see note)
sun or moon
few
make me weep and groan

request
live

(see note)
greet


arouse my anger
promise

[who] our misery should relieve

[the] cross
promised

bliss
Promised; place
gone amiss
believe your counsel



head

death



Cease; manifold


sorrow; suffers
martyrs me much more
wills; [that] I go
release; bonds

bound; before; (see note)
fiends’


wrongdoing
heal their wound


(t-note)
(see note)


If you consider, kinsman


Blue
Beaten with blows; drenched

forsake lust
make steadfast
Since

scarcely may I [do] more; (t-note)

allot; reward
thirst

(see note)
in a hurry
servant
promise; (see note)
guarantee; sweet
goods


could
torment
by all means
regret


boasted; (t-note)
(see note); (t-note)
make; clean
raise

lies; (t-note)


divide; quickly
Unless; knows more trickery

Soon; mantle tear
each

divide; (see note)

completely destroyed
words

deceived



against that
since
Carry on
glad

that scroll; (see note)
moment
since
alive

dare

look
written; book
mean
there upon
am confused
bean; (see note)

truly
three
Hebrew and Latin
Greek
expound
read; Apollyon; (see note)

true
Latin craftsman; (see note)


(t-note)
truly

(see note)
think
incorrectly

complaint
long

false tablet
fable


certainly
wrongful

say


(see note)

fellow complains against that

Since

those words
reason


from death
No matter what
unlucky
[By] my faith; lost
quickly

(see note)

suffer; these afflictions

believe


(t-note)
brave
such
grave



(see note)




Elias
In his manner
[fol. 91r]
company
no way


soon yield; spirit
burst; gall-bladder
passion
hands
soul; (see note)


harm


(see note)
Nothing but thrust [your spear] upward


Before
hear
take pity on me
make


dies

leave
surety this year


goods; won; (t-note)



endure

destroyed
(see note)
Through false Jews’ advice

Nichodemus; go
hurry
demand
attempt

bury

go
whatever I can
request
labor
shall assist us


[fol. 91v]




As long as; reasonable


no
dead on the cross

leave
good

Thank you




draw




nails; either

treated


wrapped; well prepared; (see note)
bier
church; (see note)
prepared
Since

doubt
Good; (see note)
crowned

would die
Easter morning


 

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