The Historical Arthur: A Bibliography


The Historical Arthur: A Bibliography

from: The Camelot Project  2010

NOTE: This bibliography will be updated periodically by K. S. Whetter (whose additions will be indicated by the addition of "[KSW]" after the entry).

N.B. * = unconfirmed

Texts: Collections
Texts: Single Items
Reference Works
General Histories
Other Scholarly Writing
Electronic Sources

Texts: Collections

The Four Ancient Books of Wales: Containing the Cymric Poems attributed to the Bards of the Sixth Century. Ed. William F. Skene. 2 vols. Edinburgh: Edmonston, 1868. Esp. I, 49-60, which places all twelve battles, including Badon and Camlan, near Hadrian's Wall.

Chambers, E. K. Arthur of Britain. London: Sidgwick, 1927. Cambridge: Speculum Historiale; New York: Barnes, 1964. 233-82. The 1964 reprint includes a supplementary bibliography by Brynley F. Roberts; the pages given print Latin records but no Welsh ones. Also appears in Other Scholarly Writing, infra.

English Historical Documents c. 500-1042. Ed. [and Trans.] Dorothy Whitelock. Vol. 1. 1955. London: Eyre, 1968.

Trioedd Ynys Prydein: The Welsh Triads. Ed. Rachel Bromwich. 2nd ed. Cardiff: U of Wales P, 1978. Has an enormous amount of historical material in the notes.

John Morris. Arthurian Sources. 6 vols. Arthurian Period Sources. Chichester: Phillimore, 1995. Note esp. "Dark Age Dates," 6: 53-94. Also appears in Other Scholarly Writing, infra.

The Celtic Heroic Age: Literary Sources for Ancient Celtic Europe and Early Ireland and Wales. Ed. John T. Koch, in collaboration with John Carey. 2nd ed. Celtic Studies Publications 1. Malden, Massachusetts: Celtic Studies Publications, 1995. A collection of primary materials about or by Celtic peoples, all in English translation, including translations of Welsh material on Arthur.

The Celtic Sources for the Arthurian Legend. Ed. and Trans. Jon B. Coe and Simon Young. Felinfach: Llanerch, 1995. Popular anthology; includes some Latin items as well as Celtic-language ones, all with translations.

Texts: Single Items

Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum: Inscriptiones Asiae, Provinciarum Europae Graecarum, Illyrici Latinae. Ed. Theodor Mommsen. Vol. 3.1. Berlin: Reimer, 1873. This is said to contain the principal inscription referring to Lucius Artorius Castus, but I have been unable to locate it.

"Chronica Gallica a. CCCCLII et DXI." [The Gallic Chronicles, alias "The Chronicle of 452" and "The Chronicle of 511"]. Chronica minora. Ed. Theodor Mommsen. Vol. 1. Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Berlin: Weidmannos, 1892. 615-66.

---. Burgess (Other Scholarly Writing 1990 ) infra, includes years 379-456 as an appendix, and promises a forthcoming edition.

---. Extracts from Chronica Gallica appear in Arthur of Britain (Texts: Collections 1927; 1964) supra.

Gildas. "De excidio et conquestu Britanniae." Chronica Minora. Ed. Theodor Mommsen. Vol. 3. Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Berlin: Weidmannos, 1898. 1-85.

---. De excidio Britanniae, fragmenta, liber de Paenitentia, accedit et lorica Gildae. Ed. Hugh Williams. 2 vols. London: Nutt for the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, 1899-1901. Vol. 2 includes the Vita I and Vita II of Gildas: respectively that written in the monastery of Ruys, and that by Caradoc. The primary texts are in Latin with facing page translation.

---. The Ruin of Britain and Other Works. Ed. and Trans. Michael Winterbottom. Arthurian Period Sources 7. Chichester: Phillimore, 1978.

Aneirin. Y Gododdin: Britain's Oldest Heroic Poem. Ed. and Trans. A. O. H. Jarman. Llandysul: Gomer, 1988. See stanza 99, l. 972 and n. to 972, and lxxiii.

The Gododdin: The Oldest Scottish Poem. Ed. and Trans. Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson. 1969. Edinburgh, Edinburgh UP, 1978. See item B.38, p. 112, and 85-6.

Aldhelm. Opera. Ed. Rudolf Ehwald. Monumenta Germania Historica: Auctorum Antiquissimorum XV. Berlin: Weidmannos, 1919. Berlin: Hildebrand, 1961. Aldhelm's De Arturo reference is said to be here, but I have been unable to locate it.

Bede. "Historia Ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum." Opera Historica. Ed. Charles Plummer. Vol. 1. 1896. Oxford: Clarendon, 1975. Bede records a British victory at the siege of Mt Badon: I, xvi, p. 33. In his note to this passage Plummer places the battle circa 493.

---. Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Ed. Bertram Colgrave and R. A. B. Mynors. 1969. Oxford: Clarendon, 1992. I, xvi, pp. 52-4 and note. Colgrave and Mynors date Badon circa 500.

"Marwnad Cynddylan." [The Lament for Cynddylan]. Canu Llywarch Hen. Ed. Ifor Williams. Cardiff: U of Wales P, 1935. 50-2.

A text of Marwnad Cune_a [sic] appears in Celtic Heroic Age (Texts: Collections 1995) supra.

Nennius. "L'Historia Britonum." La Légende Arthurienne: Études et Documents. Première Partie: Les Plus Anciens Textes. Ed. Edmond Faral. 3 vols. Paris: Champion, 1929. Esp. 3: 1-62.

---. British History and The Welsh Annals. Ed. and Trans. John Morris. Arthurian Period Sources 8. Chichester: Phillimore, 1980.

---. The Historia Brittonum, Vol. 3: The 'Vatican' Recension. Ed. David N. Dumville. Cambridge: Brewer, 1985. First vol. of a projected edition of all versions of HB.

Annales Cambriæ. Ed. Rev. John Williams ab Ithel. Rerum Britannicarum medii aevi scriptores. Rolls Series 20. London: Longman, 1860.

---. [Ed.] Egerton Phillimore. "The Annales Cambriae and Old-Welsh Genealogies from Harleian MS. 3859." Y Cymmrodor 9 (1888): 141-83. Reprinted in Arthurian Sources 5 (Texts: Collections 1995) supra.

---. There is an abbreviated text of Annales Cambriae in Arthur of Britain (Texts: Collections 1927; 1964) supra.

---. There is also a complete Latin text, as well as an English translation, in British History and The Welsh Annals (1980) supra.

Culhwch and Olwen: An Edition and Study of the Oldest Arthurian Tale. Ed. Rachel Bromwich and D. Simon Evans. Cardiff: U of Wales P, 1992. This edition is based on the editors' 1988 Welsh ed. for the same press, but includes a more detailed critical apparatus and a new intro.

Geoffrey of Monmouth. The Historia regum Britanniae of Geoffrey of Monmouth: With Contributions to the Study of Its place in Early British History, together with a Literal Translation of the Welsh Manuscript no. LXI of Jesus College, Oxford; with 16 Photographs of Manuscripts. Ed. Acton Griscom. Trans. Robert Ellis Jones. New York: Longmans, 1929.

---. The Historia regum Britannie of Geoffrey of Monmouth. Ed. Neil Wright. 5 vols. to date. Vols. 3-4 by Julia C. Crick. Cambridge: Brewer, 1985- . [In progress.]

William of Malmesbury. The Historia novella. Ed. and Trans. K. R. Potter. London: Nelson, 1955.

Morte Arthure. ed. John Finlayson. London: Arnold, 1967. 1-2 summarises the historical material.

Le Morte Darthur: Sir Thomas Malory's Book of King Arthur and of His Noble Knights of the Round Table. The Text of Caxton. Ed. Sir Edward Strachey. London: Macmillan, 1897. Interesting as an early identifiaction of Camelot with Cadbury (xvi-xviii). (KSW)

Reference Works

Eilert Ekwall. English River-Names. Oxford: Clarendon, 1928.

A. H. Smith. The Place-Names of the East Riding of Yorkshire and York. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1937.

Map of Roman Britain. Chessington: Ordnance Survey, 1956.

A. H. Smith. English Place-Name Elements Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1956.

Map of Britain in the Dark Ages. 2 sheets. Chessington: Ordnance Survey, 1966.

A. L. F. Rivet and Colin Smith. The Place-Names of Roman Britain. 1979. London: Batsford; Book Club Associates, 1981.

A Companion to Roman Britain. Ed. Peter A. Clayton. Oxford: Phaidon, 1980. The bibliography lists about a hundred books on Roman Britain.

"Arthur." The Middle Ages: A Concise Encyclopaedia. Ed. H. R. Loyn. London: Thames, 1989.

The New Arthurian Encyclopedia. Ed. Norris J. Lacy et al. London: St James P, 1991. Esp. Geoffrey Ashe: "Arthur, Origins of Legend," "Camlann (Camlan)" and "Badon."

Peter C. Bartrum. A Welsh Classical Dictionary: People in History and Legend up to about A.D. 1000. Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales, 1993. Esp. "Arthur ab Uther," "Camlan" and "Caer Faddon."

Chronicles of King Arthur. Andrea Hopkins. London: Collins, 1993. Esp. "Camlann" and "Badon."

Alan Lupack. The Oxford Guide to Arthurian Literature and Legend. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005 [paperback edn 2007]. (See especially pp. 4-5 and the list of "Arthurian People, Places, and Things," s.v. "Arthur," "Camlann," and "Twelve Battles of Arthur.") [KSW]

Ronald Hutton. "The Early Arthur: History and Myth." The Cambridge Companion to the Arthurian Legend. Ed. Elizabeth Archibald and Ad Putter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 21-35. [KSW]

Robert Allen Rouse and Cory James Rushton. "Arthurian Geography." The Cambridge Companion to the Arthurian Legend. Ed. Elizabeth Archibald and Ad Putter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 218-34. [Includes brief accounts of Badon and Camlann (223).] [KSW]

Nick Higham. “The Chroniclers of Early Britain.” The Arthur of Medieval Latin Literature: The Development and Dissemination of the Arthurian Legend in Medieval Latin. Ed. Siân Echard. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2011. 9-25. [A thorough but sceptical overview of the Latin chronicles, including HB and AC, reiterating Higham’s belief in the spurious nature of the sources as historical documents.] [KSW]

General Histories

Charles Oman. England before the Norman Conquest: Being a History of the Celtic, Roman and Anglo-Saxon Periods down to the year A.D. 1066. London: Methuen, 1910.

Gilbert Sheldon. The Transition from Roman Britain to Christian England: A.D. 368-664. London: Macmillan, 1932.

R. G. Collingwood and J. N. L. Myres. Roman Britain and the English Settlements. 2nd ed. Oxford History of England 1. 1937. Oxford: Clarendon, 1956.

M. P. Charlesworth et al. The Heritage of Early Britain. London: Bell, 1952.

R. H. Hodgkin. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. 3rd ed. 2 vols. London: Oxford UP, 1952. Contains an appendix on the Sutton Hoo Ship Burial by R. L. S. Bruce-Mitford.

Peter Hunter Blair. An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1956.

J. M. Wallace-Hadrill. The Barbarian West 400-1000. London: Hutchinson's, 1952.

Arthur W. Wade-Evans. The Emergence of England and Wales. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Heffer, 1959.

Peter Hunter Blair. Roman Britain and Early England, 55 B.C.-A.D. 871. Edinburgh: Nelson, 1963.

Nora K. Chadwick. Celtic Britain. Ancient People and Places 34. London: Thames, 1963. Esp. 44-8.

A. H. M. Jones. The Later Roman Empire 284-602: A Social Economic and Administrative Survey. 3 vols. Oxford: Blackwell, 1964.

F. M. Stenton. Anglo-Saxon England. 3rd ed. Oxford History of England 2. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1971.

Michael Grant. Dawn of the Middle Ages. London: Weidenfeld, 1981. Esp. 153.

Peter Salway. Roman Britain. Oxford History of England 1A. 1981. Oxford: Clarendon, 1984.

C. J. Arnold. Roman Britain to Saxon England: An Archaeological Study. London: Croom Helm, 1984.

Gwyn A. Williams. When Was Wales? A History of the Welsh. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1985.

J. N. L. Myres. The English Settlements. Oxford History of England 1B. Oxford: Clarendon, 1986.

Sheppard Frere. Britannia: A History of Roman Britain. 3rd ed. London: Routledge, 1987.

A. S. Esmonde Cleary. The Ending of Roman Britain. London: Batsford, 1989.

John Edward Lloyd. A History of Wales: From the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest. 3rd ed. 2 vols. London: Longmans, 1939. Carmarthen: Golden Grove, 1989.

Michael Grant. The Fall of the Roman Empire. Rev. London: Weidenfeld, 1990.

N. J. Higham. Rome, Britain, and the Anglo-Saxons. London: Seaby, 1992.

Peter Berresford Ellis. Celt and Saxon: The Struggle for Britain AD 410-937. London: Constable, 1993. Esp. "Arthur: Fact or Fiction?" 59-68.

K. R. Dark. Civitas to Kingdom: British Political Continuity, 300-800. Leicester: Leicester UP, 1994.

N. J. Higham. The English Conquest: Gildas and Britain in the Fifth Century. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1994.

John Morris. The Age of Arthur: A History of the British Isles from 350-650. London: Weidenfeld, 1974. London: Phoenix, 1995.

Michael E. Jones. The End of Roman Britain. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1996.

Christopher A. Snyder. An Age of Tyrants: Britain and the Britons, A.D. 400-600. University Park: Pennsylvania State UP, 1998.

Edward James, Britain in the First Millennium. London: Arnold, 2001. (For Badon see pp. 95, 97, 100; for Camlann see p. 100; for a concise overview of the question of Arthur’s historicity see pp. 99-101.) [KSW]

Nicholas J. Higham and Martin J. Ryan. The Anglo-Saxon World. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2013. [See Higham’s “Sources and Issues 1B: King Arthur,” pp. 63-69, which offers a succinct overview of the battles and historical question, and reiterates Higham’s claim (infra) that Arthur is a fictional hero.]  [KSW]

Other Scholarly Writing

Joseph Ritson. The Life of King Arthur: From Ancient Historians and Authentic Documents. London: Payne, 1825.

Thomas Price ("Carnhuanawc"). Hanes Cymru: a chenedl y Cymru, o'r cynoesoedd hyd at farwolaeth Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, ynghyd a Rhai cofiaint Perthynol i'r Amseroedd o'r Pryd Hynny i Waeredd. (Crughywell: Thomas Williams, 1842). A History of Wales in Welsh, including the Arthurian Period. See esp. the section on Arthur the King: 258-75.

Thomas Stephens. The Literature of the Kymry: Being a Critical Essay on the History of the Language and Literature of Wales during the Twelfth and Two Succeeding Centuries, containing Numerous Specimens of Ancient Welsh Poetry in the Original and accompanied with English Translations. 2nd ed. Ed. D. Silvan Evans. London: Longmans, 1876.

de la Borderie, Arthur. "La date de la Naissance de Gildas." Revue Celtique 6 (1883-85): 1-13. Favours Bede's 493 date for Badon over the 516 date of the Annales Cambriae.

Edwin Guest. Origines Celticae (A Fragment): And Other Contributions to the History of Britain. 2 vols. London: Macmillan, 1883. Esp. "The Early English Settlements in South Britain" II, 147-99, and "The Welsh and English Boundaries after the Capture of Bath, A.D. 577" II, 242-72. Places Badon in A.D. 520 at Badbury Rings in Dorsetshire.

A. Anscombe. "Local Names in the 'Arthuriana' in the 'Historia Brittonum'." Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie 5 (1905): 103-23. Places the early battles in or near Lancaster, Lincoln, Leeds and the Pict's Wall, moving thence to the Welsh Marches for the later battles.

A. W. Wade-Evans. "Notes on the Excidium Britanniae: A Contribution towards a Re-Statement of Early Saxo-Welsh History." Celtic Review 1 (April 1905): 289-95.

A. W. Wade-Evans. "'The Ruin of Britannia': A Contribution towards a Restatement [sic] of Early Saxo-Welsh History." Celtic Review 2 (July 1905-April 1906): 46-58 and 126-35.

Rev. A. W. Wade-Evans. "The Chronology of Arthur." Y Cymmrodor 22 (1910): 125-49.

Kemp Malone. "The Historicity of Arthur." Journal of English and Germanic Philology 23 (1924): 463-91.

Kemp Malone. "Artorius." Modern Philology 22 (1924-5): 367-74.

J. Loth. "L'historicité d'Arthur d'après un travail récent." Revue Celtique 42 (1925): 306-19. A review of Malone's (1924) article supra.

W. G. Collingwood. "Arthur's Battles." Antiquity 3 (1929): 292-8. Badon's site is unknown but the battle occurred prior to A.D. 520. Argues that the rest of the battles were fought against the Jutes of Kent in southern England.

James F. Kenney. The Sources for the Early History of Ireland: An Introduction and Guide. 2 vols. Records of Civilization: Sources and Studies. New York: Columbia UP, 1929. See the sections on Gildas and Nennius, Vol. I, Ecclesiastical: 150-55.

Ferdinand Lot. "Bretons et anglais au Ve et au VIe siècles." Proceedings of the British Academy 16 (1930): 327-44.

C. H. Slover. "Avalon." Modern Philology 28 (1930-31): 395-9.

O. G. S. Crawford. "King Arthur's Last Battle." Antiquity 5 (1931): 236-39.

Robert Birley. "The Battle of Mount Badon." Antiquity 6 (1932): 459-63.

H. Munro Chadwick and N. Kershaw Chadwick. The Growth of Literature. 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1932-40. Vol. 1: The Ancient Literatures of Europe, esp. 146-55.

E. T. Leeds. "The Early Saxon Penetration of the Upper Thames Area." Antiquaries Journal 13 (1933): 229-51, esp. 231-33 and 233 n.1. Dates the invasion culminating in Badon between 493-520, and places Badon itself at or near Bath.

F. C. Burkitt. "The Bible of Gildas." Revue Bénédictine 46 (1934): 206-15. On Gildas's pre-Jerome version of the Bible, esp. Matt. xix.3-9, Mk x.4, for divortium.

* P. K. Johnstone. "The Victories of Arthur." Notes and Queries 166 (1934): 381-82.

Ferdinand Lot. Nennius et l'Historia Brittonum. Paris: Champion, 1934.

A. G. van Hamel. "Aspects of Celtic Mythology." Proceedings of the British Academy 20 (1934): 207-48.

P. Diverres. "Camlan." Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 7 (1933-5): 273-4.

Ifor Williams. "Notes on Nennius." Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 7 (1933-5): 380-9.

O. G. S Crawford. "Arthur and His Battles." Antiquity 9 (1935): 277-91.

J. N. L. Myers. "Britain in the dark Ages." Antiquity 9 (1935): 455-64.

* A. Dempf. "Beda und die Entstehung der Artursage." Zeitschrift für deutsche Geistesgeschichte 1 (1936): 304-10.

R. Thurneysen. "Zu Nemnius (Nennius)." Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie 20 (1936): 97-137.

Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur. Arthur, dux bellorum. Berkeley, Calif.: U of California P, 1939.

P. K. Johnstone. "Mons Badonicus and Cerdic of Wessex." Antiquity 13 (1939): 92-6.

C. E. Stevens. "The British Sections of the 'Notitia Dignitatum'." Archaeological Journal 97 (1940): 125-54.

William A. Nitze. "Bédier's Epic Theory and the Arthuriana of Nennius." Modern Philology 39 (1941-42): 1-14.

* A. G. Van Hamel. "Arthur van Brittannië en Aneirin." Neophilologus 28:3 (1943): 218-28.

* W. A. Nitze. "More on the Arthuriana of Nennius." Modern Language Notes 58 (1943): 1-8.

Trelawney Dayrell Reed, The Battle for Britain in the Fifth Century: An Essay in Dark Age History. London: Methuen, 1944.

A. H. Burne. "The Battle of Badon-A Military Commentary." History 30 (1945): 133-44.

Kenneth Jackson. "Once Again Arthur's Battles." Modern Philology 43 (1945-6): 44-57.

Michael W. Hughes. "The End of Roman Rule in Britain: A Defence of Gildas." Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (1946-47): 150-87.

P. K. Johnstone. "Mount Badon-A Topographical Clue?" Antiquity 20 (1946): 159-60.

A. W. Wade-Evans. "Anglo-Welsh." Wales 6.3 (Autumn 1946): 29-39. Concerned with the early history and historians of the Arthurian period in Wales, especially with Gildas.

Peter Hunter Blair. "The Origins of Northumbria." Archaeologia Aeliana 4th ser. 25 (1947): 1-51.

D. P. Dobson. "Mount Badon Again." Antiquity 22 (1948): 43-5.

P. K. Johnstone. "Domangart and Arthur." Antiquity 22 (1948): 45-6.

Thomas Charles Lethbridge. Merlin's Island: Essays on Britain in the Dark Ages. London: Methuen, 1948.

A. W. Wade-Evans. "Arthur and Octa." Notes and Queries 193 (1948): 508-9.

A. S. C. Ross. "Hengist's Watchword." English and German Studies 2 (1948-9): 81-101.

Kenneth Jackson. "Arthur's Battle of Breguoin." Antiquity 23 (1949): 48-9.

William A. Nitze. "Arthurian Names: Arthur." PMLA 64 (1949): 585-96.

I. A. Richmond and O. G. S. Crawford. "The British Section of the Ravenna Cosmography." Archaeologia 93 (1949): 1-50.

P. K. Johnstone. "The Date of Camlann." Antiquity 24 (1950): 44. Dates Badon at 518, Camlann at 539.

J. C. Russell. "Arthur and the Romano-Celtic Frontier." Modern Philology 48 (1951): 145-53.

J. N. L. Myres. "The Adventus Saxonum." Aspects of Archaeology in Britain and Beyond: Essays presented to O. G. S. Crawford. Ed. W. F. Grimes. London: Edwards, 1951. 221-41.

S. E. Scammel. "The Historical Arthur." Cambridge Journal 5 (1951-52): 402-15.

Sir Ifor Williams. "Wales and the North." Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society ns 51 (1952): 73-88.

Nora K. Chadwick. "The Lost Literature of Celtic Scotland: Caw of Pritdin and Arthur of Britain." Scottish Gaelic Studies 7.2 (August 1953): 115-83.

Kenneth Jackson. Language and History in Early Britain: A Chronological Survey of the Brittonic Languages First to Twelfth Century A.D.. 1953. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1956. Places Badon circa 500 (p. 199), with a possible site of Badbury or Badbury Hill; see 437-38 for Camlann.

William A. Nitze. "Arthurian Problems." Bulletin Bibliographique de la Société Internationale Arthurienne 5 (1953): pp. 69-74 of 69-84.

H. M. Chadwick et al. Studies in Early British History. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1954. 47-60.

Kenneth Jackson. "The Site of Mount Badon." Journal of Celtic Studies II (1953-8): 152-5. Posits Badbury Rings as Badon.

J. E. Turville-Petre. "Hengist and Horsa." Saga-Book of the Viking Society 14 (1953-57): 273-90.

Kenneth Jackson. "Who Was King Arthur?" The Listener 17 February 1955. 285-86.

Dark Age Britain: Studies presented to E. T. Leeds, with a Bibliography of His Works. Ed. D. B. Harden. London: Methuen, 1956. Esp. C. F. C. Hawkes, "The Jutes of Kent," 91-111.

E. A. Thompson. "Zosimus on the End of Roman Britain." Antiquity 30 (1956): 163-7.

James Douglas Bruce. The Evolution of the Arthurian Romance: From the Beginnings Down to the year 1300. 2nd ed. 2 vols. 1928. Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1958.

Thomas Jones. "Datblygiadau Cynnar Chwedl Arthur." Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 17.4 (May 1958): 235-52. Appears in translation in Jones (1964) infra.

Jack Lindsay. Arthur and His Times: Britain in the Dark Ages. London: Muller, 1958.

Roman and Native in North Britain. Ed. I. A Richmond. Studies in History and Archaeology. Edinburgh: nelson, 1958.

Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages: A Collaborative History. Ed. Roger Sherman Loomis. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959. Esp. Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson, "The Arthur of History," 1-11; idem, "Arthur in Early Welsh Verse," 12-19.

N. Lukman. "The Viking Nations and King Arthur in Geoffrey of Monmouth (- 1138)." Classica et Mediaevalia 20 (1959): 170-212.

John Jay Parry. "The Historical Arthur." Journal of English and Germanic Philology 58 (1959): 365-79.

C. L. Wrenn. "Saxons and Celts in South-West Britain." Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (1959): 38-75. Esp. II: "Saxon and Celtic Factors in Cornwall" 55-75, particularly the discussion of Camelford and Camlann on 62; feels that Camlann derives from a northern source.

Nikolai Tolstoy. "Nennius, Chapter Fifty-Six." Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 19 (1960-2): 118-62. See also Appendix B of Tolstoy (1964) infra: "Addenda and Corrigenda to 'Nennius, Chapter Fifty-Six'."

W. Stuart Best. "Arthur of Britain." Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society 83 (1962 for 1961): 117-23.

Mary Williams. "King Arthur in History and Legend." Folklore 73 (Summer 1962): 73-88.

Rachel Bromwich. "Scotland and the Earliest Arthurian Tradition." Bulletin Bibliographique de la Société Internationale Arthurienne 15 (1963): 85-95.

John Evans. "The Arthurian Campaign." Archaeologia Cantiana 78 (1963): 83-95. Focusses on Badon as the final battle of an Arthurian Campaign.

E. K. Chambers. Arthur of Britain. London: Sidgwick, 1927. Cambridge: Speculum Historiale; New York: Barnes, 1964. The reprint includes a supplementary bibliography by Brynley F. Roberts. Also appears in Texts: Collections (1964), supra.

Thomas Jones. "The Early Evolution of the Legend of Arthur." Nottingham Medieval Studies 8 (1964): 3-21. Trans. Gerald Morgan from Thomas Jones. "Datblygiadau Cynnar Chwedl Arthur." Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 17.4 (May 1958): 235-52. See also Jones (1958) supra.

Count Nikolai Tolstoy. "Early British History and Chronology." Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (1964): 237-312.

P. C. Bartrum. "Arthuriana from the Genealogical Manuscripts." Cylchgrawn Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru / National Library of Wales Journal 14 (1965-66): 242-45.

Geoffrey Ashe. King Arthur's Avalon: The Story of Glastonbury. 1957. London: Collins, 1966. See the chapter on "Arthur," which includes discussions of Badon and Camlan: 80-121.

Robert W. Hanning. The Vision of History in Early Britain: From Gildas to Geoffrey of Monmouth. New York: Columbia UP, 1966.

F. Liebermann. "Nennius the Author of the Historia Brittonum." Essays in Medieval History Presented to Thomas Frederick Tout. Ed. A. G. Little and F. M. Powicke. Manchester: printed for the subscribers, 1925. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries P, 1967. 25-44.

Basil Clarke. "Calidon and the Caledonian Forest." Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 23 (1968-70): 191-201.

Geoffrey Ashe. All about King Arthur. London: Allen, 1969.

Melville Richards. "Arthurian Onomastics." Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (1969): 250-64.

Donald Ward. The Divine Twins: An Indo-European Myth in Germanic Tradition. University of California Publications. Folklore Studies 19. Berkeley, Calif.: U of California P, 1969.

Henry Marsh. Dark Age Britain: Some Sources of History. Newton Abbot: David, 1970.

Beram Saklatvala. Arthur: Roman Britain's Last Champion. 1967. Newton Abbot: David, 1971.

Leslie Alcock. "By South Cadbury is that Camelot. . . .": The Excavation of Cadbury Castle 1966-1970. London: Thames, 1972.

Richard Barber. The Figure of Arthur. London: Longman, 1972. Esp. 100-06.

G. Le Duc. "L'Historia Britannica avant Geoffroy de Monmouth." Annales de Bretagne 79 (1972): 819-35.

John H. Ward. "Vortigern and the End of Roman Britain." Britannia 3 (1972): 277-89.

David N. Dumville. # "The Corpus Christi 'Nennius'," Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 25 (1972-4): 369-80. # here and infra indicates essays repr. in his Histories and Pseudo-Histories (1990) infra, q.v.

David N. Dumville. # "Some Aspects of the Chronology of the Historia Brittonum." Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 25 (1972-74): 439-45.

Kathleen Hughes. "The Welsh Latin Chronicles: Annales Cambriae and Related Texts." Proceedings of the British Academy 59 (1973): 233-58.

J. Campbell. Review of Morris (General Histories 1973) supra, in Studia Hibernica 15 (1975): 177-85. Rpt. in Campbell (1986) infra.

Bedwyr Lewis Jones. Arthur y Cymry: The Welsh Arthur. Cardiff: U of Wales P, 1975.

M. Miller. "Relative and Absolute Publication Dates of Gildas's De excidio in Medieval Scholarship." Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 26 (1974-6): 169-74.

M. Miller. "Historicity and Pedigrees of the Northcountrymen." Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 26 (1975): 255-280.

Rachel Bromwich. "Concepts of Arthur." Studia Celtica 10-11 (1975-6): 163-81. Following and expanding Jones (1964) supra, associates Arthur with Strathclyde.

David N. Dumville. # "'Nennius' and the Historia Brittonum." Studia Celtica 10-11 (1975-76): 78-95.

D. P. Kirby and J. E. Caerwyn Williams. Review of Morris (General Histories 1973) supra, Studia Celtica 10-11 (1975-76): 454-86.

David Dumville. "The Anglian Collection of Royal Genealogies and Regnal Lists." Anglo-Saxon England 5 (1976): 23-50.

Brynley F. Roberts. "Geoffrey of Monmouth and Welsh Historical Tradition." Nottingham Medieval Studies 20 (1976): 29-40.

David N. Dumville. # "On the North British Section of the Historia Brittonum." Welsh History Review 8 (1976-7): 345-54.

David N. Dumville. "Sub-Roman Britain: History and Legend." History 62 (1977): 173-92. Casts doubt on historical reliability of Celtic sources and denies any evidence for an historical Arthur.

M. Miller. "Date-Guessing and Dyfed." Studia Celtica 12-13 (1977-78): 33-61.

David N. Dumville. "The Welsh Latin Annals." Studia Celtica 12-13 (1977-8): 461-7. Review of Hughes (1973) supra.

T. M. Charles-Edwards. "The Authenticity of the Gododdin: An Historian's View." Astudiaethau ar yr Hengerdd: Studies in Old Welsh Poetry cyflwynedig i [presented to] Syr Idris Foster. Ed. Rachel Bromwich and R. Brinley Jones. Cardiff: U of Wales P, 1978. 44-71.

Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson, ed. and trans. The Gododdin: The Oldest Scottish Poem. 1969. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP 1978. Esp. 85-6.

Thomas D. O'Sullivan. The De excidio of Gildas: Its Authenticity and Date. Columbia Studies in the Classical Tradition 7. Leiden: Brill, 1978.

Molly Miller. The Saints of Gwynedd. Studies in Celtic History I. Woodbridge: Boydell, 1979.

Kathleen Hughes. Celtic Britain in the Early Middle Ages: Studies in Scottish and Welsh Sources. Ed. David Dumville. Studies in Celtic History II. Woodbridge: Boydell, 1980. Esp. "The Welsh Latin Chronicles: Annales Cambriae and Related Texts," 67-85, and "The A-Text of the Annales Cambriae," 86-100. "The Welsh Latin Chronicles" is rpt. from her British Academy lecture (1973) supra.

Geoffrey Ashe. "A Certain Very Ancient British Book": Traces of an Arthurian Source in Geoffrey of Monmouth's History. Speculum 56 (1981): 301-23.

A. O. H. Jarman. "The Delineation of Arthur in Early Welsh Verse." An Arthurian Tapestry:Essays in Memory of Lewis Thorpe. Ed. Kenneth Varty. Glasgow: Glasgow University French Department for the British Branch of the International Arthurian Society, 1981. 1-21.

Leslie Alcock. "Cadbury-Camelot: A Fifteen-Year Perspective." Proceedings of the British Academy 68 (1982): 355-88.

The Quest for Arthur's Britain. Ed. Geoffrey Ashe et al. London: Pall Mall P, 1968. 1971. London: Granada, 1982. Esp. C. A. Ralegh Radford, "Glastonbury Abbey" 97-110.

* Constance Bullock-Davies. "The Visual Image of Arthur." Reading Medieval Studies 9 (1983): 98-116.

Doris Edel. "The Arthur of 'Culhwch and Olwen' as a Figure of Epic-Heroic Tradition." Reading Medieval Studies 9 (1983): 3-15.

Patrick K. Ford. "On the Significance of Some Arthurian Names in Welsh." Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 30 (1983): 268-73.

A. O. H. Jarman. "The Arthurian Allusions in the Black Book of Carmarthen." The Legend of Arthur in the Middle Ages: Studies Presented to A. H. Diverres by Colleagues, Pupils and Friends. Ed. P. B. Grout, R. A. Lodge, C. E. Pickford and E. K. C. Varty. Cambridge: Brewer, 1983. 99-112.

Stephen Knight. Arthurian Literature and Society. London: Macmillan, 1983. Esp. 1-37.

Patrick Sims-Williams. "Gildas and the Anglo-Saxons." Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies 6 (Winter 1983): 1-30.

Patrick Sims-Williams. "The Settlement of England in Bede and the Chronicle." Anglo-Saxon England 12 (1983): 1-42.

Gildas: New Approaches. Ed. Michael Lapidge and David Dumville. Woodbridge: Boydell, 1984. Esp. David N. Dumville, "Gildas and Maelgwn: Problems of Dating," 51-9; idem, "The Chronology of De excidio Britanniae, Book I," 61-84; and Ian Wood, "The End of Roman Britain: Continental Evidence and Parallels," 1-25.

Peter Korrel. An Arthurian Triangle: a Study of the Origin, Development and Characterization of Arthur, Guinevere and Mordred. Leiden: Brill, 1984. Esp. Ch. One.

E. A. Thompson. Saint Germanus of Auxerre and the End of Roman Britain. Woodbridge: Boydell, 1984.

Geoffrey Ashe. The Discovery of King Arthur. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor/Doubleday, 1985.

G. R. Stephens. "Caerleon and the Martyrdom of SS. Aaron and Julius." Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 32 (1985): 326-35.

Richard Barber. King Arthur: Hero and Legend. 3rd ed., rev. Woodbridge: Boydell, 1986. Rpt. of King Arthur in Legend and History. 2nd ed., rev. 1973. Rpt. of Arthur of Albion. 1961.

James Campbell. "The Age of Arthur." Essays in Anglo-Saxon History. London, Hambledon, 1986. 121-30. A review of Morris (General Histories 1973) supra; reprinted from Cambell (1975) supra.

David N. Dumville. # "The Historical Value of the Historia Brittonum." Arthurian Literature 6 (1986): 1-26.

James MacKillop. Fionn mac Cumhaill: Celtic Myth in English Literature. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse UP, 1986.

Richard Wadge. "King Arthur: A British or Sarmatian Tradition?" Folklore 98.2 (1987): 204-15.

Linda Gowans. Cei and the Arthurian Legend. Arthurian Studies xviii. Cambridge: Brewer, 1988. Esp. 29-31.

Michael E. Jones and John Casey. "The Gallic Chronicle Restored: A Chronology for the Anglo-Saxon Invasions and the End of Roman Britain." Britannia 19 (1988): 367-98.

Power and Politics in Early Medieval Britain and Ireland. Ed. Stephen T. Driscoll and Margaret R. Nieke. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1988.

J. M. Wallace-Hadrill. Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People: A Historical Commentary. Oxford Medieval Texts. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988. 25-6.

Norma Lorre Goodrich. King Arthur. New York: Watts, 1986. New York: Harper, 1989. For Badon and Camlan see esp. 60-2 and 257-66 (where she identifies Camlan with Camboglanna on Hadrian's Wall); also n.b. Appendixes 1, 2, 4, 5, and 9.

The Origins of Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms. Ed. Steven Bassett. London: Leicester UP, 1989. Esp. Nicholas Brooks, "The Creation and Early Structure of the Kingdom of Kent," 55-74.

R. Geraint Gryffydd. "From the Gododdin to Gwynedd: Reflections on the Story of Cunedda." Studia Celtica 24-5 (1989-90): 1-14.

A. O. H. Jarman. "The Arthurian Allusions in the Book of Aneirin." Studia Celtica, 24-5 (1989-90): 15-25.

Leslie Alcock. Arthur's Britain: History and Archaeology A.D. 367-634. Rev. 1989. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1990.

Britain 400-600: Language and History. Ed. Alfred Bammesberger and Alfred Wollmann. Heidelberg: Winter, 1990. (Proceedings of a Symposium held at Eichstätt, West Germany, 3-5 October 1988.)

R. W. Burgess. "The Dark Ages Return to Fifth-Century Britain: The 'Restored' Gallic Chronicle Exploded." Britannia 21 (1990): 185-95. Reply to Jones and Casey (1988) supra.

David N. Dumville. Histories and Pseudo-Histories of the Insular Middle Ages. Aldershot Variorum, 1990. Reprints with a few supplementary notes those of his essays marked # above.

Barbara Yorke. Kings and Kingdoms of Early Anglo-Saxon England. 1990. London: Seaby, 1992.

The Arthur of the Welsh: The Arthurian Legend in Medieval Welsh Literature. Ed. Rachel Bromwich, A. O. H. Jarman, and Brynley F. Roberts. Cardiff: U of Wales P, 1991. Esp. Editors and Daniel Huws, "Introduction;" Thomas Charles-Edwards, "The Arthur of History," 15-32; Patrick Sims-Williams, "The Early Welsh Arthurian Poems," 33-71; Brynley F. Roberts, "Geoffrey of Monmouth, 'Historia regum Britanniae,' and 'Brut Y Brenhinedd'," 97-116; and A. O. H. Jarman, "The Merlin Legend and the Tradition of Prophecy," 117-45.

Bernard S. Bachrach. "The Questions of King Arthur's Existence and of Romano-British Naval Operations." Haskins Society Journal 2 (1990): 13-28. Esp. Appendix I: Badon cannot be identified; Camlann is somewhere in the North-East.

Tim Burkitt and Annette Burkitt. "The Frontier Zone and the Siege of Mount Badon: A Review of the Evidence for Their Location." Somerset Archaeology and Natural History 134 (1990): 81-93. Argues for two, and possibly three, battles at Badon, in A.D. 516, 577 and 665; concludes that Badon is Bath.

N. J. Higham. "Cavalry in Early Bernicia?" Northern History 27 (1991): 236-41.

Nicholas John Higham. "Gildas, Roman Walls, and British Dykes." Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies 22 (1991): 1-14.

D. P. Kirby. The Earliest English Kings. London: Unwin, 1991.

Graham Phillips and Martin Keatman. King Arthur: The True Story. London: Century, 1992.

Richard White. Badon Hill: Is this year the 1500th Anniversary of King Arthur's Greatest Battle? King Arthur Publications 3. Woodford Green: King Arthur, 1992.

Jeremy duQuesnay Adams. "Sidonius and Riothamus: A Glimpse of the Historical Arthur?" Arthurian Literature XII. Ed. James P. Carley and Felicity Riddy. Cambridge: Brewer, 1993. 157-64.

N. J. Higham. The Kingdom of Northumbria A.D. 350-1100. Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1993.

Pre-Viking Lindsey. Ed. Alan Vince. Lincoln: Meltons, 1993. Esp. Sarah Foot, "The Kingdom of Lindsey," 128-40; Kevin Leahy, "The Anglo-Saxon Settlement of Lindsey," 29-44; and Barbara Yorke, "Lindsey: The Lost Kingdom Found?" 141-50.

Philip Rahtz. The English Heritage Book of Glastonbury. London: Batsford and English Heritage, 1993.

Barbara Yorke. "Fact or Fiction? The Written Evidence for the Fifth and Sixth Centuries AD." Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History 6 (1993): 45-50.

David Dumville. "'Historia Brittonum:' An Insular History from the Carolingian Age." Historiographie im fruhen Mittelalter. Ed. A. Scharer and G. Scheibelreiter. Vienna and Munich 1994. 406-34.

Toby D. Griffen. Names from the Dawn of British Legend: Taliesin, Aneirin, Myrddin/Merlin, Arthur. Felinfach: Llanerch 1994. Esp. "Arthur" 78-105.

N. J. Higham. The English Conquest: Gildas and Britain in the Fifth Century. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1994.

C. Scott Littleton and Linda A. Malcor. From Scythia to Camelot: A Radical Reassessment of the Legends of King Arthur, the Knights of the Round Table, and the Holy Grail. New York: Garland, 1994.

Jean Markale. King of the Celts: Arthurian Legends and Celtic Tradition. Trans. Christine Hauch. Rochester: Inner Traditions, 1994. Rpt. of King Arthur: King of Kings. Trans. Christine Hauch. London: Gordon, 1977; itself a translation of Le Roi Arthur et la société Celtique. Paris: Payot, 1976.

O. J. Padel. "The Nature of Arthur." Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies 27 (Summer 1994): 1-31.

Leslie Alcock in collaboration with S. J. Stevenson and C. R. Musson. Cadbury Castle, Somerset: The Early Medieval Archaeology. Cardiff: U of Wales P on behalf of the Board of Celtic Studies of the U of Wales, 1995.

Geoffrey Ashe. "The Origins of the Arthurian Legend." Arthuriana 5.3 (1995): 1-24.

Rex Gardner. "Gildas's New Testament Models." Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies 30 (Winter 1995): 1-12.

R. W. Hanning. "'Inventio Arthuri': A Comment on the Essays of Geoffrey Ashe and D. R. Howlett." Arthuriana 5.3 (1995): 96-100.

D. R. Howlett. The Celtic-Latin Tradition of Biblical Style. Dublin: Four Courts, 1995.

John Morris. Arthurian Sources. 6 vols. Arthurian Period Sources. Chichester: Phillimore, 1995. Note esp. "Badon," 4: 9-17, and "Dark Age Dates," 6: 53-94. Also appears in Texts: Collections, supra.

Oliver Padel. "Recent Work on the Origins of the Arthurian Legend: A Comment." Arthuriana 5.3 (1995): 103-14.

Neil Thomas. "Arthurian Evidences: The Historicity and Historicisation of King Arthur." Durham University Journal 87.2 (July 1995): 385-92. Review article of Celtic Sources for the Arthurian Legend (Texts: Collections 1995) supra.

Paul White. King Arthur: Man or Myth?. Penryn: Tor Mark P, 1995. Esp. "The Major Arthurian Sites" 29-31. Favours Bath over any of the Badbury sites for Badon, and places Camlann either at Slaughter Bridge, on the river Camel, or at Camboglanna on Hadrian's Wall.

P. J. C. Field. "Nennius and His History." Studia Celtica 30 (1996): 159-65.

Michael Holmes. King Arthur: A Military History. London: Blandford, 1996.

John T. Koch. "The Celtic Lands." Medieval Arthurian Literature: A Guide to Recent Research, Ed. N. J. Lacy. New York: Garland, 1996. 239-322.

Marylyn Jackson Parins. "Looking for Arthur." King Arthur: A Casebook. Ed. and Intro. Edward Donald Kennedy. Arthurian Characters and Themes 1. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1915. New York: Garland, 1996. 3-28.

Frank D. Reno. The Historic King Arthur: Authenticating the Celtic Hero of Post-Roman Britain. Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland, 1996.

John Thomas Koch. The Gododdin of Aneirin: Text and Context from Dark-Age North Britain. Historical Introduction, Reconstructed Text, Translation and Notes. Cardiff: U of Wales P, 1997.

David Howlett. Cambro-Latin Compositions: Their Competence and Craftsmanship. Dublin: Four Courts, 1998.

Alistair Moffat. Arthur and the Lost Kingdoms. London: Weidenfeld, 1999. (KSW)

Rodney Castleden. King Arthur: The Truth Behind the Legend. London: Routledge, 2000. Esp. 91-97, which dates Badon to A.D. 516 and locates it at Bath, and 179-89, which dates Camlann to 537 or 539, and situates it in N-W Wales. (KSW)

Ken Dark. "A Famous Arthur in the Sixth Century? Reconsidering the Origins of the Arthurian Legend." Reading Medieval Studies 26 (2000): 77-96. [KSW]

Christopher Snyder. Exploring the World of King Arthur. London: Thames & Hudson, 2000. (KSW)

N. J. Higham. King Arthur: Myth-Making and History. London: Routledge, 2002. Higham is highly skeptical of an historical Arthur and argues against there being any evidence of Badon and Camlann in either HB or AC. [KSW]

Martin Aurell. La Lègende du roi Arthur 550-1250. Paris: Perrin, 2007.

Thomas Green. Concepts of Arthur. Stroud: Tempus, 2007. (Arthur is an historicized figure of myth, not the reverse.) [KSW]

P. J. C. Field. "Arthur's Battles." Arthuriana 18.4 (Winter 2008): 3-32. (The Arthurian battles in Nennius' HB and the AC, as well as other early documents, are analysed and shown to reveal corroboration of an historical Arthur.) [KSW]

Guy Halsall. Worlds of Arthur: Facts and Fictions of the Dark Ages. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. [(NB this book has received wildly contradictory reviews.) Halsall argues that all of the usual supposedly historical sources are wholly “useless,” but acknowledges that this uselessness does not mean that some sort of historical figure did not exist. Halsall is emphatic that “the locations of all of [Arthur’s] battles are unknown and unknowable” (67).]  [KSW]
Andrew Breeze. “The Historical Arthur and Sixth-Century Scotland.” Northern History 52.2 (September 2015): 158-81. [A comprehensive overview of the major scholarly players and positions in the historicity debate. Breeze concludes that, excepting Badon, the battles were all in the North and Arthur was an historical figure operating from Strathcylde.]  [KSW]

Electronic Sources

Christopher A. Snyder. "A Gazeteer of Sub-Roman Britain (A.D. 400-600): The British Sites." Internet Archaeology 3 (1997). Available:

Ken Dark. "Centuries of Roman Survival in the West." British Archaeology (March 1998). Online. Available:

P. J. C. Field. "Gildas and the City of the Legions." Heroic Age 1 (Spring/ Summer 1999). Online. Available:

All of the essays in the issue in which this appears will be on the historical Arthur.

Christopher Snyder. "The Age of Arthur: Some Historical and Archaeological Background." Heroic Age 1 (Spring/Summer 1999). Esp the section entitled "Historiographic Trends." Available: (KSW)