18. The Buffeting

Play 18, THE BUFFETING: FOOTNOTES


1 Here begins the buffeting

2 Lines 51–53: He shall not excuse himself, / I guarantee it to you, / by means of any plea

3 Lines 59–62: May he have much misfortune / who has made us work so hard / at walking / that I can continue only with difficulty

4 Lines 207–08: And everyone who is silent / appears herein to grant consent

5 Lines 255–56: Before your death becomes known

6 Lines 310–11: And we wish to do that / because by law we can

7 Lines 389–90: But it is not lawful for us to put any man to death (John 18:31)

8 Lines 519–20: Have this; carry it, villain, / for soon we shall make a fool of him [Christ]

9 Here ends the buffeting


Play 18, THE BUFFETING: EXPLANATORY NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: Chester: The Chester Mystery Cycle, ed. Lumiansky and Mills (1974); CT: The Canterbury Tales, ed. Benson (1987); DSL: Dictionary of the Scots Language; Elliott: The Apocryphal New Testament, ed. Elliott; EP: The Towneley plays, ed. England and Pollard (1897); MED: Middle English Dictionary; MS: Huntington MS HM 1 (“the Towneley manuscript”); N-Town: The N-Town Plays, ed. Sugano (2007); OED: Oxford English Dictionary; REED: Records of Early English Drama; SC: The Towneley Plays, eds. Stevens and Cawley (1994); s.d.: stage direction; Whiting: Whiting, Proverbs, Sentences, and Proverbial Phrases; York: The York Corpus Christi Plays, ed. Davidson (2011).

The last of the plays here written entirely in the 13-line 'bob and wheel' stanza is also the only English play that deals with the buffeting of Jesus to the exclusion of Peter’s denial, those events being intertwined in all four gospel accounts. John 18:13–28 uniquely specifies the involvement of Annas, but to the exclusion of his son-in-law Caiaphas, whose subsequent meeting with Jesus (see John 18:24) is not actually described. In this play, in contrast to the York version (and indeed to the Towneley Conspiracy), relative to the volatile Caiaphas, Annas is the voice of reason and obedience to the law, although he orders the actual beating. Whereas John 18:22 mentions only a single blow, both Matthew 26:67–68 and Mark 14:65 have Jesus spat upon (see 19.81) and repeatedly beaten; Luke 22:63–64 supplies an influential detail in having Jesus beaten and mocked but then explicitly blindfolded and told to identify his attackers through “prophecy” (line 595) — a version of blind man’s buff(et) (see note to line 498 below). Also, as in many visual representations of the buffeting, Jesus is seated on a footstool, which here is explicitly called a “buffit” (line 507). For his part, Jesus speaks only once (lines 363–68), suffering silently.


1 Do io, furth io. “Yo” is an interjection used to drive animals forward; see 2.1, 25 and note. At this point, Torturer 1 is apparently driving Jesus in front of him, but will later be ahead (see line 64), likely pulling Jesus behind him through the crowd (and onto the stage area representing the high priests’ hall) by means of the rope that binds him, as occurs in many late medieval representations of the Passion, both narrative and visual; see line 621 and note to 19.75.

16–21 We have had . . . . Hetys worth a hangyng. That is, we have suffered heart pains (with all the walking we have done to get you here), but at last our hearts need yearn no longer, as you will have two or three beatings equivalent to a hanging. The term “heat” can refer to an intense, violent action (as in the heat of battle) or personal injury (see MED hete (n.1), sense 6 and hete (n.2)), and specifically, in this case, an intense buffeting or beating.

31Fare wordys can thou paynt. The word “paint” in this context means “set forth” — that is, to speak or write — but can imply false eloquence or flattery.

38–39 As good that thou had / Halden still thi clater. That is, you might as well have held your tongue and kept silent.

44–46 At the last . . . . we dyd never yll. These lines invert the standard doctrine that Christ, though guiltless, dies to save sinners.

55 Els falys his countenance. Or else his countenance falls — that is, he looks dismayed (not merely tired).

58 drynk. The use of “drink” to indicate suffering stems from biblical references to the cup of suffering; see for example Luke 22:42, where Jesus in Gethsemane asks that the cup be taken from him (an expression not used in the Conspiracy play here).

64 I shall walk in before. In leading the way into the high priests’ hall, Torturer 1 would also lead the bound Jesus (see note to line 1 above).

85–87 Myn een were not lowked . . . . Sen morowe. That is, I have not slept since (yesterday) morning.

92 Can ye hym oght apeche. That is, can you bring any charges against him? In the Conspiracy play, in contrast, Caiaphas and Annas are Jesus’ chief accusers, making some of the same charges as they hear in this play. See note to lines 166–69 below.

105–08 I hard hym say . . . . On the thrid day. See Matthew 26:61, Mark 14:58.

116 He lyes for the quetstone. The whetstone served as an emblematic reward for lying. Proverbial. See Whiting W216. See also MED whet-ston (n.), sense d.

130 I tell you before syr. That is, I speak openly; he repeats this phrase at line 170.

137–38 He settys not a fle wyng / Bi Syr Cesar full even. That is, he does not care about or is disrespectful of Caesar; see Luke 23:2, and line 329. To “not set a fly wing” is proverbial; see Whiting F356.

141–42 excusyd with his sotelté / A woman in avowtré. The story of the woman taken in adultery, based on John 8:3–11, is dramatized in York 24, Chester 12, and N-Town 24.

151 If he abowte wave. That is, if he is allowed to move about freely.

166–69 For ye two . . . . this losell heder. These lines imply that the torturers have brought Jesus to Annas and Caiaphas of their own volition, in contrast to the Conspiracy play, in which they are sent by Pilate, and to the gospel accounts, in which they are sent by the high priests themselves.

174–75 opposed if he wore, / He shuld be fon waryd. If he were to be prosecuted, he would be found accursed. They have accused Jesus, but have no power to prosecute; Caiaphas therefore begins his “examynyng” (line 186).

181–82 I shall thryng out the rottyn / Be we have all talkyd. By the time we have talked, I shall drive out the rotten — that is, whatever is keeping me from remembering what I have forgotten (line 180).

200 This is a great skorne. Caiaphas is upset by Jesus’ silence; in John’s account it is Jesus’ apparently scornful response to Annas’ questioning that provokes a blow from a servant (John 18:22).

202 wolfys-hede and out-horne. These two terms refer to raising an outcry in pursuit of an outlaw. The term “outhorn” can refer to the horn blown to raise the alarm, but here, like “wolf’s-head,” it refers to the cry of pursuit itself. The same phrase (here slightly emended) is used in the Judgment play (27.812, also in a 13-line 'bob and wheel' stanza).

217 Sir Sybré. The use of this particular name may relate to the term sibred, which refers to kinship or consanguinity (see MED sibred (n.), sense 1); Caiaphas has just sarcastically questioned Jesus regarding his parentage (lines 211–12) and social class (“lorde of name,” line 214), and will go on to refer to him as a foundling (line 220).

239–43 Therfor I shall thee name . . . . For a fatur. Therefore I will give you the title “King Copyn” in our game, as you shall regret; thus I shall introduce (or invest) you as a traitor. The name itself is obscure: SC suggest that it might signify “coxcomb” and thus Christ as king of fools (p. 558n241); it might also derive from the verb copen meaning to dress in a cope (MED copen (v.1)), garb that Caiaphas as mock-archbishop would likely be wearing (see 17.766), or even to Jesus’ seamless garment (see John 19:23, and the play of the Dice). The most likely meanings, however, derive from the verb coupen meaning either “pay the penalty” (MED coupen (v.4)) or “come to blows” (MED coupen (v.1)).

246 Wemé. This interjection, expressing anger, impatience, or surprise takes many forms in these plays; see 2.150 and note.

267 yit may ye be dayde. Yet may you be summoned to court. Annas repeatedly argues in the next stanzas that they must themselves at least appear to uphold the law or suffer the consequences.

306 All soft may men go far. That is, gentle moderation brings success.

342–44 Bot he that forsake . . . . his nek shall crak. I shall wring the neck of anyone who refuses respect (that is, Jesus).

352–60 Bot I shall do . . . . To dam. Annas uses the same verb, “ruse,” in two contrasting ways, stating that he will do as the law requires even if “the people” (line 353) praise Jesus (see MED rosen (v.), sense 2; see also line 49), while pointing out that others boast (sense 1a) that they will condemn him.

363–68 So thou says . . . . clowdys from abone. See Matthew 26:64.

401–03 Men of temporall lawes . . . . may not we. These and other lines reflect both the distinction between Jewish religious law and Roman law that informs the biblical Passion accounts (see John 18:31, quoted at lines 389–90), and a distinction between ecclesiastic and civic law in the Middle Ages.

433 he cam bot late. That is, he came in after the others. Jesus is not within striking distance, having apparently been led in by a rope (see line 64) and therefore standing at some distance behind his captors. Lines 599–600 further indicate that the buffeting itself takes place at some distance from Caiaphas; Caiaphas and Annas may be seated on a high dais above the others.

449–50 Els myght I have made up wark / Of yond harlot and mare. Or else I would have made short work of that scoundrel and sorcerer. The word “mare” (as in “nightmare”) in this context refers back to Jesus as a sorcerer (see“his soceres,” line 124). See MED mare (n.2), sense b.

482–83 I red not we mete / If that lad skap. That is, you had better not see me if Jesus escapes.

492 Sayn us lord with thy ryng. Caiaphas is represented here (as in medieval art more generally) as a parody of the Christian bishop who wore a ring on the hand used to give his blessing; kissing the bishop’s ring after such a blessing was a conventional sign of respect.

498 A new play of Yoyll. The 'game' that they play, striking a blindfolded person who must try to identify his attackers, while based on the gospel accounts (see headnote to the play, above) resembles hot cockles or blind man’s buff (or buffet). The association here with Yuletide, or the Christmas season, December through January, might indicate that this play, like the Shepherds plays and possibly others in this collection, were intended for (individual) performance in that season. The prologue to the second part of The Return to Parnassus refers to this Cambridge Yuletide play as “a Christmas toy indeede, as good a conceit as [stanging] hotcockles, or blindeman buffe” (Pilgrimage to Parnassus, p. 78; see OED hot cockles (n.)).

500 Fraword, a stoyll. Froward, whose name is synonymous with “perverse” (see MED froward (adj.), sense 1) has had no lines to this point, but is often assumed to come onstage with the other torturers at the beginning of the play, to allow for a visual consistency in a supposed sequential production, given that the Conspiracy play ends with Jesus being led away by two soldiers and one other character, Malchus, while the Scourging includes three torturers (see SC p. 555n1). Froward refers to his being in service to one or both of the torturers (line 555), and apparently leaves with them at the end of the play (see lines 623–24), but such a character seems unlikely to be silent or unnoticed if onstage at the outset.

502–03 Now els were it doyll / And unnett. That is, it would be (more) painful and difficult for him to be handled another way, rather than allowing him to sit on a stool.

507 Go fetche us a light buffit. A buffet is a footstool (MED (n.1)), but the term also puns on buffet as blow (n.2) in this context.

512–14 If he stode . . . . in a croft. In response to Froward’s questioning complaint that Jesus should not be allowed to sit on a stool, Torturer 1 states sarcastically that, if Jesus stood on top of the stool (“up on loft,” line 512), they could not easily reach to hit him, but would hop and dance like fighting cocks.

518 As fell I the dew. SC transcribe this line as fell i[n] the dew, and offer several tentative readings (p. 561n518); however, one can read the line as written, with fell meaning “to make fall” — that is, you can show fine skill as easily as I can make the dew fall. Falling dew is frequently associated with divine blessing in Hebrew scripture.

519 Have this; bere it, shrew. Froward grudgingly gives a stool to one of the torturers, but apparently does not bring it to him, letting him do the work of carrying it.

521–24 Com syr . . . . Youre sete is arayde. Torturer 2 sarcastically treats Jesus as “a lorde of reknowne” with his use of “syr” and “ye” (rather than the usual “thou”), which gets picked up by Torturer 1 in the following line with a pun on “crown.”

548 thou was ever curst. That is, froward, or perverse — see the note to line 500, above.

559 Thou shalbe cald to pervyce. That is, given your tendency to argue everything, you shall be called to a disputation at the Inns of Court. The “parvis” was named for the enclosed courtyard in front of a church (see MED parvis(e (n.)) where such disputations were originally held.

571–72 Cryst curs myght he have / That last bond his heade. Torturer 2 has put the blindfold around Jesus’ head and tied it, while Froward asks questions (and possibly interferes as well); Froward now curses him, but obliquely, and with audacious anachronism: this is, after all, Christ’s head that is being bound.

575 thus. The lines that follow repeatedly use the deictic or demonstrative adverb “thus,” among other means, to indicate the blows with which Jesus is struck — thus building stage directions into the lines themselves. Froward joins in the beating by line 590.

586–87 hym refe / All his fonde talys. That is, to silence him. But of course — aside from his brief speech at lines 363–68 — Jesus is already silent throughout this play (see Isaiah 53:7).

591 And knop out the skalys. And knock out the scalls — that is, knock any scabs or dandruff off his head (see SC p. 563n591 for a more extensive discussion of this variously-interpreted line).

619 Com furth, old crate. The word “crate” may be a misreading for “trate” (see 12.570, “trattys”), referring to a hag or old woman (see MED trot (n.2)).

621 We shall lede thee a trott. Torturer 1 leads Jesus out, pulling him by the rope with which he is bound; see notes to line 1, above, and to 19.75.

643 With this dagger so keyn. Vice figures in morality plays commonly play with daggers; Caiaphas has likely been playing with one since the outset.


Play 18, THE BUFFETING: TEXTUAL NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: EP: The Towneley Plays, ed. England and Pollard (EETS, 1897); Facs: The Towneley Cycle: A Facsimile of Huntington MS HM 1, ed. Cawley and Stevens; MED: Middle English Dictionary; MS: Huntington MS HM 1 (base text); SC: The Towneley Plays, ed. Stevens and Cawley (EETS, 1994); s.d.: stage direction; Surtees: The Towneley Mysteries, ed. Raine; York: The York Corpus Christi Plays, ed. Davidson (2011).

Before 1 MS: in the top margin above the decorated initial a seventeenth-century hand has written Thomas Hargreaues (see note to 20.553–71 below); to the right of that, above the main title, is written g holy and just below that holynes and godlynes ys the, among other less decipherable scribbles.

8 trespast. So SC. MS: trespass.

12 beyn. So EP, SC. MS: this word has been inserted above the line in a later hand.

20 two. So EP. MS: ij.

106 Oure tempyll so gay. This line is repeated at the beginning of the next line in the MS, but crossed out in red, with small black crosses in the left margin and above gay (as the last cancelled word).

119 wyles. So EP, SC. MS: lyes.

131 kyng. So SC. MS: prophete, accidentally copying line 159.

146 foure. MS: iiij.

202 wolfys-hede and out-horne. MS: wols hede and out horne. See 27.812 and Explanatory Notes for both lines.

205 ethe. MS: written above the line in the hand of the main scribe.

307 lawes ar not myrk. MS: all but the first letters of the first and last of these words are heavily overwritten; several other words on this same page are overwritten due to faded ink.

309 wordys. MS has wodys before this word, with the w crossed out.

326 renyd. So SC. EP: reuyd.

366 I. So SC. EP: I do. MS: do, with d crossed out, likely anticipating downe at the end of the same line.

391 ye. MS: before this word is the first stroke of a w (likely anticipating wote).

455 knokys. MS: knygh (repeated from the previous line) is heavily crossed out before this word.

488 sytt ye and see it. So SC, emended for rhyme. MS: see ye and sytt.

499 full. MS: before this word is another letter, likely the first stroke of a w.

500 Fraword. MS: Frawrord.

547 thi. MS: inserted above line in the hand of the main scribe.

554 thurst. So EP. SC, MS: thrust.

611 Knokyd. So EP, SC. MS: knokyp.

621–22 MS: the speech headings for Torturer 2 and Froward have each been placed a line early, then crossed out and underlined with dots, the correct speech heading then being added in each case.

634 All had bene qwytt than. MS: Bot he deme the sothe tha (anticipating line 636) is written and crossed out at the beginning of this line, with a faint cross written in the left margin.

 
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18. The Buffeting

from: The Towneley Plays  2017








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Torturer 1
Torturer 2
Caiaphas
Annas
Jesus
Froward

Incipit coliphizacio. 1

Do io, furth io,
And trott on a pase!
To Anna will we go
And Syr Cayphas.
Witt thou well, of thaym two
Gettys thou no grace
Bot everlastyng wo,
For trespast thou has
So mekill.
Thi mys is more
Then ever gettys thou grace fore;
Thou has beyn aywhore
Full fals and full fekyll.

It is wonder to dre,
Thus to be gangyng.
We have had for thee
Mekill hart-stangyng,
Bot at last shall we be
Out of hart-langyng,
Be thou have had two or three
Hetys worth a hangyng.
No wonder!
Sich wyles can thou make
Gar the people farsake
Oure lawes, and thyne take;
Thus art thou broght in blonder.

Thou cannot say agaynt
If thou be trew.
Som men holdys thee sant
And that shall thou rew;
Fare wordys can thou paynt
And lege lawes new.
Now be ye ataynt,
For we will persew
On this mater.
Many wordys has thou saide
Of which we ar not well payde;
As good that thou had
Halden still thi clater.

It is better syt still
Then rise up and fall.
Thou has long had thi will
And made many brall;
At the last wold thou spill
And fordo us all,
If we dyd never yll.
I trow not he shall
Indure it,
For if other men ruse hym,
We shall accuse hym;
Hisself shall not excuse hym,
To you I insure it,

With no legeance. 2
Fayn wold he wynk
Els falys his countenance;
I say as I thynk.
He has done us grevance;
Therfor shall he drynk.
Have he mekill myschaunsce
That has gart us swynke
In walkyng,
That unneth may I more. 3
Peas, man, we ar thore.
I shall walk in before
And tell of his talkyng.

Haill, syrs, as ye sytt,
So worthi in wonys,
Whi spyrd ye not yit
How we have farne this onys?
Sir, we wold fayn witt.
All wery ar oure bonys;
We have had a fytt
Right yll for the nonys,
So tarid.
Say, were ye oght adred?
Were ye oght wrang led,
Or in any strate sted?
Syrs, who was myscaryd?

Say, were ye oght in dowte
For fawte of light
As ye wached therowte?
Sir, as I am true knyght,
Of my dame sen I sowked
Had I never sich a nyght;
Myn een were not lowked
Togeder right
Sen morowe.
Bot yit I thynk it well sett
Sen we with this tratoure met.
Sir this is he that forfett
And done so mekill sorow.

Can ye hym oght apeche?
Had he any ferys?
He has bene for to preche
Full many long yeris,
And the people he teche
A new law.
                   Syrs, heris:
As far as his witt reche,
Many oone he lerys.
When we toke hym,
We faunde hym in a yerde,
Bot when I drew out my swerde
His dyscypyls wex ferde,
And soyn thay forsoke hym.

Sir, I hard hym say he cowthe dystroew
Oure tempyll so gay,
And sithen beld a new
On the thrid day.
How myght that be trew?
It toke more aray;
The masons I knewe
That hewed it, I say,
So wyse
That hewed ilka stone.
A, good syr, let hym oone.
He lyes for the quetstone;
I gyf hym the pryce.

The halt rynes, the blynd sees
Thrugh his fals wyles;
Thus he gettys many fees
Of thym he begyles.
He rases men that dees,
Thay seke hym be myles,
And ever thrugh his soceres
Oure Sabate day defyles,
Evermore, syr.
This is his use and his custom:
To heyll the defe and the dom
Wheresoever he com.
I tell you before, syr.

Men call hym a kyng
And Godys son of heven;
He wold fayn downe bryng
Oure lawes bi his steven.
Yit is ther anothere thyng
That I hard hym neven:
He settys not a fle wyng
Bi Syr Cesar full even;
He says thus.
Sir, this same is he
That excusyd with his sotelté
A woman in avowtré;
Full well may ye trust us.

Sir Lazare can he rase,
That men may persave,
When he had lyne foure dayes
Ded in his grave.
All men hym prase,
Both master and knave,
Such wychcraft he mase.
If he abowte wave
Any langere,
His warkys may we ban,
For he has turned many man
Sen the tyme he began,
And done us great hangere.

He will not leyfe yit
Thof he be culpabyll.
Men call hym a prophete.
A lord full renabyll.
Sir Cayphas, bi my wytt,
He shuld be dampnabill.
Bot wold ye two as ye sytt
Make it ferme and stabyll
Togeder?
For ye two, as I traw,
May defende all oure law;
That mayde us to you draw
And bryng this losell heder.

Sir, I can tell you before,
As myght I be maryd,
If he reyne any more
Oure lawes ar myscaryd.
Sir, opposed if he wore,
He shuld be fon waryd;
That is well seyn thore
Where he has long tarid
And walkyd.
He is sowre-lottyn.
Ther is somwhat forgottyn;
I shall thryng out the rottyn
Be we have all talkyd.

Now fare myght you fall
For youre talkyng.
For certys, I myself shall
Make examynyng.
Harstow, harlott, of all?
Of care may thou syng;
How durst thou thee call
Aythere emperoure or kyng?
I do fy thee
What the dwill doyst thou here?
Thi dedys will do thee dere.
Com nar and rowne in myn eeyr
Or I shall ascry thee.

Illa-hayll was thou borne!
Harke, says he oght agane?
Thou shall onys or to-morne
To speke be full fayne.
This is a great skorne
And a fals trane.
Now wolfys-hede and out-horne
On thee be tane,
Vile fature.
Oone worde myght thou speke ethe,
Yit myght it do thee som letht;
Et omnis qui tacet
Hic consentire videtur. 4

Speke on oone word
Right in the dwyllys name.
Where was thi syre at bord
When he met with thi dame?
What, nawder bowted ne spurd
And a lord of name?
Speke on, in a torde.
The dwill gif thee shame,
Sir Sybré.
Perdé, if thou were a kyng,
Yit myght thou be ridyng.
Fy on thee, fundlyng!
Thou lyfys bot bi brybré.

Lad, I am a prelate,
A lord in degré,
Syttys in myn astate
As thou may se,
Knyghtys on me to wate
In dyverse degré.
I myght thole thee abate
And knele on thi kne
In my present.
As ever syng I mes,
Whoso kepis the lawe, I gess,
He gettys more by purches
Then bi his fre rent.

The dwill gif thee shame
That ever I knew thee.
Nather blynde ne lame
Will none persew thee.
Therfor I shall thee name,
That ever shall rew thee,
Kyng Copyn in oure game;
Thus shall I indew thee
For a fatur.
Say, dar thou not speke for ferde?
I shrew hym, the lerd.
Wemé, the dwillys durt in thi berd,
Vyle, fals tratur!

Though thi lyppis be stokyn,
Yit myght thou say mom.
Great wordys has thou spokyn;
Then was thou not dom.
Be it hole worde or brokyn,
Com owt with som,
Els on thee I shal be wrokyn,
Or thi ded com
All outt. 5
Aythere has thou no wytt
Or els ar thyn eres dytt.
Why, bot herd thou not yit?
So I cry and I showte.

A, syr, be not yll payde
Though he not answere.
He is inwardly flayde,
Not right in his gere.
No, bot the wordys he has saide
Doth my hart great dere.
Sir, yit may ye be dayde.
Nay, whils I lif nere.
Sir, amese you.
Now fowll myght hym befall.
Sir, ye ar vexed at all,
And peraventur he shall
Hereafter pleas you.

We may bi oure law
Examyn hym fyrst.
Bot I gif hym a blaw
My hart will brist.
Abyde to ye his purpose knaw.
Nay, bot I shall out thrist
Both his een on a raw.
Syr, ye will not, I tryst,
Be so vengeabyll;
Bot let me oppose hym.
I pray you, and sloes hym!
Sir, we may not lose hym
Bot we were dampnabill.

He has adyld his ded;
A kyng he hym calde.
War, let me gyrd of his hede.
I hope not ye wold,
Bot, syr, do my red
Youre worship to hald.
Shall I never ete bred
To that he be stald
In the stokys.
Sir, speke soft and styll.
Let us do as the law will.
Nay, I myself shall hym kyll
And murder with knokys.

Sir, thynk ye that ye ar
A man of holy kyrk;
Ye shuld be oure techere,
Mekenes to wyrk.
Yei, bot all is out of har,
And that shall he yrk.
All soft may men go far;
Oure lawes ar not myrk,
I weyn.
Youre wordys ar bustus,
Et hoc nos volumus
Quod de iure possumus; 6
Ye wote what I meyn.

It is best that we trete hym
With farenes.
                       Wé, nay!
And so myght we gett hym
Som word for to say.
War, let me bett hym.
Syr, do away,
For if ye thus thrett hym,
He spekys not this day.
Bot herys:
Wold ye sesse and abyde,
I shuld take hym on syde
And inquere of his pryde
How he oure folke lerys.

He has renyd over lang
With his fals lyys,
And done mekyll wrang.
Sir Cesar he defyes;
Therfor shall I hym hang
Or I up ryse.
Sir, the law will not he gang
On no kyn wyse
Undemyd.
Bot fyrst wold I here
What he wold answere;
Bot he dyd any dere
Why shuld he be flemyd?

And therfor examynyng
Fyrst will I make,
Sen that he callys hym a kyng.
Bot he that forsake
I shall gyf hym a wryng
That his nek shall crak.
Syr, ye may not hym dyng;
No word yit he spake
That I wyst.
Hark, felow, com nar.
Wyll thou never be war?
I have mervell thou dar
Thus do thyn awne lyst.

Bot I shall do as the law wyll,
If the people ruse thee.
Say, dyd thou oght this yll?
Can thou oght excuse thee?
Why standys thou so styll
When men thus accuse thee?
For to hyng on a hyll,
Hark, how thay ruse thee
To dam.
Say, art thou Godys son of heven
As thou art wonte for to neven?
So thou says by thy steven,
And right so I am.

For after this shall thou se
When that I com downe
In brightnes on he,
In clowdys from abone.
A, ill myght the feete be
That broght thee to towne;
Thou art worthy to de.
Say, thefe, where is thi crowne?
Abyde, syr.
Let us lawfully redres.
We nede no wytnes;
Hysself says expres.
Whi shuld I not chyde, syr?

Was ther never man so wyk
Bot he myght amende
When it com to the pryk,
Right as youreself kend?
Nay, syr, bot I shall hym styk
Even with myn awne hend,
For if he rene and be whyk
We ar at an end,
All sam.
Therfor, whils I am in this brethe,
Let me put hym to deth.
Sed nobis non licet
Interficere quemquam. 7

Sir, ye wote better then I
We shuld slo no man.
His dedys I defy;
His warkys may we ban.
Therfor shall he by.
Nay, on oder wyse than,
And do it lawfully.
As how?
               Tel you I can.
Let se.
Sir, take tent to my sawes:
Men of temporall lawes
Thay may deme sich cause,
And so may not we.

My hart is full cold,
Nerehand that I swelt.
For talys that ar told
I bolne at my belt;
Unethes may it hold
My body an ye it felt.
Yit wold I gif of my gold
Yond tratoure to pelt
Forever.
Good syr, do as ye hett me.
Whi, shall he oversett me?
Syr Anna, if ye lett me,
Ye do not youre dever.

Sir, ye ar a prelate.
So may I well seme,
Myself if I say it.
Be not to breme.
Sich men of astate
Shuld no men deme
Bot send them to Pilate;
The temporall law to yeme
Has he.
He may best threte hym
And all to-rehete hym.
It is shame you to bete hym;
Therfor, syr, let be.

Fy on hym, and war!
I am oute of my gate.
Say, why standys he so far?
Sir, he cam bot late.
No, bot I have knyghtys that dar
Rap hym on the pate.
Ye ar bot to skar.
Good syr, abate,
And here:
What nedys you to chyte?
What nedys you to flyte?
If ye yond man smyte,
Ye ar irregulere.

He that fyrst made me clerk
And taght me my lare,
On bookys for to barke,
The dwill gyf hym care!
A, good syr, hark:
Sich wordys myght ye spare.
Els myght I have made up wark
Of yond harlot and mare,
Perdé.
Bot certys, or he hens yode
It wold do me som good
To se knyghtys knok his hoode
With knokys two or thre,

For sen he has trespast
And broken oure law
Let us make hym agast
And set hym in awe.
Syr, as ye have hast,
It shal be, I traw.
Com and make redy fast,
Ye knyghtys on a raw,
Youre arament,
And that kyng to you take
And with knokys make hym wake.
Yei, syrs, and for my sake
Gyf hym good payment,

For if I myght go with you,
As I wold that I myght,
I shuld make myn avowe
That ons or mydnyght
I shuld make his heede sow,
Wher that I hyt right.
Sir, drede you not now
Of this cursed wight
Today,
For we shall so rok hym
And with buffettys knok hym.
And I red that ye lok hym
That he ryn not away,

For I red not we mete
If that lad skap.
Sir, on us be it
Bot we clowt well his kap.
Wold ye do as ye heytt,
It were a fayr hap.
Sir, sytt ye and see it
How that we hym knap
Oone feste.
Bot or we go to this thyng,
Sayn us, lord, with thy ryng.
Now he shall have my blyssyng
That knokys hym the best.

Go we now to oure noyte
With this fond foyll.
We shall teche hym, I wote,
A new play of Yoyll,
And hold hym full hote.
Fraword, a stoyll
Go fetch us.
                     Wé, dote!
Now els were it doyll
And unnett.
For the wo that he shall dre
Let hym knele on his kne.
And so shall he for me.
Go fetche us a light buffit.

Why must he sytt soft,
With a mekill myschaunce,
That has tenyd us thus oft?
Sir, we do it for a skawnce.
If he stode up on loft
We must hop and dawnse
As cokys in a croft.
Now a veniance
Com on hym.
Good skill can ye shew
As fell I the dew.
Have this; bere it, shrew,
For soyn shall we fon hym. 8

Com, syr, and syt downe;
Must ye be prayde
Lyke a lord of renowne?
Youre sete is arayde.
We shall preve on his crowne
The wordys he has sayde.
Ther is none in this towne,
I trow, be ill-payde
Of his sorow,
Bot the fader that hym gate.
Now for oght that I wate
All his kyn commys to late
His body to borow.

I wold we were onwarde.
Bot his een must be hyd.
Yei, bot thay be well spard
We lost that we dyd.
Step furth thou, Froward,
What is now betyd?
Thou art ever a wayward.
Have ye none to byd
Bot me?
I may syng ylla-hayll.
Thou must get us a vayll.
Ye ar ever in oone tayll.
Now ill myght thou thé

Well had thou thi name,
For thou was ever curst.
Sir, I myght say the same
To you if I durst,
Yit my hyer may I clame;
No penny I purst.
I have had mekyll shame,
Hunger, and thurst
In youre servyce.
Not oone word so bold.
Why, it is trew that I told?
Fayn preve it I wold.
Thou shal be cald to pervyce.

Here a vayll have I fon;
I trow it will last.
Bryng it hyder, good son;
That is it that I ast.
How shuld it be bon?
Abowte his heade cast.
Yei, and when it is well won,
Knyt a knot fast,
I red.
Is it weyll?
                 Yei, knave.
What, weyn ye that I rafe?
Cryst curs myght he have
That last bond his heade.

Now sen he is blynfeld,
I fall to begyn,
And thus was I counseld
The mastry to wyn.
Nay, wrang has thou teld;
Thus shuld thou com in.
I stode and beheld:
Thou towchid not the skyn
Bot fowll.
How will thou I do?
On this manere, lo.
Yei, that was well gone to;
Ther start up a cowll.

Thus shall we hym refe
All his fonde talys.
Ther is noght in thi nefe,
Or els thi hart falys.
I can my hand uphefe
And knop out the skalys.
Godys forbot ye lefe,
Bot set in youre nalys
On raw.
Sit up and prophecy!
Bot make us no ly.
Who smote thee last?
                                     Was it I?
He wote not, I traw.

Fast to Syr Cayphas
Go we togeder.
Ryse up with ill grace,
So com thou hyder.
It semys by his pase
He groches to go thyder.
We have gyfen hym a glase,
Ye may consyder,
To kepe.
Sir, for his great boost
With knokys he is indoost.
In fayth, syr, we had almost
Knokyd hym on slepe.

Now sen he is well bett.
Weynd on youre gate
And tell ye the forfett
Unto Syr Pylate,
For he is a juge sett
Emang men of state,
And looke that ye not let.
Com furth, old crate,
Belyfe.
We shall lede thee a trott.
Lyft thy feet, may thou not.
Then nedys me do nott
Bot com after and dryfe.

Alas, now take I hede.
Why mowrne ye so?
For I am ever in drede,
Wandreth and wo,
Lest Pylate for mede
Let Jesus go;
Bot had I slayn hym indede
With thise handys two,
At onys,
All had bene qwytt than.
Bot gyftys marres many man;
Bot he deme the sothe than
The dwill have his bonys.

Sir Anna, all I wyte you this blame,
For had ye not beyn,
I had mayde hym full tame —
Yei, stykyd hym, I weyn,
To the hart full wan,
With this dagger so keyn.
Sir, you must shame
Sich wordys for to meyn
Emang men.
I will not dwell in this stede,
Bot spy how thay hym lede,
And persew on his dede.
Farewell! We gang, men.

Explicit coliphizacio. 9
 









Go; go forth; (see note)
walk on a bit





(t-note)
much
misdeed
before
everywhere; (t-note)
fickle

endure
going
(see note)
Much heartache

yearning
(t-note)
Beatings

wiles
[That] make; forsake
yours
brought into trouble

deny [it]
honest
consider you a saint
regret
(see note)
put forward
convicted
pursue


pleased
(see note)
Held

[to] sit

your way
fight
destroy; (see note)
undo
Even though
think not
Endure
praise





Gladly; sleep
Or else falls; (see note)


suffer; (see note)

work

with difficulty
are there
(see note)


sit
exceedingly worthy
asked
fared on this occasion
gladly know
weary are our bones
struggle
for this purpose
long delayed
afraid of anything
led at all astray
tight place
hurt

at all in doubt
want of light
watched outside

since I suckled
such a night
eyes; closed; (see note)

Since morning
well arranged
Since
transgressed
caused so much

accuse him of anything; (see note)
companions

years
taught

listen
knowledge reaches
teaches

garden [of Gethsemane]

disciples became afraid
soon

could destroy; (see note)
bright; (t-note)
then build
third
true
took; preparation

built
wise
crafted each and every
alone
lies; whetstone; (see note)
give; prize

lame; runs
wiles; (t-note)
rewards
From those he deceives
raises; die; [fol. 74v]
for miles
sorceries
defiles


heal; deaf; dumb

(see note)

(t-note)

gladly
command

heard him mention
fly’s wing; (see note)
indeed


subtlety; (see note)
adultery



perceive
lain; (t-note)
Dead

servant
witchcraft; makes
waves about; (see note)
longer
works

Since
anger

stop
Though; culpable
prophet
eloquent

damnable

firm and stable

believe
(see note)

scoundrel here


Or may I be destroyed
reign
miscarried
(see note)
found accursed
evident there
delayed

sour-looking
something
drive out the rotten; (see note)
By [the time]

fair

certainly

Hear you scoundrel
sing
dare
Either
defy
devil do you here
cost you dearly
near; whisper
denounce

Cursed
anything
right away or tomorrow
glad
insult; (see note)
trick
(see note); (t-note)
taken up against
deceiver
easily; (t-note)
ease




devil’s
living
mother
neither booted nor spurred

turd
devil give
(see note)
By God

Fie; foundling
only by thievery



[Who] sits

wait

allow you to bow

presence
I sing mass
guess
illegal gains




Neither blind nor lame
pursue
(see note)
regret

invest
traitor
fear
curse; learned [one]
devil’s dirt; beard; (see note)


lips; closed
mumble

dumb
whole
out
revenged
death

Either
ears stopped up





frightened
mind

heart; harm
summoned to court; (see note)

calm
evil (foul)

perhaps




Unless; blow
burst
until
thrust out
eyes; together

vengeful

slay
destroy
damnable

earned his death

Beware; chop off his head

take my advice

eat bread
Until; placed
stocks
quietly


blows

consider
church

Meekness
out of joint
loathe
Moderately; (see note)
obscure; (t-note)
think
rough; (t-note)


know




[fol. 76r]

beat

threaten

listens
cease and desist
aside

teaches

reigned too long; (t-note)

much mischief


Before I stand up
let him go
In any way
Unjudged


Unless; harm
condemned



Since
refuses; (see note)

crack
hurt

know
near
wary
dare
will

(see note)
Even if; praise
any of this wickedness




boast
damn

are accustomed; mention
voice; (see note)



(t-note)
high
clouds from above
task (feat)

die
thief



He himself speaks explicitly


wicked

moment of death
knew
pierce; [fol. 76v]
hands
reign; alive

together
alive




know; (t-note)
slay

works
suffer
in another way




pay attention; words
(see note)
such



Nearly; die
tales
swell
Only with difficulty
if you felt it

attack

promised
overthrow
prevent
duty




too violent
rank
judge

observe

threaten
severely rebuke



beware
perturbed
far off
(see note)
dare
head
scare [him]
cease
hear
chide
argue




taught; lessons
read aloud from
devil
listen; [fol. 77r]

(see note)
scoundrel; sorcerer
By God
certainly; before he goes hence

hit his head
blows; (t-note)

since; trespassed

afraid


believe

all together
equipment







oath
once before midnight
suffer
hit [it]



shake
blows; knock
advise; lock him up
run

meet; (see note)
escapes

strike; head
promise
fair event
(t-note)
knock
One vigorously
before
Bless us; (see note)

Who; hardest

business
silly fool
think
Yule; (see note)
violently; (t-note)
stool; (see note); (t-note)

fool
painful; (see note)
troublesome
suffer


footstool; (see note)


great misfortune
angered
joke
(see note)

cocks
vengeance


(see note)
(see note)


(see note)
praised

prepared
prove


believe; displeased

father; begat
know

save


eyes; hidden



happened

no one

sing a curse
blindfold
in agreement
thrive
(t-note)

(see note)

dare
wage
put in my purse
much
thirst; (t-note)



Gladly
a legal disputation; (see note)

blindfold

here
asked
put

wrapped

advise


think; rave
(see note)



decline
(see note)

wrongly; declared


touched
But poorly



swelling

rob; (see note)
silly tales
fist

raise up
(see note)
cease
nails
Together




knows; believe




here
pace
refuses; there
blow


boast
punished

asleep; (t-note)

beaten
Go on your way
explain; crime

sits as a judge
Among; rank
cease
hag; (see note)
At once
at a trot; (see note); (t-note)

need
drive

care
mourn
dread
Misery
reward



At once
ended; (t-note)
gifts spoil
Unless; truth
devil

I lay all this blame on you


pierced; think
dark
sharp; (see note)

mean

place
see
press forward to his death
go


 

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