The Lanterne of Light

THE LANTERNE OF LIGHT: FOOTNOTES

4 semeden, seemed.

5 dredyng, fearing.

7 habundaunce, abundance; kele, cool.

8 leeftenaunt, lieutenant.

9 doughtis, doubts; wawis . . . see, waves of the sea.

10 wonderful, wonder-provoking; iche, each.

11 sett oon acorde, made an agreement.

14 Baptem, baptism.

15 oonhed, oneness.

18 sowen taaris, sown tares (weeds).

19 clowtith, patches; roten raggis, filthy rags.

20 malise, malice; Judas, Judas's; whilis Symon, whilst Simon Peter.

21 takith noon hede, pays no attention.

24 smyt, smite;heele, heal; skape, escape.

25 keies of Davith, keys of David; hevene, heaven's.

25-26 thanne . . . opyneth, i.e., such that no one else may close them (heaven's gates) and no one else may open them.

30 dingeth, strikes;rerith, raises up.

33 bijlde, build; stressith, incarcerates.

34 quite, release.

35 vertu, power.

39 saaf, saved.

43 foultid schepard, foolish shepherd.

44-45 membris . . . lose, followers to bind and loose.

47 blyndlingis, blind men.

47-48 so ferforthe, to such an extent.

48 makith mornyng, grieves.

55 hidouse, hideous.

59 moun, may; algatis, especially.

60-61 swagith . . . soris, relieves and heals spiritual wounds.

63 plaistir, healing plaster.

65 lijf, life;quickenyng, giving life.

70 agen, contrary to.

71-72 Seint Austin, St. Augustine.

73 and, if.

76 brenne, burn.

80 glotonye . . . leccherie, gluttony . . . lechery (deadly sins).

80-81 sweyling, burning.

81 mete of, food for.

81-82 dampned, damned.

86 fled, avoided.

87 smale undirstondars, slow learners.

88 bolnyng, swelling, arrogance.

89 rightwisenesse, righteousness.

97 But if . . . drede, Unless you earnestly fear.

98 upsodoun, upside down.

100 wanhope, despair; overe . . . on, too little trust in.

105 It is . . . hem, The Lord is well pleased with them.

106 agenwarde, on the other hand.

107 entrien, enter.

108 cumbraunce, affliction.

113-14 avoket anenst, advocate with.

117 saaf, saved.

118 sleeth, slays.

119 biddingis. . . leche, doctor's orders.

120 thridde, third; obstinacioun, obstinacy; herte, heart.

121 contrit, contrite; conpunccioun, compunctions.

121-22 mevid . . . thretingis, moved by prayers or threats.

122 settith . . . betingis, cares nothing about beatings; It, i.e., such a one; unkynde, unnatural.

123 feeris . . . doomes, fierce and mad in judgments; unschamefast, without shame.

124 neithir . . . neithir, neither . . . nor; perelis, perils.

125 forgetil, forgetful.

125-26 purveiyng . . . cum, looking ahead to the times that are to come.

130 braied, ground up.

131 hevi, heavy.

133 endurid . . . synne, inured to sin.

134 Neighe thou, Approach.

136 fynali inrepentaunt, ultimate impenitence.

136-37 verri penaunce, true penitence.

137 ledith . . . fleische, leads his life according to the desires of his flesh.

139 leveth, abandons.

140 miche worschipe, great honor.

141 feyned schrifte, pretended confession; taken . . . sacramentis, take part in [the] sacraments.

142 ournmentis, adornments; rede, read.

143 releven . . . nedi, relieve the needy poor.

145 tixte, text.

146-47 Whethir . . . lijf, Is not life.

147 mete, food; clothe, clothing.

152 moost, most important.

153 settith . . . bi, sets a higher value on.

154 that, what.

155 govun, given.

157 dowid . . . kyndeli, endowed with natural.

158 tweyne, two (i.e., worldly goods and man's body).

159 that berith . . . licknes, which bears God's image and likeness.

160 putt peirement to, jeopardize.

160-61 wlatful . . . therfro, foul carcass when the soul has departed from it.

162 Loke . . . mys-dispendid, Watch out that these not be ill-spent.

163 biside ther ordir, outside their [proper] order.

163-64 oo ende, a single goal.

165 chaungist . . . upsodoun, reverses this order; axith, asks; the, thee.

169 Whethir . . . thou, Do you hate.

170 longabiding, long-suffering.

171 ledith othir dryveth, leads or impels; aftir, according to.

172 tresourist to thee, store up for yourself.

172-73 in . . . wraththe, on the day of Wrath.

173-74 yelde . . . werkis, yield to each man according to his works.

176 born up, commended; welthi, wealthy.

177 habundaunce, abundance.

177-78 upbreidith, reproveth, censures, chides.

179 goostli, spiritual.

184 anoon, straightway; puplische, publish; peple, people.

186 sclaundrid, denied; Belsabub, Beelzebub.

187 flighes, flies.

189 werre . . . hous-meyné, worse shall they care to say to His household.

190 traveilid, burdened.

192 entent, meaning.

194 chare, drive away.

195 sclaundir for, slander.

196-97 durne . . . sclaundir, dare not act or speak for [fear of] slander.

197 that stonyen for, who are amazed because of.

198 noon, no one.

199 wel. . . woe, prosperity or in adversity.

202 clennes, purity; hard ever, ever heard.

206 lettid to, prevented from.

207 bileve, belief; opunli, openly.

208 Numeri, Numbers; rad, read; Heldad, Eldad.

209 Moises, Moses; Josue, Joshua, son of Nun.

210 grucchiden agens, grumbled against; mad his pleynt, complained.

211 enviouse for me, jealous on my account; werne, prohibit.

216 han sen, have seen; that . . . us, who does not follow us.

217 forboden, forbidden; Nile ye werne, Don't prevent.

218 dorne, dare.

218-19 thise . . . lawes, both these laws of God.

219 docke, cut short.

220 prive hem, deprive them.

221 sacren, bless; miche rather, much sooner (i.e., it would be much better).

225 kutting the sentence, severing the meaning; meneth, means.

227 Maister of Sentence, Peter Lombard, author of Sententiae.

228 deken, deacon.

230 acorden togider, agree.

236 efte, again.

238 that disturblen, who upset.

241 gilti, sinner.

242 ungroundid resouns, baseless arguments; sotil, subtle; foltid, foolish.

245 stroumpetis, strumpet's.

248 agen-stooden, stood against (opposed).

250 axe, ask; clepith, calls.

252 maistir liears, master liars.

255 marke, heed.

257 hoolis, holes; fadris, fathers.

258 Woo, woe.

259 see, sea.

260 helle . . . youre-silf, child of hell twofold more than yourselves.

261 unkunnyngnes, ignorance.

262 impunyng, slander; sotil ypocritis, subtle hypocrites; hastli, quickly.

263 batailes, battles.

264 hounger, hunger; pestelence, plague.

265 toforne, before.

266 cheef, leader; passingli, surpassingly.

269 agee, age.

269-70 worschipful . . . to, revered by.

271 lesing, lying.

273 goostli marchauntis, merchants of spiritual things; chaffare, deal, trade.

274 feyned, fraudulent; likerouse, (falsely) pleasant; bigilen, seduce.

276 bicause of wynnyng, for material gain.

277 Thomas Alquin, Thomas Aquinas.

278 so ferforthe, to such an extent.

278-79 agenstonding, opposing.

282 bie, buy; be. . . if, whether he is a bondsman or a free man, unless.

284 heere, hear.

285 clepid, called.

289 Who that ever, Whoever.

290 wyn, wine.

291 brymston, brimstone; aungelis, angels.

292 turmentrie, torment; stighe, rise.

295 vessellis . . . schepard, instruments of a foolish shepherd.

296 suffre, permit; rerid up, exalted.

297 neithir . . . scatrid, he shall neither seek those who have been scattered.

298 hele . . . sore, heal those who are injured.

299 ydole, idol; bischopis habit, bishop's clothes; lijf ne dede, way of life nor deed.

300 longith, pertains.

302 tookenes, signs.

304 cruet, vial; rewme, kingdom.

305 eeten . . . togidir, eat their tongues together; blasfemeden, blasphemed.

306 of her dedis, for their deeds.

306-07 That . . . mene, That means.

309 deliten hem, take delight; magnifiyng . . . tungis, glorifying with their tongues.

311 gendring, engendering.

313 medeful, commendable.

314 Lyncoln, Robert Grosseteste, bishop of Lincoln; ugli, terribly, sore.

315 peraventure, perhaps.

318 autorité, authority; oone acordaunce, unanimous agreement; sueth, follow.

319 sadli . . . bileve, anchored seriously in true belief.

321 cloutid . . . chanouns, rag-tag sects, such as monks, canons; venymous, poisonous.

322 thre . . . waried, three parts (i.e., monks, canons, and friars) are cursed.

325 Caym, Cain.

326 schadde, separated; mede, reward, bribery.

327 mendiners, mendicants, beggars; agenseiyng, denying, gainsaying.

328 maynteners, defenders.

329 destroied, destroyed.

335-36 turnyng . . . doome, conversion of men's hearts by His grace to His law shortly before His Judgment.

337 loore to Joob, lesson to Job.

339-40 alle men seing, in the sight of all men.

340 throwen . . . heedlingis, cast down headlong.

340-41 take . . . him, mourn for him.

341 wariyng, cursing.

343 Davith, David.

345 saughtis, assaults.

346 haunt, practice, use.

347 saught, onslaught.

350 fals . . . lawis, false lucre or laws for material gain.

352 spoile, despoil.

353 thise newe constituciouns, see note;enterditith, interdicts.

353-54 soumneth, indicts.

354 resceyvours, receivers; priveth, deprives.

355 heerars, hearers; goodis of hem, their goods.

356 yhe, yea.

359 saught, assault.

361 mawmentrie, idolatry.

362 wene, suppose; waried of, cursed by.

368 outrage, excess.

370 blindfelt, blindfolded; wlatith, loathes; mysdispendid, ill-spent.

374 herkneth, listens.

375 modir . . . aftir, mother tongue, to lead their lives according to.

376 sensuris, censures.

377 hirten hem, injure them.

378-79 refreyne and abregge, curb and restrict.

380 wole . . . knowith, will allow him (to do); who (i.e., God) knows; prove, test.

381 furneise, furnace, crucible; meyné, followers.

382 hardid, hardened.

384 sottith, becomes besotted.

386 aspiseth, spies out; over-lepith, leaps upon.

387 goostli, spiritually.

388 triste . . . trowing, trust and a belief.

393 wlank, flourishing; habunding of, abounding in.

394 bilden her nestis, build their nests.

401-02 hoolis . . . purchassen of, holes by the water's edge control.

402 either sighde hem, either side of them.

403 her thankis . . . it, voluntarily either destroy it or surrender it.

405 partise, parts.

407 whighlen . . . catel, wheedle for themselves much of their goods.

408 wonnen, acquired.

409-10 thise richessis . . . synne, these riches they abet unruly, bold, and lawless knaves who go after those who say anything against this cursed sin.

414 refute and vertu, refuge and power.

414-15 tribulaciouns . . . passingli, troubles, which have found us exceedingly.

416 whilis, whilst.

417 born over, transported; abaschid, dismayed.

418 confedrid to, allied with.

426 execute, carry out.

430 sheed out, shed.

431 dore birie, dare bury.

431-32 fleische . . . beestis, flesh to birds of the air and their carcasses to beasts.

434 lordschip, dominion.

434-35 rering . . . gynnes, mounting against them divers instruments.

435 reprofe, repudiation.

438 and elles, or else; saaf, saved.

439 Helie . . . Acab, Elijah (Vulg. Elias); Ahab (Vulg. Achab).

440 reyn, rain.

441 this thing, see note.

443-44 bisecheing, siege.

444 Josophus, Josephus.

447 Machabeies, Machabees.

448 feele sithis, many times.

449 outake, except.

456 pees, peace.

457 woodnes, madness.

458 schullen mowen, shall be able to.

459 dewe, due.

460 verry, true.

462-63 Blyndnes . . . partie, Blindness struck partly.

465 Ennok and Hely, Enoch and Elijah.

THE LANTERNE OF LIGHT: NOTES

3 daies of greet tribulacioun. A frequent refrain in Wycliffite and anticlerical literature, but here there may be topical specificity as well, as suggested in lines 4-5 ("losse of worldli goodis and bodili peyne"). In 1409 Archbishop Thomas Arundel promulgated his Constitutions, which prohibited unlicensed preaching in English (statutes aimed at the Lollards). In a section of the Lanterne (LL) not printed in this volume, the author complains:
Agen this comaundement ["Thou shalt not kill"], the fende in his membris settith wacche and bisie spie where that he may fynde ony peple that wole rede, privé or apert, Goddis lawe in Englische, that is oure modir tunge. Anoon he schal be sumned to come aforne his juggis to answere what is seide to him, and bring his book with him; and eithir he must forsake his book and reding of Englische and algatis he schal forswere to speke of Holi Writ. (LL, ed. Swinburn, p. 100 [spelling normalized, punctuation altered])
5 Due to the constraints of HTML, letters that were superscript in the paper volume are bracketed in the online edition. Thus, "Mat. xxiv[o]" originally read "Mat. xxivo."

6-8 Quoniam . . . charité of many. Matt. 24:12; in the Wycliffite translation: "And for wickidness schal be plenteous, the charite of manye schal wexe cold." A locus classicus for medieval discussions of the world grown old and the end of the world.

17 Inimicus . . . zizania. Perhaps a conflation of Matt. 13:25 ("Inimicus eius superseminavit zizania") with 28 ("Inimicus homo hoc fecit"). See Swinburn's Appendix to the EETS edition of LL, p. 141.

69-70 Anticrist is every man . . . agen Crist. The standard definition of "Antichrist in general" as opposed to the specific individual, the Antichrist, who will lead the forces of evil in the world's latemost days. On these definitions of Antichrist, see Richard K. Emmerson, Antichrist in the Middle Ages (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1981), pp. 62-73.

71 Forsothe, now ben many anticristis. 1 John 2:18, the locus classicus for medieval discussions of sin, Antichrist, and contemporary conditions. The passage was useful to those who would denounce rival Christian organizations, such as friars, or sects, such as the Lollards. The antichrists of 1 John were regularly explained as the hypocrites of Matt. 23 and the false prophets of Matt. 24. See Emmerson, Antichrist, p. 63.

75 Forsothe the chaff . . . quenchid. Matt. 3:12.

79-81 Every proud soule . . . fire. Isaiah 9:5.

82 In margin: Nota bene.

127-28 Seint Bernard . . . Lincoln. St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) and Robert Grosseteste, bishop of Lincoln (c. 1168-1253). There is a problem in these references since Bernard anachronistically quotes Grosseteste. Ironically, Grosseteste served as regent of the Franciscan school at Oxford (1229-35) and thus fostered the friars whom the author of LL deplores as one of the three "parties" of Antichrist. Grosseteste appears often in Lollard tracts because he opposed the power of the Roman church. Of him Ranulph Higden says, in John Trevisa's translation: "He sente to þe ferþe pope Innocencius a pistel scharp inow þat bygynneþ in þis manere: 'Oure lord Jesus Crist.' [He] sente þat pistel for þe pope greved þe chirches of Engelond wiþ taxes and wiþ paimentis undewe and uncustemable" (Polychronicon 7.37; Rolls Series 41 8:241).

193 eten a flighe. "Evidently a taunt brought against the Lollards by their enemies. They are looked upon as followers of Beelzebub, the god of flies, through whose agency they obtain their knowledge of God's law. To have 'eten a flie' is probably equivalent to being possessed by a devil. 'Fly' is used later by B. Jonson for a 'familiar demon' (1610)" (Swinburn).

208 Heldad and Medad. Numbers 11:26-29.

227 Maister of Sentence. Peter Lombard, author of Sentences (1152), an authoritative and systematic exposition of theology and doctrine which became standard in the schools.

231 discipulis in the margin; also, est forma presbiterorum not underlined in the manuscript.

245 A stroumpetis forhed. In margin: no[ta].

247 restiterunt. So the MS; Swinburn resistiterunt. In Wordsworth and White's edition of the New Testament Vulgate, the passage reads: "Quemadmodum autem Iamnes et Mambres restiterunt Mosi, ita et hi resistunt ueritati" (Novum Testamentum Latine secundum editionem Sanctii Hieronymi [Oxford: Clarendon, 1920]). In the Stuttgart Vulgate the passage reads: "quemadmodum autem Iannes et Mambres restiterunt Mosi ita et hii resistunt veritati" (Biblia Sacra iuxta Vulgatam versionem, ed. R. Weber [Stuttgart: Württembergische Bibelanstalt, 1969], vol. 2).

247-49 Right as Jambres and Mambres . . . truthe. 2 Tim. 3:8. Iamnes and Mambres (or Jannes and Jambres) were rabbinical names for Pharoah's magicians who opposed Moses and performed magic tricks (Exod. 7). William of St. Amour glossed these Old Testament magicians as types of the friars (Szittya, The Antifraternal Tradition in Medieval Literature, p. 218). See the antifraternal Upland's Rejoinder, lines 211-12: "Yee, Jamnes and Mambres japid not so the kyng, / As thou with thi cursid secte the kyng and the puple."

260 whanne . . . youre-silf. For a similar argument see UR, lines 257-63.

353 thise newe constituciouns. A reference to new statutes of 1409 formulated by Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury (chief architect of De haeretico comburendo of 1401).

388-89 Anticrist . . . mouthe. Job 40:18: "and he [Behemoth, which the Wycliffite author interprets as Antichrist] trusteth that the Jordan may run into his mouth."

390 chathidera. So MS; Swinburn emends to cathedra.

420-21 rapere . . . eum. Psalm 10 [Hebrew]:9: "to catch the poor, whilst he draweth him to him."

423-24 Faciat . . . occidantur. Apoc. 13:15: " . . . and should cause, that whosoever will not adore the image of the beast, should be slain."

441 this thing. That is, the three and a half year reign of Antichrist, figured in other scriptural occurrences.

444 Josophus. Flavius Josephus (A.D. 37?-100?), author of Antiquities of the Jews and Wars of the Jews.

465 Ennok and Hely. A scriptural tradition (based on Malachi 4:5) and a persistent medieval tradition was that Enoch and Elijah would return to convert the Jews just before "the great and dreadful day of the Lord." Both were considered godly men who, instead of dying, were taken up by God. See Emmerson, Antichrist, pp. 95-101.
 
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The Lanterne of Light

(British Library MS Harley 2324 fols. 1v-4r, 5r-20v)


   
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