Play 47, Doomsday

Play 47, DOOMSDAY: FOOTNOTES

1 Here he goes to the seat of judgment, with the song of angels

2 Lines 381–82: And thus he makes an ending, with the melody / of angels passing from place to place.


Play 47, DOOMSDAY: EXPLANATORY NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: AV: Authorized (“King James”) Version; Meditations: Meditations on the Life of Christ, trans. Ragusa and Green; MED: Middle English Dictionary; OED: Oxford English Dictionary; RB: Richard Beadle, ed., York Plays; REED: Records of Early English Drama; YA: Davidson and O’Connor, York Art; York Breviary: Breviarium ad usum insignis ecclesie Eboracensis; York Missal: Missale ad usum insignis ecclesiae Eboracensis.

References to the Ordo paginarum are to REED: York, 1:16–27.

The final play of the cycle, the Mercers’ Doomsday, is also the one about which the most is known with regard to production. This is so because of the discovery of a 1433 indenture between the guild and the pageant master, Richard Louth, that provides a list of stage properties used for the pageant at that time.1 It is clear that the Mercers, who dominated the city’s government, spared no expense to see that their show was a spectacle that would stand out as exemplary among the pageants in the cycle. There was a wagon with four wheels and a hellmouth, costumes for God, apostles, and devils, who were fitted with masks. Jesus wore a “Sirke [shirt] Wounded a diademe With a veserne [mask] gilted,” and equipment was provided to lower him from heaven to where he would be seated as a judge on a “Rainbow of tymber” and to raise him back to heaven. The good and bad souls were differentiated, probably by color coding like those in Coventry’s Corpus Christi Doomsday play.2 Angels had trumpets for the announcement of the End Time, the required “last trumpet,” as mentioned by St. Paul, which “shall sound, and the dead shall rise” (1 Corinthians 15:52). Seven large and four small puppet angels held the Instruments of the Passion — including the crown of thorns, lance, and whips mentioned in the Ordo paginarum as belonging to the Passion as well as other executioners’ items. A set of nine smaller puppet angels, “payntid rede,” were designed “to renne aboute in the heven,” which was fitted with clouds and stars. In the early sixteenth century the pageant wagon was “substancialie” rebuilt by the prominent sculptor John Drawswerd, and again an inventory (from 1526) is available, though much less detailed and seemingly indicative of staging less elaborate than in 1433.3

The Last Judgment story as presented here does not follow the elaborate account in the Apocalypse that was drawn upon for the design of the Great East Window in York Minster, but rather the dramatization derives from Matthew 25, specifically from the verses following the parable of the talents in which the “unprofitable servant” is cast “out into the exterior darkness” where there “shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth” (25:30). The test of one’s worthiness to enter into bliss in the pageant is whether one has performed the Corporal Acts of Mercy, the charitable acts specified in Matthew 25:35–46. Charity was an important value for the Mercers and other mercantile guilds that were in the main in control of the city government.

There is evidence that the people of York lived in expectation of Doomsday, the final day of history, which was believed to be at least potentially at hand, as proclaimed in 2 Peter 3:10: “But the day of the Lord shall come as a thief,” unexpectedly and violently. This would be the Second Advent, or Coming, of Jesus, the Son of God, into time, which then would have a stop. The early Church had hoped for the parousia as an event that was imminent, not just in some distant future, and this had been translated into the eschatology that pertained in the late Middle Ages when many appear to have kept alert to possible signs of the end.4 It would not have been thought unusual for a person at York to leave a bequest to a parish church to fund a Mass that was to be continued “as long as the world shall endure.” The Pricke of Conscience, formerly attributed to Richard Rolle and imbued with end-time theology as well as specific reciting of the Fifteen Signs of Doomsday, was one of the most widely-read books of Northern origin of the time, but see also the ever-popular Golden Legend and, for an example of a homily collection which emphasizes the Signs in a sermon for the first Sunday in Advent, John Mirk’s Festial.5 A recital of these signs appears in Play 22, lines 216–340, in the Chester Whitsun cycle. Though these signs foreshadowing the Last Judgment do not appear in the York pageant, they were known locally, for they were depicted in the Fifteen Signs window in the York church of All Saints, North Street.6 These signs possibly figure in the additions to the York text when it was adapted and added to the Towneley collection, formerly believed to be a Wakefield Corpus Christi cycle.7 The versification in the York play maintains an eight-line stanza.

1 DEUS. Here God the Father. Subsequently Deus will signify the Son who comes back to earth as Judge.

34 thois wrecchis that ware thareinne. Adam, Eve, the patriarchs, prophets, those who were worthy but not able to receive the benefits of God’s grace until the Crucifixion, when they would be ransomed and released from limbo through the effects of Christ’s sacrifice on the cross.

65 Aungellis, blawes youre bemys belyve. All people, learned and “lewd” or unlettered, will be called up by the trumpet call of the angels, traditionally one at each corner of the world. These instruments may have been props only, with actual minstrels supplying the trumpet sounds. Trumpets are noted in the 1433 indenture and again in the Mercers’ records as being mended in 1461 and 1462 (REED: York, 1:55, 91–92, and 95; see also Remnant, “Musical Instruments,” pp. 176–77).

90 I bidde you that ye ryse. Embedded stage direction.

91 Body and sawle with you ye bring. The resurrection of the body is promised, though for shorthand those who rise at the Last Judgment are designated simply as “souls.” Body and soul together are again mentioned in line 99, which stresses the complete reunion of the two. Job 19:26 was regarded as prophetic: “And I shall be clothed again with my skin, and in my flesh I shall see my God.” It was an idea that already was circulating in some Jewish circles in Jesus’ time, but in St. Paul the concept was given a new twist in that it was to be a new and spiritual body, no longer subject to corruption, that was to be given life and returned to the soul (see 1 Corinthians 15:32–44). Additional accretions, including those resulting from Greek and Oriental influences, were the cause of further ambiguity in medieval thought about the expected event, and this was to be reflected in the York play, which to be sure is not a theological treatise.

95 rise uppe and geve rekenyng. Souls are being called to come up from their graves. Iconographic evidence shows that they were imagined to be rising with their grave clothes around them or in the nude, in order to be judged. Thereafter an exact accounting of sins and good deeds was expected, in some depictions of the Last Judgment including the psychostatis or weighing in a set of scales to achieve exactitude. The weighing of souls, however, does not appear in the Mercers’ pageant.

101 Of oure ill dedis, Lorde, thou not mene. The expectation is that only the saints could live pure lives, and that one’s ill deeds required forgiveness and expiation through the sacrament of Penance, which in turn was made effective only because of the act of sacrifice on the cross required to ransom humankind. But all one’s sins, even the smallest, would be a source of anxiety. See also line 109 for the second Soul’s statement “Ofte have we greved thee, grette and small.” The good souls express humility, the evil ones do not.

115 this hydous horne. Reference to the angel trumpeters, feared by the bad souls.

129 Oure wikkid werkis thei will us wreye. The traditional notion that a person’s evil deeds will testify against him or her at the Last Day, for all is written in God’s book of Creation, good and ill.

135 Nowe mon nevere saule ne body dye. Punishment will be eternal, unending, and cruel, dwelling with “feendes blake” (line 143) without hope of ever receiving redemption.

146 Sore may we wringe oure handis and wepe. Traditional gestures of utter despair. Tearing one’s hair was also a sign of hopelessness. Their condition is in fact utterly without hope, since the time of grace has passed. In contrast, the good souls would logically have held their hands in gestures of supplication; see C. Davidson, “Gesture,” pp. 81–86.

151–52 made we sacrafise / To Satanas when othir slepe. Invoking witchcraft with specific reference to the witches’ sabbath. Witches were reputed to worship the Devil in midnight ceremonies in which he celebrates the black mass, part of the ritual being “blessing” his followers with his left hand. Their crime is infidelity, considered by authors of the Malleus Malificarum to be an enormous sin and the most serious kind of apostasy.

169 Standis noght togedir, parte you in two. Embedded stage direction. The dead have been raised from their graves and now will be separated into those on God’s left (the bad souls) and those on his right (the good). In depictions of the Last Judgment, this orientation is maintained, as in the well-known wall painting over the chancel arch at St. Thomas of Canterbury in Salisbury; for a pre-restoration illustration, see C. Davidson, Deliver Us from Evil, p. 135, fig. 19.

177–84 DEUS. Now the Son rather than the Father is speaking. He announces that this world, this vale of tears, “is brought till ende” and prepares to descend to earth to sit in majesty to judge all humankind. God the Father is a separate character who would stay behind in heaven; Jesus refers to him in lines 233–34 as the one who sent him down a second time to earth.

185 Mi postelis and my darlyngis. The apostles will be seated on seats, six to each side of Jesus (see line 215). However, they will have no active part in the judgments in the York play that will admit some to bliss and others “to fyre with fendis blake” (line 198). There is no role specified in the playtext for the Virgin Mary, although she had been noticed as a character in the Ordo paginarum.

216 s.d. Hic ad sedem judicii cum cantu angelorum. Stage direction and rubric designating music. It signals the lowering of the seat of judgment along with angelic singing, which would be quite a logical staging effect. The song sung by the angels is not indicated, but it likely was a polyphonic piece, as would be appropriate for heavenly music, perhaps adding organ or regals. Following this the devils come onto stage with the hope of obtaining their prey. The third devil mistakenly believes they will be permitted to have all the souls in their power (lines 227–28).

241–44 The day of drede to more and lesse, / Of ire . . . is sene. Compare the sequence for the dead, Dies ire, dies illa: “Day of wrath that will dissolve this world to ash. . . . Great will be the fear when the Judge comes to examine all strictly. . . .”

245–76 Here may ye see my woundes wide . . . what suffered thou for me? Spoken directly to the audience as well as to the souls. It is a central moment and reminiscent of a devotional tableau. See, for example, the Last Judgment miniature in the Bolton Hours, fol. 208, in which Jesus’ wounds in hands, feet, and side are streaming blood (YA, pp. 115–16, fig. 33). Mirk tells how Jesus, “veray God and man,” shall “come to the dome, and all seyntys with hym, and schow all his wondys all fresch, and newe, and bledyng, as that day that he deyet on the crosse.” The cross also will be shown “all blody, and all other ynstrumentys of his passyon” (Festial, p. 3). In the pageant, Jesus is rehearsing the details of the Passion, the shedding of his blood for the salvation of humankind, many of whom have rejected him, and concluding with the request to know what humans have done for him (line 276) as a lead-in to his address to those who are to be welcomed into bliss.

285–300 Whenne I was hungery . . . In joie and blisse to be me by. Paraphrase of Matthew 25:34–45. Jesus gives assurance to those on his “right hande” (line 277) since they have performed the Corporal Acts of Mercy: feeding the hungry, giving drink to the thirsty, clothing the “clothles,” succoring the sick and those in prison, giving shelter to the shelterless, but omitting the burial of the dead which is not noted in St. Matthew’s gospel. As these are done to others, it is as if they are done to the Lord Jesus. See the listing of the Corporal Acts in the influential Lay Folks’ Catechism, p. 70.

301–08 As in Matthew 25:44, the good souls are modest and claim no credit for such deeds.

317–48 Now Jesus turns to the “cursid caytiffis of Kaymes kynne / That nevere me comforte in my care.” Like Cain, they have failed utterly to do the good works expected of them. Their deeds are characterized by selfishness, pride, greed, and disregard for others. Because they kept the stranger standing in the cold and wet outside their gates, now they will be denied entrance to the gate of heaven. Their response takes a very different tone from that of the good souls as they deny Jesus’ charges (lines 349–56).

365–72 Against the invitation to the “chosen childir,” Jesus will turn to those on his left to consign them to “sitte be Satanas the fende” — the final disposition of the trial, which to be sure has been different from any legal proceeding in contemporary England but which, we are implicitly assured, is entirely just.

379–80 thei that mendid thame whils thei moght / Shall belde and bide in my blissing. Jesus concludes with a blessing, undoubtedly with the physical sign of making a cross over the good souls — and the audience.

380 s.d. Et sic facit finem . . . ad locum. Rastall (Heaven Singing, p. 28) approves Happé’s paraphrase: “And thus crossing from the place to the place, he makes an end with the melody of angels” (English Mystery Plays, p. 694). Unfortunately, again no suggestion is available concerning the nature of the music, though once more it may be conjectured that competent musicians would have been procured and that they would have tried to approximate what would have been reasonably convincing as heavenly. The Towneley Judgment play specifies Te Deum laudamus, a portion of which had also been chosen for the music of heaven at the beginning of the York cycle. Whatever the melody was at York, it must have reinforced the certitude and hope of redemption — a joining of the blessed ones with the ultimate harmony of the cosmos — that is, at the last, in Caroline Walker Bynum’s words, “a concept of sublime courage and optimism” (Resurrection of the Body, p. 343).


Play 47, DOOMSDAY: TEXTUAL NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: Bevington: David Bevington, ed., Medieval Drama (1975); Köbling: E. Köbling, “Beiträge zur Erklärung und Textkritik der York Plays”; LTS: Lucy Toulmin Smith, ed., The York Plays (1885); RB: Richard Beadle, ed., The York Plays (1972) (incorporating numerous emendations from other sources); RB2: Richard Beadle, “Corrections to The York Plays,” in Gerald Byron Kinneavy, A Concordance to the York Plays (1986), pp. xxxi–xxxii; s.d.: stage direction; Sykes: A. C. Cawley, ed., “The Sykes MS of the York Scriveners’ Play”; Towneley: Martin Stevens and A. C. Cawley, eds., The Towneley Plays.

The base text for this edition is London, British Library, MS. Add. 35290, called the “Register” in the York civic records and here identified by the abbreviation Reg. Some variations in lineation from the manuscript are not noted here; see RB and Beadle and Meredith’s The York Play: A Facsimile. In most cases the line numbering in the present text is consistent with RB. Lineation of alliterative verse throughout is based on Reg, with line numbering adjusted accordingly to account for half lines. Scribes are identified as follows: Scribe A; Scribe B: main scribe; JC: John Clerke; LH: later scribal hand (unidentified).

4 I. Interlined in Reg.

31 harte. So RB; Reg, LTS: harte and.

37 erthe. Interlined in Reg by later scribe.

87 waste. Reg has s overwritten by Scribe B.

98 us. So LTS, RB; Reg: vis.

129 Reg: at left, in different hand: Nota.

156 us. Reg: interlined by LH.

161–68 Stanza omitted here in Reg, omission marked with large maltese cross and nota at right, and text added by Scribe B at the end of the pageant, where it is also so marked with a cross.

169 Compare Towneley: I Angelus cum gladio.

170 sam. Initially written samen (delete -en) in Reg.

175 wightis. Compare Towneley: saules.

177 DEUS. Compare Towneley: JESUS.

203 Reg: at left, by LH: What thay shall have for ther folly.

205 Reg: at right, in JC’s hand: hic caret o soverand savyour de novo facto.

209 Reg: at right, JC has again written de novo facto.

216, s.d. Hic ad sedem . . . angelorum. Stage direction, by Scribe B, unseparated from Deus’ speech in Reg.

228 Reg: at right, by LH: hic caret and de novo facto.
Following four lines are missing in Reg.

229 JC has written at right in Reg: de novo facta and, presumably giving incipit of missing speech, Alas that I was borne dixit Prima Anima Mala et II Anima Mala.

230 Reg: JC has written: de novo facta.

231 wofull. Compare Towneley: wykyd.

239 bale. Compare Towneley: batell.

242 ire. Not canceled in Reg, but interlined care above (so LTS); compare Towneley: joy.

254 I. So LTS, RB (after Towneley); Reg omits.

268 liffe. Compare Towneley: luf.
to. Interlined in Reg; LTS omits, following Towneley.

289 presse. Compare Towneley: prison.

290 payns. Interlined over canceled penaunce in Reg.

309 DEUS. Speech designation repeated in Reg at lines 317, 324, 333, and 341.

363 leste or moste. Compare Towneley: the lest of myne.

372 Reg: at left, by LH: nota miseremini mei etc.

380 s.d. Et sic facit finem . . . ad locum. Reg: stage direction in red ink.


Play 47, DOOMSDAY: EXPLANATORY NOTE FOOTNOTES


Footnote 1 The Mercers’ indenture was brought to light in 1972 when the discovery was reported by Johnston and Dorrell, “York Mercers and Their Pageant of Doomsday”; for the document, see REED: York, 1:55–56.

Footnote 2 REED: Coventry, p. 237; see also Twycross, “'With what body shall they come?'”

Footnote 3 REED: York, 1:189, 205, and 241–42.

Footnote 4 See the useful collection prepared by McGinn, in Apocalyptic Christianity, trans. McGinn.

Footnote 5 Jacobus de Voragine, Golden Legend, 1:7–9; Mirk, Festial, pp. 2–3.

Footnote 6 Gee, “Painted Glass of All Saints’ Church,” pp. 158–60, pls. XXIII–XXIV.

Footnote 7 See C. Davidson, History, Religion, and Violence, pp. 267–92.
















 
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Play 47, Doomsday

Merceres
 





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DEUS INCIPIT
Firste when I this worlde hadde wroght,
Woode and wynde and wateris wan
And allkynne thyng that nowe is oght,
Fulle wele methoght that I did thanne.
Whenne thei were made, goode me thame thoght.
Sethen to my liknes made I man,
And man to greve me gaffe he noght;
Therfore me rewis that I the worlde began.

Whanne I had made man at my will,
I gaffe hym wittis hymselve to wisse,
And paradise I putte hym till
And bad hym halde it all as his.
But of the tree of goode and ill
I saide, “What tyme thou etis of this,
Manne, thou spedes thiselve to spill;
Thou arte broght oute of all blisse.”

Belyve brak manne my bidding,
He wende have bene a god therby;
He wende have wittyne of allkynne thyng,
In worlde to have bene als wise as I.
He ete the appill I badde schulde hyng;
Thus was he begilid thurgh glotony.
Sithen both hym and his ospring
To pyne I putte thame all forthy.

To lange and late methoghte it goode
To catche thois caitiffis oute of care,
I sente my Sone with full blithe moode
Till erthe, to salve thame of thare sare.
For rewthe of thame he reste on roode
And boughte thame with his body bare.
For thame he shedde his harte bloode,
What kyndinesse myght I do thame mare?

Sethen aftirwarde he heryed hell
And toke oute thois wrecchis that ware thareinne.
Ther faughte that free with feendis feele
For thame that ware sounkyn for synne.
Sethen in erthe than gonne he dwelle,
Ensaumpill he gave thame hevene to wynne,
In Tempill hymselffe to teche and tell
To by thame blisse that nevere may blynne.

Sethen have thei founde me full of mercye,
Full of grace and forgiffenesse,
And thei als wrecchis wittirly
Has ledde ther liffe in lithirnesse.
Ofte have thei greved me grevously,
Thus have thei quitte me my kyndinesse;
Therfore no lenger, sekirlye,
Thole will I thare wikkidnesse.

Men seis the worlde but vanité,
Yitt will no manne beware therby.
Ilke a day ther mirroure may thei se,
Yitt thynke thei noght that thei schall dye.
All that evere I saide schulde be
Is nowe fulfillid thurgh prophicie;
Therfore nowe is it tyme to me
To make endyng of mannes folie.

I have tholed mankynde many a yere
In luste and likyng for to lende,
And unethis fynde I ferre or nere
A man that will his misse amende.
In erthe I see butte synnes seere;
Therfore myne aungellis will I sende
To blawe ther bemys, that all may here
The tyme is comen I will make ende.

Aungellis, blawes youre bemys belyve
Ilke a creatoure for to call;
Leerid and lewde, both man and wiffe
Ressayve ther dome this day thei schall.
Ilke a leede that evere hadde liffe,
Bese none forgetyn, grete ne small.
Ther schall thei see the woundes fyve
That my Sone suffered for them all.

And sounderes thame before my sight,
All same in blisse schall thei not be.
Mi blissid childre, as I have hight,
On my right hande I schall thame see.
Sethen schall ilke a weried wight
On my lifte side for ferdnesse flee.
This day ther domys thus have I dight
To ilke a man as he hath served me.

I ANGELUS   Loved be thou, Lorde of myghtis moste,
That aungell made to messengere,
Thy will schall be fulfillid in haste
That hevene and erthe and helle schalle here.
Goode and ill, every ilke a gaste,
Rise and fecche youre flessh that was youre feere,
For all this worlde is broght to waste,
Drawes to youre dome, it neghes nere.

II ANGELUS   Ilke a creature, bothe olde and yhing,
Belyve I bidde you that ye ryse.
Body and sawle with you ye bring
And comes before the high justise,
For I am sente fro hevene kyng
To calle you to this grette assise;
Therfore rise uppe and geve rekenyng
How ye hym served uppon sere wise.

I ANIMA BONA   Loved be thou, Lorde, that is so schene
That on this manere made us to rise,
Body and sawle togedir clene
To come before the high justise.
Of oure ill dedis, Lorde, thou not mene
That we have wroght uppon sere wise,
But graunte us for thy grace bedene
That we may wonne in paradise.

II ANIMA BONA   A, loved be thou, Lorde of all,
That hevene and erthe and all has wroght,
That with thyne aungellis wolde us call
Oute of oure graves hidir to be broght.
Ofte have we greved thee, grette and small,
Theraftir, Lorde, thou deme us noght,
Ne suffir us nevere to fendis to be thrall
That ofte in erthe with synne us soght.

I ANIMA MALA   Allas, allas, that we were borne,
So may we synfull kaytiffis say.
I here wele be this hydous horne;
Itt drawes full nere to domesday.
Allas, we wrecchis that are forlorne
That never yitt served God to paye,
But ofte we have his flesshe forsworne.
Allas, allas, and welaway!

What schall we wrecchis do for drede,
Or whedir for ferdnes may we flee
When we may bringe forthe no goode dede
Before hym that oure juge schall be?
To aske mercy us is no nede,
For wele I wotte dampned be we.
Allas, that we swilke liffe schulde lede
That dighte us has this destonye.

Oure wikkid werkis thei will us wreye
That we wende never schuld have bene weten;
That we did ofte full pryvely,
Appertely may we se them wreten.
Allas, wrecchis, dere mon we by,
Full smerte with helle fyre be we smetyn.
Nowe mon nevere saule ne body dye,
But with wikkid peynes evermore be betyne.

Allas, for drede sore may we quake,
Oure dedis beis oure dampnacioune;
For oure mys menyng mon we make,
Helpe may none excusacioune.
We mon be sette for oure synnes sake
Forevere fro oure salvacioune
In helle to dwelle with feendes blake
Wher never schall be redempcioune.

II ANIMA MALA   Als carefull caitiffis may we ryse,
Sore may we wringe oure handis and wepe.
For cursidnesse and for covetise
Dampned be we to helle full depe.
Rought we nevere of Goddis servise,
His comaundementis wolde we noght kepe,
But ofte than made we sacrafise
To Satanas when othir slepe.

Allas, now wakens all oure were.
Oure wikkid werkis may we not hide,
But on oure bakkis us muste them bere;
Thei wille us wreye on ilke a side.
I see foule feendis that wille us feere,
And all for pompe of wikkid pride.
Wepe we may with many a teere.
Allas, that we this day schulde bide.

Before us playnly bese fourth brought
The dedis that us schall dame bedene,
That eres has herde or harte has thoght
Sen any tyme that we may mene
That fote has gone or hande has wroght,
That mouthe hath spoken or ey has sene,
This day full dere thanne bese it boght.
Allas, unborne and we hadde bene.

III ANGELUS   Standis noght togedir, parte you in two,
All sam schall ye noght be in blisse.
Mi Fadir of hevene woll it be soo,
For many of yowe has wroght amys.
The goode on his right hande ye goe,
The way till hevene he will you wisse.
Ye weryed wightis, ye flee hym froo,
On his lefte hande as none of his.

DEUS   This woffull worlde is brought till ende,
Mi Fadir of hevene he woll it be;
Therfore till erthe nowe will I wende,
Miselve to sitte in magesté.
To deme my domes I woll descende,
This body will I bere with me,
Howe it was dight, mannes mys to mende.
All mankynde there schall it see.

Mi postelis and my darlyngis dere,
The dredfull dome this day is dight.
Both heven and erthe and hell schall here
Howe I schall holde that I have hight:
That ye schall sitte on seetis sere
Beside myselffe to se that sight,
And for to deme folke ferre and nere
Aftir ther werkyng, wronge or right.

I saide also whan I you sente
To suffre sorowe for my sake,
All tho that wolde thame right repente
Schulde with you wende and wynly wake;
And to youre tales who toke no tente
Shulde fare to fyre with fendis blake.
Of mercy nowe may noght be mente,
Butt aftir wirkyng, welth or wrake.

My hetyng haly schall I fullfille;
Therfore comes furth and sittis me by
To here the dome of goode and ill.

I APOSTOLUS   I love thee, Lord God allmyghty.
Late and herely, lowde and still,
To do thy bidding bayne am I;
I obblissh me to do thi will
With all my myght, als is worthy.

II APOSTOLUS   A, myghtfull God, here is it sene
Thou will fulfille thi forward right,
And all thi sawes thou will maynteyne.
I love thee, Lorde, with all my myght;
Therfore us that has erthely bene,
Swilke dingnitees has dressed and dight.

DEUS   Comes fourthe, I schall sitte you betwene,
And all fullfille that I have hight.

Hic ad sedem judicii cum cantu angelorum.1

I DIABOLUS   Felas, arraye us for to fight,
And go we faste oure fee to fange.
The dredefull dome this day is dight;
I drede me that we dwelle full longe.

II DIABOLUS   We schall be sene evere in ther sight
And warly waite, ellis wirke we wrange,
For if the domisman do us right
Full grete partie with us schall gang.

III DIABOLUS   He schall do right to foo and frende,
For nowe schall all the soth be sought.
All weried wightis with us schall wende
To payne endles thei schall be broght.
. . .

DEUS   Ilke a creature, takes entent
What bodworde I to you bringe:
This wofull worlde away is wente,
And I am come as crouned kynge.
Mi Fadir of hevene, he has me sente
To deme youre dedis and make ending.
Comen is the day of jugement,
Of sorowe may ilke a synful synge.

The day is comen of kaydyfnes,
All tham to care that are unclene,
The day of bale and bittirnes.
Full longe abedyn has it bene,
The day of drede to more and lesse,
Of ire, of trymbelyng, and of tene,
That ilke a wight that weried is
May say, “Allas, this daye is sene.”

Here may ye see my woundes wide
The whilke I tholed for youre mysdede
Thurgh harte and heed, foote, hande, and hide
Nought for my gilte butt for youre nede.
Beholdis both body, bak, and side
How dere I bought youre brotherhede.
Thes bittir peynes I wolde abide
To bye you blisse thus wolde I bleede.

Mi body was scourged withouten skill,
As theffe full thraly was I thrette,
On crosse thei hanged me on a hill,
Blody and bloo, as I was bette,
With croune of thorne, throsten full ill.
This spere unto my side was sette,
Myne harte bloode spared noght thei for to spill,
Manne, for thy love wolde I not lette.

The Jewes spitte on me spitously;
Thei spared me no more than a theffe.
Whan thei me strake I stode full stilly,
Agaynste tham did I nothynge greve.
Behalde, mankynde, this ilke is I
That for thee suffered swilke mischeve;
Thus was I dight for thy folye.
Man, loke, thy liffe was to me full leffe.

Thus was I dight thi sorowe to slake,
Manne, thus behoved thee to borowed be.
In all my woo toke I no wrake,
Mi will itt was for the love of thee.
Man, sore aught thee for to quake,
This dredfull day, this sight to see.
All this I suffered for thi sake.
Say, man, what suffered thou for me?

Mi blissid childre on my right hande,
Youre dome this day ye thar not drede,
For all youre comforte is command,
Youre liffe in likyng schall ye lede.
Commes to the kyngdome aylastand
That you is dight for youre goode dede.
Full blithe may ye be where ye stande,
For mekill in hevene schall be youre mede.

Whenne I was hungery ye me fedde,
To slake my thirste youre harte was free,
Whanne I was clothles ye me cledde;
Ye wolde no sorowe uppon me see.
In harde presse whan I was stedde,
Of my payns ye hadde pitee,
Full seke whan I was brought in bedde
Kyndely ye come to coumforte me.

Whanne I was wille and werieste
Ye herbered me full hartefully,
Full gladde thanne were ye of youre geste
And pleyned my poverte piteuously.
Belyve ye brought me of the beste
And made my bedde full esyly.
Therfore in hevene schall be youre reste,
In joie and blisse to be me by.

I ANIMA BONA   Whanne hadde we, Lorde, that all has wroght,
Meete and drinke thee with to feede,
Sen we in erthe hadde nevere noght
But thurgh the grace of thy godhede?

II ANIMA BONA   Whanne waste that we thee clothes brought
Or visite thee in any nede?
Or in thi sikenes we thee sought,
Lorde, when did we thee this dede?

DEUS   Mi blissid childir, I schall you saye
What tyme this dede was to me done:
When any that nede hadde, nyght or day,
Askid you helpe and hadde it sone.
Youre fre hartis saide them nevere nay,
Erely ne late, mydday ne none,
But als ofte sithis as thei wolde praye,
Thame thurte but bide and have ther bone.

Ye cursid caytiffis of Kaymes kynne
That nevere me comforte in my care,
I and ye forever will twynne,
In dole to dwelle for evermare.
Youre bittir bales schall nevere blynne
That ye schall have whan ye come thare.
Thus have ye served for youre synne,
For derffe dedis ye have done are.

Whanne I had mister of mete and drynke,
Caytiffis, ye cacched me from youre yate;
Whanne ye were sette as sirs on benke
I stode theroute, werie and wette;
Was none of yowe wolde on me thynke,
Pyté to have of my poure state.
Therfore till hell I schall you synke,
Weele are ye worthy to go that gate.

Whanne I was seke and soriest
Ye visitte me noght, for I was poure;
In prisoune faste whan I was feste
Was none of you loked howe I fore.
Whenne I wiste nevere where for to reste,
With dyntes ye draffe me fro your dore,
Butte ever to pride thanne were ye preste;
Mi flessh, my bloode ofte ye forswore.

Clothles whanne I was ofte and colde,
At nede of you, yede I full naked,
House ne herborow, helpe ne holde
Hadde I none of you, thof I quaked.
Mi mischeffe sawe ye manyfolde,
Was none of you my sorowe slaked,
Butt evere forsoke me, yonge and alde.
Therfore schall ye nowe be forsaked.

I ANIMA MALA   Whan had thou, Lorde that all thing has,
Hungir or thirste sen thou God is?
Whan was thou in prisoune was,
Whan was thou naked or herberles?

II ANIMA MALA   Whan was it we sawe thee seke, allas;
Whan kid we thee this unkyndinesse?
Werie or wette to late thee passe,
When did we thee this wikkidnesse?

DEUS   Caistiffis, als ofte als it betidde
That nedfull aught askid in my name,
Ye herde them noght, youre eris ye hidde:
Youre helpe to thame was noght at hame.
To me was that unkyndines kyd;
Therefore ye bere this bittir blame.
To leste or moste whan ye it did,
To me ye did the selve and the same.

Mi chosen childir, comes unto me,
With me to wonne nowe schall ye wende
There joie and blisse schall ever be.
Youre liffe in lyking schall ye lende.
Ye cursed kaitiffis, fro me ye flee
In helle to dwelle withouten ende;
Ther ye schall nevere butt sorowe see
And sitte be Satanas the fende.

Nowe is fulfillid all my forthoght,
For endid is all erthely thyng;
All worldly wightis that I have wroght
Aftir ther werkis have now wonnyng.
Thei that wolde synne and sessid noght
Of sorowes sere now schall thei syng,
And thei that mendid thame whils thei moght
Shall belde and bide in my blissing.

Et sic facit finem cum melodia
angelorum transiens a loco ad locum.2
(see note)

dark
all kinds [of]; extant
(t-note)
them
Then
grieve [for] me; had no concern
am sorry


intelligence; direct

bid; (to) hold

eat
destroy


Quickly broke
thought [to]
knowledge

hang [on the tree]

Thus; descendants
suffering

Too long
rescue those; from misery

heal; sore (misery)
pity; cross
ransomed
(t-note)


harrowed
those; were; (see note)
fought; worthy one; many
were sunk in
did; (t-note)
Example

buy; end



knowingly
wickedness

repaid

Endure



Every; reflection




folly

endured
remain
scarcely; far
sin (error)
(i.e., everywhere)

trumpets; hear


suddenly; (see note)
Every creature (person)
Learned; unlettered
judgment
person




separate
All together
promised

accursed person
left; fear
sentences; ordered


Praised
to be


ghost (spirit)
fetch; companion
(t-note)
judgment; comes near [in time]

young
Quickly; (see note)
(see note)


court trial (judgment)
give accounting; (see note)
in diverse ways

bright
(t-note)
complete

speak not; (see note)

forthwith
dwell




hither
grieved

devils; enslaved
pursued


caitiffs (reprobates)
hear; hideous; (see note)


please [him]
body (in Eucharist) abjured



fright




such life
prepared for us

denounce; (see note); (t-note)
thought; revealed

Openly; written
dearly may we purchase
sharply; smitten
(see note)
beaten


are
sin moaning must
Excuses will not help
placed
[apart] from
black


As sorrowing
(see note)

deep
Took heed (Wrought)

(see note)


misery


denounce; (t-note)
terrify us




is forth; (t-note)
deeds; condemn
ears; heart
mean (speak of)

seen
dearly; is it purchased
if we had not been born

(see note); (t-note)
together; (t-note)
wills
amiss

direct
accursed; (t-note)


(see note); (t-note)
wills [that]


issue my judgments

put [to suffering]


apostles; (see note)

hear
promised
seats various

judge; far
works



those
joyfully
attention
fire (flames)

well-being (bliss); retribution

promise wholly

hear; (t-note)


early; (t-note)
willing
oblige


(t-note)
plan rightly
sayings


Such honors; prepared




(see note); (t-note)

Fellows, prepare
property (lit.: livestock); grasp




sneakily; work; wrong
judge
part (portion); go


truth
wicked
(t-note)

[four lines missing, see textual note]

Everyone, pay attention; (t-note)
message; (t-note)
(t-note)




each sinful [one] sing

wretchedness
misery
(t-note)
awaited
(see note)
trembling; grief; (t-note)
accursed


(see note)
suffered
skin
guilt



purchase

reason
violently; threatened; (t-note)

livid; beaten
thrust


prevent [this]


thief
struck; stood; silently

same
affliction
put [to pain]
dear; (t-note)

assauage
redeemed
vengeance

ought





verdict; need not dread
coming
lead
everlasting
prepared; deeds

reward

(see note)

clad

difficulties; placed; (t-note)
(t-note)
sick


perplexed; most troubled
sheltered
guest
lamented
Quickly




When was it; (see note)









(t-note)






They need but endure; request

Cain’s kin; (see note)

separate

sufferings; stop

deserved
evil deeds; previously

need
drove; gate
judges on bench
outside, weary

poor

Well; way



incarcerated
fared
knew
blows; drove
pressed (motivated)
body, my blood (of Eucharist)

Lacking clothes
went
shelter



old





homeless


showed
Weary; let


happened
anything
ears; covered
available
shown
bear
[the] least; (t-note)


(see note)
dwell

bliss; remain



beside; (t-note)




dwelling [places]
ceased
various
were able; (see note)
dwell

(see note); (t-note)



Go To Appendix: Notes on the Dialect of the York Corpus Christi Plays, by Paul A. Johnston, Jr.