Play 10, Abraham and Isaac

Play 10, ABRAHAM AND ISAAC: EXPLANATORY NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: AV: Authorized (“King James”) Version; Meditations: Meditations on the Life of Christ, trans. Ragusa and Green; MED: Middle English Dictionary; OED: Oxford English Dictionary; RB: Richard Beadle, ed., York Plays; REED: Records of Early English Drama; YA: Davidson and O’Connor, York Art; York Breviary: Breviarium ad usum insignis ecclesie Eboracensis; York Missal: Missale ad usum insignis ecclesiae Eboracensis.

References to the Ordo paginarum are to REED: York, 1:16–27.

The Parchment Makers were a specialized leather craft whose members appear in the list of freemen of the city after 1350, while the Bookbinders, who probably lived in the liberties controlled by the Minster rather than the city, seem never to have sought the freedom of the city. Their play, written in twelve-line stanzas used in nearly a quarter of the pageants in the cycle, is based on Genesis 22, which tells the story of the sacrifice of Isaac, with some details from previous chapters. However, it also is influenced by the Middle English Paraphrase of the Old Testament.1 The story was regarded as a prefiguring of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, the Lamb of God.2 In demonstrating the typological relationship, the woodcut in the Biblia Pauperum shows Abraham poised to sacrifice his son immediately to the left of a depiction of Christ on the cross. In the York pageant the point is underlined by the fact that Isaac is not a young child but of the age of Jesus at the time of his ministry and Crucifixion (line 82: “Thyrty yere and more sumdele”). In a city with a high mortality rate (church records show that over the years the pageants were played, deaths exceeded births, with a precipitous decline in population that could not be stemmed by immigration), the loss of a son would have been a potential calamity. The civic predicament was such that here especially the play would have been expected to be particularly compelling — indeed, narrating a terrifying story that, as Søren Kierkegaard would demonstrate in Fear and Trembling, pitted the ethical against the higher demands of loyalty to God. The play presents a very human and compelling story, made all the more so in this telling. But the outcome is happy, for Abraham is also the patriarch from whom, through Isaac, both Judaism and Christianity would spring, as indicated in the final speech of the angel that reinforces God’s earlier promise. In the York lectionary, the story of Abraham appears in responsories in the days leading up to Lent.

13–20 God has told the patriarch Abraham that his progeny will be like the sands of the sea, and in Genesis 17 has made a covenant with him that includes the rite of circumcision in order to satisfy “the lawe.”

14 telde under a tree. Compare Middle English Metrical Paraphrase: “Abraham was tyllyd under A tre” (ed. Kalén and Ohlander, line 554).

15–16 my seede shulde be multyplyed / Lyke to the gravell of the see. Compare Middle English Metrical Paraphrase: “Ose gravell in the se is multyplyd, / So sall I multiplye thi sede” (ed. Kalén and Ohlander, lines 476–77).

29–40 Because she was barren, Sarah gave her handmaid Agar to Abraham as a second wife, and with her he had a son Ishmael, who is only said in the pageant to be handsome. See Genesis 16.

65 ANGELUS. In the pageant God communicates with Abraham through the angel, his messenger, rather than directly, as in Genesis.

71 lande of Vyssyon. The “land of vision” will be the place chosen by God where, upon a mountain, the sacrifice, by burning, is to take place (Genesis 22:2). The three-day journey is biblical, as are the servants (line 94) who accompanied Abraham and Isaac.

151 My sone, this wode behoves thee bere. In iconography, as for example in the Biblia Pauperum, Isaac carries the bundle of wood for the sacrifice. Sometimes the wood is bundled into the shape of a cross to underline the typological connection with Christ carrying the cross to the place of his execution.

161–62 Isaac becomes increasingly concerned about the lack of a sacrificial animal, especially since clearly Abraham is becoming more and more agitated. At last, at line 188, Abraham can no longer hold back the truth that he is about to sacrifice his own son, and he will do it at God’s command.

194–96 Isaac is terrified at the thought of being dismembered and burned, but he nevertheless is willing to allow himself to be sacrificed — just as Jesus, suffering the terror of his Agony in the Garden, will give himself up to his Father’s will, even death on the cross. By line 270, Isaac will be deeply fearful and will report that his “flesshe waxis faynte.”

212 My force youre forward to withstande. As noted above in the headnote to this pageant, at line 82 Isaac is described not as a child but as “sumdele” more than thirty years of age. While differing opinions concerning his age were put forward in the Middle Ages, the reason for depicting Isaac thus is that he “was fygur of Crystys passyon long er he wer borne” (Mirk, Festial, p. 78). See Wells, “Age of Isaac”; Woolf, “Effect of Typology,” p. 811; and C. Davidson, From Creation to Doom, pp. 52–54. Isaac’s “force” or strength is thus plausibly much greater than his aged father’s.

213 beste that ye me bynde. In the pageant it is Isaac who suggests that he should be bound. Later, he will ask that a kerchief be placed over his eyes as well (line 288).

229 Nowe kysse me hartely. The son is asked to show normal reverence for a parent with a kiss, as would be expected of offspring even into adulthood. Isaac later will ask his father for forgiveness for any trespasses he may have done in speech, deeds, “or any waye” (lines 255–58).

271 take youre swerde. Abraham’s sword is a standard item in iconography, usually shown lifted by him to strike his son on the altar. Yet there is further delay, until at last it must be raised to strike at lines 301–03, when the angel calls to him and orders him to desist. In most examples in the visual arts (e.g., the Biblia Pauperum, p. 96), the angel grasps his arm to prevent the sword from striking. In glass, possibly with connections to the York school of glass painting, in the Priory Church at Great Malvern, the angel appears only to be admonishing the patriarch who holds the uplifted sword, but here Abraham has his left hand on the head of Isaac, who is blindfolded and kneeling as in prayer (Rushforth, Medieval Christian Imagery, pp. 170–71, fig. 80).

304 Take here a schepe. The substitute for the son Isaac, in Christian theology mirroring the Son of God, the Lamb of God who will be a substitute for all humankind. In the pageant, the actual sacrifice of the sheep, surely not a live animal but rather a representation that Abraham and his son could pretend to burn, must have been very perfunctory, for at lines 329–32 the father and son are already prepared to return home.

365 Rabek. For the more complex story of Isaac’s love for and courtship of Rebecca, see Genesis 25.


Play 10, ABRAHAM AND ISAAC: TEXTUAL NOTES


ABBREVIATIONS: Bevington: David Bevington, ed., Medieval Drama (1975); Köbling: E. Köbling, “Beiträge zur Erklärung und Textkritik der York Plays”; LTS: Lucy Toulmin Smith, ed., The York Plays (1885); RB: Richard Beadle, ed., The York Plays (1972) (incorporating numerous emendations from other sources); RB2: Richard Beadle, “Corrections to The York Plays,” in Gerald Byron Kinneavy, A Concordance to the York Plays (1986), pp. xxxi–xxxii; s.d.: stage direction; Sykes: A. C. Cawley, ed., “The Sykes MS of the York Scriveners’ Play”; Towneley: Martin Stevens and A. C. Cawley, eds., The Towneley Plays.

The base text for this edition is London, British Library, MS. Add. 35290, called the “Register” in the York civic records and here identified by the abbreviation Reg. Some variations in lineation from the manuscript are not noted here; see RB and Beadle and Meredith’s The York Play: A Facsimile. In most cases the line numbering in the present text is consistent with RB. Lineation of alliterative verse throughout is based on Reg, with line numbering adjusted accordingly to account for half lines. Scribes are identified as follows: Scribe A; Scribe B: main scribe; JC: John Clerke; LH: later scribal hand (unidentified).

15 schulde be. RB: shulde be; Reg, LTS: schulde.
multyplyed. Reg: Final letter added by LH.

25 Abram. So LTS, RB; Reg: Abraham.

70 over. So LTS; RB: our.

90 Reg: following that, I interlined by LH.

95 asse. So RB; Reg, LTS: Assee.

108 send. Reg: emended by LH, originally sand.
agayne. Reg: added by Scribe B.

145 Reg: added in right margin by LH: Abram.

165 Reg: in right margin, probably by JC, apparently in error: father wold God / I shuld be slayne (deleted).

235–38 Reg: at right, by LH: hic; also illegible text, erased.

268 Reg: in right margin, JC has added: Nowe have I chose / whether I had lever etc. Also: My nowne swete son / to slo or greve my / God for ever.

271 Reg: to right, hic caret added by LH.

272 Methynke. So RB; LTS: Me thynke; Reg: Ye thynke.

281–82 Reg: by LH at right: Hic caret.

297 Reg: added by LH in right margin: hic.

327 he. Reg: interlined, by LH, in red.

362 lawez. Reg: corrected by LH.

369 ISAAC. Reg: repeated in right margin, by LH.


Play 10, ABRAHAM AND ISAAC: EXPLANATORY NOTE FOOTNOTES


Footnote 1 See Middle-English Metrical Paraphrase of the Old Testament, ed. Kalén and Ohlander, and Beadle, “Origins of Abraham’s Preamble.”

Footnote 2 See Daniélou, From Shadows to Reality, pp. 115–30; Mirk, Festial, pp. 76–78; and the surveys in Woolf, “Effect of Typology,” and C. Davidson, History, Religion, and Violence, pp. 124–48, esp. 126–31.















 
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Play 10, Abraham and Isaac

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380   
ABRAHAM   Grett God, that alle this world has wrought
And wisely wote both gud and ille,
I thanke hym thraly in my thoght
Of alle his lave he lens me tille.
That thus fro barenhede has me broghte,
A hundereth wynter to fulfille,
Thou graunte me myght so that I mowght
Ordan my werkis aftir thi wille,
For in this erthely lyffe
Ar non to God more boune
Then is I and my wyffe,
For frenshippe we have foune.

Unto me tolde God on a tyde
Wher I was telde under a tree,
He saide my seede shulde be multyplyed
Lyke to the gravell of the see,
And als the sternes wer strewed wyde,
So saide he that my seede schuld be;
And bad I shulde be circumcicyd
To fulfille the lawe: thus lernynde he me.
In worlde wherso we wonne
He sendes us richeys ryve.
Als ferre as schynes the sonne,
He is stynter of stryve.

Abram first named was I,
And sythen he sette a sylypp ma,
And my wiffe hyght Sarae
And sythen was scho named Sara.

But Sara was uncertan thanne
That evere oure seede shulde sagates yelde
Because hirselfe sho was barrane,
And we wer bothe gone in grete eelde.
But scho wroght as a wyse woman.
To have a barne us for to beelde,
Hir servand prevely sho wan
Unto my bede my wille to welde.
Sone aftir than befelle
When God oure dede wolde dight,
Sho broght forthe Esmaell,
A sone semely to sight.

Than aftirward when we waxed alde,
My wyffe scho felle in feere for same,
Oure God nedes tythynges tyll us talde
Wher we wer in oure house at hame,
Tille have a sone we shulde be balde,
And Isaak shulde be his name,
And his seede shulde springe manyfalde.
Gyff I were blythe, who wolde me blame,
And for I trowed this tythynge
That God talde to me thanne,
The grounde and the begynnyng
Of trowthe that tyme beganne.

Nowe awe I gretely God to yeelde
That so walde telle me his entente,
And noght gaynestandyng oure grete eelde,
A semely sone he has us sente.
Now is he wight hymselfe to welde
And fra me is all wightnes wente;
Therfore sall he be my beelde.
I lowe hym that this lane has lente,
For he may stynte oure stryve
And fende us fro alle ill.
I love hym as my liff
With all myn herte and will.

ANGELUS   Abraham, Abraham!

ABRAHAM                                   Loo, I am here.

ANGELUS   Nowe bodeword unto thee I brynge:
God wille assaye thi wille and cheere,
Giffe thou wille bowe tylle his byddyng.
Isaak, thi sone, that is thee dere,
Whom thou loves over alle thyng,
To the lande of Vyssyon wende in feere,
And there of hym thou make offering.
I sall thee shewe fulle sone
The stede of sacrifice.
God wille this dede be done,
And therfore thee avise.

ABRAHAM   Lord God, that lens aylastand light,
This is a ferly fare to feele;
Tille have a sone semely to sight,
Isaak, that I love full wele.
He is of eelde, to reken right,
Thyrty yere and more sumdele,
And unto dede hym buse be dight:
God has saide me so for my seele,
And biddis me wende on all wise
To the lande of Vysioune
Ther to make sacryfice
Of Isaak that is my sone.

And that is hythyn thre daies jornay,
The ganeste gate that I gane goo,
And sertis, I sall noght say hym nay
If God commaunde myself to sloo.
Bot to my sone I will noght saye
Bot take hym and my servantis twoo,
And with our asse wende forthe our waye.
As God has said, it sall be soo.
Isaak, sone, I undirstande
To wildirnesse now wende will we
Tharefore to make oure offerand,
For so has God comaunded me.

ISAAC   Fadir, I am evere at youre wille,
As worthy is withowten trayne,
Goddis comaundement to fulfille
Awe all folke forto be fayne.

ABRAHAM   Sone, thou sais me full gode skille,
Bott alle the soth is noght to sayne.
Go we sen we sall thertille,
I praye God send us wele agayne.

ISAAC   Childir, lede forthe oure asse
With wode that we sall bryne;
Even as God ordand has
To wyrke we will begynne.

I FAMULUS   Att youre biddyng we wille be bowne
What way in worlde that ye wille wende.

II FAMULUS   Why, sall we trusse ought forthe a towne
In any uncouthe lande to lende?

I FAMULUS   I hope tha have in this sessoune
Fro God of hevyn sum solayce sende.

II FAMULUS   To fulfille yt is goode reasoune,
And kyndely kepe that he has kende.

I FAMULUS   Bott what thei mene certayne
Have I na knowlage clere.

II FAMULUS   It may noght gretely gayne
To move of swilke matere.

ABRAHAM   No, noye you noght in no degré
So for to deme here of oure dede,
For als God comaunded so wirke wille we
Untill his tales us bus take hede.

I FAMILIUS   All thos that wille his servandis be,
Ful specially he wille thaym spede.

ISAAC   Childir, with all the myght in me
I lowe that Lorde of ilke a lede
And wirshippe hym certayne;
My will is evere unto.

II FAMILIUS   God giffe you myght and mayne
Right here so for to doo.

ABRAHAM   Sone, yf oure Lord God Almyghty
Of myselfe walde have his offerande,
I wolde be glade for hym to dye,
For all oure heele hyngis in his hande.

ISAAC   Fadir, forsuth, ryght so walde I,
Lever than lange to leve in lande.

ABRAHAM   A, sone, thu sais full wele, forthy
God geve thee grace gratthely to stande.
Childir, bide ye here still.
No ferther sall ye goo,
For yondir I se the hill
That we sall wende untoo.

ISAAC   Kepe wele oure asse and all oure gere
To tyme we come agayne you till.

ABRAHAM   My sone, this wode behoves thee bere
Till thou come high uppon yone hill.

ISAAC   Fadir, that may do no dere
Goddis comaundement to fullfyll,
For fra all wathes he will us were
Wharso we wende to wirke his wille.

ABRAHAM   A, sone, that was wele saide.
Lay doune that woode even here
Tille oure auter be grathide.
And, my sone, make goode cheere.

ISAAC   Fadir, I see here woode and fyre,
Bot wherof sall oure offerand be?

ABRAHAM   Sertis, son, gude God oure suffraynd syre
Sall ordayne it in goode degré,
For sone, and we do his dessyre,
Full gud rewarde tharfore gette wee.
In hevyn ther mon we have oure hyre,
For unto us so hight has hee.
Therfore, sone, lete us praye
To God, bothe thou and I,
That we may make this daye
Oure offerand here dewly.

Grete God that all this worlde has wrought
And grathely governes goode and ill,
Thu graunte me myght so that I mowght
Thy comaundementis to fullfill.
And gyffe my flessche groche or greve oght
Or sertis my saule assentte thertill,
To byrne all that I hydir broght
I sall noght spare yf I shulde spille.

ISAAC   Lorde God, of grete pousté,
To wham all pepull prayes,
Graunte bothe my fadir and me
To wirke thi wille allweyes.

But, fadir, nowe wolde I frayne full fayne
Wharof oure offerand shulde be grathid?

ABRAHAM   Sertis, sone, I may no lengar layne,
Thyselfe shulde bide that bittir brayde.

ISAAC   Why, fadir, will God that I be slayne?

ABRAHAM   Ya suthly, sone, so has he saide.

ISAAC   And I sall noght grouche ther agayne;
To wirke his wille I am wele payed.
Sen it is his desire
I sall be bayne to be
Brittynd and brent in fyre,
And therfore morne noght for me.

ABRAHAM   Nay, sone, this gatis most nedis be gone,
My Lord God will I noght gaynesaye,
Nor never make mornys nor mone
To make offerand of thee this day.

ISAAC   Fadir, sen God oure Lorde allane
Vowchesaffe to sende when ye gon praye
A sone to you whan ye had nane,
And nowe will that he wende his waye,
Therfore faynde me to fell
Tille offerand in this place,
But firste I sall you telle
My counsaille in this case.

I knaw myselfe be cours of kynde,
My flessche for dede will be dredande;
I am ferde that ye sall fynde
My force youre forward to withstande.
Therfore is beste that ye me bynde
In bandis faste, boothe fute and hande.
Nowe whillis I am in myght and mynde,
So sall ye saffely make offerrande,
For fadir, when I am boune
My myght may noght avayle.
Here sall no fawte be foune
To make youre forward faylle.

For ye ar alde and alle unwelde,
And I am wighte and wilde of thoght.

ABRAHAM   To bynde hym that shuld be my beelde,
Outtane Goddis will, that wolde I noght.
But loo, her sall no force be felde,
So sall God have that he has soght.
Farewele, my sone, I sall thee yelde
Tylle hym that all this world has wroght.

Nowe kysse me hartely, I thee pray,
Isaak, I take my leve for ay,
Me bus thee mys.
My blissyng have thou enterly,
And I beseke God Allmyghty
He giffe thee his.

Thus aren we samyn assent
Eftir thy wordis wise.
Lorde God, to this take tente:
Ressayve thy sacrifice.

This is to me a perles pyne
To se myn nawe dere childe thus boune.
Me had wele lever my lyf to tyne
Than see this sight, thus of my sone.
It is Goddis will, it sall be myne,
Agaynste his saande sall I never schone;
To Goddis cummaundement I sall enclyne
That in me fawte non be foune.

Therfore my sone so dere,
If thou will anythyng saye,
Thy dede it drawes nere.
Farewele, for anes and ay.

ISAAC   Now, my dere fadir, I wolde you praye,
Here me thre wordes, graunte me my bone
Sen I fro this sall passe for ay.
I see myn houre is comen full sone.
In worde, in werke, or any waye
That I have trespassed or oght mysdone,
Forgiffe me, fadir, or I dye this daye,
For his luffe that made bothe sonne and mone.
Here sen we two sall twynne,
Firste God I aske mercy
And you in more and myne
This day or evere I dy.

ABRAHAM   Now my grete God Adonay,
That all this worlde has worthely wroght,
Forgyffe the sone, for his mercye,
In worde, in worke, in dede, and thoght.
Nowe, sone, as we ar leryd
Our tyme may noght myscarie.

ISAAC   Nowe farewele, all medilerth,
My flesshe waxis faynte for ferde.
Nowe, fadir, take youre swerde,
Methynke full lange ye tarie.

ABRAHAM   Nay, nay, sone, nay, I thee behete
That do I noght, withouten were.
Thy wordis makis me my wangges to wete
And chaunges, childe, ful often my cheere.
Therfore lye downe, hande and feete;
Nowe may thou witte thyn oure is nere.

ISAAC   A, dere fadir, lyff is full swete,
The drede of dede dose all my dere.
As I am here youre sone,
To God I take me till.
Nowe am I laide here bone,
Do with me what ye will.

For fadir, I aske no more respete
Bot here a worde what I wolde mene:
I beseke you or that ye smyte
Lay doune this kyrcheffe on myn eghne.
Than may youre offerand be parfite
If ye wille wirke thus as I wene.
And here to God my saule I wite,
And all my body to brenne bydene.
Now, fadir, be noght myssyng
But smyte fast as ye may.

ABRAHAM   Farewele, in Goddis dere blissyng
And myn for ever and ay.

That pereles prince I praye
Myn offerand heretill have it,
My sacryfice this day:
I praye the Lorde ressayve it.

ANGELUS   Abraham, Abraham!

ABRAHAM                                Loo, here iwys.

ANGELUS   Abraham, abide, and halde thee stille.
Sla noght thy sone, do hym no mysse.
Take here a schepe thy offerand tyll,
Is sente thee fro the kyng of blisse
That faythfull ay to thee is fone.
He biddis thee make offerrand of this
Here at this tyme, and saffe thy sone.

ABRAHAM   I lowe that Lord with herte entier
That of his luffe this lane me lente,
To saffe my sone, my darlyng dere,
And sente this schepe to this entente
That we sall offir it to thee here;
So sall it be as thou has mente.
My sone, be gladde and make goode cheere,
God has till us goode comforte sente.
He will noght thou be dede,
But tille his lawes take kepe.
And se, son, in thy stede
God has sente us a schepe.

ISAAC   To make oure offerand at his wille
All for oure sake he has it sente.
To lowe that Lorde I halde grete skyll
That tylle his menye thus has mente.
This dede I wolde have tane me till
Full gladly, Lorde, to thyn entent.

ABRAHAM   A, sone, thy bloode wolde he noght spill,
Forthy this shepe thus has he sente,
And, sone, I am full fayne
Of our spede in this place,
Bot go we home agayne
And lowe God of his grace.

ANGELUS   Abraham, Abraham!

ABRAHAM                                Loo, here indede.
Harke, sone, sum salvyng of our sare.

ANGELUS   God sais thou sall have mekill mede
For thys goode will that thou in ware;
Sen thou for hym wolde do this dede
To spille thy sone and noght to spare
He menes to multiplie youre seede
On sides seere, as he saide are.
And yit he hight you this
That of youre seede sall ryse
Thurgh helpe of hym and his
Overehand of all enmys.

Luk ye hym love, this is his liste,
And lelly lyff eftir his laye,
For in youre seede all mon be bliste
That ther bese borne be nyght or day.
If ye will in hym trowe or triste,
He will be with you evere and aye.

ABRAHAM   Full wele wer us and we it wiste
Howe we shulde wirke his will alwaye.

ISAAC   Fadir, that sall we frayne
At wyser men than wee,
And fulfille it ful fayne
Indede eftir oure degree.

ABRAHAM   Nowe, sone, sen we thus wele hase spede,
That God has graunted me thy liffe,
It is my wille that thou be wedde
And welde a woman to thy wyffe;
So sall thy sede springe and be spredde
In the lawez of God be reasoune ryffe.
I wate in what steede sho is stede
That thou sall wedde, withowten stryffe.
Rabek, that damysell,
Hir fayrer is none fone,
The doughter of Batwell
That was my brothir sone.

ISAAC   Fadir, as thou likes my lyffe to spende,
I sall assente unto the same.

ABRAHAM   One of my servandis sone sall I sende
Unto that birde to brynge hir hame.
The gaynest gates now will we wende.
My barnes, yee ar noght to blame
Yeff ye thynke lang that we her lende.
Gadir same oure gere, in Goddis name,
And go we hame agayne
Evyn unto Barsabé.
God that is most of mayne
Us wisse and with you be.

distinguishes
fully (without reservation)
love; bestows on me
barrenness

strength
Order

committed

found

God told me once; (see note)
lodged [in my tent]; (see note)
(see note); (t-note)
sands
stars

ordered
taught
live
abundant
As far as shines
healer; troubles

(t-note)
Then; a syllable more
was named Sarai
thereafter

(see note)
in this manner

age

protect (raise)
secretly she won
bed

determine
Ishmael
handsome



necessarily; tidings; told
home
To; bold

manyfold
If; happy
trusted
told

truth at that time

ought; yield up (sacrifice)
would


strong (man)
strength
support
love; gift
end our trouble
defend
life


(see note)



message
test
If
dear
(t-note)
together; (see note)


place
wills that
directs you

bestows everlasting
wondrous matter to discover
To


somewhat
death he must be put
well-being
go




hither
fastest way; may go; (t-note)

slay [him]
say [anything]

(t-note)







deception

Ought; glad

good reason


[home] well again; (t-note)


wood; burn
ordained


bound (compelled)


go out of
strange; remain

they; season
From; some


naturally; revealed

mean





(i.e., don’t fuss about this)
judge
as God commands so we will do
words we must take heed


them prosper


praise; every man

thereto

strength



would; offering
glad in his place
well-being hangs

would
Rather; long


plainly
remain; (t-note)





Until; to you

wood; carry; (see note)


harm

dangers; defend
work



altar; set up


(see note)


good; sovereign
(i.e., in good time)
(t-note)

may; reward
promised



as is due


surely
strength; might

if; rebel or grieve
Even though my soul
burn; hither
refrain; come to grief

power




ask; eagerly
made

longer conceal
endure; affliction





complain
pleased

willing; (see note)
Dismembered; burned
mourn

way must be taken

mourning (weeping); moan


alone

none
go [on]
endeavor; kill
For an offering



by course of nature
death; dreading
afraid
strength your promise; (see note)
(see note)



bound

fault be found
covenant


strong (manly); impetuous

defense
Except for
coercion; felt




(see note)

must; miss


give

together in agreement; (t-note)

pay attention


unequaled pain
own; bound
rather; lose


message (command); hesitate

fault; found



death
once


Hear; request




before I die
love
separate

less
ere

Adonai (Jewish name for God)



told
(t-note)


fear
(see note); (t-note)
(t-note)

promise
perplexity
cheeks [become] wet


know; hour is near


(i.e., frightens me)
(t-note)
(i.e., entrust myself)
bound


delay
hear; advise
before
eyes
perfect
advise
my soul I commend
burn now
don’t fail





(i.e., God); (t-note)








hold
harm
sheep for your offering; (see note)

found

save

praise; full heart
love; gift

intent



to

care
place




praise
company [of heaven]; intended
taken


(t-note)


benefit

praise




some remedy for; sore

reward




many; before
promises


Above

desire
loyally live; law
may be blessed

believe; trust


if we it learn


ask







wield (have)

abundantly; (t-note)
know in what place she lives

Rebecca; (see note)
found
Bethuel


(t-note)



lady; home
quickest ways
children (young men)
linger
Gather together

Beer-sheba

direct

Go To Play 11, Pharaoh and Moses